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TEKA. COMMISSION OF MOTORIZATION AND ENERGETICS IN AGRICULTURE – 2015, Vol. 15, No.

1, 57–60

Testing of Modern Fuel Injection Pumps


Tomasz Osipowicz

Department of Automotive Vehicles Operation, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin,


17 Piastów Ave., 70-310 Szczecin, Poland, e-mail: tosipowicz@zut.edu.pl

Received January 09.2015; accepted January 19.2015

Summary. This paper describes the methods for diagnosing and pump-line-injectors [1]. The control and repeatability of
testing of modern Bosch CP4 fuel injection pump. The tests were such parameters as fuel dose, fuel injection pressure and
conducted in a specialist laboratory dealing with diagnosing, injection angle timing device have led to the separation
testing and regeneration of fuel injection systems in combus- of fuel pumping function from the control of injection pa-
tion engines. During the tests, the test object was disassembled rameters. A high pressure pump has been introduced, with
into components and then subjected to microscopic analysis. the function to generate pressure up to 200 MPa in the fuel
Major causes of the defects in this pump model are specified
rail [6]. Electronically controlled fuel injectors execute the
and presented.
injection of a set fuel dose. The common rail high pressure
Key words: compression-ignition engine, fuel injection pump,
system is composed of the following elements: an injection
fuel injector, fuel.
pump, a fuel rail accumulator and fuel injectors [5].
The function of high pressure pump is to generate and
maintain pressure ranging from 25 to about 200 MPa in the
INTRODUCTION system. Usually, they are radial-flow positive displacement
pumps driven from an engine camshaft. Only two common
Internal combustion piston engines are a primary power rail distributor pumps are known, manufactured by Delphi
source for means of road transport. In recent years, compres- and Denso [8]. Modern injection pumps are characterised
sion-ignition (CI) engines have attracted particular attention by very high efficiency of 95%. If the pump efficiency
owing to their dynamic development. In 1997, a Common drops below 80%, it should undergo regeneration. A fuel
Rail (CR) fuel injection system, evolving all the time, was delivery regulator, high pressure regulator and pressure
introduced due to the standards referring to exhaust gas sensor can be found on the injection pump, depending on
toxicity. The main advantage of CR system is division of the system design.
injected fuel dose by electronic control of fuel injector op- The function of fuel rail is to maintain the pressure value
eration and high fuel injection pressure, reaching at present and distribute fuel to fuel injectors. Its capacity is calculated
up to 250 MPa. The intention is that the rate of modern so that pressure oscillations during the injection and pump-
engine fuel supply system development meets the rigorous ing stage are minimised. A pressure regulator or sensor can
standards through such an organisation of the process of be found on the fuel rail, or a release valve in some designs
air-fuel mixture combustion that as little toxic substances [15, 16, 20].
as possible are emitted to the air by the engine at the lowest Fuel injectors are responsible for accurate fuel atomisa-
possible fuel consumption, preserving its basic operating tion and distribution in the engine combustion chamber. In
parameters, such as power and torque. the common rail fuel injection systems, the engine controller
and fuel injector are responsible for the quantity of inject-
ed fuel [2]. Injector malfunctions start with changes in the
COMMON RAIL SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS volume of injection doses and return doses, being called the
overflow volumes. The overflow volume is a discharge of
Modern fuel injection systems with a common rail injector’s working fluid and its values at the full load should
high pressure collector have replaced conventional sys- not exceed 40 mm3/h (needle travel lift). Modern fuel injec-
tems with high pressure pipe and pipe-less systems, called tors are able to apply initial fuel injection, main fuel injection
TOMASZ OSIPOWICZ

Application of the electronic control of PRESENTATION OF TEST OBJECT AND


58
fuel injector operation in the common rail fuel
TOMASZ OSIPOWICZ TEST STAND
injection system enables the precise metering The test object was a Bosch CP4 fuel
of a fuel dose with large repeatability. It is injection pump with tothe
andpossible
extra fueltoinjection.
controlInseveral
modernfueldesign solutions,doses
injection solenoid technology and possibility test catalogue number
the fuel injection pump
andthrough
piezoelectric
whichfueltheinjectors
processareofapplied.
fuel combustion on 0445010506.
a test bench, itsFigure 2 presents
efficiency the testedFigure
was not examined. fuel 3
injection pump being.
inApplication of the electronicengine
compression-ignition control of
has injector presents
fuel been the stereoscopic microscope used for testing.
operation in the common rail fuel injection system
improved [2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, enables
the precise metering of a fuel dose with large repeatability.
19]. Figure 1 presents a simplified construction
It is possible to control several fuel injection doses through
of the common rail fuel injection system.
which the process of fuel combustion in compression-igni-
tion engine has been improved [2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,
14, 17, 18, 19]. Figure 1 presents a simplified construction Fig. 2. Fuel injection pump Bosch CP4
of the common rail fuel injection system.
Fig. 1. Simplified construction of the common rail Laboratory tests were conducted using a
fuel injection system specialist stereoscopic microscope FL 150/70.
The testing consisted in analysing the damaged
pump units. Due to the lack of repair
STUDY OBJECTIVE AND TEST SCHEME
technology and possibility to test the fuel
The aim of this study was to analyse the injection pump on a test bench, its efficiency
technical condition of Bosch CP4 high was not examined. Figure 3 presents the
pressure pump and the causes of its defects. stereoscopic microscope used for testing.
The tested fuel injection pomp tested, with the
catalogue number 0445010506, was installed Fig.Fig. 2. Fuel
2. Fuel injection
injection pumppump
BoschBosch
CP4 CP4
in a vehicle
Fig. 1.with the construction
Simplified mileage ofof about the common150 rail Laboratory tests were conducted using a
thousandfuelkilometres.
injection system The vehicle was also specialist stereoscopic microscope FL 150/70.
equipped with second-generation Bosch The testing consisted in analysing the damaged
piezoelectric
Fig.STUDY fuelOBJECTIVE
1. Simplifiedinjectors,
constructionwith thethe catalogue pump units. Due to the lack of repair
AND
of TEST
common SCHEME
rail fuel injection
technology and possibility to test the fuel
number 0445116001.
system
The aim of this study was to analyse the injection pump on a test bench, its efficiency
Laboratory
technical condition tests were of Bosch conducted
CP4 high was not examined. Figure 3 presents the
accordingpressure
toSTUDY
the following
pump and scheme:
the causes
OBJECTIVE AND TEST SCHEME of its defects. stereoscopic microscope used for testing.
 testing
The testedof high pressurepomp
fuel injection pumptested,
on a with
test the
catalogue
The aim of number
bench, this study0445010506,
was to analyse the was installed
technical condi- Fig. 3.Stereoscopic
Fig. 3. Stereoscopic microscope
microscope FL 150/70
FL 150/70
 tionin a vehicle
of Bosch CP4 high
disassembly with the mileage
pressurepressure
of high of
pump and theabout
causes
pump 150of its
thousand
defects. kilometres.
The tested Thepomp
fuel injection vehicle
tested,was
with also
the cat- LABORATORY TESTS
into components,
equipped
alogue with second-generation
number 0445010506, Boschwith
was installed in a vehicle The first LABORATORY TESTS
stage of laboratory tests was
analysis
 the mileage ofof
piezoelectric about individual
fuel injectors,
150 thousand high
with pressure
the
kilometres.catalogue
The vehicle
disassembly
TEKA. of the tested fuel
COMMISSION injection pump
pump
was number units under
0445116001.
also equipped a microscope, Bosch piezoelec-
with second-generation The first stage of laboratoryOF
testsMOTORIZATION
was disassembly of the AND ENERG
 determination
tric fuel injectors,
Laboratory of the
with the causes
catalogue
tests of defects
number
were 0445116001.
conducted
tested
Vol. 15
tested into components. Figure 4 presents
fuel injection pump tested into components. the4
Figure
Laboratory
inaccording
the tested tests were
object,
to the conducted
following scheme: according to the fol- fuel injection
presents the fuel pump
injectioncomponents.
pump components.
lowing scheme: testing of high pressure Fig. 6
 – testing  of
testing of
components whichpump couldonbe
high pressure pump on a test bench,
a test
bench, Fig. 3. Stereoscopic microscope FL 150/70 drive s
– damaged
disassembly as of a result of pump
high pressure pumpdamage.
into components,
 disassembly of high pressure pump LABORATORY TESTS
– analysis of individual high pressure pump units under
into components,
a microscope, The first stage of laboratory tests was of fue
 analysis
– determination of causes
of the individual high
of defects pressure
in the tested ob-
pump units under a microscope, disassembly of the tested fuel injection pump being
ject,
 ofdetermination of the causes of defects tested into components. Figure 4 presents the low p
– testing components which could be damaged as a re-
in the tested object, fuel injection pump components. tank,
sult of pump damage.
 testing of components which could be pressu
damaged as a result of pump damage. Fig.4.4.The
Fig. Thetested
tested
fuelfuel injection
injection pump disassembled
pump disassembled into com- pressu
PRESENTATION OF TEST OBJECT into components
ponents seizur
AND TEST STAND Fuel injection pump Bosch CP4 is takes
Fuel injection pump Bosch CP4 is composed of: a drive
composed of: a drive shaft, a roller in the filings
The test object was a Bosch CP4 fuel injection pump shaft, a roller in the holder and a plunger pumping section.
with the catalogue number 0445010506. Figure 2 presents holder
The mostand a plunger
durable componentpumping
of the testedsection. The
fuel injection
body.
the tested fuel injection pump being. most tested
pump durable component
is its plunger pumpingof the The
section. tested
roller fuel
with
Laboratory tests were conducted using a specialist ste- injection pump tested is its plunger pumping
its holder is in the pump body. A defect of this component
reoscopic microscope FL 150/70. The testing consisted in is lack of stabilisation,
section. The rollerwhich withcauses that the whole
its holder is inroller
the
analysing the damaged pump units. Due to the lack of repair can rotate 360° in the pump body (Fig. 5).
pump body. A defect of this component is lack
of stabilisation, which causes that the whole
roller can rotate 360° in the pump body (Fig.
5).
injection pump tested
of stabilisation, which iscauses its plunger
that thepumpingwhole
section. The roller with
roller can rotate 360° in the pump body its holder is in (Fig.the Fig. 7. Place of metal filings collection in the pump
pump
5). body. A defect of this component is lack body
of stabilisation, which causes that the whole Figure 8 presents metal filings being
roller can rotate 360° inTESTING the pumpOFbody MODERN (Fig. FUEL INJECTION PUMPS 59
found in the fouled fuel. Such a large amount
Fig. 5. 5).
A roller in the pump body in a faulty of them indicates that the whole fuel supply
position system
fuel supply must be must
system absolutely cleaned
be absolutely andandthe
cleaned thefuel
fuel
If the roller starts rotating around its tank replaced.
tank replaced.
Fig. 7. Place of metal filings collection in the pump
own axis during the pump operation, it is no body
longer possible for it to return to its original Figure 8 presents metal filings being
position. Then, it starts destroying a cam on the found
Fig. 7.inPlace
the fouled
of metalfuel. Such
filings a large inamount
collection the pump
pump driveFig. 5. shaft. As ainresult
A roller the pump of friction
body inona afaulty ofbodythem indicates that the whole fuel supply
cam andposition
a roller, metal filings are generated, system must be absolutely
Figure 8 presentscleanedmetal and the fuel
filings being
fouling and destroying the whole
If the roller starts rotating around its fuel supply tank replaced.
found in the fouled fuel. Such a large amount
system.Fig.Figure
own A6 during
5.axis presents
roller apump
inthethe faultyoperation,
position in itaofisfaulty
no
Fig. 5. A roller in the pump bodypump body
in a faulty position of them indicates that the whole fuel supply
the roller in relation
longer
position possibletofor a drive
it to shaft
returncam, to itswith
original
system must be absolutely cleaned and the fuel
evidenceposition.
If of
the If considerable
Then,
roller starts startsdestruction
itrotating destroying
around its own being
a cam
axis on thethe
during tank replaced.
the roller starts rotating around its
pump
visiblepump
on both drive shaft.
it is noAs
components.
operation, a result
longer possibleof for
friction on a to
it to return
own axis during the pump operation, it is no
itscam andposition.
original a roller, Then, metal filings
it starts are generated,
destroying a cam on the
longer
fouling
pump
possible
and destroying
drive shaft.
for it
As a result of the
to return
whole
friction
to fuel
on a cam
its and
original
supply
a roller,
position.
system.
metal Then,
filingsFigure it6 starts
are generated, presents destroying
fouling aand
faulty aposition
camthe
destroying onwhole
the
of
pump
thesupply
fuel drive shaft.
rollersystem.
in relation As a result
Figureto6 apresents of
drive shaft friction
cam,
a faulty withaof Fig.
on
position Fig. 8.8.Fuel
Fuel
fouledfouled
by metalby metal
filings fromfilings frompump
high pressure high
cam and
theevidence a roller,
roller in relation metal filings
to a drive shaftdestruction
of considerable are generated,
cam, with evidencebeing of pressure pump
fouling
considerable
visible on and destroying
destruction
both being the
components. visiblewhole
on both fuel supply
components. Figure 9 presents a high pressure regulator fouled
Figure 9 presents a high pressure TOMASZ by OSIPOW
system. Figure 6 presents a faulty position of metal filings. Its function is to maintain the pressure set by
the roller in relation to a drive shaft cam, with regulator fouled inbythemetal
the engine controller filings.
fuel supply Its function
system.
evidence of considerable destruction being is to maintain the pressure set by the engine
ATION AND ENERGETICS
visible on bothIN AGRICULTURE – 2015,
components. controller in the fuel supply system. from high
Fig. 8. Fuel fouled by metal filings
pressure pump
Figure 9 presents a high pressure
Fig. 6. Faulty position of a roller in relation to a regulator fouled by metal filings. Its function
drive shaft cam isFig. 8. Fuel the
to maintain fouled by metal
pressure set filings
by the from
enginehigh
pressure pump
controller in the fuel supply system.
Metal filings are deposited on the body
of fuel injection pump, from where they are Figure 9 presents a high pressure
Fig. 6. Faulty
being position
flushed toofthe
a roller
fuelin relation
supplytosystem.
a drive shaft
Thecam regulator fouled by metal filings. Its function
low pressure system, together with the fuel is to maintain the pressure set by the engine
Metal filings are deposited on the body of fuel injection controller in the fuel supply system.
tank, is being fouled, as well as the high
pump, from where they are being flushed to the fuel supply
pressure system (CR rail, fuel injectors,
system. The low pressure system, together with the fuel
sembled pressure
tank, is beingregulator
fouled, as and
well sensor).
as the highOver time,
pressure a Fig.
system 9.High
Fig. 9. High pressure
pressure regulator
regulator fouled
fouled by metal byin fuel
filings metal
seizure
(CR in injectors,
rail, fuel fuel injectors
pressureand pressure
regulator regulator
and sensor). Over filings in fuel
CP4 is takes
time, place.inFigure
a seizure 7 presents
fuel injectors a place
and pressure of metal
regulator takes
in the filings
place. collection
Figure 7 presentson the of
a place fuel injection
metal pump
filings collection CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS
on. The onbody.
the fuel injection pump body.
The analysis of the conducted tests
ed fuel The analysis of the conducted tests demonstrates that
demonstrates
one of the defects that one
in the fuelof the defects
supply in the fuel
system is malfunction
umping supply
related tosystem is malfunction
fuel injection pumps. The tested related to fuel
fuel injection
in the
t is lack
injection
pump tested pumps. The
belongs to the latesttested
generation fuel injection
of pumps. A de-
ficient component of the tested object
pump tested belongs to the latest generation of is the roller assembly
e whole rotating around its own axis in the fuel injection pump
dy (Fig. pumps. A deficient component of the tested
housing. As a result of the pump operation and the fouling
object is the
found in fuel, its roller assembly
position in relationrotating
to the drive around its
shaft cam
own
can be axis in the
changed. fuel injection
As a result pump
of its rotation, housing.
the roller stops
As a result
fulfilling of the
its function. pump
Because of theoperation
friction on the and
cam,the
it
starts furrowing metal on its surface. Then, metal filings are
fouling found in fuel, its position in relation to
being developed which foul the whole fuel supply system.
the drive
These metal shaft cam
filings can be changed.
get everywhere with fuel:As a result
to fuel tank,
offuelitsfilter,
rotation, the roller
CR rail, pressure stops
regulator and fulfilling
sensor, as wellits
Fig.7. 7.
Fig. Place
Place of metal
of metal filingsfilings collection
collection in the
in the pump pump
body function. Because of the friction on the cam, it
as to fuel injectors, destroying them. One of the ways to
body avoid this defect in CP4 pump on is to its
frequently replace fuel
starts furrowing metal surface. Then,
FigureFigure
8 presents
8 metal filingsmetal
presents being found in thebeing
filings fouled filters and perform periodic cleaning of the whole engine
fuel. Such a large amount of them indicates that the whole metal filings
fuel supply are being developed which foul
system.
found in the fouled fuel. Such a large amount the whole fuel supply system. These metal
a faulty of them indicates that the whole fuel supply filings get everywhere with fuel: to fuel tank,
system must be absolutely cleaned and the fuel
fuel filter, CR rail, pressure regulator and
und its tank replaced.
it is no
sensor, as well as to fuel injectors, destroying
them. One of the ways to avoid this defect in
60 TOMASZ OSIPOWICZ

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