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Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063

Regulating colored textile wastewater by 3/31 wavelength admi

methods in Taiwan
C.M. Kao *, M.S. Chou, W.L. Fang, B.W. Liu, B.R. Huang
Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC
Received 16 May 2000; received in revised form 1 August 2000; accepted 4 August 2000


The wastewater from textile dyeing facilities is dicult to treat satisfactorily because of high compositional vari-
ability and high color intensity. To reduce colored e‚uents discharged into watercourses, the government of Taiwan
adopted the E‚uent True Color Standard in 1998. The true color discharge limit is 400 American Dye Manufactures
Institute (ADMI) units. The adopted analytical method is the ADMI Tristimulus Filter Method (3 wavelength (WL)
method), and the 31 WL ADMI method might be also adopted as an alternative for color value measurement. The
refractory nature of textile dyes and the introduction of this new regulation present an environmental challenge to the
Taiwanese textile industry. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the ecacy of current wastewater
treatment systems for controlling the colored textile wastewater discharges, and (2) evaluate the correlations between 3
and 31 WL ADMI methods. Ten representative textile wastewater treatment facilities employing biological and
chemical coagulation treatment technologies were selected to perform a 10-consecutive-day e‚uent sampling and
analysis. Results show that a signi®cant di€erence between 3 and 31 ADMI methods was observed. These two ADMI
methods cannot be substituted for each other, and the discharge standard should be determined based on the selected
testing method. Investigation results also suggest that the commonly used wastewater treatment technology (biologi-
cal + chemical coagulation) fails to e€ectively remove dye from the colored textile wastewater. Sodium hypochlorite
(NaOCl) addition was applied by most facilities as the temporary post-polishment step to comply with the color dis-
charge standard. Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: ADMI; Textile wastewater; 3 wavelength method; True color; Wastewater treatment

1. Introduction color measurement, SS and turbidity removal are re-

quired. The characteristics of colored industrial e‚uents
Color in water may result from the presence of nat- are highly erratic in both the hues and concentrations of
urally occurring color substances or the colored indus- color. It is more complicated to quantify colored in-
trial wastewater. In general, color in water is divided dustrial e‚uents than naturally occurring color sub-
into true color and apparent color (Bennett and Drikas, stances. Colored industrial e‚uents present aesthetic
1993; APHA, 1995). The apparent color is determined and environmental problems by absorbing light and by
on the original sample without the recovery of sus- interfering with aquatic biological processes. Colored
pended solids (SS) or turbidity. However, for the true pollutants have also been found to be toxic and car-
cinogenic (Pierce, 1994). Moreover, unnatural colors are
also a cause of complaint from the public. In order to
Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-7-525-2000 ext. 4413; reduce colored e‚uents discharged into watercourses,
fax: +886-7-525-4449. enforcement of the e‚uent color standard has become a
E-mail address: (C.M. Kao). concern for legislators in many countries. Di€erent

0045-6535/01/$ - see front matter Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 4 5 - 6 5 3 5 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 5 0 2 - 6
1056 C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063

analytical methods and corresponding limits to control The ADMI color value provides a true measure of
color in the e‚uent have been developed (Allen et al., water color, independent of hue and thus opens the way
1973; EPA, 1978; APHA, 1995). Both visual comparison to the more accurate de®nition of water and wastewater
and spectrophotometric methods are employed as stan- color. Both 3 and 31 WL ADMI methods are approved
dard analytical methods (Allen et al., 1973; APHA, by the ADMI and adopted for color measurement by
1995). some countries and local governments (EPA, 1978;
The method adopted in Taiwan before 1998 was a Kang and Kuo, 1999). However, the reliability and
transparency method with a discharge limit of more correlation between 3 and 31 WL methods are still un-
than 15 cm. In the transparency method, the sample is clear. Therefore, one of the objectives of this study was
directly analyzed for its apparent color (Kang and Kuo, to evaluate the correlations between these two methods.
1999). Because the hue, concentration of color, and SS Unlike the government of Taiwan, some countries
in lakes are stable, the transparency method is widely or local governments have only site-speci®c standards or
used as an indicator for evaluating lake eutrophication ``narrative'' regulations such as ``no objectionable or
(Kang and Kuo, 1999). However, industrial e‚uents are unpleasant color in the e‚uent''(EPA, 1986; Kang and
highly variable in both the composition and concentra- Kuo, 1999). For example, the State of North Carolina
tion of SS and color. The color characteristics of in- and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US
dustrial wastewater depend on the wastewater type and EPA) have not adopted regulations for e‚uent color
the performance of wastewater treatment plants; a sig- (EPA, 1986; NCDEHNR, 1999). However, the State of
ni®cant deviation from lake water. The transparency Rhode Island has settled a true color discharge standard
method is a subjective visual comparison analysis. of 200 ADMI units (3 WL method), and the State of
Therefore, it is an unsuitable method for colored in- Wisconsin has a ¯exible true color discharge limit in the
dustrial e‚uent regulation. The government of Taiwan range between 225 and 600 ADMI units (Wisconsin
began enforcement of the true color discharge standard State Government, 1997; Kang and Kuo, 1999).
in 1998. The discharge limit is 400 American Dye The textile industry has traditionally been one of the
Manufactures Institute (ADMI) units. The adopted most important industries in Taiwan, creating thousands
analytical method is the ADMI Tristimulus Filter of jobs. Currently, there are more than 250 textile dyeing
Method (3 wavelength (WL) method), and the 31 WL and processing factories in Taiwan. Textile wastewater is
ADMI method might be also adopted as an alternative a potential source of pollution, and could have deteri-
method for color value measurement. The Taiwanese orated e€ects on the ecology of the region. In general,
textile industry is challenged by the introduction of this textile wastewater contains considerable amounts of
new government regulation of colored wastewater dis- poorly biodegradable substances such as sizing agents,
charges. dyes, surfactants, volatile organic compounds, disodium
The ADMI 3 WL method is an extension of the terephthalate, and ethylene glycol. Thus, textile waste-
Tristimulus Method described in Standard Methods water is one of the more dicult industrial wastewaters
(APHA, 1995). This method measures the sample's true to treat (Ingamells, 1993; Pierce, 1994; Cooper, 1995).
color, independent of hue. Based on the Adams±Nick- Most textile dyeing mills employ treatment facilities
erson chromatic value formula for calculating single composing of pretreatment and combinations of bio-
number color di€erence values, i.e., uniform color dif- logical and physical/chemical precipitation processes
ferences, this method is applicable to colored waters and (Lemordant et al., 1989; Kennedy et al., 1992). The
wastewaters similar in hue to the standards and with textile industry in Taiwan as a whole has had a satis-
color characteristics signi®cantly di€erent from plati- factory record of compliance with environmental regu-
num-cobalt standards (APHA, 1995; Kang and Kuo, lations. But as pollution regulations become more
1999). Sample pretreatment is required to obtain the stringent, the textile industry is being forced to discharge
true color ADMI value. Membrane and glass ®ber ®lters e‚uents of higher quality. One of the pollution control
with functional pore sizes of approximately 0.45 lm are parameters of concern to textile dyeing operations is
used for turbidity removal. The sample pH is adjusted to color. Before the enforcement of color discharge stan-
7.6 before ®ltration. The pretreated sample is then ex- dard in 1998, most of the textile dyeing e‚uents could
amined in a spectrophotometer to determine the light meet the 15 cm transparency discharge limit. However,
transmittance under three designated wavelengths (590, the textile industries have diculties meeting the new
540, and 438 nm). The 3 WL ADMI value is then de- color discharge regulation (400 ADMI measured by 3
termined following the calculation procedures described WL method) using biological and chemical coagulation
in Standard Methods (APHA, 1995). The 31 WL ADMI treatment technology. Failure to meet the regulation
value is also determined spectrophotometrically, using a may result in ®nes starting at US $2000 per incident.
spectrophotometer with a narrow (10 nm or less) spec- The major objectives of this study include the fol-
tral band and an e€ective operating range of 400±700 lowing: (1) investigation of the commonly used waste-
nm (APHA, 1995). water treatment schemes (combination of biological and
C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063 1057

chemical coagulation processes) at representative textile For the pH adjustment step, two di€erent pH values
factories; (2) evaluation of the ecacy of using biologi- were chosen: original (ambient) pH and pH 7.6 (APHA,
cal and chemical coagulation treatment systems for 1995). For the spectrophotometer step, two types of
managing colored textile wastewater discharges; (3) instruments were used: Hach DR4000 (Hach) and Shi-
evaluation of the feasibility of colored textile e‚uents madzu UV-160A spectrophotometer (Shimadzu). For
regulation under the new discharge standard and the ADMI measurement step, both 3 and 31 WL ADMI
adopted ADMI method; and (4) evaluation of the cor- color values were measured. Thus, three controlling
relations between 3 and 31 WL ADMI methods and factors (pH, instrument, and WL) were evaluated to
evaluation of other factors such as analytical instru- determine their e€ects on color value measurements.
ments and pH adjustment on the color measurements. Sample preparation and analytical procedures of the
ADMI color value measurement are described in the
Standard Methods and EPA Method 110.1 (EPA, 1978;
APHA, 1995).
2. Materials and methods
Hach DR4000 was used for ADMI measurement
comparison because it has some unique features: stan-
2.1. Textile factories investigations
dard curves for ADMI color measurements and complex
ADMI value calculation equations are installed in this
In the ®rst part of this study, 10 representative
instrument, and therefore, frequent standard ADMI
wastewater treatment plants with biological, mainly ac-
color solution (potassium chloroplatinate and cobaltous
tivated sludge process, and chemical precipitation as the
chloride solution) preparation (APHA, 1995) and
major treatment processes were selected for a detailed
ADMI value calculation are not required. Each ADMI
facility investigation. These investigations contained the
value can be obtained immediately by this instrument
following tasks: (1) collection in¯uent and e‚uent
after the ®ltration procedure. However, the analytical
wastewater samples from each treatment stage for 10
accuracy of the measurement by Hach DR4000 was
consecutive days, (2) sample analysis for COD and 3/31
unclear. Thus, the variations in ADMI values between
WL ADMI color values, (3) comparison of the deviation
two instruments used in this study were evaluated. In the
in 3 and 31 ADMI values, and evaluate the correlations
second part of this study, the 186 e‚uent samples col-
between the two ADMI methods, (4) evaluation of the
lected from 75 textile wastewater plants were analyzed
correlations between COD and ADMI values, and (5)
for both 3 and 31 WL ADMI color values.
con®rm the presence or absence of temporary post-
treatment process taken by each plant to meet the dis-
charge limit.
3. Results and discussion
In the second part of this study, a total of 186 textile
wastewater samples was collected from the e‚uents of
3.1. Analysis of samples from 10 representative plants
75 textile wastewater treatment plants. Each e‚uent
sample was analyzed for ADMI color values by both 3
3.1.1. Treatment eciency analysis
and 31 WL methods. These data were used to (1) eval-
Wastewater discharged from the textile industry
uate the e€ectiveness of using current treatment systems
shows a large ¯uctuation in terms of quality and quan-
on controlling the colored textile wastewater discharges
tity, depending on customers' order, season, and fabri-
and meeting the color discharge regulation, and (2)
cated textile materials. Because of the large variabilities
demonstrate the suitability of the current discharge
of the compositions and characteristics of textile
standards, and determine if less conservative regulatory
wastewaters, a 10-day consecutive sampling was per-
decision is acceptable at this stage.
formed in this study. The consecutive sampling was
designed to evaluate the variations in COD and color
2.2. Wastewater sample collection and analysis values of the in¯uent/e‚uent of those 10 selected
wastewater treatment facilities (designated from Facili-
In the ®rst part of this study, wastewater samples ties 1±10). All 10 selected facilities use biological treat-
were collected (grab samples) from 10 representative ment followed by chemical coagulation/precipitation
plants for 10 consecutive days, and measured for both treatment processes.
COD and ADMI color values. COD measurements To meet the new color discharge limit (400 ADMI
were conducted in accordance with the dichromate re- units measured by 3 WL method), seven of the ten fa-
¯ux method described in Standard Methods (APHA, cilities added sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) into the
1995). The ADMI color value for each sample was treatment stream. The addition of NaOCl, a decoloring
measured via the following procedure: sample pH ad- agent, was accomplished in three di€erent locations:
justment; ®ltration (0.45 lm); spectrophotometer; and ¯occulation basin (four facilities), coagulation basin
ADMI measurement. (two facilities), and discharging point (one facility). To
1058 C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063

increase the e€ects on color removal, NaOCl is over- three facilities without NaOCl addition (Facilities 1, 4,
dosed by all seven facilities. However, the residual and 7), all other seven facilities had diculties on
chlorine concentration is not monitored by those facili- meeting the 400 ADMI units before the oxidant addi-
ties. Thus, residual chlorine might cause some adverse tion. Results also show that biological processes had
e€ects on the discharged watercourses. limited e€ects on color removal. Less than 40% of the
Table 1 presents the wastewater ¯ow capacity, in¯uent color were removed via the biological process.
NaOCl addition location, and operational cost (US $/ The dyes are highly structured polymers and are very
ton of wastewater) for the 10 treatment facilities. The dicult to decompose biologically (Tzitzi et al., 1994).
operational costs for those facilities varied from US $0.4 Hence, there is a relatively limited degradation of these
to $1.1 per ton of wastewater including the addition of dyestu€ molecules during biological treatment. More-
NaOCl for color removal. Due to the usage of NaOCl over, the breakup of some chromophores/auxochromes
(seven facilities), the operational cost (including the or change of the solution pH would also reduce/elimi-
chemical expenses) increased to approximately one half nate color without actually breaking up the whole/sub
to two times higher. This indicates that the new color dye molecules. Thus, part of the color disappearance
discharge limit results in a signi®cantly higher opera- might not be due to the degradation of the dyestu€.
tional cost for most of the textile facilities. Approximately 40±70% of the in¯uent color was re-
Fig. 1(a) shows the averages of 10-day COD results moved via the chemical precipitation process. NaOCl
(including in¯uent, biotreated (e‚uent from biological was applied as the ®nal polishing process to lower the
process), and chem-treated (e‚uent from chemical color value. Results indicate that pre- or post-treatment
coagulation/precipitation process)) for 10 treatment options (e.g., advanced oxidation processes) are required
facilities. The standard deviations of the 10-day in¯u- for color removal to comply with the color discharge
ent COD values were also presented. Results show that limit (Mock, 1999; Vandevivere et al., 1999; Kang et al.,
the colored textile wastewater is frequently accompa- 2000).
nied byconcomitant ¯uctuations in COD measure-
ments. A wide range of in¯uent COD values (varied 3.1.2. Deviation in 3 and 31 ADMI values
from 460 to 1240 mg/l) for those 10 facilities was ob- For the ADMI value analysis, three controlling
served. Approximately 50±80% of in¯uent COD were factors (pH, instrument, and 3/31 WL) were applied to
removed via the biological process, and up to 35% of evaluate those phenomena on color measurement. Fig.
the in¯uent COD were removed via the chemical pre- 2(a) and (b) present the variations in 3 and 31 WL
cipitation process. Results show that most e‚uent ADMI values versus two instruments used in this study.
samples (70%) meet the current COD discharge stan- A total of 300 textile wastewater samples (including raw
dard (100 mg/l). Thus, COD in the most textile wastewater, e‚uent from biological process, e‚uent
wastewater can be controlled by the treatment systems, from chemical precipitation process or before dis-
and biological process played an important role on charge) were used for each comparison. Results show
COD removal. that 3 and 31 WL ADMI values measured by both
Fig. 1(b) shows the averages of 10-day 3 WL ADMI instruments were in close agreements (R2 > 0:995). This
color values for 10 treatment facilities. The standard indicates that Hach DR4000 can provide a very precise
deviations of the averaged 10-day in¯uent ADMI values ADMI color measurement using the installed standard
are also presented. Results show that the treatment curves.
system in use by the textile industries fails to e€ectively The measured ADMI values obtained at the origi-
remove color from the waste streams. Except for those nal pH and pH 7.6 are presented by ADMIoriginal and

Table 1
Characteristics of 10 selected facilities
Facility Capacity (m3 /d) Location of NaOCl addition Operational cost (US $/m3 wastewater)
1 3500 ±a 0.4
2 4500 F 0.6
3 1200 F 0.5
4 415 ± 0.3
5 1200 F 0.4
6 11,000 F 0.7
7 3500 ± 0.5
8 8000 D 0.9
9 3300 C 0.8
10 1350 C 1.1
±: no addition; F: ¯occulation basin; D: discharging location; C: coagulation basin.
C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063 1059

Fig. 1. (a) Averages of 10-day COD results (including in¯uent, biotreated, and chem-treated) for 10 treatment facilities; (b) averages of
10-day 3 WL ADMI color values (including in¯uent, biotreated, chem-treated, and e‚uent after NaOCl addition) for 10 treatment

ADMI7:6 , respectively. Fig. 3 presents the correlation 31WL ADMI ˆ 0:64…3WL ADMI† ‡ 36
between the ADMIoriginal and ADMI7:6 for 300 textile R2 ˆ 0:92: …1†
wastewater samples (R2 ˆ 0:98). These results indicate
that pH adjustment does not have a signi®cant e€ect Although 3 and 31 WL methods are both approved by
on ADMI value measurement. It has been reported ADMI and are listed in the Standard Methods (APHA,
that the pH causes the variation in color value of 1995), analytical results show that signi®cant variations
natural water because the solubility of natural color- of the numerical values exist between 3/31 ADMI val-
causing substances (e.g., humic acid, fulvic acid) varies ues. For example, if the 3 WL ADMI value for a textile
with pH values (Bennett and Drikas, 1993; Kang and wastewater sample is 400 ADMI units, its corresponding
Kuo, 1999). However, for the textile wastewaters, 31 WL ADMI value is only 292. Wastewater samples in
natural color-causing substances have less e€ect on the the present study exhibited a wide range of color values
color value measurement compared to SS and dyeing (from 0 to 6000 ADMI units by 3 WL method). Re-
materials in the wastewater. Thus, for textile waste- gression Eq. (2) was then calculated using 100 e‚uent
water samples, pH control might not be necessary for samples with lower ADMI values (lower than 1350
ADMI value measurement after the ®ltration proce- ADMI units by 3 WL method).
The relationship between 3 and 31 WL ADMI values 31WL ADMI ˆ 0:59…3WL ADMI† ‡ 24
for di€erent textile wastewater samples without pH ad-
R2 ˆ 0:96: …2†
justment Fig. 4 is
1060 C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063

Fig. 2. (a) Variation in 3 WL ADMI values analyzed by two instruments (Shimadzu and Hach); (b) variation in 31 WL ADMI values
analyzed by two instruments (Shimadzu and Hach).

Again, signi®cant variations between 3/31 ADMI values 3.1.3. Comparison of COD and ADMI values
exist. The 400 ADMI color discharge limit by 3 WL There is no relationship between COD and 3 WL
method only corresponds to 260 ADMI units by ADMI values of textile wastewater samples as shown in
31 WL method using Eq. (2). Results indicate that 3 and Fig. 5. Normal textile dyeing and ®nishing operations are
31 WL ADMI methods cannot be substituted for each such that the dyestu€s used in a mill can vary from day
other, and the discharge standard should be determined to day and sometimes even several times a day mainly
based on the selected ADMI method. because of the batched nature of the dyeing process.

Fig. 3. Correlation between the ADMIoriginal and ADMI7:6 of 3 WL method for textile wastewater samples.
C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063 1061

Fig. 4. Relationship between 3 and 31 WL ADMI values for 300 textile wastewater samples without pH adjustment.

Frequent changes of dyes and chemicals in the dyeing method. All samples were adjusted to pH 7.6, ®ltered
process cause considerable variation in the wastewater through 0.45 m membrane ®lters, then analyzed by both
characteristics (e.g., ADMI value and COD concentra- 3 and 31 WL ADMI methods. Fig. 6 presents the dis-
tions). Some strong color dyes have low COD, but some tribution of the 3 and 31 WL ADMI values versus the
low color value substances used in the pretreatment, percentage of total samples. Results show that only 65%
printing, and ®nishing procedures have high COD. Thus, of the 186 e‚uent samples can meet the color discharge
the ``colored''compounds account only for a small frac- limit (400 ADMI units) using the 3 WL ADMI method.
tion of the wastewater COD (Tzitzi et al., 1994). The However, if the 31 WL ADMI method were adopted for
color intensity varies with pH, and that COD may not the standard analytical procedure, up to 85% of the ef-
detect some dye compounds. Therefore, COD and color ¯uent samples could meet the limit. Moreover, among
values in the textile wastewater show little correlation. the 186 samples, approximately 30% of the samples were
treated with overdosed NaOCl before discharge to as-
3.2. E‚uents from textile wastewater treatment plant sure the e€ects of oxidation. The overdosed NaOCl
would cause the increase in residual chlorine concen-
A total of 186 e‚uent samples were collected from 75 trations in the discharged watercourses. This may pro-
textile wastewater treatment plants to evaluate the fea- duce unknown adverse e€ects on aquatic life and
sibility of regulating the colored textile e‚uents by the environments. Results indicate that only 35% of the
new discharge standard (3 WL) as well as 31 WL ADMI total samples could meet the discharge standard without

Fig. 5. Relationship between COD and 3 WL ADMI values of 300 textile wastewater samples.
1062 C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063

Fig. 6. Distribution of 3 and 31 WL ADMI values versus the percentage of total samples.

NaOCl addition. This implies that the wastewater 4. Results from the second part of this study show that
treatment technology currently in use fails to e€ectively only 35% of the 186 e‚uent samples could meet the
treat the colored textile wastewater. Almost two thirds 400 ADMI discharge limit without the addition of
of the textile mills need to install a ®nal polishing pro- NaOCl. Thus, the new ``E‚uent True Color Stan-
cess (e.g., advanced oxidation process) for color re- dard'' in Taiwan is somewhat unachievable by the
moval. currently used treatment technology, and the true col-
or discharge limit might not be applicable at this
5. Most of the treatment facilities apply NaOCl as the
4. Conclusions and suggestions
®nal polishing step. However, to increase the e€ects
and reliability of NaOCl application on color re-
In this study, 10 representative textile wastewater
moval, NaOCl is overdosed by all facilities. Unless
treatment facilities were selected for a 10-day consecu-
government of Taiwan enforces discharge limit for re-
tive sampling and analysis. Additionally, 186 textile ef-
sidual chlorine, the watercourses would be severely
¯uents from 75 textile mills were collected and analyzed
damaged by the usage of NaOCl for color removal.
to evaluate the feasibility of regulating the colored tex-
6. This study can help us improve our understanding of
tile e‚uents by the new discharge standard (400 ADMI
the e€ectiveness and feasibility of the current textile
units). Conclusions from this study include the follow-
wastewater treatment processes on the regulatory
compliance. This improved understanding can be
1. A signi®cant di€erence between 3 and 31 ADMI
used to modify existing treatment technologies and
methods was observed for 300 textile wastewater
select necessary post-treatment technique to enhance
samples. The discharge standard should be deter-
the system reliability.
mined based on the selected testing method, and
these two methods cannot be substituted for each
2. Results show that pH adjustment has no signi®cant Acknowledgements
in¯uence on ADMI value measurement for the textile
wastewater samples. Thus, pH control might not be This project was funded by Environmental Protec-
necessary for ADMI value measurement after the ®l- tion Administration (EPA), ROC. The writers appreci-
tration procedure. ate Ms. L.H. Chang (Director) and Ms. M.J. Liao
3. The wastewater treatment scheme used can lower (Senior Specialist) of Water Quality Protection, EPA for
most of the wastewater COD (up to 70%) to below their support and assistance throughout this project.
the current discharge standard (100 mg/l). However, Grateful acknowledgement is extended to Ms. Y.H.
these systems can not e€ectively remove color from Chien of Taiwan Textile Printing Dyeing and Finishing
the textile wastewater to meet the discharge limit Industrial Association for her assistance on the factory
(400 ADMI units by 3 WL method). investigation and sample collection tasks.
C.M. Kao et al. / Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1055±1063 1063

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