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i

XIII Congreso Lationamericano de Ciencia de


Superficie y sus Aplicaciones

XIII Latin American Congress of Surface Science


and its Applications

XIII CLACSA

Santa Marta, Colombia


3- 7 December
2007

CLACSA XIII
ii

On behalf of the organizing committees we welcome all participants to the CLAC-


SA XIII in Santa Marta, Colombia from 3 to 7 December 2007. This edition of the
CLACSA series is dedicated to Surface Science and Applications with special em-
phasis in the future development of Nanotecnology. Surface Science has been subject
of an enormous interest in traditionally very different disciplines, turning out to be
a new area with important perspectives for the region. The results that will be pre-
sented, give us a taste of the actual state of research and applications on this science
in our countries and we hope that it will be plenty of new ideas that contribute to
the developing of Nanotechnology in Latin America.

We have chosen with special care our invited speakers, so that their talks mo-
tivate us to establish new interdisciplinary projects and make of this meeting the
opportunity of sharing scientific results.

We wish that the conclusions of this 13 th version of CLACSA, the second time
in Colombia, bring to our countries a new opportunity of integration for the devel-
opment of the Latin American Technology.

Finally, let me say few words about the host institutions in Colombia: Two very
prestigious Colombian universities have joint efforts to support the CLACSA XIII.
They are Universidad Nacional de Colombia 140 years old, a public university with
the oldest scientific tradition and the largest number of research groups in Colombia
and Universidad de los Andes, a private university, which starts to celebrate its 60
anniversary. This institution is showing through the graduates enormous success in
all activities of the national life. Concerning science and technology it is the private
university with the highest percentage of research groups and publications. For the
organizers it is a pleasure that CLACSA XIII joints to these celebrations and warm
congratulate the Universidad de los Andes.

Other sponsors of this meeting are: Universidad del Magdalena at Santa Marta,
which is the host regional institution of CLACSA XIII and thus offers us the logistic
and evenings entertainment, Universidad del Valle at Cali, Academia Colombiana
de Ciencias Exactas, Fı́sicas y Naturales, Fundación para la Promoción de la Cien-
cia y la Tecnologı́a del Banco de la República, Kemtek de Colombia, Panalytical-
Neta Ingeniera, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolı́var at
Cartagena and internacional agencies like ICTP, CLAF, EPS-IGPD and Institute
of Physics Publishing (IOP) at Latinoamerica.

Your enthusiastic participation in the event will make of it the beginning of a


real scientific integration.

Organizing Committee
Chair
Angela Stella Camacho B.

CLACSA XIII
iii

Local Committee
Chairwoman Angela S. Camacho B
Secretary Rafael R. Rey G.

National Organizing Committee, Colombia


Alfonso Devia (U. Nacional, Manizales)
Boris Rodrı́guez (U. de Antioquia, Medellı́n)
Camilo Jiménez, (U. Javeriana, Bogotá)
Carlos Duque (U. de Antioquia, Medellı́n)
Carlos Vargas (U. Nacional, Manizales)
Clara Calderón (U. Nacional, Bogotá)
Doris Giratá (U. de Antioquia, Medellı́n)
Gabriel Téllez, (Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá)
Gerardo Gordillo (U. Nacional, Bogotá)
Germán Pérez (U. del Valle, Cali)
Héctor Castro (Universidad Los Andes, Bogotá)
Hernando Ariza (U. del Quindı́o, Armenia)
Ilia Mikhailov (U. Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga)
Jaime Torres (U. Nacional, Bogotá)
Jairo Giraldo, (U. Nacional Bogotá)
Javier Betancur (U. Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga)
Javier Marı́n (U. Nacional, Medellı́n)
Jesús Calero (U. del Valle, Cali)
Juan Carlos Granada (U. del Valle, Cali)
Karen Fonseca, (U. Nacional Bogotá)
Luı́s Demetrio López, (U. Nacional, Bogotá)
Luz Elena Bolı́var (U. del Cauca, Popayán)
Nelson Porras (U. del Valle, Cali)
Pedro Prieto (U. del Valle, Cali)
Rubén Vargas (U. del Valle, Cali)
Rutber Escorcia (U. de Magdalena, Santa Marta)
Servio Tulio Pérez, (U. del Cauca, Popayán)
Virgilio Niño (U. Nacional, Bogotá)

International Organizing Committee


Adalberto Fazzio (Brazil)
Carlos Balseiro (Argentina)
César Proetto (Argentina)
Elisa Baggio Saitovitch (Brazil)
Enrique Anda (Brazil)
Fernando Ponce (USA)

CLACSA XIII
iv

Isaac Hernández-Calderón (Mexico)


Luı́s Mochan (Mexico)
Patricio Häberle (Chile)
Rafael Barrio (Mexico)
Sergio Ulloa (USA)
Victor Manuel Fuenzalida (Chile)

International Advisory Committee


Belita Koiler (Brazil)
Blas Alascio (Argentina)
Carlos Trallero (Cuba)
Daniel Ugarte (Brazil)
Feliciano Sánchez-Sinencio (Mexico)
Francisco Claro (Chile)
Francisco de la Cruz (Argentina)
Gaspar Armelles Reig (Spain)
Gilberto Medeiros Ribeiro (Brazil)
Ivan K. Schuller, (USA)
José Luı́s Carrillo (Mexico)
José Luı́s Moran-López (Mexico)
Julio Mendoza (Mexico)
Luiza Scolfaro (Brazil)
Luiz E. Oliveira (Brazil)
Majed Chergui, (Switzerland)
Maria Carmen Muñoz (Spain)
Marilia Caldas (Brazil)
Mónica Pacheco (Chile)
Marı́a C. Tamargo (USA)
Patricia Lustoza de Souza (Brasil)
Rubén Barrera (Mexico)
Walter Estrada (Venezuela)
Zdenka Barticevic (Chile)

Program and Abstract Booklet Editors


Rafael R. Rey-González
Anderson Dussan
Luis Quiroga
Ferney Rodriguez
William Herrera

CLACSA XIII
v

Every abstract has two codes: the first (on the left) indicates the room (0: El
Kiosko, 1: Gran Salón or 2: Salón Masinga) and the hour. The second one (to the
right) indicates the type of presentation: Plenary (Pl), Invited talk (In), Oral report
(OR) or a Poster (P) and next two letters identify the day: Monday (Mo), Tuesday
(Tu) Wednesday (We), Thursday (Th) and Friday (Fr).

Information on invited, oral and poster presenta-


tions
Please consult the conference timetable on page vii of this handbook for the
times of the plenary, parallel invited or oral reports and posters sessions.

Duration of talks
Plenary talks 50 minutes plus 10 minutes for questions/discussion
Invited talks 25 minutes plus 5 minutes for questions/discussion
Oral reports 15 minutes plus 5 minutes for questions/discussion

Audio-visual facilities
A video beam projector and a computer will be available for use in every room.
Speakers intending to use PowerPoint will have their presentation loaded before the
presentation. For this purpose they should bring a copy of their presentation on
CD (Transfer from the hard drive of a laptop is discourage). Please use Microsoft
Office 2003 to prepare your PowerPoint presentations. Also, Acrobat Reader 6 will
be available.

Poster presentations
The poster sessions will last 1 hour and 40 minutes. A board size 0.90 metres
wide by 1.20 metres high will be available for each poster. Materials for fixing the
poster to the board will be provided at the conference.
Each presenter is responsible for ensuring that their poster is displayed in the
correct session on the board allocated, as specified in the conference programme.
Poster can be displayed before poster session on the appropriate day of it, and must
be removed by 20:00 on the same day. Although the organizers will endeavor to save
your poster materials, no guarantee can be made for posters not removed at the
correct time.

Congress Proceedings
Accepted papers will be published in a special number of Microelectronics Jour-
nal. Plenary papers must be no longer than 4 pages and the other contributed paper

CLACSA XIII
vi

(invited, oral or poster presentations) must be no longer than 2 pages. Informa-


tion for authors on manuscript preparation is available on the CLACSA web site
http://clacsaxiii.uniandes.edu.co and the journal web site http://www.elsevier.com-
/wps/find/journaldescription.cws home/405904/authorinstructions
Authors must be delivery 3 hard copies and 1 CD with LaTex, figures (eps type,
preferably) and PDF files to Prof. Anderson Dussan on Monday December 3 in the
afternoon.

Social programme
Sunday - December 2
Welcome drink at 7:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m.

Monday - December 3
Folk music at 8:00 p.m.(La Gran Piscina)

Tuesday - December 4
Round Table at 8:30 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. Nanotechnology in Latin-America. (Salón
Masinga)
Popular music at 10:00 p.m.,-Grupo Vallenato- (Beach)

Wednesday - December 5
Free afternoon. There are some interesting excursions organized by Hotel tourist
agency.
Meeting of Latin-American Society of Surface Science at 8:30 p.m. - 10:00 p.m.

Thursday - December 6
Conference Dinner and Tropical music at the beach. The participants will be
informed about details during the Congress.

Friday - December 7
Clossing session at 12:30 p.m.

CLACSA XIII
Program

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

8:30 / 9:10 Registration


J. C. Idrobo G. Moreno P.A. B. Schulz A. Tortschanoff 8:30 / 9:30
9:10 / 9:40 Open session
V. Fuenzalida / D. Ariosa J. Roa / R. Barrrera G. Tellez / M. Hanini I. Hernandez / H.Chachan 9:30 / 10:00
9:40 / 10:40 H. Pastawski OR 7 OR 14 OR 17 OR 24 10:00 / 10:20
OR 8 OR 15 OR 18 OR 25 10:20 / 10:40
10:40 / 11:10 Coffee break 10:40 / 11:10

11:10 / 11:40 H. Castro/P. Häberle OR 9 E. Patiño/J. Carrillo OR 19 OR 26 11:10 / 11:30


OR 10 OR 20 OR 27 11:30 / 11:50
11:40 / 12:10 L. Oliveira/ K. Hallberg OR 11 G. Pabon/E. Alfonso OR 21 OR 28 11:50 /12:10
12:10 / 12:30 OR 1 OR 12 OR 16 OR 22 Closing session 12:10 / 12:30
12:30 / 13:00
12:30 / 16:00 Lunch

CLACSA XIII
16:00 / 17:00 E. Baggio Saitovitch R. H. Buitrago W. Macedo 16:00 / 17:00

17:00 /17:20 OR 2 E. Anda/ Lok Y. Voon L. Meza / G. Gordillo 17:00 / 17:30


17:20 / 17:40 0R 3
OR 13 OR 23 17:30 / 17:50
17:40 /18:10 Coffee break
18:10 / 18:30 0R 4
18:30 / 19:50 0R 5 Poster session Poster session 17:50 / 19:30
18:50 / 19:10 0R 6

Nanotechnology
Meeting SLCS Dinner
Round table
20:30 / 22:00 20:00 / 22:00
20:30 / 22:00
vii
viii

CLACSA XIII
CONTENTS

Monday Dec - 03 1
Plenary
Decoherence in the Quantum Transport Regime: Dynamical and Steady
State aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Invited Talks
Tunneling spectroscopy: a probe for high tc superconductivity. . . . . 2
Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon-Nanoscale Materials. . . . 2
Non-Markovian damping of Rabi oscillations in semiconductor quan-
tum dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Impurities in quantum corrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Oral reports
Synthesis and characterization of boron nitride nanoparticles and
nanofibers by chemical vapor deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Temperature Dependence Of The Magnetic Behavior Of N i0.5 Zn0.5 F e2 O4
Thin Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Plenary
Nanoparticles, clusters and multilayers: from preparation to physical
characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Oral reports
Growth and morphology of ultra-thin Ni films on Pd(100) . . . . . . 7
Influence of the surface diffusion on the growth of III-V free-standing
nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Molybdenum Trioxide Crystalline Nanostructures Grown by Conden-
sation in a Carrier Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Methane oxidation to formaldehyde with iron catalysts supported on
silica and titania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Surface changes induced by UV illumination on nanocrystalline TiO2
(anatase) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Spectroscopic evidence of CdS nanoparticle size reduction to a magic
number of atoms by surfactant adsorption . . . . . . . . . . . 11

ix
x

Structural and transport properties of Ba2 FeZrO6−delta nanosized complex-


perovskite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Intrinsic Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Films: A review of physical
properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
APPLICATION OF NANOPOROUS ADSORBENTS BASED ON
CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CLAYS FOR THEIR USE IN
DEPURATION OF POLLUTED LIQUID EFFLUENTS . . . 14
Compatibility and physical, morphological and electrochemical prop-
erties of niobium oxides thin films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Tuesday Dec - 04 16
Plenary
Optical Properties of Free and Embedded Small Nanoparticles: When
Size Does Not Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Invited talks
Hydrothermal preparation of thin films and nanostructures of metal
oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Direct ARPES on In-Situ Grown (Strained) High-Tc Thin Films . . 17
Oral reports
Magnetic field effects on the dissipative dynamics in semiconductor
microcavity systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Optical properties of InN nanocolumns at different stages of their
growth by molecular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Study of Optical Transition in Spherical GaSb-Ga1-x Inx Asy Sb1-y
Quantum Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
HOPG full atomic structure: a first-principles calculation and scan-
ning tunneling microscopy study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Evidence of Magnetoelectric Coupling in T bM nO3 compounds . . . . 22
Possible quantum interference effects in high quality SrRuO3 epitax-
ial thin films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SUPER CRYSTALS . . . . . . . . . . 23
Adsorption of ruthenium atoms on the (0001) GaN surface as prelim-
inary study of Schottky contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Transport through a quantum wire side coupled to a quantum ring
with Rashba spin-orbit interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Characterization by HRTEM, Raman Spectroscopy and XRD of monocrys-
talline sodium hexatitanate nanorods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Control of the position of self-assembled InAs quantum dots by anodic
oxidation nanolithography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
QUANTUM MONTE CARLO CALCULATIONS OF THE BIND-
ING ENERGY OF WANNIER EXCITONS BOUND TO DONOR
IMPURITIES IN GaAs/Alx Ga1-xAs QUANTUM WELLS . 26
Plenary
Electrical transport in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon thin films 28
Invited talks

CLACSA XIII
xi

Transport Properties of Highly Correlated Electrons in Nanoscopic


Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Electromechanical response of semiconductor nanostructures . . . . . 30
Oral reports
Analogies and differences of bonding and antibonding states between
natural molecules and asymmetric Double Quantum Wells . . 31
Magnetic structure of synthetic akaganeite: Msbauer findings . . . . 31
Poster session
A SURFACE PHENOMENA STUDY IN ESFALERITA (VAR. MAR-
MATITA) DURING BIOLEACHING PROCESSES BY NA-
TIVE EXTREMOPHILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces . . . . . . . . 33
Comparative Study of the structural, electronic and optical character-
istics of amorphous softwood lignin fragments using Density
Functional Theory and some semiempirical methods. . . . . . 34
Delocalization of vibrational normal modes in double chains: Appli-
cations to DNA systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Generation of vesicles membranes using spherical harmonics . . . . . 35
A four-sublattice Ising antiferromagnet model: application to the
(La1−x P rx )0.5 Ca0.5 M nO3 manganites . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Angular dependence of the first-order vortex transition line in three-
dimensional anisotropic superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Bi2212: An analysis
from the Eliashberg theory point of view . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ANTIREFLECTIVE MACROPOROUS SILICON LAYERS ON CRYS-
TALLINE SILICON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
CHARACTERIZATION THERMAL, STRUCTURAL AND MAG-
NETIC OF Co-BASED ALLOYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Classical spin dynamics of four interacting magnetic nanoparticles on
a chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS
ON THE ELECTRON-HOLE TRANSITION ENERGIES IN
A GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs QUANTUMWELLS, QUANTUM WELL-
WIRES AND QUANTUM DOTS INMERSED IN HOSTS OF
Ga1-yAlyAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Correlations and Frustration in Quantum Networks . . . . . . . . . . 39
Currents Through Quantum Dots in a Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Dielectric constant of 2DEG in the presence of electric field: An ap-
plication to GaN quantum wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Effect of annealing temperature and substitution rate of Zr-Mn on
the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles 41
Effect of the Zn(NO3)2 on ZnO deposited by Chemical Bath . . . . 42
Effective Landé g-factor in semiconductor quantum wires . . . . . . 42

CLACSA XIII
xii

Effects of applied hydrostatic pressure on the polaronic correction to


the energy and electron effective-mass and on the electron-hole
transitions energy in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quantum well . . . . 43
Effects of dissipation on the time evolution of coherence and entan-
glement of a two-quantum dot system in a microcavity . . . . 44
Effects of Oxygen Depletion and Silver Doping on YBCO Magnetic
Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Electronic transport in Co10 Cu90 nanostructured alloys . . . . . . . . 45
Energy Levels of On-Axis Donors in Vertically Stacked Quantum Dots
with Different Morphologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Energy relaxation paths in doped AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices in the
presence of a high magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Ferromagnetic -Antiferromagnetic Transition in Coupled Quantum
Dots under Hydrostatic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
FERROMAGNETISM IN DILUTED MAGNETIC SEMICONDUC-
TORS OF (Zn,Mn)O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Indications of spin-charge separation in two-leg interacting Aharonov-
Bohm rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
ION-MOLECULAR D2+ COMPLEX IN QUANTUM RING . . . . 49
IRON AND ANTIMONY DOPING IN TIN DIOXIDE NANOPAR-
TICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
LANDÉ g-FACTOR AND CYCLOTRON EFFECTIVE MASS IN
A CYLINDRICAL GaAs-(Ga,Al)As QUANTUM PILLBOX
UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF AN AXIS-PARALLEL AP-
PLIED MAGNETIC FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Avalanche effect in a square superconductor loop . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Calculation of direct and indirect excitons in vertically coupled
GaAs/GaAlAs quantum dots: The effects of hydrostatic pres-
sure and applied electric field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Characterization of Piezoelectric Materials as Power Source for Elec-
tronic Implantations Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Crystallization of amorphous CdTe thin films to quantum dots in-
duced by an electron-beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Crystallographic modification of rutile into hydrated titanium oxide
nanostructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Determination of deposition temperature of PbS, CdSe and CdS films
by chemical bath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
EFFECT OF NANOPARTICLES OF Fe2O3 ON THE PHASE BE-
HAVIOR OF CsHSeO4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Effect of potential shape on the binding energy of the impurity states
in nanotube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Effect of starch as capping agent on the optical properties of CdS
nanoparticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Magnetoexciton energy spectrum in type-II quantum-well structures 57
Magneto-exciton transitions in laterally coupled quantum dots . . . . 58

CLACSA XIII
xiii

MAGNETOTRANSPORT IN A TYPE HYLLERAS DOUBLE BAR-


RIER POTENCIAL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Measurements of nanoliquid thermal parameters by using photother-
mal techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Molecular adsorption in nanochannels: The Maya blue case . . . . . 60
Nano-composite of porous silicon and blue-methylene molecules for
optical gas sensor application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
A virtual instrument to predict the chemical composition of CVD
synthesized thin films. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Adsorption thermodynamics of interacting particles on partially diluted-
bonds triangular lattices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Analysis of the electronic transport in epitaxial
Y Ba2Cu3O7−d/La1/3Ca2/3M nO3/La2/3Ca1/3M nO3 tri-
layers applying the Simmons and small polarons hopping mod-
el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Influence of the growth time on the optical response of GaInAsSb films 63
ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES IN OVERDOPED YB-
CO SUPERCONDUCTOR THIN FILMS . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Au THIN FILMS GROWN IN NITROGEN ENVIROMENT . . . . 65
Biocompatibility and physical, morphological and electrochemical prop-
erties of niobium oxides thin films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
CdS FILMS DEPOSITED UNDER ROTATION BY CHEMICAL
BATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
CHARACTERIZATION BY SEM AND AES OF HETEROSTRUC-
TURES (GaAs-Ge)n /GaAs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Characterization of polycrystalline rhenium oxide compounds pre-
pared for two different methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of AlC, AlN and Al-
CN Thin Films Obtained by the r.f. Magnetron Sputtering
technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Characterization of W-N Thin Films Growth in a Pulsed Arc System 70
Characterization of WO3 thin films grown by hot-filament metal oxide
deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Chemical analysis of CNx thin films produced by pulsed laser ablation 71
CHEMICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF (Ti-Zr)N THIN
FILMS GROWN IN AN ARC PULSED SYSTEM. . . . . . . 71
Comparative study of electrical and morphological properties of Al
doped ZnO thin films based on AFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Comparison of ZnO thin films deposited by three different Silar pro-
cesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Composition and mechanical properties of AlN, AlC, and AlCN thin
films obtained by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique . . . . 74
Computational model of dihydrogen sulfide adsorption . . . . . . . . 74
Computational Study of nanostructures for Hydrogen Storage, effects
of ligands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

CLACSA XIII
xiv

Constant hexagonal phase of CdS thin films deposited by multiple


dips in an oscillating chemical bath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE AND SURFACE COMPO-
SITION OF NbNX THIN FILMS GROWN BY RF. MAG-
NETRON SPUTTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
DEPENDENCE OF THE SUBSTRATE IN THE ELECTRICAL
STRUCTURAL AND MORPHOLOGIC PROPERTIES OF
THIN MOVIES OF DIOXIDE OF VANADIUM GROWN BY
MAGNETRON SPUTTERING R.F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
DEPOSITION AND COMPUTACIONAL ANALYSIS OF WC THIN
FILMS GROWN BY PAPVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
DEPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CARBON NI-
TRIDE THIN FILMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Description of Langmuir monolayers by mean-field models . . . . . . 79
Determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of R6G solution
mixed with gold metallic nanoparticles by thermal lens mea-
surements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Development of a tool for optical emision spectra automatic analysis
generated in thin films production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE MULTIFERROIC THIN FILM
YMnO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
EFFECT OF FLUCTUATIONS IN REACTANT PRESSURES ON
THE BISTABILITY OF CO OXIDATION ON Pt SURFACES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
EFFECT OF NANOSIZED CERAMIC FILLERS ON THE PHASE
BEHAVIOR OF NH4H2PO4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
EFFECT OF THE ADSORBATES MOBILITY ON THE REAC-
TION CO+O2 → CO2 + O CATALIZED BY Pt
NANOPARTICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
EFFECT OF THE CATALYST SIZE ON THE KINETIC OSCIL-
LATIONS IN THE CO OXIDATION OVER Pt(100)-
NANOPARTICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Effects of the confining interaction on mesoscopic superconducting
cylinders under the action of an axial magnetic field. . . . . . 86
Electrical characterization of GaAs epitaxial films and InSb monocrys-
tals by the Van der Pauw technique for the Hall device man-
ufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Electrochemical modification of transparent conductive oxides . . . . 87
ELECTROCHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION
OF VANADIUM NITRIDE (VN) THIN FILMS . . . . . . . 87
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) study of Al2O3/YSZ
nanostructured thin layers deposited onto AISI 304 stainless
steel substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Electron inelastic mean free path for B4 C and BC2 N determined by
reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . 89

CLACSA XIII
xv

Energy transfer in polycrystalline Al2O3 pellets doped with Ce3+


and Mn2+ ions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Enhacement of TiN Based in Multilayer Coatings of Ti/TiN Growth
on Steels Type SAE 5160, 4140, and S600 via Magnetron Sput-
tering R.F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Fe DOPED SnO2 OBTAINED BY MECHANICAL ALLOYING . . 91
Fe doped TiO2 prepared by mechanical alloying . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Ferroelectric Properties of CoFe2O4/Ba0.90La0.067Tio.91Zr0.09O3
Composite Thin Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Finite elements modeling of nanomentric multilayers of Cr-CrN with
different period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Flicker Noise Analysis of Laminar Voltage Signals of Porous Silicon
Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Fluorine-doped effect on conductive and transparent properties in tin
oxide films deposited by APCVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Fux-flow noise in type II superconductor thin films . . . . . . . . . . 95
GaAlAs/GaAs-GaInAsSb/GaSb TANDEM SOLAR CELL . . . . . . 95
Germanium carbide films prepared by reactive laser ablation and
characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
STUDY OF THE ERROR IN THE CALCULATION OF DIELEC-
TRIC CONSTANTS AND THICKNESS OF TRANSPAR-
ENT FILMS USING TRANSMITTANCE AND BREWSTER
ANGLE MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Growth mechanism of iron nanoparticles on (0001) sapphire wafers . 97
Hardness and structure characterization of Ti6Al4V films produced
by reactive magnetron sputtering on a conventional austenitic
stainless steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
HAUSSDORFF DIMENSION OF ADSORBATE STRUCTURES IN
CO OXIDATION ON REDUCED SIZE Pt-CRYSTALS . . . 99
Hydrostatic Pressure effects on the binding and transition energies
for Wannier excitons in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As quantum wells. . . 100
Hydrothermal preparation of thin films and nanostructures of metal
oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Impedance spectroscopy studies of the polymer electrolyte based on
poly(vinyl alcohol) (NaI + 4AgI) H2 O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Influence of Incident Radiation on the Electrical Response of GaSb
and GaInAsSb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
INFLUENCE OF THE In CONCENTRATION ON THE SURFACE
MORPHOLOGY OF InGaAs-GaAs HETEROSTRUCTURES
GROWN BY MBE ON GaAs SUBSTRATE . . . . . . . . . 102
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY WITH ATTENUATED TOTAL RE-
FLECTANCE APPLIED IN THE STUDY OF DECOLOUR-
IZATION OF REMAZOL BLUE DYE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Initial stages of vanadium adsorption on the Si(111) 7x7 surface . . . 103

CLACSA XIII
xvi

Localized modes in superconductor-dielectric photonic crystals with


broken translational symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Low field vortex dynamics of BSCCO-2223 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Multiferroic TbMnO3 doped
with Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Magnetic and mechanical changes of heat and plasma treated amor-
phous 2605S3A Fe-based alloy studied by several techniques.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Magnetic interaction between FM/AF systems across a spacer layer . 107
ANTIREFLECTIVE MACROPOROUS SILICON LAYERS ON CRYS-
TALLINE SILICON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
APPLICATION OF NANOPOROUS ADSORBENTS BASED ON
CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CLAYS FOR THEIR USE IN
DEPURATION OF POLLUTED LIQUID EFFLUENTS . . . 109
Assessing hardness through instrumented indentation: Comparison
between classical and energy based models . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Barium Hexaferrite Samples Prepared by Sol-Gel and characterized
Magnetically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Characterization of p-InGaAsSb/n-GaSb and p-GaAs/n-GaAs Struc-
tures for the Fabrication of Fusion-Stacked Solar Cells . . . . 111
Characterization of single crystals of sodium hexatitanate nanowires
by HRTEM, Raman Spectroscopy and XRD . . . . . . . . . . 112
Comparative study of electrical and morphological properties of Al
doped ZnO thin films based on AFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Control of the position of self-assembled InAs quantum dots by anodic
oxidation nanolithography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
EFFECT OF CO2 LASER ANNEALING ON MICROSTRUCTURE
OF SPUTTERED SILICON CARBIDE NANO-SCALE FILMS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Electronic properties of nanoribbon junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Energy relaxation paths in doped AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices in the
presence of a high magnetic field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Wednesday Dec - 05 117


Plenary
Colloidal Delivery System: Applied Nanotechnology
A Colombian ”Nano” - A technological investigation being
exported wordwide from Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Invited talks
Study of structural and transport properties of the Ba2FeZrO6 com-
plex perovskite in nanosized and bulk form . . . . . . . . . . 119
Use and abuse of the effective-index-of-refraction concept in turbid
colloidal systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Oral reports

CLACSA XIII
xvii

Scrutinizing localization properties in heuristic models for DNA molecules:


localization lengths versus participation ratios . . . . . . . . . 121
Ondulating 2D waveguides. Dynamical and transport properties . . . 121
Enhanced of the Ethylene Glycol Thermal Diffusivity Containing
Au/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles with Different Concentrations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Optical properties of Zr and ZrO2 films deposited by laser ablation . 122
Invited talks
Re-entrant behaviour of Superconductivity induced in S/F bilayer
structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Structure and properties of magnetorheological slurries under pertur-
bation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
MechanismofunfoldingbyForce: InsightfromQuasi-EquilibriumMolecular
DynamicsCalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Crystallographic structure and surface composition of nbnx thin films
grown by rf magnetron sputtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Oral reports
Non equilibrium thermal entanglement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Effect of CO2 laser annealing on microstructure of sputtered silicon
carbide nano-scale films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Thursday Dec - 06 129


Plenary
Electronic states delocalization processes in low dimensional self as-
sembled systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Invited talks
Screening of charged macromolecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Optical and Morphological Properties of Self-Assembled Quantum
Dots Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Novel IndexSur-
faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Oral reports
The electrochemical behaviour by electrochemical impedance spec-
troscopy EIS of Ti6Al4V ELI in SBF, superficially modified
by anodic oxidation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
ION DYNAMICS IN PVOH-LiClO4 POLYMER ELECTROLYTES
MODIFIED BY NANO-POROUS Al2O3 . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Role of Antenna Complexe’s Architecture in the photosynthesis of
purple bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Transport Boundary Condition for Semiconductor Structures . . . . 132
In vitro sliding behaviour and wear patterns in Stainless Steel wires
with Glass coatings Applied by Sol Gel Method . . . . . . . . 133
Analysis of the X-ray Diffraction on GaInAsSb films fabricated by
EFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Bose-Einstein condensates collapse: a variational solution . . . . . . 134

CLACSA XIII
xviii

Colloidal II-VI semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic quantum dots


for bioimaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
VIBRATIONAL, STRUCTURAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
OF IRON OXIDES NANOPHASES FORMED ON STEEL
CORRODED SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
INFLUENCE OF THE LASER POWER ON THE OPTICAL PROP-
ERTIES OF MOO3 THIN FILMS PREPARED BY CO2 LASER
EVAPORATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Growth and structure of ultrathin Fe and Ni films on ZnO(0001)-Zn 137
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MASSIC AND NANOTUBE CeO2
CATALYSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Plenary
Structure, magnetism and exchange bias effect in epitaxial systems . 140
Invited talks
Spin dynamics in AC-Driven InSb coupled quantum dots . . . . . . . 141
Synthesis and study of optical and structural properties of thin films
based on new photovoltaic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Oral reports
Electronic localization in quasi-one dimensional DNA arrays . . . . . 143
CHARACTERIZATION OF TiN/ZrN/TiN/ZrN MULTILAYERS COAT-
INGS GROWN BY CATHODIC ARC TECHNIQUE . . . . 144
Poster session
Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of
titanium oxide coating on titanium alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
OPTICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF BYOPOLIMERS:
CELLULOSE FRAGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CYCLODEXTRIN AND
CYCLODEXTRIN- ACETYL FERROCENE . . . . . . . . . 146
Study of complex charge distributions in an electrolyte using the
Poisson-Boltzmann equation by Lattice-Boltzmann method . 147
THE EUMELANIN LIKE CELLULAR PROTECTOR . . . . . . . . 147
Lattice distortion in the one-dimensional double and super-exchange
model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
MAGNETIC AND CONFINEMENT EFFECTS ON OPTICAL TRAN-
SITION ENERGIES IN GaAS-(Ga,Al)As DOUBLE QUAN-
TUM RINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Magnetism in the system TiO2 doped with Vanadium . . . . . . . . 149
Magneto-absorption spectrum of donor impurities in quantum well
wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
MAGNETOELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN COMPÓSITES OF
La0,67 Ca0,33 MnO3 /Ba0;9 La0,067 Ti0,91 Zr0,09 O3 . . . . . . . . . . 150
NONLOCAL ANDREEV REFLECTIONS IN SUPERCONDUCT-
ING JUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Novel spin orbit interaction and quantum Hall ferromagnetism in
2DEGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

CLACSA XIII
xix

Optical characterization of InAs delta-layers grown by MBE at dif-


ferent temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Optical Process in Micropillars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Path integral study of phase transitions for thermons in macroscopic
quantum tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Polaritons in a quantum dot - microcavity system: Zero and Finite
temperature cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Polarizability of hydrodesulfurization molecular models: spectroscop-
ical and theoretical study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Rabi Oscillations in Quantum Dots Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Scaling of Magnetic phases as function of length in 1D linear Chain . 155
Spin transport properties in double-barrier systems with diluted mag-
netic semiconductor doped layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
STOCHASTIC DYNAMICS OF SPINS IN NITROGEN-VACANCY
(NV) DEFECT CENTERS IN DIAMOND . . . . . . . . . . 157
Stochastic spin dynamics of two magnetic particles . . . . . . . . . . 158
Temperature-dependence of the photoluminescence emission from In-
GaAs quantum wells on GaAs(311) substrates . . . . . . . . . 158
The role of Dresselhaus, Rashba and Zeeman effects on the magne-
toplasma oscillations of two-dimensional electron systems in a
transversal magnetic field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
The spectral properties of two-electron vertically coupled quantum
dots without tunnelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Thermoelectric figure of merit of LSCoO-Mn perovskites . . . . . . . 161
Transport through quantum dot molecules embedded in a Aharonov-
Bohm interferometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Valley polarization effects on the localization in graphene Landau
levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Wigner function and Quantum Decoherence in a Microcavity-Qdot
system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS
ON THE ELECTRON-HOLE TRANSITION ENERGIES IN
A GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs QUANTUMWELLS, QUANTUM WELL-
WIRES AND QUANTUM DOTS INMERSED IN HOSTS OF
Ga1-yAlyAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Hall Coefficient of High-Tc Superconductors in the Van Hove Singu-
larity Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
NiZn Ferrite/SiO2 nanocomposites synthesized by mechanical alloy-
ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Nonlinear Friction of a Dimer Sliding on a Bidimensional Periodic
Potencial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Photoluminescence emission in SiOx/CdTe/SiOx heteroestructures
grown by RF sputtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Preparation and study the magnetic properties of iron nanoclusters
in silver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CLACSA XIII
xx

Reactivity function of carbon nanopores doped with boron. . . . . . 167


Structural and electronic properties of Pt-Pd nanoalloys . . . . . . . 167
Structural characterization of FeCoNbBSicu amorphous alloys . . . . 168
Study of the chemical composition and preparation method of Degus-
sa P25 suspensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Study of the electronic properties of GaAs-based atomic layer doped
field effect transistors (ALD-FET) under the influence of hy-
drostatic pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Arrays, Grown
using Bilayer Metal Catalysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Synthesis of Fe containing nanostructures in a silica molecular sieve . 170
The role of boundary conditions on the phase transitions in thin meso-
scopic superconducting rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Thermal Stability of AuNPs-MWCNTs hybrids prepared by SMAD . 171
Γ − X conduction band mixing in GaAs quantum wires in presence
of hydrostatic pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Magnetic Properties of Barium ferrite thin films grow by PLD at
room Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
MAGNETOIMPURITY MODES IN CONDUCTING BILAYERS . . 173
Magnetoresistance in vanadium oxides thin films deposited . . . . . . 174
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN METALLIC FILMS BY
ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of CrN
coatings deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sput-
tering UMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Milling time effects on the magnetic and structural properties of the
F e0,70 Si0,30 system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Ocurrence of ferroelectricity in epitaxial thin films of BiMnO3 . . . . 176
ON THE REACTION MECHANISMS OF IRON OXIDES AND
OXYHYDROXIDES NANOPARTICLES WITH TANNIC AND
PHOSPHORIC ACIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Optimization of a plasmatron-type ion source for the production of
negative hydrogen ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Optimized trial function for hydrogenic donor in semiconductor het-
erostructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
ORGANIC COFFEE CERTIFICATION CRITERION USING THE
PHOTOACOUSTIC TECHNIQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
PHASE IDENTIFICATION AND XPS STUDIES OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2
THIN FILMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
PHASE TRANSITIONS IN THIN MESOSCOPIC SUPERCONDUCT-
ING RING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF Fe-TiO2 MULTILAYERS
PREPARED BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD . . . . . . . . . 182
Photocurrent Chemical Image Gas Sensor as a nose system . . . . . 183
Photoluminiscence of metal-doped porous silicon. . . . . . . . . . . . 184

CLACSA XIII
xxi

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN THIN FILMS OF IRON OXIDES . . 184


Plasmon excitations in Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Porous Silicon Thin Films as CO Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Preparation and characterization of monolayers of Ti-Si and Nb-Si
for the hydrogenation of various a,b-unsaturated aldehydes. . 186
Pressure devices using metal-substituted phthalocyanine thin films . 187
Quantum confinement effects on electronic properties of hydrogenated
β-SiC nanostructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Quasi-analytical study of the energy levels in double quantum wells . 188
Raman scattering of study of In0.14Ga0.86As0.13Sb0.87/GaSb het-
erostructures doped with tellurium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Semi-empirical calculations of the optical matrix elements: An appli-
cation to Ge nanowires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
SINTESIS DE NANOTUBOS DE CARBONO Y CARACTERIZA-
CION POR ESPECTROSCOPIA RAMAN . . . . . . . . . . 190
Stability of the Arc Current in a Plasma System . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Colossal Magnetoresistance in Manganites La1−x Ax M nO3 . . . . . . 191
Structural and Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots Grown by
Molecular Beam Epitaxy* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Structural, electrical and optical analysis of ITO thin films prepared
by sol-gel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Studies on the PVOH-LiH2PO4-Al2O3 polymer system . . . . . . . 193
Study of calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy by laser induced
breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
STUDY OF ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIGS THIN FILMS
PREPARED BY MULTISTAGE PROCESSES . . . . . . . . 195
Magnetic irreversibility in oxygen deficient YBCO films . . . . . . . 195
Study of the fluctuation conductivity in YBCO thin films with low
transition temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Study of the structural and magnetoelectrical properties of exchange-
biased ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic multilayers grown on
different lattice matched substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Study of vibrational properties and surface morphology of microcrys-
talline silicon obtained from isothermal annealing of hydro-
genated amorphous silicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN PRODUCTION
OF TIN/TIC BILAYERS GROWN BY PULSED ARC PA-
PVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Surface relaxation in magnetite fine particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Susceptibility and EPR Studies of LaMn1xCoxO3 Synthesized by Cit-
rate Precursor Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SnO2 :F THIN FILMS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

CLACSA XIII
xxii

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZnS, ZnS:Mn AND


ZnS:Sm MULTILAYERS DEPOSITED BY THE SOL-GEL
METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES OF THIN FILMS BASED ON NEW PHO-
TOVOLTAIC MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Synthesis CuO Microspheres
Nanomaterials and related topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
SYNTHESIS FOR THE PECHINI METHOD OF COATING OF
ZrO2 -SiO2 FOR ITS USE IN CORROSION . . . . . . . . . . 202
SYNTHESIS OF MOLYBDENUM PHOSPHIDE AND OPTICAL
PROPERTIES FROM ELECTRON ENERGY LOSS SPEC-
TRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
SYNTHESIS OF Ti/TiN/TiCN COATINGS GROWN IN GRADED
FORM BY SPUTTERING DC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
TEM, magnetic properties and hyperfine structure of iron ore under
mechanical alloying process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE MAGNETIC BEHAV-
IOR OF Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 THIN FILM . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN (TiAl),N THIN FILMS STUD-
IED BY XRD, SPM AND SEM TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . 205
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in two-electron vertically coupled quan-
tum rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
The investigation of disordered phases in nanocomposites ionic con-
ductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
The Raman intensification of methylene blue molecules adsorbed on
to the macro porous silicon surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
The structural, magnetic and magneto-electric properties of
La1-xSrxMnO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition 209
Theoretical and experimental study of Si-SiO2 interface using MOS
structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Thermal and magnetoelectrical properties of bulk La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3
perovskite manganite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
THERMOELECTRIC POWER OF SnO2 ANISOTROPIC THIN
FILMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Threshold effect in the energy loss of hydrogen an helium ions trans-
mitted in channeling conditions in gold single crystal . . . . . 211
TiN/TiC films were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates . . . . 212
TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOCRYSTALLINE BACTERICIDE THIN
FILMS GROWN BY SOL-GEL TECHNIQUE . . . . . . . . 213
Transport properties of a one-dimensional Kronig-Penney model with
positional disorder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Transverse localization in quasi-one-dimensional surface-corrugated
waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

CLACSA XIII
xxiii

TRIBOLOGICAL PROPIERTIES OF (Ti,Al)N THIN FILMS GROWN


ON M1 STEEL SUBSTRATES VARYING WORK PRES-
SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
TRIBOMATERIALS: A MODERN APPLICATION OF NEWTO-
NIAN DYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
VANADIUM NITRIDE FILMS GROWN BY REACTIVE R.F. MAG-
NETRON SPUTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
XRD and Raman investigations of La0 .7K0 .3Mn prepared by citrate
route method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
YBCO SUPERCONDUCTING TAPES BY MELT - ANNEALING
METHOD ON METALLIC Ni 5 % W SUSBSTRATES . . . 217
Energy transfer in polycrystalline Al2O3 pellets doped with Ce3+
and Mn2+ ions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Non-Markovian thermalisation of a qubit system . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Optical Properties of GaNxAs1-x Thin Films Grown on Si Substrates
by r f. Sputtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Plasmon excitations in Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Surface changes induced by UV illumination on nanocrystalline TiO2
(anatase) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Surface modifcation of alkanethiol SAM by highly charged ions irra-
diation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Temperature Dependence of the Photoluminescence Emission of InAs
Quantum Dot Layers Grown on Strained InGaAs/InP . . . . 223
The activity of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces . . . . . . . 224

Friday Dec - 07 225


Plenary
Ultrafast optical studies of solvent dynamics at liquid-metal oxide
interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Invited talks
Demonstration of CdSe/ZnSe interface homogenization by means of
the layer-by-layer growth of CdSe ultra-thin quantum wells
finished with fractional monolayers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Charge transport through organic and biological molecules . . . . . . 228
Oral reports
The transition chaos-disorder in surface-corrugated waveguides . . . 229
Isolated magnetite clusters: an Ab-initio calculation . . . . . . . . . 229
Berry’s Phase and Chern numbers in molecular magnets . . . . . . . 230
Experimental and Theoretical Study of LINEAR BIPHENYLETHYNYL
DERIVATIVES IN GAS PHASE by INTERACTION OF LOW-
ENERGY ELECTRONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Transport on graphene nanoribbons with side-attached organic molecules
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
STUDY OF THE PSEUDOGAP IN THIN Y1−x Cax Ba2 Cu3 O7−d SU-
PERCONDUCTIVE FILMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

CLACSA XIII
xxiv

Evaluation of Anodic Thin Films Obtained Over a 2024-T3 Alu-


minum Alloy by DC Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Natural and artificial traps in Organic-Field Effect Transistors (OFETs)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
CHARGE TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN A HYBRID METAL /
ORGANIC / INORGANIC DEVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
XRD, µ-Raman and Optical Absorption investigations of ZnO de-
posited by Silar method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

CLACSA XIII
Monday 1

Plenary
1 09:40 Pl-Mo-1

Decoherence in the Quantum Transport Regime: Dynamical


and Steady State aspects.
H. M. Pastawski1
1
Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Matemática, Astronomı́a y Fı́sica.

Nanoelectronics does not only involves reducing the size of a device. It also en-
tails exploiting the non-classical behaviors of carriers to fully exploit its quantum
nature, mainly of effects based on quantum interference, much alike a Fabry-Perot
device. However, interaction with the environment tends to degrade these interfer-
ences [1]. One should be able to asses which of those many phenomena can survive
the interaction with an environment [2]. Even more, there are some cases one can
force the system to interact so strongly with the environment, e.g. phonons, that
novel phenomena arises. This is the case of the SASER, a coherent ultrasound emit-
ter [3]. In this tutorial lecture, I will discuss the basis ingredients used to represent
these phenomena, not only in the steady state transport regime but also in the
time domain but also with its usually unexploited and counterintuitive dynamical
properties [4, 5, 6].
1)- Classical and Quantum Transport from Generalized Landauer-Bttiker Equa-
tions II: Time dependent tunneling. H.M. Pastawski Phys. Rev. B 46 4053 (1992)
2)- Antirresonances as precursors of decoherence. L.E.F. Foa Torres, H. M. Pastaws-
ki and E. Medina, Europhys.Lett. 73 1 (2006)
3)-An ultrasound emitter based on assisted tunneling. L. E. F. Foa Torres, H. M.
Pastawski and S. S. Makler, S. St. Comm.124 363 (2002)
4)-Quantum dynamical phase transition in a system with many-body interactions.
E. P. Danieli, G. A. Álvarez, P. R. Levstein and H. M. Pastawski Sol. St. Comm.141,
422 (2007)
5)- Towards a time reversal mirror for quantum systems. H. M. Pastawski, E. P.
Danieli, H. L. Calvo and L. E. F. FoTorres, Europhys. Lett. 77, 400001 (2007)
6)- Non-Markovian decay beyond the Fermi Golden Rule: Survival Collapse of the
polarization in spin chains. E. Rufeil Fiori and H. M. Pastawski, Chem. Phys. Lett.,
420, 35 (2006)

CLACSA XIII
2 Monday

Invited Talks
1 11:10 In-Mo-1

Tunneling spectroscopy: a probe for high tc


superconductivity
H.Castro1
1
University of los Andes, Bogota.

After the pioneering work of Giaever and Shapiro in 1960’s tunnelling spec-
troscopy has become a succesful method for studying different properties of super-
conductors, like the superconducting gap and the density of states. There is a variety
of tunneling proceses taking place in a superconducting interface, depending on the
properties of the barrier and the type of materials in both sides of the junction
(normal metal, low Tc superconductor or high Tc superconductor). Among oth-
er phenomena we have single electron tunneling (Giaever tunneling), cooper pairs
tunneling (Josephson tunneling) and Andreev reflections (mixed tunneling). In high
Tc superconductors these phenomena is enriched by the anisotropy of the energy
gap, which adds new features like the so-called ”bounded Andreev states”. These
peculiarities add to this technique the capabilityof studying the symmetry of the
superconducting gap and the (normal state) pseudogap. In this talkI will present a
brief review of the tunneling spectroscopy technique inhigh Tc superconductors and
some results about the symmetry of the superconducting gap and indications of a
quantum phase transition.

2 11:10 In-Mo-2

Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon-Nanoscale


Materials
P. Häberle1 , S. Hevia1 , W. Ibáñez1 , R. Segura1
1
Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marı́a, Valparaı́so 2390123, Chile.

The electronic structure of systems with dimensions in the nanometer length


scale is strongly modified by the additional boundary conditions imposed by the
size of particles, films, tubes and wires. These new quantization conditions induce
the appearance of resonances in the valence band of metals and semiconductors
depending on the geometrical dimensions of the nanoscale objects. Magnetism, elec-
tronic transport and even chemical reactivity can all be varied by changing the sizes
of these objects. This concept constitutes the base for the design of novel materials
with tunable physical properties as found in thin films, quantum wires, nanodots
and nanotubes. Not only the states below the Fermi level can be modified, but also
the unoccupied higher energy states, which exhibit new electronic resonances. Our
presentation will deal with the synthesis of nanoscale materials and the modification
of the unoccupied electronic structure in carbon based nanostructures. Spectra from
both multiwall and single wall tubes can be understood as derived form graphite.

CLACSA XIII
Monday 3

The actual spectral response show several subtle differences among the different
types of carbon nanostructures, particularly close to the Fermi level. This informa-
tion is indeed, relevant for the understanding of the optical response and chemical
behavior of physical nanotubes samples.

1 11:40 In-Mo-3

Non-Markovian damping of Rabi oscillations in


semiconductor quantum dots
L. E. Oliveira1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, UNICAMP, CP 6165, Campinas - SP, 13083-970, Brazil.
A two-level system driven by an external resonant electromagnetic field exhibits
the well known Rabi oscillations (ROs), which are temporal oscillations of the level
population due to the coherent superposition of the two states induced by the cou-
pling with the driving field1. Their existence has been demonstrated in a variety of
systems such as atoms, molecules and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Owing
to their remarkable properties, QDs are usually considered potential candidates for
coherent manipulations of quantum states and thus to play the role of basic building
blocks for quantum information processes. However, real systems interact with their
surroundings in an uncontrollable way that gives rise to dephasing processes, that
is, events that spoil the well defined phase relation between the driving field and the
individual driven dipoles yielding to decoherence. The understanding of the dephas-
ing mechanisms is then crucial to the future development of quantum information
processes based on semiconductor QDs. A wide variety of dephasing processes are
well explained by a general theory based on an environment described by a Marko-
vian reservoir2. However, there are a number of dephasing mechanisms for localized
semiconductor systems, some of which are essentially non-Markovian in the sense
that one needs to take into account memory effects as well as the back-action of
the dissipative reservoir on the radiating system. In the present work we focus our
attention on one peculiar phenomenon which has caused and is still causing much
controversy, namely, the damping of ROs due to the increase of the driving-pulse
area which is an observed feature of coherently excited localized semiconductor sys-
tems. A number of explanations have been suggested for it. One of these is that
such a dephasing is due to the system’s interaction with a non-Markovian reservoir
of phonons. Nevertheless, there are evidences that the dephasing process takes place
even when the coupling with phonons is negligible. The intensity-dependent damp-
ing of ROs was proposed to occur as a consequence of excitations of bi-excitons in
the QD, although damped ROs are also observed when there is no possibility for
the bi-exciton excitation. Based on this controvertible scenario, in the present work
we propose to shed some light on this matter by studying a simple two-level system
excited by a classical coherent field and coupled to a general dephasing reservoir.
We have shown that the non-Markovian character of the reservoir definitely leads
to the dependence of the dephasing rate on the driving intensity corroborating ex-
perimental results available in the literature3,4. Furthermore, we have been able

CLACSA XIII
4 Monday

to demonstrate that the intensity-dependent damping may be induced by various


dephasing mechanisms due to stationary as well non-stationary effects due to the
coupling with the environment.
1 I. I. Rabi, Phys. Rev. 51, 652 (1937).
2 M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1997).
3 A. Zrenner, E. Beham, S. Stufler, F. Findels, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, Nature
418, 612 (2002).
4 Q. Q. Wang, A. Muller, P. Bianucci, E. Rossi, Q. K. Xue, T. Takagahara, C.
Piermarocchi, A. H. MacDonald, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035306 (2005).

2 11:40 In-Mo-4

Impurities in quantum corrals


K. Hallberg1
1
Centro Atómico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro.

Due to their focalizing properties, elliptic quantum corrals present very interest-
ing physical behaviours. In this work we analyze static and dynamical properties
of these systems. Results are presented for realistic values of the parameters which
might be useful for comparison with experiments. We study non-interacting cor-
rals and their response to several kinds of external perturbations, observing that,
for realistic values of the Fermi level, the dynamics involves only a few number of
excited states making the system quite robust with respect to possible sources of
decoherence. We also study the system in the presence of two S = 1/2 impurities
located at its foci which interact with the electrons of the ellipse via a superexchange
interaction J. This system is diagonalized numerically and properties such as the
spin gap and spin-spin static and dynamical correlations are studied. We find that,
for small J, both spins are locked in a singlet or triplet state, for even or odd filling
respectively, and its spin dynamics consists mainly of a single peak above the spin
gap. In this limit we can define an effective Heisenberg Hamiltonian to describe the
low-energy properties. For larger J, more states are involved and the localized spins
decorrelate, in a similar manner as the RKKY-Kondo transition for the two-impurity
problem.

CLACSA XIII
Monday 5

Oral reports
1 12:10 OR-Mo-01

Synthesis and characterization of boron nitride


nanoparticles and nanofibers by chemical vapor deposition
José E. Nocua1 , Javier Avalos1 , Brad R. Weiner1 , Gerardo Morell1
1
University of Puerto Rico, Rı́o Piedras Campus.

Boron nitride nanostructures are promising materials for mechanical applica-


tions such as reinforcement for strong and lightweight composite materials. Com-
pared to other methods, the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) tech-
nique offers some unique advantages in terms of scalability and the possibility of
selective deposition over large area substrates. Boron nitride nanostructures, includ-
ing nanoparticles and nanofibers were obtained. These nanostructures were char-
acterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, FT-IR,
Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, electron energy loss
spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

2 12:10 OR-Mo-01

Temperature Dependence Of The Magnetic Behavior Of


N i0.5 Zn0.5 F e2 O4 Thin Film
J. Prado, M. E. Gómez, W. Lopera y P. Prieto1
1
Thin Film Group, Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle.

Thin films of N i0.5 Zn0.5 F e2 O4 were grown on (100) MgO substrates at different
deposition temperatures. The films were deposited by the RF sputtering technique at
2.1×10−1 mbar oxygen pressure. The structure of the sintered NiZn ferrite films was
evaluated using XRD, showing variations in the intensity of some peaks, probably
because the deposition temperature influences the evaporation of Zn. The magnetic
properties of the NiZn ferrite films were probed using a superconducting quantum
interference device (SQUID). It was used to measure magnetization hysteretic loops
and M(T) curve of the films. The influence of the deposition temperature on the
grain size of NiZn ferrite films was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. An
increment in the coercive field and a reduction in the saturation magnetization with
the deposition temperature were observed. Behavior can be correlated with magnetic
force microscope images.
Key words: Ferrimagnetics, ferrite thin films, atomic and magnetic force microscope.
Acknowledgments: This work is supported in part by COLCIENCIAS, the through
project of investigation 1106-05-17612, CT-239-2005, and the Excellence Center for
Novel Materials, ECNM. We thank Dr. Julio Guimpel of the Balseiro institute,
Nuclear Center of Bariloche, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina.
Email address: jepralo@univalle.edu.co

CLACSA XIII
6 Monday

Plenary
1 16:00 Pl-Mo-2

Nanoparticles, clusters and multilayers: from preparation to


physical characterization
E. Baggio Saitovitch1
1
Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fı́sicas.

We have been dealing, in the recent years, with the magnetic and structural
characterization of Fe nanoparticles formed by precipitation of small Fe fraction co-
deposited with Ag and Cd, using mainly Msbauer spectroscopy, squid magnetom-
etry and resistivity measurements. These samples have been prepared by thermal
evaporation using a special cryostat that allows in situ measurements. The magnetic
moment of the Fe particles indicates that we are dealing with small clusters.
More recently we use a cluster source for deposition at low temperature of 4-5
nm Co clusters embedded in gas or metallic matrix. This set-up allows in situ TMR,
GMR and IxV measurements. We are going to report the results of Co clusters em-
bedded in Pb films, at different concentrations, focusing in the variation of Tc with
Co clusters concentration and applied magnetic field. Moreover the IxV curves re-
vealed vortex phase transition for this special kind of ferromagnetic superconductor
nanostructure system.
We will describe the characterization of magnetic multilayers focusing in proper-
ties related with interfaces (GMR, exchange bias and spin valve effects). Investiga-
tions of these spin-dependent phenomena, for samples grown by sputtering evapora-
tion is based in GMR, magnetization and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XM-
CD) performed at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) of Brazil.
Finally films formed with the combination of oxides layers from different transition
metals will be addressed.

CLACSA XIII
Monday 7

Oral reports
1 17:00 OR-Mo-02

Growth and morphology of ultra-thin Ni films on Pd(100)


Carolina Parra1 , Patricio Herle1 , Waldemar Macedo2
1
Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marı́a, Valparaı́so,
Chile.
2
Laboratório de Fı́sica Aplicada, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Through the deposition of ultrathin films is possible to stabilize the structure of


certain materials, which then display interesting and striking properties that deviate
substantially from those shown by the bulk. By varying the surface features induced
by heteroepitaxial growth (such as roughness, strain and intermixing between film
and substrate) one can modify the structural properties in order to improve for
example the magnetic properties of the film (spin reorientation and magnetic mo-
ment).
In order to investigate more systematically the influence of the lattice strain
induced by the substrate in the morphology of thin epitaxial Ni films, we have
characterized with STM Ni films grown on Pd(100). The Pd fcc substrate has been
chosen in order to favor a contraction of the Ni films in the vertical direction (tetrag-
onal distortion fct) due to an increased intralayer strain induced in pseudomorphic
growth. The bulk lattice misfit between fcc Ni and fcc Pd is 9.5 % . A series of thin
Ni films with thickness ranging from 0.2 monolayers (ML) to 13 ML were deposited
on Pd(100) substrate at room temperature. Growth and morphology have been in-
vestigated by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) while growth modes have
also been explored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction(RHEED).
Clear RHEED oscillations together with the STM images demonstrate unam-
biguously that the initial stage of growth of Ni on Pd(100) is in nearly layer-by-layer
mode. Two growth regions can be identified at this stage: region I covers the range
of 0 - 3.5 ML, where the film is in a two-layer growth mode and region II from 3.5
ML to 5.5 ML where the film growth is in a transition from layer-by-layer growth
to multilayer growth. As the Ni coverage is increased and up to around 10 ML,
the homo-interface shows the formation of islands which start to show a crystallo-
graphic orientation, presumably with their edges along [011] and [011̄]. On top of
these surface islands there are stripes which protrudes by about 1Å and have widths
between 3.5 and 13 Å. Over 10 ML this stripe pattern changes leading to net-like
structures which interconnect the whole surface. This behavior is presumably relat-
ed to a mechanism of strain relief during the transition from tetragonally strained
Ni epitaxial layers to bulk-like Ni structure.

CLACSA XIII
8 Monday

2 17:00 OR-Mo-02

Influence of the surface diffusion on the growth of III-V


free-standing nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy
J. L. González-Arango1 , R-Ribeiro Andrade1 , A. Malachias1 , J. C. González1 , M.
V. B. Moreira1 , A. G. de Oliveira1
1
Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais.

Recently, semiconductor nanowires have raised a strong interest in the scientific


community due to their potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
Devices like field-effect and heterobipolar transistors, gas- and bio-sensors, light
emitting devices, diode lasers and other electro-optical systems can be developed
using nanowires. In this work, we focus on the influence of the growth conditions
on the morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition of vertically aligned
free-standing III-V nanowires. In particular, the influence of the surface diffusion of
group III adatoms on the growth process of the nanowires is studied. The nanowires
were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (111)B substrates using colloidal
gold nanoparticles as catalysts. Several samples were grown using different fluxes
of the III and V primary molecular beams, different III/V flux ratios and different
growth temperatures. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of the
nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and
photoluminescence. With base in the experimental results, a theoretical model to
explain the growth mechanism of the nanowires is presented. The model considers
not only the diffusion of group III adatoms from the primary molecular beam to-
wards the nanowires, but also the contribution of group III adatoms from the firsts
monolayers of the substrates in the surrounding area of each nanowire.

1 17:20 OR-Mo-03

Molybdenum Trioxide Crystalline Nanostructures Grown


by Condensation in a Carrier Gas
Donovan E. Diaz-Droguett1 , Victor M. Fuenzalida1 , Guillermo Solorzano2
1
Universidad de Chile, FCFM, Departamento de Fı́sica, Chile.
2
PUC-Rio, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia, Brazil.

The present work reports the morphology of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 ) nanos-
tructures synthesized by means of the inert gas condensation (IGC) method.
MoO3 is a promissory material because of its wide spectrum of potential appli-
cations in electronic display systems, solid state micro batteries, gas sensors and
catalysis. The latter requires small particles, a large specific area or both. One way
to synthesize MoO3 nanostructures is through the IGC method. This method con-
sists of evaporating the material from a resistive source at a pressure around 100 Pa
in a non-reactive carrier gas. Under this pressure the mean free path in the gas is
in the submillimeter range, the collisions with molecules of the carrier gas dominate

CLACSA XIII
Monday 9

and the transport is not ballistic but diffusive or convective. Therefore the atoms
or molecules of the evaporated material collide with the molecules of the carrier
gas. Collisions among the material lead to homogeneous nucleation and growth of
nanoparticles, which can be collected onto a cold surface. The size of the nanopar-
ticles depends on the material and increases with the evaporation rate (determined
by the temperature of the source), the temperature of the collected surface and the
pressure of the carrier gas and its molecular mass; lighter gases produce smaller
particles.
In this research MoO3 was evaporated in a vacuum chamber from a tungsten
resistive source in the presence of helium or hydrogen as carrier gas at pressures
from 100 to 1200 Pa and source temperatures in the range from 550 to 1230 o C.
MoO3 crystalline samples were obtained when its vapour pressure during the
synthesis was low, which happened at source temperatures below 750 o C. At this
temperature the vapor pressure of MoO3 is well below the pressure of the carrier
gas. Nanoribbons, nanobelts, nanoneedles and nanoparticles of diverse morpholo-
gies with size between 10 and 200 nm were observed under TEM. They coexist
with nanofibers with thicknesses of the order of 5 nm. According to the Clausisus
Clappeyron equation the MoO3 equilibrium partial pressure at 750 o C temperature
is around 200 Pa, the same order of the pressure of the carrier gas. On the oth-
er hand, at high MoO3 vapour pressures, when the source temperature range was
from 750 to 1000 o C, then a mixture of nanoporous structures as well as crystalline
nanostructures was obtained.

2 17:20 OR-Mo-03

Methane oxidation to formaldehyde with iron catalysts


supported on silica and titania
Carlos Alberto GUERRERO FAJARDO1 , Francisco SANCHEZ1 , Anne-Cécile
ROGER2 , Claire COURSON2
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
2
Laboratorio de Materiales, Polı́meros y Superficies Catalı́ticas Université Louis
Pasteur-Francia.

Iron materials supported on silica were prepared by the method sol-gel for to
evaluate the catalytic activity in the selective oxidation of methane to formalde-
hyde. We prepare four (4) catalysts, one of them corresponding to the silica support
(catalyst 1S), other one for the titania support (catalyst 1T) and two more with iron
loads of 0.5 % in weight, for the supported on silica (catalyst 2FS) and the other one
supported on titania (catalyst 2FT). The higher areas BET are of the order of 659
and 850 m2/g for the catalysts 1S and 2FS, respectively while the catalysts 1T and
2FT displayed areas of 65 and 54 m2/g respectively. The scanning and transmission
electronic microscopy displayed amorphous structure in the silica supported mate-
rials while the titania supported materials displayed dense materials with defined
structure. The rays X diffraction confirms the amorphous structure of the silica in

CLACSA XIII
10 Monday

the 1S and 2FS catalysts and displayed the anatase structure for the 1T and 2FT
catalysts. The programmed temperature reduction for the 1S and 2FS catalysts did-
nt display reducible species while for the 1T and 2FT catalysts displayed peaks of
hydrogen consumption related to the Fe3O4 reduction until a-Fe through FexO way.
The rays X photo electronic spectroscopy confirm the Fe(III) specie with binding
energy 710.6 e.V for the both 2FS and 2FT catalysts. The catalytic activity is car-
ried out to atmospheric pressure in quartz reactor, reaction mixture CH4/O2/N2
=7.5/1/4, interval of temperature 400-800C. The reaction products are analysed
by gases chromatography with Hayesep R and T columns and molecular tamis of
5 The best response for the methane selective oxidation to formaldehyde is dis-
played for 2FS catalyst with methane conversion percentage of 3.4 mol % at 650C,
formaldehyde selectivity of 11.9 %mol and yield of 0.0211 g HCHO/Kg catalyst.
Keywords: Catalysts Fe/SiO2; catalysts Fe/TiO2; formaldehyde; selective oxida-
tion; sol-gel.

1 18:10 OR-Mo-04

Surface changes induced by UV illumination on


nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase)
Julio Andrés Pedraza Avella1 , Próspero Acevedo Peña2 , Ricardo Gómez3 , Julio
Elı́as Pedraza Rosas2
1
Centro de Investigaciones en Catálisis - CICAT, Universidad Industrial de
Santander -UIS, Sede Guatiguará, Km. 2 vı́a El Refugio, Piedecuesta, S.
2
Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente -
GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguará, Km. 2 v.́
3
Grupo ECOCATAL, Área de Catálisis, Departamento de Quı́mica, Universidad
Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa - UAM-I, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 1.

It is well known that the isoelectric point (IEP) of a catalyst plays an important
role in heterogeneous catalysis. It is related to the strength of the electrostatic inter-
action between the solid surface and the substrate (i.e. adsorption of at least one of
the reactants). In heterogeneous photocatalysis, it is also important to keep in mind
that when a semiconductor photocatalysts is illuminated with photons whose energy
is equal to or greater than their band-gap energy additional charges are generated
(i.e. creation of electron-hole pairs: free electrons in the conduction band and pho-
toholes in the valence band). In this work, different samples of TiO2 were prepared
by a sol-gel method using titanium n-butoxide as alkoxide precursor in aqueous
acid medium (pH = 2, HNO3) and n-butanol as solvent. Molar ratio water/alkoxide
was varied from 4 to 16 to obtain particles with different surface properties. X-ray
powder diffraction patterns showed that only the anatase phase is present in all
samples. The particle size of the samples obtained by dynamic light scattering was
at the nanometer scale. The IEP of materials was estimated by electrophoretic mea-
surements of zeta potential at different pH values, in the absence and presence of
UV light. The results show that in the absence of UV light, IEP depends on the

CLACSA XIII
Monday 11

molar ratio water/alkoxide. However, in the presence of UV-light, IEP was the same
for all materials. This result shows clearly that TiO2 surface speciation is strongly
affected by the generation of electron-hole pairs.
We acknowledge the partial financial supports of UIS (DIEF Ciencias, Project
5125), COLCIENCIAS, UAM-I and CONACYT, as well as the doctoral scholarship
given by COLCIENCIAS to J.A. Pedraza-Avella in 2003.

2 18:10 OR-Mo-04

Spectroscopic evidence of CdS nanoparticle size reduction


to a magic number of atoms by surfactant adsorption
M. Quintana1 , S. Oros-Ruiz2 , J. A. Pedraza Avella3 , E. Pérez1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica. Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosı́.
2
Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosı́.
3
Centro de Investigaciones en Catálisis - CICAT, Universidad Industrial de
Santander.

Implications of quantum confinement in the electronic structure and photo-


physics of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles have generated considerable interest
for their possible applications in biology, medicine, catalysis and electronics. Spec-
troscopy constitutes a sensitive tool to study the electronic structure of materials,
useful to elucidate the fundamental characteristics of quantum confined systems. Es-
sentially, absorption spectroscopy is useful for nanoparticle size determination while
photoluminescence spectroscopy is a tool to monitor the nature of the nanoparticle
surface and the how it changes with particle size. Here in we present the modi-
fications that take place when nonylphenol is added to colloidal solutions of CdS
nanoparticles that range in size from 5.5 to 2.0 nm in diameter synthesized in dymetil
sulfoxide. The band gap absorption changes from relatively weak broad absorption
centered in 365 nm to a strong narrow absorption at the same maximum. In addi-
tion, photoluminescence spectra show a blue shift to 415 nm and an enhancement up
to 60 times for all nanoparticle size distributions. The nonylphenol binding reaction
to the nanoparticles surface is an exothermic process that displaces the steady-state
to the formation of small nanoparticles. This size reduction may result from the
well-known effect in the field of clusters science of certain electronic and geometric
combination of atoms can yield stable structures referred to as magic numbers.

CLACSA XIII
12 Monday

1 18:30 OR-Mo-05

Structural and transport properties of Ba2 FeZrO6−delta


nanosized complex-perovskite
L.T. Corredor1 , J. Albino Aguiar2 , J. Roa-Rojas1
1
Grupo de Fı́sica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad
Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá DC, Colombia.
2
Laboratório de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avanccados, Departamento de
Fı́sica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife PE, Brasil.

In last decades, the production of advanced ceramics of perovskite type has incre-
mented dramatically, due to the enormous possibilities of crystallographic structures,
which yield diverse electrical, magnetic, optical, mechanical and thermoelectric prop-
erties. On the other hand, the specific advantages of nanocrystalline materials such
as superior phase homogeneity, sinterability, and microstructure that lead to unique
physical and catalytic properties demand the development of new methods of per-
ovskite compounds preparation. In this work we report the production of barium
iron zirconate (Ba2 FeZrO6−δ ), a complex perovskite oxide by two different methods:
solid state reaction, which leads to bulk samples, and a novel production method
of nanosized powders, involving combustion synthesis from mixture of nitrates and
fuel. The morphological properties of the nanopowders were studied by scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) and BET surface area determination, which confirm
a crystallite typical size of 150 nm. The sintered samples were characterized by
X-ray powder diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Resistivity measure-
ments were carried out on the bulk samples, besides of structural and morphological
characterization. The crystal structure of compound at room temperature was de-
termined as cubic, with lattice parameter a= 8, 310Å. The results of both types of
samples were complemented, showing that the formation process of the perovskite
requires the material to undergo transformations passing through different stages
before reaching a unique phase character. Magnetic AC susceptibility and DC mag-
netization measurements reveal a paramagnetic behavior. Magnetic parameters were
obtained from the charateristic Curie-Weiss fitting of the experimental data. Impli-
cations of these results are widely discussed, the advantages of each type of sample
are pointed, and possible applications of the new perovskite are proposed.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the colombian agency Colcien-
cias, on the project No. 1101-333-18707, and brazilian CNPq.

CLACSA XIII
Monday 13

2 18:30 OR-Mo-05

Intrinsic Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Films: A review of


physical properties
R. H. Buitrago1 , A. Dussan2 , R. R. Koropecki1
1
INTEC (UNL-CONICET), Gemes 3450 (3000) Santa Fe, Argentina.
2
Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra 30 No. 45-03
Ciudad Universitaria, Bogotá, Colombia.

In this work we present a study of the optical, electrical, electronic and struc-
tural properties of Boron doped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon thin films
[µc-Si:H (B)]. The films were deposited in a RF plasma reactor using as reactive
gas a mixture of silane and diborane highly diluted both in hydrogen. The Boron
concentration in the reactive gas was modified from 0 to 100 ppm. The addition
of Boron to the silicon films not only move the Fermi energy level to the center
of the gap, but induce changes in all the physical properties as well. The Boron
effect on structural and morphological properties was study by X-ray diffraction
and Applied Force Microscopy (AFM), the rugosity and grain size increased with
the Boron concentration. The absorption coefficient measured by the Constant Pho-
tocurrent Method (CPM) at low photon energies also showed an increased which
can be explained and correlated with an increase in the Density of State (DOS) in
the gap, due to the Borons bondings. At high temperatures (T > 300K) the control-
ling transport mechanism is thermal activated, the curves conductivity log versus
the inverse of temperature give strait lines. The activation energy, measured from
de valence band, decrease with Boron concentration as expected passing through a
maximum, corresponding this point to the position of Fermi energy of an intrinsic
film. At low temperatures (T < 300K) the predominant transport mechanism was
variable range hopping (VRH). The behavior of the charge hopping under different
electrical fields was followed, results showed that the conductivity remain constant
in a VRH regime only for a narrow range of electrical field.

CLACSA XIII
14 Monday

1 18:50 OR-Mo-06

APPLICATION OF NANOPOROUS ADSORBENTS


BASED ON CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CLAYS FOR
THEIR USE IN DEPURATION OF POLLUTED LIQUID
EFFLUENTS
Dr. Ma. del Rosario Sun1 , S.M. Delgadillo1 , Dr. Gino Picasso1 , Dr. Raquel
Trujillano2 , Dr. Miguel Angel Vicente2 , Dr. Sophia A. Korili3 , Dr. Antonio Gil3
1
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Departamento de Ciencias, Sección
Quı́mica,.
2
Departamento de Quı́mica Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Quı́micas,
Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca. Españ.
3
Departamento de Quı́mica Aplicada, Edificio Los Acebos, Universidad Pública de
Navarra, Campus de Arrosadı́a s/n, E-31006 Pamplona. España.

In this work, the application of chemically activated natural clays as adsorbents


of surfactants presents in polluted liquid effluents is studied. Clays from various
mine zones in Peru have been selected and modified by thermal acid activation and
intercalation with ammonium salts. The adsorption experiments of a surfactant, lin-
ear sodium alkyl benzene sulphonic (LAS), have been accomplished, in kinetic and
equilibrium conditions, in slurry-type tank reactor. The remaining concentration of
the surfactant has been followed by potenciometric titration. The clay intercalated
with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide shows the best performance in adsorp-
tion, and various pH conditions have been also studied. The results obtained are in
according with the cationic superficial exchange in acidic conditions. Key Words:
nanoporous adsorbents, activated clays, polluted liquid effluents
This work was supported by the Spanish Agency of International Cooperation-
AECI (A/6424/06).

CLACSA XIII
Monday 15

2 18:50 OR-Mo-06

Compatibility and physical, morphological and


electrochemical properties of niobium oxides thin films
G. Ramı́rez G.1 , S.E. Rodil2 , S. Muhl2 , H.Arzate3 , J.J. Olaya1 , M. Rivera4 ,
Enrique Camps5 , L. Escobar Alarcon5
1
Unidad de Materiales, Departamento de Ingenierı́a Mecánica y Mecatrónica,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, México D.F. 04510, México.
3
Laboratorio de Biologı́a Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologı́a,
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510, Méx.
4
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad
Universitaria, 04510, México D.F., México..
5
Departamento de Fı́sica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, México,
D. F. 11801, México, (Apdo. Postal 18-1027).

This work shows the results of the characterization and biomedical evaluation
of niobium oxides (NbOx) thin films deposited using an unbalanced magnetron
sputtering. Thin films of NbOx were grown under different deposition conditions
(O2 flow rate and pressure) and were characterized to obtain growth rates, micro-
structure, surface morphology, optical properties and hardness. The results indicated
that the films were amorphous under any of the conditions used. The corrosion
resistance of the coatings was improved compared to the stainless steel substrate
as demonstrated by the greater polarization resistance and minor corrosion current
density. The corrosion resistance was used as a parameter to determine and select
the optimum deposition conditions to produce films for the biomedical evaluation. A
large number of these NbOx films, with minor corrosion density, were deposited and
the response of human cells to these surfaces were evaluated in comparison to NbN
films, AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V. Cellular adhesion and proliferation
assays showed that the NbOx films were biocompatible to human cells. Moreover,
the biomineralization was evaluated studying the formation of CaP minerals on the
surfaces.

CLACSA XIII
16 Tuesday

Plenary
1 08:30 Pl-Tu-3

Optical Properties of Free and Embedded Small


Nanoparticles: When Size Does Not Matter
J.C Idrobo1
1
Vanderbilt University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.

The optical response of small particles as a function of their size, shape and
surrounding environment has a long story, dating back to Maxwell. Since those
early days, it has been well known that materials under conditions of reduced di-
mensionality tend to conserve their bulk dielectric properties, modulated by their
shape and size. However, the regime where the intrinsic quantum properties of the
nanoparticles become manifest is still not well understood. In this talk, I will report
first-principles calculations within time-(in)dependent density functional theory on
the optical properties of Ag, Si and Ge nanoparticles ( tens of atoms) embedded
in a g-Al2O3 matrix and in vacuum. We find that these small nanoparticles, whose
atoms positions are not bulk-like, show a bulk dielectric response when embedded in
the g-Al2O3 matrix, while only the Si nanoparticles show a bulk dielectric response
in vacuum. This dielectric response of the embedded nanoparticles is similar to the
one obtained by the classical effective medium theory with a renormalization of the
volume fraction between the nanoparticles and the host material. Our calculations
support the notion that bulk-like dielectric properties will be present on semiconduc-
tors and metallic materials independent of their size as long as they are surrounded
with the correct electronic environment.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 17

Invited talks
1 09:30 In-Tu-5
Hydrothermal preparation of thin films and nanostructures
of metal oxides
V. Fuenzalida1
1
Universidad de Chile.

The hydrothermal method, assisted with electrochemical activation, can be used


to grow thin films and nanostructures of metallic oxides. Basically it consists in the
hydrothermal treatment of a transition metal such as titanium or zinconium, an
alloy containing them, or their oxides, in a strong alkalyne solution. If the substrate
is electrically conductive, it can be anodized to speed up the process.
We will report on the deposition of perovskite thin films of the family (Ba,Sr,Ca)-
(Ti,Zr)O3 on metallic substrates, alloys, and titanium-coated silicon at temperatures
as low as 80 C. These films are polycrystalline, stoichiometric, and well adhered to
the substrate. Microstructuring up to 2 micrometers was achieved with convention-
al lift-off techniques. Calcium titanate coated substrates may find applications as
biocompatible coatings.
Presntly the procedure is used to prepare different kinds of oxide nanostructures,
such as sodium titanate nanorods and copper oxide nanoplatelets. The procedure is
of low energy consumption and scalable.

2 09:30 In-Tu-6

Direct ARPES on In-Situ Grown (Strained) High-Tc Thin


Films
D. Ariosa1 , C. Cancellieri1 , L. Ping-Hui1 , D. Cloetta1 , M. Abrecht1 , D. Pavuna1
1
X-Ray Physics Laboratory-IPMC-EPFL-Lausanne.

Since 1997 we perform systematic direct ARPES studies on in-situ grown (strained)
thin high-Tc cuprate films. Following a brief review on the structural character-
ization and on growing parameters optimization, we present our main results on
compressive and tensile strained films. Brand new ARPES results on ultrathin La-
214 films under in-plane tensile strain showing 3D band dispersion and wavevector
quantization will be discussed.
Some related references:
1. ”Structural properties of strained YBa2Cu3O6+x superconducting films grown by
pulsed laser deposition”; D. Ariosa, M. Abrecht, D. Pavuna and M. Onellion ; in Proc. of
SPIE (Bellingham) Vol. 4058, 129-140, (2000).
2. ”Structural Phase Transition in Early Growth of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x Films on SrTiO3
Substrates”; Abrecht M, Ariosa D, Onellion M, Margaritondo G, Pavuna D; Journal of
Applied Physics 91 (3): 1187-1190 (2002).
3. ”Strain and high temperature superconductivity: Unexpected results from direct elec-
tronic structure measurements in thin films; Abrecht M, Ariosa D, Cloetta D, Mitrovic S,
Onellion M, Xi XX, Margaritondo G, Pavuna D; Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (5), 057002 AUG 1

CLACSA XIII
18 Tuesday

(2003).
4. ”Three-dimensional dispersion induced by extreme tensile strain in La2-xSrxCuO4
films”; D. Cloetta, D. Ariosa, C. Cancellieri, M. Abrecht, S. Mitrovic and D. Pavuna;
Phys. Rev. B 74, 014519 (2006).
5. ”Self-ordering of random intercalates in thin films of cuprate superconductors”; D. Ar-
iosa, C. Cancellieri, P. H. Lin, D. Pavuna; Phys. Rev B 75, 184505 (2007)
6. ”Dopant rearrangement and superconductivity in Bi Sr La Cu O thin films Under an-
nealing”; C. Cancellieri, P. H. Lin, D. Ariosa,. D. Pavuna, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19
(2007) 246214 (8pp).

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 19

Oral reports
1 10:00 OR-Tu-07

Magnetic field effects on the dissipative dynamics in


semiconductor microcavity systems
Herbert Vinck Posada1 , Boris A. Rodriguez1 , Augusto Gonzalez2
1
Instituto de Fı́sica,Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellin,.
2
Instituto de Cibérnetica, Matemática y Fı́sica, La Habana, Cuba.

In the last years there is a strong interest in the exciton polariton condensate in
semiconductor microcavity systems. In a previous work (PRL 97, 167405(2007)), we
have shown that photon emission can be a source of coherence of polaritons. In this
work we extend the model and study the effects of a homogeneous magnetic field,
parallel to micropillar axis, on the dissipative dynamics of a multilevel quantum dot
interacting with a single confined photon mode. An exact diagonalization scheme
in an exciton-photon coupled basis is used to numerically solve the master equation
with incoherent exciton pumping, coherent and incoherent photon losses terms.

2 10:00 OR-Tu-07

Optical properties of InN nanocolumns at different stages of


their growth by molecular
J. Segura1 , N. Garro1 , A. Cantarero1 , C. Denker2 , F.Werner2 , J. Malindretos2 , A.
Rizzi2
1
Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia. Valencia, Spain.
2
IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen, Germany..

InN is attracting much attention due to its recently reestablished ∼0.67 eV band
gap energy at low temperatures. Furthermore, the possibility of obtaining vertically
aligned high quality columnar nanostructures by MBE under nitrogen-rich condi-
tions adds to this material the advantages of bottom-up developments. The density
and morphology of the InN nanocolumns have a strong dependence on the substrate
temperature, changing dramatically with a variation as small as 25◦ C.
Two sets of samples of InN nanocolumns, grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epi-
taxy under the same In-BEP and nitrogen flux conditions but different substrate
temperatures of 475◦ C and 500◦ C, have been optically characterized in this work.
Each set consists of 5 samples with different growth times varying from 15 to 300
minutes. At the longest growth time, the lengths and diameters of the nanocolumns
are typically around 500 nm and 90 nm respectively.
Raman spectra show well defined narrow peaks indicating that in general, all sam-
ples have a very good crystalline quality. Their frequency position reveals that
nanocolumns are strain-free even in the earlier stages of the growth. On the other
hand, photoluminescence (PL) spectra of all samples consist of a broad single peak
centred at energies ranging from 0.69 eV to 0.74 eV. The fact that all these peaks

CLACSA XIII
20 Tuesday

appear above the band gap energy reported for InN has been attributed to the pres-
ence of a high density of defect-induced free electrons.
The PL spectra for the 475◦ C set of samples show a red-shift of the central energy
and a narrowing of the peak with increasing growth time. Both effects can be in-
terpreted as an improvement of the material quality that reduces the defect density
and thus the conduction band filling. On the contrary, the evolution of the samples
grown at 500◦ C shows a blue-shift of the emission for longer growth times.
The present results reveal that there are different mechanisms competing in the for-
mation and the optical response of InN nanocolumns. In the earlier stages of the
nanocolumn growth, the existence of misfit defects decreases the emission efficiency
of the nanocolumns. Higher substrate temperatures can reduce the density of such
defects. However, in later stages, a higher thermal energy favours the appearance of
defects induced by disorder.

1 10:20 OR-Tu-08

Study of Optical Transition in Spherical GaSb-Ga1-x Inx


Asy Sb1-y Quantum Dots
ROBERT SANCHEZ1 , LILIANA TIRADO2 , GERARDO FONTHAL2 , NELSON
PORRAS MONTENEGRO3
1
UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE OCCIDENTE.
2
UNIVERSIDAD DEL QUINDIO.
3
UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE.
The narrow-gap GaSb-Ga1-xInxAsySb1-y compounds are suitable materials for
heterostructure devices operating in the infrared wavelength range [1-3]. The esti-
mated x and y values are in 0.11 − x − 0.15 and 0.10 − y − 0.14 range [4]. Photolu-
minescence and Photoreflectance study at 12K of GaSb-GaInAsSb films grown by
Liquid Phase Epitaxy do not show the optical response at the same energy values.
The photoluminescence peak is shift 20 meV related to the photoreflectance response
[4], indicating possible higher electronic confinement in some places of the grown het-
erostructure. As we believe that the formation of low dimensional structures during
the growth of the system are responsible for this energy shift, we study the optical
emission spectra associated with transition between the n = 1 conduction level and
valence band in Spherical GaSb − Ga1 − xInxAsySb1 − y Quantum Dots. We have
used spherical potential well of finite depth determined by the discontinuity in the
conduction band EC, for electron and the discontinuity in the valence band EV for
holes. In our calculations we have used the effective mass approximation and con-
sidered an electron in a Type I Quantum Well formed by two semiconductors with
similar parabolic conduction bands.
References:
[1] I. A. Andreev, N. D. Ilı́nskaya, E. V. Kunitsyna, M. P. Mikhaova, and Yu. P.
Yakovlev. Semiconductors, 37 (2003) 949. [2] N. D. Stoyanov, M. P. Mikhaova, O. V.
Andrehuk, K. D. Moiseev, I. A. Andreev, M. A. Afrailov, and Yu. P. Yakovlev. Semi-
conductors, 35 (2001) 453. [3] A. A. Popov, V. V. Sherstnev, and Yu. P. Yakovlev.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 21

Tech. Phys. Lett. 24 (1998). [4] Private communication, L.Tirado-Mej, G. Fonthal.


Laboratorio de Optoelectrica, Universidad del Quind, A.A 460, Armenia Colombia

2 10:20 OR-Tu-08

HOPG full atomic structure: a first-principles calculation


and scanning tunneling microscopy study
Eduardo Cisternas1 , Fernando Stavale2 , Marcos Flores3 , Horst Niehus4 , Carlos
Achete2 , Patricio Vargas1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marı́a, P.O. Box
110-V, Valparaı́so, Chile.
2
Divis ao de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), INMETRO, CEP 25250-020,
Duque de Caxias, RJ, Brazil e Programa de Engahnaria Metalúrgica e de Materiai.
3
Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
4
Humboldt-Universit.

Despite that for several years the HOPG (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite)
(0001) surface has been theoretical and experimentally studied using scanning tun-
neling microscopy, there exists some important issues those are not yet well un-
derstood as (1) what conditions are needed in order to imaged the whole hexagonal
structure? And (2) which model should be used in order to interpret such structural-
electronic effect features? The widely accepted model for HOPG STM image for-
mation predicts that only atom on β-type sites are visible due to a higher local
density of states as a consequence of asymmetry in the interlayer interaction. Here
we show using first-principles calculations and STM experiments (at constant-height
mode), that the HOPG (0001) surface charge density differ substantially from this
accepted model depending on the tip-surface distance. The full hexagonal and (the
often called) triangular structures are predicted (theoretically) and obtained (ex-
perimentally). The image formation mechanism and features are discussed based on
the present calculations.

CLACSA XIII
22 Tuesday

1 11:10 OR-Tu-09

Evidence of Magnetoelectric Coupling in T bM nO3


compounds
J. M. Caicedo1 , M. E. Gomez1 , M. Grisales2 , J. Heiras3 , P. Prieto4
1
Thin Film Group, Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle, Colombia.
2
Physics and Mathematics Program, Universidad de la Amazonia, Florencia,
Colombia.
3
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ensenada,B.C, México.
4
Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Cali, Colombia.

Multiferroic materials, which show simultaneous ferroelectric and magnetic or-


dering, exhibit fascinating phenomena as Magnetoelectric Coupling. A particularly
appealing, recently identified mechanism occurs in T bM nO3 , in which ferroelec-
tricity is induced by the formation of a symmetry-lowering magnetic ground state
that lacks inversion symmetry. The resulting polarization is small, but because it is
caused directly by the magnetic ordering, strong and possibly new magnetoelectric
interactions should be expected. The magnetoelectric coefficient αM E = dE/dH =
dV /(a.dH) is the most critical indicator for the Magnetoelectric coupling properties
in this kind materials, where V is induced magnetolectric voltage, H is the exciting
ac magnetic field and a is the sample thickness. T bM nO3 compounds were syn-
thesized by solid-state reaction method. X-ray characterization showed single-phase
samples. Capacitive structures with silver electrodes were prepared for measure-
ment of the ME effect by using a dynamic lock-in technique. The ME coefficient
was measured directly as a response of the sample to an a.c. magnetic field input
signal ranging from 0.1 to 100 kHz and with amplitudes from 1 to 50 Oe superim-
posed onto the d.c. magnetic bias field. Longitudinal and transversal modes were
performed with the sample placed parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field. A
programmable signal generator was used to drive the Helmholtz coils and generate
the a.c. magnetic field. The output voltage signal generated by the induced polar-
ization on the magnetoelectric sample was filtered and detected through a lock-in
amplifier. Transversal and longitudinal magnetoelectric coefficient measurements as
function of both frequency of exciting ac magnetic field and dc bias magnetic field
showed Magnetoelectric effect, which can be attributed to switching of the electric
polarization induced by magnetic fields.
Keywords: Multiferroic materials, Magnetoelectric coupling, ME coefficient, dy-
namic lock-in technique.
Acknowledgments: Work supported by research project Colciencias-Univalle 1106-
05-17612 contract 239-05 and the Excellence Center for Novel Materials - CENM
contract (CENM-Colciencias RC-043-2005).

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 23

2 11:10 OR-Tu-09

Possible quantum interference effects in high quality


SrRuO3 epitaxial thin films
W. Saldarriaga1 , E. Baca1 , O. Morán2
1
Grupo de Ingenierı́a de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad
del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali, Colombia.
2
Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vı́treos, Departamento de Fı́sica,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellı́n, A.A. 568, Medellı́n,.

A careful study of the electronic transport and magnetotransport properties of


the metallic and ferromagnetic SrRuO3 epitaxial thin films is reported. High quality,
150 thin SrRuO3 films were grown on nominally exact SrT iO3 (001) substrates by dc
sputtering technique. Resistivity measurements were performed up to temperatures
as low as 2K in magnetic fields strengths of up to 9T , applied perpendicular to the
film plane. The films featured excellent metallic behavior at room temperature, with
a resistivity, ρ(300K) < 300µω − cm. La presence of minima in the ρ − T plots at
7K was clearly detected from these measurements. The 9T magnetic field did not
remove the minima signaling its nonmagnetic origin In addition, the ρ(µo H = 9T, T )
minima was slightly shifted to higher temperature and the ρ(µo H = 9T, T ) was
larger when it was compared with ρ(µo H = 0T, T ). Increasing relevance of quantum
corrections to the conductivity as the temperature is lowered has been invocated
as possible cause of this anomalous electrical behavior. Such a description is based
on the observation that the mean free path in these oxides may be comparable
to the Fermi wavelength of the carriers. In this case, effects arising from quantum
interference of the electronic wavelength are expected. Two different sources may
give rise to quantum correction to the conductivity, namely weak localization and
renormalized electron-electron interaction. Both mechanisms lead to enhancement of
the resistivity as the temperature is lowered and can explain the presence of minima
in the ρ − T curves in disordered metals.

1 11:30 OR-Tu-10

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SUPER CRYSTALS


Javier Nossa1 , Angela Camacho1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

We present a systematic study of the dependence of the optical properties on


the geometry of the quantum dots, which form a super crystal. We obtain elec-
tronic structure of 1D and sc and fcc 3D super crystals by using an empirical tight
binding method based on the s and p orbitals and wave functions of the quantum
dots for the on-site parameters. For the hopping parameter we choose the extented
Hueckel method. We find a drastic dependence on this matrix element and analyze
the sensitivity of the electronic band structure on this number. We also relate the

CLACSA XIII
24 Tuesday

tight binding matrix elements with the momentum matrix elements taking the k-
space gradient of the Hamiltonian for calculating the electric dipole moments and
the oscillator strengths of super crystals made of spherical, cylindrical and conical
quantum dots. We deal with the role played by the geometry of the single dots as
well as on the crystal structure.

2 11:30 OR-Tu-10

Adsorption of ruthenium atoms on the (0001) GaN surface


as preliminary study of Schottky contacts
César Ortega López1 , William Rafael López Pérez2 , Jairo Arbey Rodrı́guez
Martı́nez3
1
Universidad de Cordoba , Monteria , Colombia.
2
Universidad del Norte , Barranquilla, Colombia.
3
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

In this work, we studied the adsorption of Ru atoms on the surface (0001) of the
GaN, in hexagonal geometry 2X2. The calculations were carried-out with the Density
Functional Theory and Molecular Dynamics such as implemented in the Quantum-
ESPRESSO package. One slab with five layers of hexagonal GaN were considered
and about 15 of vacuum space separates the slabs. In the calculation a pseudopoten-
tial which includes Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation potential
was used. First the clean surface was relaxed. After that, one atom of Ru was placed
at the special points T4, H3 and T1. We compare the total energy of relaxation in
such three special places. We have found the most stable configuration and addi-
tionally, we have calculated the height of the barrier of potential for lateral diffusion
of Ru atoms. This work is motivated because Ruthenium (Ru) and ruthenium/gold
(Ru/Au) Schottky contacts on n-type GaN were investigated recently.
Keywords: DFT, adatoms Ru, surface GaN.

1 11:50 OR-Tu-11

Transport through a quantum wire side coupled to a


quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
Victor M. Apel1 , Pedro A. Orellana2
1
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro.
2
Universidad Católica del Norte.

The electronic transport of a quantum-wire side coupled to a quantum ring


is studied via a single-band tunneling tight-binding Hamiltonian. We explore the
possibility of having a pure spin current at the antiresonances of the conductance.
An analysis of the spin currents as a function of the effective flux is also studied.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 25

2 11:50 OR-Tu-11

Characterization by HRTEM, Raman Spectroscopy and


XRD of monocrystalline sodium hexatitanate nanorods
R.A. Zarate1 , S. Fuentes1 , V. M Fuenzalida2 , A. L. Cabrera3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenida Angamos
0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Facultad de Ciencias Fı́sicas y Matemáticas,
Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago, Chile..
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Facultad de Ciencia, Pontificia Universidad Católica
Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago, Chile..

Monocrystalline sodium hexatitanate nanorods have been synthesised using a


simple hydrothermal reaction in a sealed reactor at 130o C among particles of pure
anatase T iO2 and NaOH solution. Later, the samples were annealed at 500o C in air
for 24 hours. FEG-SEM and low magnification TEM inspection showed rodlike struc-
tures with uniform diameters and high contrast, indicating the formation of single
crystals. HRTEM and 2-dimension Fast Fourier Transform confirmed that the an-
nealed structures correspond to hexatitanate single crystals with diameters between
20 and 120 nm and lengths that range from 500 nm to 1 micrometer. Structural
characterization was obtained by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. These studies in-
dicated that annealed samples presented diffraction patterns and Raman vibrational
spectra which correspond to the sodium hexatitanate indexed as N a2 T i6 O13 . On the
other hand, the synthesised samples without annealing inspected by FEG-SEM and
TEM techniques showed belt and wirelike structures with diameters between 10 and
60 nm and several micrometers in length. However, their crystalline structure could
not be determined using the same techniques as in the case of the annealed samples.

1 12:10 OR-Tu-12

Control of the position of self-assembled InAs quantum dots


by anodic oxidation nanolithography
P. T. Valentim1 , B. R. A. Neves1 , P. S. S. Guimar aes1 , M. P. Pires2 , P. L.
Souza3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.
3
LabSem, CETUC, Pontifı́cia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Semiconductor photonic crystals and other nanocavities have attracted much


attention since they provide a convenient system to control spontaneous emission
and to study cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena such as strong coupling

CLACSA XIII
26 Tuesday

between photons and matter. They are also promising structures for the fabrication
of low threshold lasers, efficient light emitting diodes and other new devices, in spe-
cial for quantum information applications. Self-assembled quantum dots are nearly
ideal light emitters for this kind of structure due to their delta function-like emis-
sion spectra, high radiative efficiency and ease of fabrication and integration with
standard optoelectronic devices. However, the serious drawbacks of self-assembled
quantum dots are that there is no control over their positioning and it is not possible
to determine a priori their exact emission wavelength. Therefore, the tuning of a
quantum dot emission with the nanocavity in which it is embedded relies basically
on luck. This is specially critical for photonic crystals, due to the very low photonic
mode volumes achieved in these nanocavities. Some solutions have been proposed
for this problem. For example, Hennessy et al. (Nature vol. 445, p. 896, 2007) use
atomic force microscopy to locate each quantum dot in a low density sample and
then micro-photoluminescence to determine the energy of its excitonic emission,
prior to fabrication of the photonic crystal nanocavity. This and other proposals
have the disadvantage that it is not possible to determine previously the operation
wavelength and position of the desired device, instead both are determined after
dot growth. In this work, we propose a method to precisely locate self-assembled
quantum dots before growth and, in addition, to better control the emission wave-
lengths of self-assembled quantum dots. We use the technique of anodic oxidation
nanolithography to pattern layers of InP and GaAs. The tip of an atomic force mi-
croscope is used to generate InP (GaAs) oxide nanodots at the sample surface. After
removal of the oxide nanodots the holes left in the surface act as nucleation centers
for self-assembled dot growth. The size, and consequently emission energy, of each
quantum dot can be controlled to some extent by the size of the nano-holes, which
depend on the oxidation parameters, and also by adjusting the growth parameters
of the quantum dots. We report the characterization of several samples produced in
this way, with dots of different sizes and morphologies. We also report on the optical
characterization of the self-assembled quantum dots thus fabricated.

2 12:10 OR-Tu-12

QUANTUM MONTE CARLO CALCULATIONS OF THE


BINDING ENERGY OF WANNIER EXCITONS BOUND
TO DONOR IMPURITIES IN GaAs/Alx Ga1-xAs
QUANTUM WELLS
JOSÉ JOAQUÍN VIVAS MORENO1 , NELSON PORRAS MONTENEGRO2
1
UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE OCCIDENTE.
2
UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE.
Since at least two decades ago, the study of excitons in low dimensional systems
has been the goal of a lot of scientist due to the basic physics they present as well
as their potential use in technological applications [1]. However, no conclusive works
have been devoted to the understanding of excitons taking into account their inter-
actions with impurities in these systems [2].

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 27

In this work we calculate the binding energy of the Wannier excitons bound to
donor impurities in GaAs/Alx Ga1-x As quantum-wells, using the effective-mass
approximation within a variational Monte Carlo method. In our calculations we
have considered the effects of the barrier height and the concentration of impurities
on the exciton binding energy. In the simulation we have used the trial wave func-
tion of the Slater-Jastrow type, considering space and spin coordinates of electrons.
Also we compare our results with experimental reports in the literature. Besides the
simulation method which was built using Fortran 90/95 under Linux platform, we
have used Casino Program from Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish
Laboratory, University of Cambridge, England [3-4].
References:
1. Jai Singh, D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, and J. M. Hvam, Phys. Rev. B 53, 15 909
(1996)
2. A. C. Ferreira, P. O Holtz, and Monemar, Phys. Rev. B 54, 16994 (1996).
3. A. R. Porter, M. D. Towler, R. J. Needs, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035320 (2001).
4. M. D. Towler, Phys. Stat. Sol (b), 243, No 11, 2573 (2006).

CLACSA XIII
28 Tuesday

Plenary
1 16:00 Pl-Tu-4

Electrical transport in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon


thin films
R.H Buitrago1
1
Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnológico para la Industria Quı́mica (CONICET -
UNL).

The so called micro or nanocrystalline silicon network is quite complex and a


comprehensive knowledge of structure and electrical properties has not been reached
till now. Nanocrystalline silicon structure consists of little crystallites (10 to 30 nm)
and a large grain boundary tissue as well as an amorphous phase, providing partic-
ular electrical properties. Being the nanocrystalline silicon thermodynamically more
stable and with less light-induced degradation than amorphous one, hydrogenated
nanocrystalline Silicon (nc-Si:H) presents a great interest to scientists and technol-
ogists in thin films solar cells. Different models for the electric charge flow in doped
as well as in undoped nc-Si:H thin films have been proposed. However, there is no
agreement about how the electrical transport comes about in these heterogeneous
systems. The electrical properties of nc-Si:H deposited by using very high-frequency
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (VH-PECVD), depend on the vari-
ous deposition conditions, such as the concentrations of the dopant gases, the ratio
of hydrogen dilution, the deposition temperature and pressure, the radio frequency
power, etc. The nucleation and the growth characteristics of the films are modified
by those deposition parameters, changing the structural properties and so the elec-
trical ones. The effects of temperature (270450 K) and applied electric field (0,1
2 x 104 V/cm) on transport properties of intrinsic nc-Si:H thin films as well as p
type doped with Boron prepared by VH-PECVD have been studied. Variable range
hopping between defects near the Fermi level was established as a predominant
electronic transport mechanism for intermediate applied fields. At very low applied
fields, dark conductivity becomes field dependent. The non-ohmic behavior of the
conductivity observed is analyzed in terms of the hopping transport equations. Even
when electronic transport is not yet well understood, variable range hopping could
highlight some mechanisms of current flow in non homogeneous semiconductors thin
films. Other researchers have become using the same model to fit experimental da-
ta of conductivity on many other mixed-phase materials thin films, even when no
theory is yet formulated to explained electrical transport in nanocrystalline thin
films.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 29

Invited Talks
1 17:00 In-Tu-7

Transport Properties of Highly Correlated Electrons in


Nanoscopic Systems
Enrique V. Anda1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Pontifı́cia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro,.

There has been a great effort dedicated to the study of nanoscopic systems with
different topologies due to its potential applications as memories, hardware for quan-
tum computing and in the case of quantum dots (QDs) due to its similarities with
a real atom, which provides an additional motivation for this effort. Most of the
properties of highly correlated electrons, highly confined by the atomic potential,
have been predicted to be present and experimentally measured in QDs. The great
advantage of studying the electronic properties of QDs, compared to real atoms,
results from the possibility of driving the system through different regimes by sim-
ply changing, in a continuous way, the external potentials that define the dots. The
Kondo effect, measured in the last years in these systems, is the clearest example
of the equivalence between a real atom and a QD. We present a new method (1) to
solve the many-body phenomenology associated to these spatially confined systems
that has shown to be extremely accurate, reliable and relatively simple to be numer-
ically implemented. The algorithm was in particular derived to study effects coming
from the strong correlations that exists among the quase-particles as a result of the
electron-electron, electron-phonon an electron-photon interactions. The formalism
is developed proposing a Feynman diagrammatic expansion for the Green functions
involved, adopting a scheme of summation of different families of diagrams compati-
ble with the localized nature of the many body interaction. Using this formalism we
study a system constituted by three connected quantum dots adopting a topology
such that two of them interact by the mediation of the central one that acts as a
finite reservoir of charge (2). We analyze the Kondo effect of the external dots under
the presence of a RKKY interaction, mediated by the central dot. We study as well
the transport properties of adsorbed molecules on metallic surfaces. The influence
of the interplay between many-body interaction and interferences due to phase con-
servation resulted to be crucial to obtain a theoretical description compatible with
the experimental results.
1) Busser, C. Anda E.V.,Chiappe G., Dagotto E. Phys. Rep. (2007)
2) Martins G., Busser C., Anda E.V., Dagotto D., Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 066802
(2006).

CLACSA XIII
30 Tuesday

2 17:00 In-Tu-8

Electromechanical response of semiconductor


nanostructures
L. Lewyanvoon1
1
Department of Physics, Wright State University.

Electromechanical phenomena, particularly piezoelectricity, have been attract-


ing attention due to their sizeable effects in nitride-based nanostructures and their
impact on the operation of practical devices. In this talk, we will present a theo-
retical study of this emerging field of nanopiezotronics. Specifically, the impact of
nonlinear electromechanical effects and the self-consistent solution of the Schringer-
Poisson-Navier problem will be discussed with respect to explicit calculations on
one-dimensional heterostructures.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 31

Oral reports
1 17:30 OR-Tu-13

Analogies and differences of bonding and antibonding states


between natural molecules and asymmetric Double
Quantum Wells
R. M. Gutiérrez1 , A. Santana1
1
Universidad Antonio Nariño.

Based on a detailed analysis of asymmetric Double Quantum Wells (aDQW)


energy levels of the charge carriers, controlled by the geometric parameters and the
effective electronic mass changes using the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA),
we study the analogies and differences of aDQW with hydrogen-like molecules. The
aDQW are semiconductor heterostructures of size about two orders of magnitude
larger than natural systems like atoms and molecules. More precisely, we describe
the analogies and differences of the Bonding and Antibonding states of aDQW
and those states corresponding to real natural Hydrogen-like molecules. In natu-
ral Hydrogen-like molecules, there are two well defined energy levels, the Bonding
and Antibonding. In contrast, aDQW have well defined energy levels for many ge-
ometries and effective electronic masses. Using the quantum chemistry definition of
covalent bond, we discuss a concept of molecular state in aDQW. In both cases, nat-
ural molecules and aDQW, the bonding depends on the rate of resonant tunneling,
but in the natural case the energy minimization defines the equilibrium and more
probable state of the natural molecule. The results give new ideas of molecules in
artificial systems, controlled by geometric parameters and effective masses which can
be managed experimentally. We also study the anticrossing of energy levels, present
in controlled aDQW but not in self-organized natural molecules.

2 17:30 OR-Tu-13

Magnetic structure of synthetic akaganeite: Msbauer


findings
K.E. Garcı́a1 , C.A. Barrero1 , A.L. Morales1 , J.M.2
1
Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia.
2
Université du Maine, Francia.

Akaganeite, from the akagane mine in Japan is an iron oxyhydroxide commonly


found in chloride rich environments. It has recently been the subject of numerous
investigations specially related with its role in the understanding of weathering pro-
cess in steels [1-2] and meteorites. In the former case, its presence has been related
to high corrosion rates, whereas in the later, it might act as a catalyst promoting the
breakdown of the meteorites. An essential requirement to understand these processes
is to have a deep knowledge of the physical, crystallographic and chemical proper-
ties of akaganeite. However, in spite of the efforts, these subjects are still matter of

CLACSA XIII
32 Tuesday

controversy. For example, the number of components of the Msbauer spectra (MS)
in both the paramagnetic and the magnetic states and their physical origin are still
controversial. Most interpretations are based upon the earlier reported tetragonal
structure, and very few upon the recent monoclinic one [3,4]. On the other hand, the
magnetic structure has been proposed to be collinear antiferromagnet, sperimagnet-
ic or asperimagnet. Our Msbauer investigations suggest that in the paramagnetic
region the MS can be properly fitted with two doublets whose origin is related to
the chlorine content, i.e. one Fe site assigned to Fe3+ ions located close to chloride
ions and the other Fe site to those located close to chloride vacancy sites. On the
other hand, MS in the magnetic region can be adequately fitted with four sextets,
whose hyperfine parameters must be subjected to some constraints. The origin of
these components is related to the two different monoclinic sites and to the chlo-
rine content. In-field Msbauer spectrometry at low temperature suggests that the
magnetic structure behaves as a system which consists of two asperimagnetic-like
structures antiferromagnetically coupled.
References
[1] C.A. Barrero, K.E. Garc, A.L. Morales and J.M. Greneche, Physica B 389 (2007)
88.
[2] K.E. Garc, A.L. Morales, C.A. Barrero and J.M. Greneche, Corros. Sci. 48 (2006)
2813.
[3] C.A. Barrero, K.E. Garc, A.L. Morales and J.M. Greneche, J M. J. Phys.: Con-
dens. Matter 18 (2006) 6827.
[4] K.E. Garc, A.L. Morales, C.A. Barrero, C.E. Arroyave and J.M. Greneche, Phys-
ica B 354 (2004) 187.
Keywords: nanoparticles, magnetic structure, Msbauer spectrometry, akaganeite.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 33

Poster session
0 17:30 P-Tu-001

A SURFACE PHENOMENA STUDY IN ESFALERITA


(VAR. MARMATITA) DURING BIOLEACHING
PROCESSES BY NATIVE EXTREMOPHILE
J. Niño1 , X. Rodriguez2 , A. Devia1 , P.J. Arango1 , V.J.Benavides1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.
2
Universidad de Caldas.

The Marmato mining district (Caldas, Colombia) is known for the extraction
of gold and silver; also in relative abundance are minerals such as esfalerita (var.
marmatita) which is rich in zinc. The mining that takes place in Marmato relies on
physicochemical processes, such as microbial technology (bioleaching) as an alterna-
tive method for obtaining valuable metals. Bioleaching tests with sphalerite mineral
have been conducted using native extremophile microorganisms (type acidophilus).
In addition, the changes observed in the surface of the sphalerite were examined,
using ESEM and AFM techniques, to obtain images of the changes produced by
oxidation and of the biofilms formed by the microorganisms which are necessary for
the study of the direct mechanism of bioleaching. FTIR and DRX techniques also
have been used to study phenomena of surfaces such as mineral oxidation due to
the bacterium activity, the superficial gas diffusion between the mineral surface and
environment, transformations at the nanometric level, phase formation, and absorp-
tion of chemical species; this analysis is complemented by the study of depth profiles
obtained with the XPS.

0 17:30 P-Tu-002

Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces


Diego Alejandro Ramirez1 , Carola Hernández1 , Hector Jackson Ocampo1 , Laura
Savino1 , Chad Leidy1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in asso-


ciation with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in
modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the
phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), are only ac-
tivated at the interface between water and membrane surfaces, where they lead to a
break-down of the lipid molecules into lysolipids and free fatty acids. The activation
is critically dependent on the physical properties of the lipid-membrane substrate.
A topical review is given of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms
responsible for activation of sPLA2 as derived from a range of different experimental
and theoretical investigations.

CLACSA XIII
34 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-003

Comparative Study of the structural, electronic and optical


characteristics of amorphous softwood lignin fragments
using Density Functional Theory and some semiempirical
methods.
Salazar-Valencia P.J.1 , Bolı́var-Marinez L.E.1 , Pérez-Merchancano S.T.1
1
Universidad del Cauca.

Density functional theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanical method used in physics


and chemistry to investigate the electronic structure of many-body systems, in par-
ticular molecules and the condensed phases, DFT is among the most popular and
versatile methods available in condensed matter physics, computational physics, and
computational chemistry. In comparison to traditional methods in electronic struc-
ture theory, in particular those of the Hartree-Fock theory family that are based
on a complicated many-electron wavefunction, DFT replace it with an electronic
density as basic quantity. The most common implementation of density functional
theory is through the Kohn-Sham method were the many-body problem is reduced
to one of non-interacting electrons that moves in an effective potential that includes
the external potential and the effects of the Coulomb interactions between the elec-
trons and the exchange and correlation interactions. DFT is now a leading method
for electronic structure calculations for solving the quantum mechanical many-body
problem related to the study of the electronic structure of molecules. In this work
we will perform a comparison of the results for the simulation of the structural, en-
ergetic and optical characteristics of amorphous softwood lignin fragments using the
DFT formalism and some semiempirical methods such as the MNDO, AM1, PM3
and ZINDOS/CI of the Hartree-Fock family in the framework of the Hyperchem
program seeking to explore the relationship between computational cost and results
quality for relatively small molecules on ideal conditions.

0 17:30 P-Tu-004

Delocalization of vibrational normal modes in double


chains: Applications to DNA systems
Caros J. Páez1 , Peter A. Schulz1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Self assembling properties of DNA molecules raised a wide portfolio of possibili-


ties in nanotechnology, from considering these macromolecules simply as templates
up to envisaging a whole new nanoelectronic concept. In either case, mechanical
properies are underlying features to be considered. On the other hand, DNA dynamic
properties are still far from being completely understood and are relevant in charge
trnasfer mechanisms From a microscopic point of view, these mechanical properties
are closely related to the vibrational properties, which are investigated at different

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 35

scales: from normal mode description at an atomistic levels up to the elasticity of


continuous rod models, which, on the other hand, correspond to distinct frequen-
cy scales. In the present work, the starting point is the normal mode localization
properties as compared to the electronic counterpart. As a first step we investigate
the participation ratio as a tool for describing the localization of normal modes in
stricly one dimensional heuristic models (with correlations in the disorder), where
delocalization of electronic states is well established, as well as of normal modes at
critical frequencies. Finally, the method is applied to several heuristic models for
DNA chains, treated within an intermediate description scale, namely considering a
renormalization of the bases as single sites with equivalent masses. Despite the lack
of consensus on adequate coupling parameters, some general features are robust for
a large parameter range, revealing a possible wide delocalization window far beyond
the stricly zero frequency mode.

0 17:30 P-Tu-005

Generation of vesicles membranes using spherical harmonics


F. Fonseca1 , D. Valencia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

In different works, the generation of closed lipid vesicle surfaces is determined


by the minimization of the total bending energy at fixed surface area and enclosed
volume. With this work we built vesicle surfaces base on spherical harmonics, then
we plotted phase diagrams and we found some changes on the shape produced by
variation of system parameters, e.g., temperature, osmotic pressure, etc. In our study
we compare some previous results given by Ou -Yang and W. Helfrich, and some
applications to red blood cells are discussed.

0 17:30 P-Tu-006

A four-sublattice Ising antiferromagnet model: application


to the (La1−x P rx )0.5 Ca0.5 M nO3 manganites
A. Rosales-Rivera1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

A model for an Ising antiferromagnet with a four-sublattice structure is studied


by using the standard Monte Carlo-Metropolis method. The four-sublattice struc-
ture has been simulated with periodic boundary conditions by using a length of the
lattice with an even number of spins. The magnetization curves are obtained, and
the results are applied to magnetic orderings found in the rare earth manganites
with perovskite structure (La1−x P rx )0.5 Ca0.5 M nO3 , such as CE- and A-type anti-
ferromagnetic ordering. The results are in good qualitative agreement with various
available experimental magnetic features for (La1−x P rx )0.5 Ca0.5 M nO3 , in particular
with the observation of CE-type antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures

CLACSA XIII
36 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-007

Angular dependence of the first-order vortex transition line


in three-dimensional anisotropic superconductors
V. Leyton1 , J. M. Calero1 , E. Z. da Silva2
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Calı́ Colombia..
2
Instituto de Fı́sica ”Gleb Wataghin”, Universidade Estadual de Campinas,
13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil..

The vortex lattice in high-temperature superconductors is affected by thermal


fluctuations and quenched disorder leading to disordered phases, such as vortex
liquid and glass, through a first-order phase transition. We use a transformation
proposed by Calero et al [Phys. Rev. B 56, 6114 (1997)], in order to obtain the
angular generalization of the first order melting line of the vortex lattice in a three-
dimensional (3D) anisotropic superconductor, such as YBaCuO, in the presence
of an applied magnetic field with arbitrary direction with respect to the anisotropy
axis. The calculations are performed in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL)
theory in the lowest Landau level (LLL) approximation. The competition between
thermal fluctuations and disorder is described following the same method as that
developed by Li and Rosenstein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167004 (2003)].
keywords high temperature superconductors, Ginzburg-Landau theory, thermal
fluctuations, disorder, anisotropic superconductors.
PACS numbers 74.72.-h, 74.40.+k, 74.25.Dw

0 17:30 P-Tu-008

Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Bi2212:


An analysis from the Eliashberg theory point of view
H. S. RUIZ1 , R. BAQUERO2 , J. J. GIRALDO3
1
Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
2
CINVESTAV, D.F, Mexico.
3
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

The observed structure in the angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data


(ARPES) has been taken as evidence for coupling to an intermediate boson, phonons
or spin fluctuations in the high critical temperature superconduc-tors. A careful
analysis of the Eliashberg theory reveals the non-dependence on the quasiparticle
energy states, this allows predicting the impossibility of reproduce those spectro-
scopies whose transitions are inter-band and not intra-band. Differing of the trans-
port and the quasiparticle properties, three different spectral densities for describes
the coupling mechanism are extracted from measurements of tunnelling spectroscopy
α2 F(ω), inelastic neutron scattering I2 χ(ω), and infrared spectroscopy W(ω). These
are introduced in the ARPES data reproduction of a Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8+δ optimally

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 37

doped sample (Bi2212). We find a stron-gevidence that the main interaction mech-
anism is to caused by phonons and theoretically demonstrated that is not possible
associate the peak resonances in the spectral densities I2 χ(ω) and W(ω) extracted
from the spins magnetic susceptibility and optical conductivity measurements to the
superconductor transition.

0 17:30 P-Tu-009

ANTIREFLECTIVE MACROPOROUS SILICON LAYERS


ON CRYSTALLINE SILICON
Faruk Fonthal Rico1 , Trifon Trifonov2 , Angel Rodrı́guez2 , Clara Goyes3 , Josep
Pallar4
1
Universidad Autónoma de Occidente.
2
Universitat Politnica de Catalunya.
3
Universidad Autonóma de Occidente.
4
Univerisitat Rovira i Virgili.

A macroporous silicon (ma-PS) layer electrochemically grew on crystalline sili-


con surface can be used as an efficient antireflective layer for the optical devices as
antireflection coating and photodiode. In this work, we presented the ma-PS lay-
ers on n-type and p+-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) obtained by electrochemical HF
etching of Si wafers with short etching times (below at 9 min.). The morphology,
porosity, thickness of ma-PS layer can be adjusted by controlling the electrochemi-
cal formation conditions. The optical behavior of the antireflective layers under the
UV-Vis-NIR spectrum is determined, the reflectivity measurements were evaluat-
ed at 45 in the wavelength range of 200 to 1100 nm in the different samples the
ma-PS/c-Si and how influence the etching time used for the formation the ma-PS
layer; resulting in very low values of normalized reflectivity coefficient (below 5).
We have investigated the photosensitivity of porous silicon/silicon diodes with low
porosity using the Au/PS/p-Si/Al structure. Our results show a linear dependence
between the measured photocurrent and the illumination power for a cold white
lamp; resulting in very low values of the dark photocurrent for the photodiode (40
nA).
Aims
First, to develop a fabrication technique to produce PS layers on different c-Si
types.

Second, in order to study the optical behavior of the antireflective layers, to


measure the normalized reflectivity in the UV Visible - IR range.

Finally, to obtain the dark I-V characteristic of Au/PS/p-Si/Al photodiode


and to determine the linear dependence between the measured photocurrent
and the illumination power.
PACS: 85.60.-q, 82.45.Vp, 81.05.Rm, 42.79.-e

CLACSA XIII
38 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-010

CHARACTERIZATION THERMAL, STRUCTURAL


AND MAGNETIC OF Co-BASED ALLOYS
M. Gómez1 , A. Rosales-Rivera1 , P. Pineda-Gomez1 , D. Muraca2 , H. Sirkin2
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
2
Universidad de Buenos Aires.

Characterization Thermal, structural and magnetic of soft amorphous magnetic


Co80 F ex B10 Si10 alloys with x = 6, 8 and 10 was carried out. The ribbons were pro-
duced using melt spinning technique. In the alloys a controlled nano crystallization
is induced by thermal treatment and the crystalline fraction is quantified by Differ-
ential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The structural evolution was studied by X-ray
diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The magnetic be-
havior was analyzed by Termogravimetric analysis (TGA). The magnetoimpedance
effect were studied in these alloys in frequency range 25 KHz to 20 MHz and mag-
netic fields between -80 and 80 Oe and correlated with structural properties.

0 17:30 P-Tu-011

Classical spin dynamics of four interacting magnetic


nanoparticles on a chain
L. M. Pérez1 , D. Laroze2
1
Universidad de Santiago de Chile.
2
Universidad de Chile.

In the present work, we study the deterministic spin dynamics of four inter-
acting magnetic nanoparticles, with both dipolar and exchange interactions in the
presence of an applied magnetic field, by means of the LandauLifshitz equation
without the dissipation term. In particular, we analyze the chain geometrical con-
figuration with free boundary conditions for the exchange coupling. In addition, we
explore the parameter space calculating numerically some bifurcation diagrams. Due
to the strength ratio of interactions, two time scales appear. Finally, we find that the
total magnetization is not conserved and it has a strong dependence of the control
parameters.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 39

0 17:30 P-Tu-012

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD


EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRON-HOLE TRANSITION
ENERGIES IN A GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs QUANTUMWELLS,
QUANTUM WELL-WIRES AND QUANTUM DOTS
INMERSED IN HOSTS OF Ga1-yAlyAs
S.M. Ramos-Arteaga1 , N. Porras-Montenegro1 , G. J. Vázquez2 , M. del
Castillo-Mussot3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,.
3
Institute Carlos I for Theoretical and Computational Physics.

In this work we study the behaviour of the energy level of the electron , light, and
heavy hole ground state in GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells, quantum-well wires
and quantum dots, immersed in a host of Ga1-yAlyAs as a function of the geometry
of the systems and the x and y concentrations. We compare the behaviour of the
electron- light and electron-heavy hole transition energies between these structures
in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Also, we study the behaviour of the
electron energy when the interaction of the electron spin with the applied magnet-
ic field is taken into account. Our results for quantum wells present an excellent
agreement with experimental [1,2] and previous theoretical reports [3].
References:
1. P. Le June et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 380 (1997).
2. A. Malinowsky and R. T. Harley, Phys. Rev. B 62, 2051 (200).
3. M. de Dios-Leyva et al., J. Appl. Phys 99, 104303 (2006).
Key Words: Pillbox, magnetic field, spin

0 17:30 P-Tu-013

Correlations and Frustration in Quantum Networks


Luis Cajamarca1 , Luis Quiroga1
1
Universidad de Los Andes.

Results for small-world networks (SWN) are shown using a highly symmetric
topology. Such arrangement consists of a central node coupled with neighbouring
nodes equally spaced along a circle. Connectivity of the central node with periph-
eral nodes is controlled by means of a probabilistic law. The aim for these types
of networks is to fully understand the probability distribution resulting for shortest
path lengths which may be referred to as geometric correlations. Similar results are
expected for other types of topologies, mainly for Apollonian-type networks which
also present SWN features. In the same manner, results for spin systems with simi-
lar topology are presented. Such systems represent the quantum counterpart of the
classical model and may be referred to as quantum networks (QN). The spin model

CLACSA XIII
40 Tuesday

is analysed under the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg star frame for which the mag-
netic couplings constants are J1 for the central spin-ring spin coupling and J2 for
ring-ring nearest-neighbour couplings. The relationship between classical quantities,
such as shortest path length distributions, and quantum properties, such as mag-
netic correlations and presence of magnetic frustration is discussed. Furthermore,
the dependence of such quantities/properties on the dilution of bonds/connections
among spin/ring sites, on the number of spins on the network and on the ratio of
magnetic constants J1 /J2 is analysed.

0 17:30 P-Tu-014

Currents Through Quantum Dots in a Ring


Maria A. Davidovich1 , Enrique V. Anda1 , Guillermo Chiappe2
1
Pontifı́cia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro.
2
Universidad Autonoma de Alicante.

Results for the transport properties of a system consisting of a ring containing


one dot at each arm, connected to leads and threaded by a magnetic flux, are
reported. The currents that go along each ring arm as well as the conductance
of the overall system are calculated as a function of the gate potential applied
to the dots, for different magnetic fluxes. Different Kondo regimes are accessed
by varying the state of charge of the dots controlled by the gate potentials. The
Aharonov-Bohm effect combined with the dot many-body charging effects determine
the phases of the currents that go along each ring arm. When both dots are in
the Kondo regime the arm currents reveal an interesting phenomenon: for some
ranges of the gate potential applied to the dots a net current circulates around
the ring depending on the magnetic flux threading it. These currents are due to
interferences among the charges going along each ring arm and appear even in
the absence of a magnetic flux. The Green functions of the system are obtained
by the Embedded Cluster Approximation (ECA) method that consists in exactly
diagonalizing a cluster, containing the double dots and some of their neighboring
lead sites, that is then embedded into the rest of the system.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 41

0 17:30 P-Tu-015

Dielectric constant of 2DEG in the presence of electric field:


An application to GaN quantum wells
H. Herrera1 , G. Gonzalez de la Cruz2
1
CICATA-IPN Unidad Legaria, Legaria No 694, Col. Irrigación,11500, México,
D.F..
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, CINVESTAV-IPN Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico
D.F..

In this work we calculated the dielectric constant of two dimension electr gas in
the presence of the electric field. In order to avoid a numerical calculation a vari-
ational approach is used to calculated the electron wave function in the quantum
well. The screening of the charge density causes a blue shift in the electronic energy
level in the quantum well. This effect influences the optical properties of the elec-
tron hole pair recombination in the quantum well. Our the results are fitted with
photoluminescence experiments in GaN quantum wells.

0 17:30 P-Tu-016

Effect of annealing temperature and substitution rate of


Zr-Mn on the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite
nanoparticles
M.J. Iqbal, M.N. Ashiq1 , P. Hernández-Gómez, J.M Muñoz2
1
Univ. Quaid-i-Azam, Pakistan.
2
Univ. Valladolid, Spain.

Two series of M-type strontium hexaferrite samples having nominal composi-


tion SrZr(x)Mn(x)Fe(12-2x)O(19) (where x = 0.0-0.8) have been synthesized by co-
precipitation method. All the samples synthesized were of single magnetoplumbite
phase confirmed by the XRD analysis. The particle size was measured by TEM
analysis and was found to be in the 40 nm to 65 nm range for the samples an-
nealed at 1193 K while the samples annealed at 1443 K were in the 100 nm to 200
nm size range. The formation of magnetoplumbite phase starts above 973 K and
is completed at 1173 K as observed in TG and DTA analysis. The coercivity and
saturation magnetization were calculated from the measured hysteresis loops. The
saturation magnetization increase with temperature and reached maxima for the
samples annealed at 1393 K and then decrease. The coercivity decrease regularly
with the increase in temperature. The decrease in coercivity is due to the increase in
the particle size of the sample with temperature as confirmed by TEM. The satura-
tion magnetization increase for the samples doped with Zr-Mn up to x = 0.5 doping
rate, and higher substitution lead to a decrease in the saturation magnetization. The
coercivity decrease with the increase in Zr-Mn substitution. The behavior of satura-
tion magnetization has been explained on the basis of occupation of the substituted

CLACSA XIII
42 Tuesday

cations at different iron sites. The Curie temperature was calculated from the tem-
perature dependence of ac magnetic susceptibility data. It was observed that the
Curie temperature decrease with the increase in doping concentration. The increase
in saturation magnetization and decrease in coercivity suggest that the synthesized
materials can be used for the application of magnetic recording media.

0 17:30 P-Tu-017

Effect of the Zn(NO3)2 on ZnO deposited by Chemical Bath


J. Martı́nez1 , G. Juarez2 , O. Portillo-Moreno3 , R. Galeazzi1 , R. Castillo3 , F.
Flores1 , D. Hernández1 , B. L. Rivera1
1
CIDS-ICUAP, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México.
2
Ingenierı́a Eléctrica, SEES-CINVESTAV, Unidad D. F. México.
3
Fac. Ciencias quı́micas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla,
México.

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates and single crystal
silicon substrate by chemical bath deposition technique (CBD), varying the zinc ni-
trate (Zn(NO3 )2 ) content in the bath solution. The deposition temperature is 80o C
and were keeping constant the values of pH, volume, deposition time and mechanical
stirring.
Samples were characterized by means X- ray diffraction (XRD) and transmittance
in the case of deposition on glass. By XRD is found that the material is polycrys-
talline with wurtzite structure and preferential crystallographic orientation (100)
when it has low Zn(NO3 )2 content, whereas for larger Zn(NO3 )2 content the mate-
rial shows different crystallographic orientations. Meanwhile, by transmittance the
results shown that at higher Zn(NO3 )2 content the material shows a tendency to
increase in its band gap. The depositions on silicon help to conclude the substrate
effect on the deposited material orientation.
Acknowledgements to VIEP by their support.

0 17:30 P-Tu-018

Effective Landé g-factor in semiconductor quantum wires


F. E. López1 , E. Reyes-Gómez1 , L. E. Oliveira2
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Unicamp, CP 6165, Campinas.

The interaction between single-particle spins and the solid-state environment


has been the central topic of a considerable amount of work in the recent years.
Most of the studies on the properties of the electron g factor have been carried out
in semiconductor-bulk materials, quantum wells, quantum dots, and superlattices.
These investigations have been motivated, in part, due to their potential applications
in the design of spintronics and opto-electronic devices. In semiconductors and its

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 43

heterostructures, the effective g factor determines the spin splitting of carrier bands
and, therefore, influences the spin dynamics and spin resonance in such materials.
Also, manipulation of the electron spin may be used in the so-called spin-based
electronics, where preservation of the electron-spin coherence is required.
However, investigations on the properties of the effective g-factor in semicon-
ductor quantum well-wires have received much less attention. Quantum well-wires
have proven to be of great value in the active development of electronic and opto-
electronic devices, such as nanowire field-effect transistors, crossed, axial, and radial
nanowire heterostructures, and so on. Most relevant for the present work is the the-
oretical study reported by Kiselev it et al, who developed a theory of the Zeeman
effect for electrons in one- and zero-dimensional semiconductor systems by using a
Kane model, and investigated the properties of the electron g factor associated to
the lowest-confined electron in quantum well-wires and quantum dots.
In the present work we have studied the properties of the effective g factor in
semiconductor quantum well-wires under magnetic fields applied along the wire axis.
Calculations were carried out by taking into account the effects of nonparabolicity
and anisotropy of the conduction band on the electron states via the Ogg-McCombe
Hamiltonian. Our study was performed for both cylindrical and rectangular wire sec-
tions, and obtained as functions of the wire dimensions and magnetic field. Present
theoretical results were compared and found in good agreement with previous the-
oretical calculations

0 17:30 P-Tu-019

Effects of applied hydrostatic pressure on the polaronic


correction to the energy and electron effective-mass and on
the electron-hole transitions energy in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As
quantum well
Alexander Perez1 , N. Porras-Montenegro1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali, Colombia.

In this work, we study theoretically the effects of compressive stress on the pola-
ronic corrections to the energy an electron effective-mass in GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As quan-
tum well using degenerated second-order perturbation theory within the effective-
mass approximation. Also, we study the electron-hole transition energy. In our cal-
culations we have taken into account confined slab LO-phonon modes and the stress
was applied in the growth direction of the structure. Results are for different well
widths as a function of the compressive stress. We have found that the energy of the
electron and hole ground state diminishes with the well width and with the applied
hydrostatic pressure and that the effects of the stress on both polaronic corrections
to the energy and electron effective-mass are very small. However, we found that
the electron-hole transition energy decreases with the well width and augments with
the applied hydrostatic pressure.

CLACSA XIII
44 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-020

Effects of dissipation on the time evolution of coherence and


entanglement of a two-quantum dot system in a microcavity
Juliana Restrepo1 , Boris A. Rodriguez1 , Herbert Vinck Posada1 , Augusto Gonzalez2
1
Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia.
2
Instituto de Cibernética, Matemática y fı́sica, La Habana, Cuba.

The effects of dissipation on a system composed by two quantum-dot qubits


interacting with a single mode of light in a microcavity are studied by computing
the time evolution of mixedness and entanglement of the qubits and the second
order correlation function of the field. Strong and intermediate matter-light coupling
regimes are considered. In the strong coupling regime for given initial conditions, the
entanglement and the second order correlation function are found to be in antiphase
in an initial time interval of around 5 ps. If light is prepared intially in a coherent
state, dissipation and matter-light interaction entangle the qubits. In the medium
coupling regime, the system may arrive to an asymptotic regime wiht entangled
qdots and squeezed vacuum light.

0 17:30 P-Tu-021

Effects of Oxygen Depletion and Silver Doping on YBCO


Magnetic Properties
A. Mariño1 , M. Perez1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

YBCO polycrystalline samples with different granularity like that produced by


Oxygen depletion or Ag- doping were prepared by the solid state reaction method.
The structure and morphology of the samples were studied by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. These characteristics
were correlated with the observed electric and magnetic properties, critical current
density (Jc) and irreversibility line (IL) respectively. The magnetic irreversibility as
determined by the ZFC - FC resistive method for magnetic fields H < 0.1 T fitted
well in all cases to a power law of Almeida - Thoules type. Additionally an observed
shifting of the irreversibility line to lower or higher temperatures and changes in Jc
were related with modifies in samples granularity.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 45

0 17:30 P-Tu-022

Electronic transport in Co10 Cu90 nanostructured alloys


G. Juarez1 , M. Villafuerte1 , S. Heluani1 , L. M. Fabietti2 , S. E. Urreta2
1
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologı́ a. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán.
Tucumán, Argentina..
2
Facultad de Matemática Astronomı́ a y Fı́ sica. Universidad Nacional de
Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina..

The CoCu alloys processed by melt spinning are examples of nanostructures built
up of magnetic nanoparticles (Co) dispersed in a non magnetic metallic (Cu) matrix.
Co10 Cu90 alloys were prepared by melt spinning in a twin roller device between 5m/s
and 40m/s tangential wheel velocities. The low temperature (5K-300K) magnetic
and electron transport properties were investigated in as cast alloys and in samples
annealed for 1 h at 923 K. Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements were performed
between 35 and 295K, with applied field up to 1 T. For each condition, M-H loops
and M(T) curves were measured and analyzed to estimate the mean Co particle size
and the blocking temperature distribution, respectively. In the as cast condition,
particle sizes between 2 nm and 6 nm are found and broad distributions of blocking
temperatures between 20 K and 250 K; these alloys, cooled at these relatively low
rates, show apreciable room temperature MR values (0.5 % to 1.5 % for 0.85 T).
A minimum in resistance is found at about 30 K in alloys with compositions up
to 15at %Co. The characteristics of this minimum depend on the cooling rate and
it dissappears after a heat treatment of 60 min at 930 K, which promotes larger
magneto-resistence values up to about 6 %.

0 17:30 P-Tu-023

Energy Levels of On-Axis Donors in Vertically Stacked


Quantum Dots with Different Morphologies
J. Fernández P1 , L. Jaimes Osorio1 , C. Beltrán1
1
Universidad Industrial de Santander.

By using the adiabatic approximation[1] we calculate the energy spectrum of


on-axis donors in a heterostructure, consisting of two imbedded inside a matrix
of Ga(Al)As identical coaxial disk-shaped, lens-shaped and conically-shaped flat
In(Al)As quantum dots deposited on vertically separated wetting layers made of the
same material. It is shown that in the adiabatic approximation the rapid electron
motion in the crystal growth direction can be separated from the slow motion in-
plane electron motion and the energy spectrum of the wave equation for the on-
axis donor is reduced to two-dimensional central force problem with renormalized
effective potential which takes into account the shape of the quantum dot profile.
In order to solve this last problem we use the numerical procedure based on the
trigonometric sweep method [2]. The energies of some low-lying levels are calculated

CLACSA XIII
46 Tuesday

as functions of the quantum dots radii, heights of quantum dots, the thickness of
the wetting layer, donor position and the separation between quantum dots. The
effect of the variation of the quantum dot profile on the donor energy spectrum
and the electron tunneling between two layers is analyzed and it is shown that the
confinement and the lowering of the donor energy levels is stronger in the spike-
shaped quantum dots.
References
[1] J. Palacios and P. Hawrylak, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1769 (1995); G. S. Solomon, J. A.
Trezza, A. F. Marshall, and J. S. Jr. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 952 (1996); B. Par-
toens , A. Matulis, and F. M. Peeters, Phys. Rev. B 59 1617(1999); M. Korkusinski
and P. Hawrylak, Phys. Rev. B 63 195311 (2001); I. D. Mikhailov, J. H. Mar, and
F. Garc, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 242 1636 (2005).
[2] F. J. Betancurt,I. D. Mikhailov,and L. E. Olivera, J. Appl. Phys. D, 31, 3391
(1998).

0 17:30 P-Tu-024

Energy relaxation paths in doped AlGaAs/GaAs


superlattices in the presence of a high magnetic field
W. H. M. Feu1 , G. S. Vieira2 , P. S. S. Guimar aes1 , S. J. Allen3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2
Divisão de Fı́sica Aplicada, Instituto de Estudos Avançados, 12228-840 S ao
José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil.
3
Center for Terahertz Science and Technology, University of California at Santa
Barbara, California 93106, USA.

Intraband energy relaxation plays a fundamental role in electronic transport in


both strongly and weakly coupled superlattices. For instance, the inelastic processes
that couple the subbands of the conduction band of multi-quantum well structures
are crucial for the performance of quantum cascade lasers and quantum well in-
frared photodetectors. The presence of a magnetic field affects electron scattering
mechanisms in many important ways and the application of strong magnetic fields
constitute a powerful tool for studying the electron dynamics in quantum well struc-
tures. In this work we perform magneto-tunneling measurements at low temperature,
∼ 20 K, in doped GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum well structures, with the magnetic
field applied perpendicular to the quantum well layers. In order to experimentally
verify the effect of the magnetic field on the current across doped weakly coupled
superlattices in different conditions, we used two multi-quantum well structures
grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Both structures have ten GaAs wells and eleven
Al0.3 Ga0.7 As barriers sandwiched between two layers of 50 nm GaAs of the same
uniform doping of the wells and barriers, 3 × 1015 cm−3 of Si. These structures were
again sandwiched between two 300 nm thick GaAs layers heavily doped with Si at
2 × 1018 cm−3 . For sample 1 the nominal thickness of the wells and barriers were

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 47

15 nm and 5 nm, respectively. For sample 2 these values change to 33 nm and 4


nm. We find evidence of a significant magnetic field-induced reduction of low energy
electron scattering mechanisms, while the effect of the magnetic field on the energy
relaxation paths that include longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission is much less
significant. The effect of the magnetic field on the electron scattering mechanisms
shows itself on the processes of scattering-assisted tunneling, resonant tunneling and
intersubband relaxation. Through careful analysis of the data we can distinguish the
effect of the magnetic field on each of these processes. We find that while scattering
assisted tunneling is inhibited by the magnetic field, resonant tunneling can be fa-
vored. The intersubband relaxation via LO phonons is not affected by the magnetic
field to the point of becoming a limiting factor on the current. On the other side,
the intersubband relaxation without LO phonon emission is clearly inhibited by the
magnetic field to the point of becoming comparable to the resonant tunneling rate.

0 17:30 P-Tu-025

Ferromagnetic -Antiferromagnetic Transition in Coupled


Quantum Dots under Hydrostatic Pressure
S. T Pérez-Merchancano1 , H. E. Caicedo-Ortiz2 , N. Porras-Montenegro3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, Colombia.
2
Facultad de Ingenierı́a, Corporación Universitaria Autónoma del Cauca,,
Popayán, Colombia.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.A.25360, Cali Colombia.
During recent years great progress has been made in the development of exper-
imental tools for study of several physical properties of single dot structures: Con-
focal microscopy and near field scanning microscopy have been particularly useful
for the study of optical properties. In similar fashion, Self-assembled quantum dots
(SAQDs) are promising as single photon generators because of the high optical qual-
ity of the resulting dot structures. Photons may be generated from states formed by
a number of electrons and holes, i.e., multiexcitons. Theoretical and numerical stud-
ies of magnetic properties have been realized in SAQDs. In particular, the study of
the electron density of states , the optical spectra, and the exchange interaction be-
tween spins in SAQDs had allowed to affirm that such structures have a significant
use in technology, because they provide important information about the funda-
mental behavior of electronic properties in reduced dimensionality environment. In
a similar form, hydrostatic pressure can provide important information to enable the
understanding of the electronic properties in semiconductor heterostructures. This
is a powerful tool to investigate and control the electronic-related optical properties
of semiconductor materials. The main pressure effects on the III-V semiconductors
is to increase the band gap, the increasing of the electron effective mass in the G
-valley of the Brillouin zone, and the decrease of the static dielectric constant. For
the GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures, an increment in the electron effective-mass
results in a decreasing of the electron quantized energy, whereas for the electron-
impurity systems a decreasing of the dielectric constant results in the increasing of

CLACSA XIII
48 Tuesday

the impurity binding energy. In this paper, we describe an analytical study of the
effects of the hydrostatic pressure in two laterally coupled quantum dots, each one
with an electron, constituted by electrical gating of two-dimensional electron gas
(2DEG), under the action of a z-axis parallel magnetic field B, and an electric field
E in the x direction, considering the Heitler-London approach. Specifically, we show
the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition through the exchange parameter J of
Heisenberg model for this system. We consider that this theoretical study contributes
to the understanding of particular solid state model which has great technological
importance in the developed of quantum gates for quantum computers, because of
the expression for J in this system is a function of various parameters that allow
its experimental control such as the electric and magnetic fields, separation distance
between the quantum dots, and the hydrostatic pressure.

0 17:30 P-Tu-026

FERROMAGNETISM IN DILUTED MAGNETIC


SEMICONDUCTORS OF (Zn,Mn)O
B. Lenis1 , J. M. Caicedo1 , D. Reyes1 , W. Lopera1 , P. Prieto2
1
Thin Film Group, Department of Physics, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360
Cali, Colombia..
2
Excellence Center for Novel Materials ECNM A.A. 25360 Cali, Colombia.

Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) are the most promissory materials in


the spintronic new technology, which has carried into an intense search for ferro-
magnetism at room temperature in these materials. Pellets of (Zn, M n)O DMS
have been elaborated from powder precursory oxides of ZnO and M nO2 at 99.0 %
of purity. ZnO was doped with M n in concentrations from 2 to 11 %wt, using a sol-
id state chemical reaction method at a temperature of 673 K during 8 hours. After
that, we applied a pressure of 28 Mpa and a sintering temperature of 873 K during
13 h on the samples. Finally an annealing at 1173 K was applied during 7 hours.
The structural characterization was carried out by x-ray diffraction measurements.
The results show that the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO was conserved after
the doping. The magnetic characterization was carried out from measurements of
magnetization as function of magnetic field and the temperature, using a Physi-
cal Property Measurement System (PPMS from Quantum DesignT M ). The curves
showed a ferromagnetic transition at around of 44 K. Magnetic properties in this
kind of materials may be attributed to the double exchange interaction.
Keywords: Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors, Magnetic Properties, (ZnM n)O

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 49

0 17:30 P-Tu-027

Indications of spin-charge separation in two-leg interacting


Aharonov-Bohm rings
Julián J. Rincón1
1
Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro.
Based on previous results on the spin-charge separation phenomenon evidenced
on flux-threaded correlated rings [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 067203 (2004)] and moti-
vated by the possibility of more realistic experimental realizations, we study the
transport properties through two-leg Aharonov-Bohm rings of interacting electrons.
The system consists of a ladder-based ring described by the t − J model, which is
threaded by a magnetic flux. We obtain the transmittance by numerically diago-
nalizing the finite ring and adding the leads perturbatively to second order in the
coupling parameter t0 . For certain regions of the parameters we find, for the first
time, indications of spin-charge separation for non one-dimensional systems such as
ladder systems.

0 17:30 P-Tu-028

ION-MOLECULAR D2+ COMPLEX IN QUANTUM


RING
CARLOS ARNULFO GÓMEZ OLEJUA1 , WILLIAM GUTIÉRREZ NIÑO1 ,
FRANCISCO GARCÍA RUSSI1 , JAIRO HUMBERTO MARÍN CADAVID2
1
Universidad Industrial de Santander.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
We study a simple method for an artificial hydrogen molecular ion D2+ , into
the toroidal quantum ring, With two different very small cross seccion: circular and
square. This molecular complex is compound by two ions which are symmetrically
located to the quantum ring center, and they are bound by means of an electron
which is constrained to move inside the torous. As a consequence of the experi-
mental ting dimensions, we can follow the adiabatic approximation [1] in order to
separate the slow rotation motion around the ring from the faster motion into the
torous cross-section. This approximation allows us to obtain the one-dimensional
wave equation with renormalized potential [2]. The wave equation solution is ob-
tained by using the trigonometric sweep method [3]. The energies as a function of
the ion-ion separate, ring radius and the cross-section dimension are calculate.
References:
[1] M. Korkousinski and P. Harwrylak, Phys. Rev, B 63, 195311 (2001), L.F Garcia,
J. H. Mar, and I. D. Mikhailov, Braz. Jour. Of Physics 36, n 3b, 8781(2006).
[2] Braz. Jour. Phys. 36, No. 3B, 882 (2006).
[3] F. J. Betancurt,I. D. Mikhailov,and L. E. Olivera, J. Appl. Phys. D, 31, 3391
(1998).

CLACSA XIII
50 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-029

IRON AND ANTIMONY DOPING IN TIN DIOXIDE


NANOPARTICLES
C.A. Barrero1 , K. Nomura2
1
Universidad de Antioquia, Medellı́n, Colombia.
2
University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Understanding the origin of the magnetic interactions in oxide diluted magnetic


semiconductors, ODMS, is actually a subject of intensive research and it is greatly
enhancing our basic knowledge of magnetism [1-4]. Many theories have been put
forward but this subject is still a matter of controversy. In this field, it is of pri-
mary importance to prepare, under estrictly controlled conditions, samples free of
impurities and clustering of magnetic ions. In this presentation, we will review the
results of a series of works carried out by our groups and show possible future
directions of research in this field. We have prepared pure Fe doped SnO2 pow-
ders by a polymerized complex method under neutral [1,2] and acidic [3] solutions
and annealed at different temperatures. These samples were characterized by XRD,
SEM, EPR, magnetization, and 57Fe, 119Sn, and 121Sb Msbauer spectroscopies.
Our results suggest that we are dealing with samples which exhibit very complex
ferromagnetism coming from different sources that include not only interaction be-
tween ferric ions, but also interaction between magnetic defects. The nature of the
magnetic defects is discussed in the present work. The dominance of a given source
of magnetism greatly depends upon synthesis conditions. We have also studied the
effect of the simultaneous Fe and Sb doping on the magnetic and crystallographic
properties of SnO2 [4]. Among the samples, the most interesting one was that of
composition Sn0.85Sb0.05Fe0.1O2-d. This sample exhibited the largest saturation
magnetization, Ms, and showed a sextet in its 57Fe Msbauer spectrum. Thus, for a
restrictive iron/antimony concentration ratio, Ms can be enhanced and the magnetic
ordering in the iron ions can appear. The origin of the strong magnetic interactions
is considered due to the existence of exchange interactions between the iron ions
mediated by increase of free-carriers in an impurity band.
[1] K. Nomura, C.A. Barrero, J. Sakuma, and M. Takeda, Czech. J. Phys. 56,
E75 (2006).
[2] K. Nomura, C.A. Barrero, J. Sakuma, and M. Takeda, Phys. Rev. B 75, 184411
(2007).
[3] J. Sakuma, K. Nomura, C.A. Barrero, and M. Takeda, Thin Solid Films (2007)
in press.
[4] C.A. Barrero, K. Nomura, J. Sakuma, and T. Saito, and E. Kuzmann, submitted
for publication.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 51

0 17:30 P-Tu-030

LANDÉ g-FACTOR AND CYCLOTRON EFFECTIVE


MASS IN A CYLINDRICAL GaAs-(Ga,Al)As QUANTUM
PILLBOX UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF AN
AXIS-PARALLEL APPLIED MAGNETIC FIELD
R. Mejia-Salazar1 , N. Porras-Montenegro1
1
Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali, Colombia.

We report a calculation of the electron effective Landé gk factor and cyclotron ef-
fective mass in cylindrical semiconductor GaAs-Ga1−x Alx As quantum pillbox under
an axis-parallel applied magnetic field. The quantum pillbox is assumed to consist of
a finite length cylinder of GaAs material surrounded by Ga1−x Alx As material. The
calculations within the effective-mass approximation, have been performed including
nonparabolicity and anisotropy effects via an Ogg-McCombe effective Hamiltonian
[Proc. Phys. Soc. London 89, 431 (1969); Phys. Rev. 181, 1206 (1969)] for the elec-
tron in the conduction band of the GaAs-Ga1−x Alx As heterostructure. Calculations
are performed for different radius and lengths of the cylindrical GaAs-Ga1−x Alx As
quantum pillbox and as function of the applied magnetic field. Our results are in
good agreement with previous theoretical results [1] in the limit geometry of a quan-
tum well.
[1] M. de Dios-Leyva, N. Porras-Montenegro, H. S. Brandi, L. E. Oliveira, J. Appl.
Phys. 99, 104303 (2006).

0 17:30 P-Tu-032

Avalanche effect in a square superconductor loop


José J. Barba1 , Jesus D: Gonzáles2
1
Laboratório de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avandos, Departamento de
Fı́sica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife, PE, Brasi.
2
Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Facultad de Ingenierı́a y ciencias
Naturales. Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, A.A 1642, Bucaramanga, C.

In this work, we use the nonlinear Time Dependent Ginzburg -Landau equations
(TDGL) to study theoretically magnetization curve and vortex number of a square
loop (square ring geometry) in the presence of an external magnetic field applied
perpendicularly to the ring plane. We calculate the phase of the superconducting
order parameter using the numerical method based on the popular technique of
gauge invariant variables. We obtain isothermal magnetization curves for different
values of the Ginzburg - Landau parameter (κ) and temperature. We compare the
magnetization and vortex number for rings of several sizes and shown the different
vortex transition as a function of (κ).

CLACSA XIII
52 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-033

Calculation of direct and indirect excitons in vertically


coupled GaAs/GaAlAs quantum dots: The effects of
hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field
S. Y. López1 , C. A. Duque2
1
Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.

The variational procedure, in the effective-mass and parabolic-band approxi-


mations, is used in order to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure and in-
growth direction applied electric field on the exciton states in vertically coupled
GaAs/GaAlAs quantum dots. Calculations are performed for two cylindrical-shape
quantum dots. The exciton envelope wave function is obtained through a variational
procedure using a hydrogenic 1s-like wave function and an expansion in a complete
set of trigonometric functions for the electron and hole wave functions. We take
into account intersubband mixing brought about by the Coulomb interaction of
electron-hole pairs in two coupled quantum dots and present a detailed analysis of
the properties of direct and indirect exciton states in these systems. The anticross-
ing effects on the dispersion with applied voltage and hydrostatic pressure of the
photoluminescence peaks associated with direct and indirect excitons are carefully
studied. Calculated results are compared with available experimental and theoretical
findings on the photoluminescence peak position associated with direct and indirect
excitons in coupled GaAs/GaAlAs quantum dots under growth direction applied
electric fields and hydrostatic pressure.

0 17:30 P-Tu-034

Characterization of Piezoelectric Materials as Power Source


for Electronic Implantations Devices
Margarita López Alzate1 , Hernán Sánchez Machet1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Piezoelectric materials are attractive as power source for implanted nanoelec-


tronic systems using the energy generated by weaves alive and physiological or bio-
physical processes. The study of a piezoelectric thin film sensor and its behavior
as mechanical to electrical energy converter is discussed. A piezoelectric polymer-
PVDF - was characterized and its physical parameters measured. Besides the devel-
opment of a PVDF-based 2.5µW power source activated by mechanical vibrations
and efficiencies around the 5 % is presented.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 53

0 17:30 P-Tu-035

Crystallization of amorphous CdTe thin films to quantum


dots induced by an electron-beam
M. Becerril1 , O.Zelaya-Angel1 , J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez1 , C. A. Medina-Torres2 , R.
Ramı́rez-Bon3 , F. Espinoza-Beltrán3
1
Department of Physics, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del
IPN. P.O. Box 14-740, México 07360 D.F..
2
Escuela Superior de Fı́sica y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738
México D.F., México.
3
Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, CINVESTAV-IPN, Libramiento
Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Qro. México.

Amorphous cadmium-telluride thin films were prepared by R.F. sputtering on


Corning 7059 glass substrates at room temperature. As prepared films with thick-
ness 400 &#61617; 40 nm were amorphous according to X-ray diffraction (XRD)
patterns, but a win-fit-software analysis of the main broad XRD band suggests a
wurtzite structure at short range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at 200
KeV produces crystallization of the amorphous CdTe film. The TEM-electron-beam
induces the formation of CdTe quantum dots with the wurtzite hexagonal structure
(the metastable structure of CdTe) and with &#61566; 6 nm of average grain size.
Besides, the energy band gap increases according to literature data on quantum
confinement. Additional data on hexagonal CdTe are reported.

0 17:30 P-Tu-036

Crystallographic modification of rutile into hydrated


titanium oxide nanostructures
R.A. Zarate1 , S. Fuentes1 , P. Venegas2 , R. Espinosa3 , V.M. Fuenzalidad3 , P.
Leyton2
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenida Angamos
0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenida Angamos
0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Facultad de Ciencias Fı́sicas y Matemáticas,
Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago, Chile..

A new phase of layered structure of hydrate titanium oxide has been synthesized
from rutile phase by a single hydrothermal process at 130o C in a NaOH concentra-
tion of 5M and 10M. Observations performed by FEG-SEM and HRTEM indicated
that the transformation from spherical particles into nanotubes was not complete,
although the synthesis process was performed in a high NaOH concentration. We
think the reason is that the rutile is the most stable crystalline phase of all the
phases of the polymorphic titanium dioxide and the exfoliation in sheets depends on

CLACSA XIII
54 Tuesday

the crystalline planes. The nanotubes present good cristallinity, indicated by XRD
and Raman spectroscopy; however, the best of our knowledge, this new phase syn-
thesized had been not indexed yet. The crystallization water was detected by TG
analysis and was concluded that this new phase has half molecule of occluded wa-
ter. This result is supported by microscopy Raman and corroborates the existence
of crystallization water in the product synthesized. In summary, the occluded water
produce structural changes in the rutile, which is evidenced by Raman deep profile
scan, XRD, HRTEM and SAED of hydrate titanium oxide. Further studies are nec-
essaries to know the properties of this hydrate phase of titanium oxide for possible
technological applications, as in solar cells and in lithium ion intercalation.

0 17:30 P-Tu-037

Determination of deposition temperature of PbS, CdSe and


CdS films by chemical bath
J. Martı́nez1 , O. Portillo-Moreno2 , R. Lozada-Morales3 , R. Palomino-Merino3 ,
G.Juárez4 , O. Zelaya-Angel5 , E. Rosendo1 , T. Dı́az1
1
CIDS-ICUAP-Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.
2
Facultad de Ciencias Quı́micas-BUAP.
3
Posgrado en Optoelectrónica Fac.de Cs. Fı́sico-Matemáticas-BUAP.
4
SEES-CINVESTAV.
5
Depto. de Fı́sica-CINVESTAV.

CdS, CdSe and PbS films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath de-
position (CBD), with deposition temperature intervals (Td ); 0, 10,. . . 80 o C, keeping
constant the concentration, reactants volume, pH and stirring. Crystalline structure,
grain size (GS), composition and morphology, were investigated by x-ray diffraction
(XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)
and optic microscopy (OM). By XRD, in the CdS it observes the CdS→CdCO3
transition and the (GS) is between 24-30 nm, in the CdSe it identifies a gradual
transition of phase: hexagonal→cubic/hexagonal traces and the GS from 9 to 27
nm, and in the PbS the structure is cubic and the GS is from 19 to 30 nm. By EDS,
the CdS with Td = 80 o C, it atomic concentration is Cd = 49.1, S = 51.9, for CdSe
the atomic concentration still almost constant with cadmium 6 % in excess respect
to selenium, and the PbS has a sulfur excess of 5 % respect to lead. We present
a discussion about the conditions for obtain the better material for optoelectronic
applications.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 55

0 17:30 P-Tu-038

EFFECT OF NANOPARTICLES OF Fe2O3 ON THE


PHASE BEHAVIOR OF CsHSeO4.
O. Checa1 , E. Olaya1 , J. E. Diosa1 , R. A. Vargas1
1
Departamento de Fisica - Universidad del Valle.

Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), thermogravimetric analy-


sis (TGA) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) were used to study the thermoelectric
properties of the solid electrolyte composites (1-x) CsHSeO4-Fe2O3 in the concen-
tration range x = 0.0 - 0.7. The composites were prepared by mechanical mixing of
the components followed by heating at a temperature of 50 C during 6 hours. The
pure CsHSeO4 shows two endothermic anomalies at 80 C and 128 C respectively,
on the first heating run. The first anomaly at 80 C is affected by the Fe2O3 con-
tent, making it more stable. Both anomalies decrease when the Fe2O3 concentration
increases. The conductivity results present a functional dependence on the Fe2O3
concentrations. The results are explained in terms of approximation effect of the
nanopowders with CsHSeO4 that modified the lattice dynamics.

0 17:30 P-Tu-039

Effect of potential shape on the binding energy of the


impurity states in nanotube
JESUS D. GONZALEZ ACOSTA1 , EDUARDO OROZCO OSPINO2 , JOSE
BARBA ORTEGA3
1
UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE BUCARAMANGA.
2
UNIVERSIDAD INDUSTRIAL DE SANTANDER.
3
UNIVERSIDAD FEDERAL DE PERNAMBUCO.

Within the framework of the effective mass approximation we analyze a varia-


tion of the ground state energy of the off-axis neutral donor in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As
cylindrical nanotube under uniform magnetic field directed along the symmetry ax-
is. A model of confinement with different profiles (rectangular-step, soft-step and
parabolic-step) produced by variations of the Al concentration in the transition
region of the junctions is considered. The Bastard-type trial function without con-
sideration of the effect of the subband mixing , commonly used for calculating the
ground state binding energy of donors located in such type of heterostructures can
be inadequate to describe the asymmetric electron charge distribution around the
off-axis donor and can lead to a lower estimate of the binding energy. This deficien-
cy could be more essential in nanotube, the heterostructure with a repulsive core
around the wire axis. In this case the confining potential along cross section through
the axis of the nanotube is similar to one of a symmetric double quantum well for
which, as it has been demonstrated previously, the inclusion of the subband mixing
plays an important role in correctly determining off-center donor binding energies

CLACSA XIII
56 Tuesday

[1]. Similarly to the case of a double quantum dot, the low lying 1s and 2px,y sub-
bands of the free electron in nanotube become almost degenerated as the size of the
center potential barrier increases and the mixing of these subbands in the presence
of the off-axis donor no longer may be depreciated. Therefore the effect of the mixing
of the low lying 1s and 2px,y subbands on the ground state binding energy of the
off-axis donors in cylindrical nanotube has been included in consideration in our cal-
culation. We express the wave function as a product of combination of 1s and 2px,y
subband wave functions with an unknown envelope function that depends only on
electron-ion separation. By using variational principle and the functional derivative
procedure we derive a one-dimensional differential equation for the envelope func-
tion, which we solve numerically by means of the trigonometric sweep method [2].
By using this procedure we calculate the donor binding energies in nanotubes with
different radii of the repulsive core and potential profile as a function of the distance
from the donor location to the axis. It is shown that the including of the subband
mixing in variational calculation provides an increase of the binding energies reaches
about 10 %.

0 17:30 P-Tu-040

Effect of starch as capping agent on the optical properties


of CdS nanoparticles
P. Rodrı́guez1 , N. Muñoz-Aguirre2 , G. Gonzalez de la Cruz1 , S. A. Tomas1 , O.
Zelaya-Angel1 , J. Mendoza-Alvarez1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000,
México, D.F..
2
Programa de Ingenierı́a Molecular del Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje
Central Lázaro Cárdenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, M.
Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) have been investigated over the
past years due to their specific optic, electronic and catalytic properties. These
properties emerge from the high surface-to-volume ratio present in nanoparticles.
Therefore, we have to be able to control and modify nanoparticles surface in or-
der to control their properties. This surface modification can be done by chemical
methods and has been subject of extensive investigation. Passivation is achieved
mostly by capping of the particles with organic, but also with inorganic materials.
Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles have been passivated by starch. Organic ligands such
as thiopyridines and thiolates have been reported to minimize surface defects and
increase luminescence efficiencies [1]. Cadmium chalcogenides are well studied ma-
terials due to, among other interesting properties, their well established relationship
between the optical absorption and their size. Cadmium sulfide could be used as
bioorganic detector of proteins or DNA [2]. With a good surface modification we
can obtain, with cadmium sulfide, core/shell nanoparticles, which have enhanced
luminescence properties. The purpose of the present study is to develop an effective
one-step method for the preparation of well-controlled and uniform particle sizes
of CdS nanoparticles by varying the synthesis conditions such as the concentration

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 57

of starch. The CdS nanoparticles were characterized by means of by HRTEM, X-


ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis absorption and Photoluminescence and Raman
spectroscopy. The optical characterization of the CdS nanoparticles give an average
particle size of 5 nm.
[1] E. Katari et al. J. Phys. Chem., 98 (1994) 4109.
[2] R. Mahtab et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 118 (1996) 7028.

0 17:30 P-Tu-041

Magnetoexciton energy spectrum in type-II quantum-well


structures
R. A. Escorcia1 , J. Sierra-Ortega1 , Ilia D. Mikhailov2
1
Universidad del Magdalena.
2
Universidad Industrial de Santander.

We have developed a variational formalism based on the fractal dimensional


method [1] for calculating the energy spectrum of both the heavy-hole and the light-
hole indirect excitons in GaAs-AlAs type-II quantum-well structures in the presence
of a magnetic field applied along the growth axis. We take into account the effects
related to the finiteness and softness of the potential barriers, the effective mass mis-
match of the electron and the hole across the GaAs-AlAs interfaces and the subband
mixing. The exciton wave function is taken as a product of a linear combination of
two-dimensional hydrogen atom orbitals with an unknown envelope function that
depends only on the electron-hole separation in the growth axis direction. Starting
from the variational principle we deduce a one-dimensional differential equation for
this function which is solved numerically. The y states energies dependencies on the
well width, the potential shape, the barrier height and the magnetic field strength
are studied. Our results for these states are in a good agreement with both calcu-
lations theoretical [2] experimental results [3]. Our formalism can be extended to
study other excited states of magnetoexcitons in a type-II quantum wells and dots.
References
[1] Mikhailov I D, Betancur F J, Escorcia R A and J Sierra-Ortega, Phys. Stat. Sol.
(b) 230, 469 (2002); Phys. Rev. B 67, 115317 (2003 ); Physica B 355, 255 (2005)
[2] Cen J. and Bajaj K. K., Phys. Rev. B 47, 1392 (1993)
[3] Hodge C. C., Phillips C. C., Skolnick M. S., Smith G. W., Whitehouse C. R.,
Dawson P., and Foxon C. T., Phys. Rev. B41, 12319 (1990)
Keywords: Excitons; type-II quantum well; Magnetic field
PACS: 71.35.-y, 71.35.Ji, 73.63.Hs

CLACSA XIII
58 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-042

Magneto-exciton transitions in laterally coupled quantum


dots
Z. Barticevic1 , M. Pacheco2 , C. A. Duque3 , L. E. Oliveira4
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad T écnica Federico Santa Mar ı́a, Valpara
ı́so, Chile.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad T écnica Federico Santa Mar ı́a, Valpara
ı́so, Chile.
3
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.
4
Instituto de Fı́sica, Unicamp, CP 6165, Campinas - SP, 13083-970, Brazil.

We present a study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled


quantum dots. The excitonic spectra of this system under the effects of an external
magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the dots is obtained, with the
potential of every individual dot taken as the superposition of a quantum well po-
tential along the axial direction with a lateral parabolic confinement potential, and
the coupled two-dot system then modeled by a superposition of the potentials of
each dot, with their minima at different positions and truncated at the intersection
plane. The wave functions and eigenvalues are obtained in the effective-mass approx-
imation by using an extended variational approach in which the magneto-exciton
states are simultaneously obtained [1]. The allowed magneto-exciton transitions are
investigated by using circularly polarized radiation in the plane perpendicular to
the magnetic field. We present results on the excitonic absorption coefficient as a
function of the photon energy for different geometric quantum-dot confinement and
magnetic-field values.
[1] Z. Barticevic, M. Pacheco, C. A. Duque and L. E. Oliveira, Phys. Rev. B 68,
073312 (2003).

0 17:30 P-Tu-043

MAGNETOTRANSPORT IN A TYPE HYLLERAS


DOUBLE BARRIER POTENCIAL SYSTEM
Julian A. Zuñiga1 , Ober L. Hernández Rosero1 , Servio T. Perez Merchancano1
1
Universidad del Cauca.

Semiconductor physics and magnetism are fields of condensed-matter physics


that continuously reveal a rich variety of unusual phenomena, in areas such as the
new types of semiconductors solid-state materials, their properties are very sensi-
tive to impurity atoms, defects, and charges on external gates. This implies that,
in semiconductors and ferromagnetic semiconductors, the physical properties can
be affected by the same assortment of engineering variables that are available for
other more conventional semiconductor electronic properties. So far theoretical and

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 59

experimental works have come showing excellent and novel changes in several physi-
cal properties when these semiconductor devices are put under hydrostatic pressure
showing that this property plays important role in the optoelectronic properties of
semiconductor devices.
In the present paper we have study the behavior of one impurity in a double barrier
system that we have shaped the potential barriers with the hylleras model seeking
to make a better approximation for a real model of the bands behavior in semicon-
ductors materials. In this work we have calculated the transmission coefficient and
current intensity as functions of the energy, impurity position, magnetic field and
hydrostatic pressure. In this study we have considered the transference matrix and
the hypergeometric confluent function form that outline the behavior of carriers in
this system.
In the first instance we have studied the transmission and reflections coefficients
behavior as a function of the hydrostatic pressure for constant magnetic fields and a
fixed impurity position. Here we have observed that such coefficients acquire smaller
values as the hydrostatic pressure increases from 0 to 30 kbar, this allow us to affirm
that the carriers need less energy to transport throughout the system. In the second
instance we have analyzed the behavior of the above mentioned coefficients taking
into account the displacement of the impurity towards the edge of the potential well.
This have shown a substantial change in the quantum tunneling given that the im-
purity position causes a modification in the intensity of the peaks, showing a better
tunneling throughout the system. Likewise, when the impurity is located exactly in
potential well center, the energy necessary to tunnel is bigger. The same behavior is
observed when the hydrostatic pressure is increased in our model, showing that the
quantum tunneling is diminished requiring a greater energy to show effects similar
to those aforementioned

0 17:30 P-Tu-044

Measurements of nanoliquid thermal parameters by using


photothermal techniques
J.L. Jiménez-Pérez1
1
CICATA-IPN.

In this article we used two photothermal techniques, thermal lens spectrometry


and photopyroelectric, to characterize the thermal diffusivity and effusivity of nano-
liquids samples. In the case of the determination of thermal diffusivity the thermal
lens technique was used for the different solvents in presence of gold nanoparticles.
In this technique an Ar laser (wavelength 514 nm, power 40 mW) and intensity
stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the heating source and probe beam respective-
ly. The experimental results showed that thermal diffusivity values of the studied
solvents (water, ethanol and ethylene glycol (EG)) were enhanced by the presence
of gold nanoparticles. The thermal effusivity of these samples was obtained by the
photopyroelectric technique in a front detection configuration. These techniques are

CLACSA XIII
60 Tuesday

applicable for all kind of liquid samples, including the semitransparent ones. The
comparisons with literature values show a remarkable agreement.

0 17:30 P-Tu-045

Molecular adsorption in nanochannels: The Maya blue case


Maribel Contreras Villegas1 , Jorge Orozco Velazco1 , Porfirio D. Rosendo
Francisco1
1
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México.

It is well known that Maya blue has peculiar features. Some of them are been
studied using classical molecular dynamics. However, because of the nature of the
interactions, and the differences between components (palygorskite and indigo) and
the system (Mayan blue), we consider that, in order to have a complete scheme
about the system, a simulation with real interactions has to be made. The best way
to have this goal done is using ab-initio molecular dynamics.
In this work, we are interested only in how indigo goes into palygorskite to
form the Maya blue. This is our first approach in order to known how Maya blue
can be produced and, later on, trying to understand the origin of its features. The
palygorskite is a clay, so it has some water molecules in its channels. So, we expect
that water plays a important role in the process of adsorption. For that reason, we
present some molecular dynamics results about indigo in water. Because of strong
correlations due to hydrogen bridges, Car-Parinello molecular dynamics was made
to capture this interaction. The system studied consisted of a single molecule of
indigo surrounded by 684 water molecules.
We also know that only some orientation give us a stable system. Actually, this
are the only studied using classical dynamics. So, we try to look for those orientations
that allow to indigo goes into palygorskite channel, to compare with those obtained
using classical simulation. An explanation of how those orientations are special is
presented, having care with the interaction between water and indigo. We are also
later look for any other stable states of the Maya blue.
Keywords: Maya blue, palygorskite, indigo, molecular dynamics
Acknowledgments: Work supported by research project 2227/2006U UAEMex

0 17:30 P-Tu-046

Nano-composite of porous silicon and blue-methylene


molecules for optical gas sensor application
Aldo Aparicio Acosta1 , Walter Jaimes Salcedo1
1
Universidade de São Paulo.

Optical properties of porous silicon (PS) can be used as an excellent material


for photonic devices fabrication [1]. The high surface area of PS and their surface
sensitivity to optical properties were used in order to fabricate the optical gas sensor

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 61

[2]. Many efforts have been devoted to the elaboration of nano-composites based PS.
The objective could be to improve the electro luminescence efficiency, or also the
realization of particular sensing properties [3]. In this work, the Photoluminescence
(PL) behavior of thermal oxidized porous silicon/blue methylene (Ox-PS/BM) nano-
composite, submitted to different organic ambient, was studied. Porous silicon (PS)
layers were prepared by the electrochemical anodization method after that PS film
was submitted to thermal oxidation process in O2 ambient at 900 OC during 5
minutes. The Ox-PS surface was wetted with MB solution in ethanol; the solvent
evaporation was obtained by spinning the wet sample (spin coating). The final Ox-
PS/BM structure was analyzed by infrared, optical absorption and PL spectra, the
results of spectra pointed out that MB molecules were adsorbed in all the Ox-PS
surface conserving their monomer features, i.e., all the optical properties of BM
molecules in low concentration organic solution were preserved. The Ox-PS/BM
structure was setup into the chamber vacuum (10-5 bar) initially, followed by the
injection of organic gas vapor (benzene, Methanol, Ethanol Hexane). In the initial
state (Vacuum), the PL emission of Ox-PS/BM showed a low intensity emission
and the increasing of their intensity when injected gas concentration increases. These
results showed that the Ox-PS/BM structure was an excellent material for gas sensor
fabrication.
References:
[1] V. Parkhutik, sol. stat. Electron. 43, 1121 (1999).
[2] W. J. Salcedo, F. J. R. Fernadez, J. C. Rubim, Spectrochem. Act. A 60, 1077
(2004).
[3] L. T. Canham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 337 (1993).

0 17:30 P-Tu-047

A virtual instrument to predict the chemical composition of


CVD synthesized thin films.
Juan Esteban Barreiro1 , William Vallejo2 , Claudia Arguello1 , Jaime Arturo1 ,
Gerardo Gordillo2 , Cesar Quiñones1
1
Universidad de America.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

A LabVIEW elaborated virtual instrument was built to predict the SiO2 mod-
ified TiO2 thin films composition. The films were synthesized by Chemical vapor
Deposition (CVD). The mathemmatical model developed was quite simple and it
incorporates the main evaporation process parameters ocurring in the bubbler. The
CVD has ample technology applications in renewable energy field and photocalysis.

CLACSA XIII
62 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-048

Adsorption thermodynamics of interacting particles on


partially diluted-bonds triangular lattices
Perarnau M.1 , Bulnes F.1 , Ramirez-Pastor A.J.1 , Zgrablich G.1
1
Dpto. de Fı́sica, LACSUMP, UNSL, y CONICET..

Gas-solid interactions are the fundamental physical entities for the understand-
ing of adsorption, which is the first step in a variety of processes in surface science
and its applications, such as gas separation, catalysis, and thin films growth [1]. For
the great majority of real systems the adsorptive energy surface is not a flat, or even
a periodic, surface but a quite irregular one. Surface heterogeneity is usually sepa-
rated in energetic and geometric heterogeneity, even when most real solids surfaces
present a combination of the two types [1,2]. However, studying them separately
is useful to understand their efects on adsorption of interacting particles. Energet-
ic heterogeneity is manifested through the variation of adsorption energy from one
site to another, while geometric heterogeneity is associated with variable distance
among neighboring sites or variable connectivity, whose efects on adsorption are
manifested through adsorbateadsorbate interactions [3]. A simple model consisting
of a triangular lattice where a fraction of bonds (adsorbateadsorbate interactions)
is weakened at random is used here to find out, by using grand canonical Monte
Carlo simulations, how the adsorption thermodynamics of repulsively interacting
particles is modified with respect to the same process in the homogeneous lattice
[4]. Adsorption isotherm, diferential heat of adsorption and adsorbed phase entropy
calculations are carried out showing and interpreting the efects of the variable con-
nectivity.
[1] M.J. Jaroniec, R. Madey, “Physical Adsorption on Heterogeneous Surfaces, El-
sevier, Amsterdam, 1988.
[2] Rudzinski, W., Steele, W. A., Zgrablich, G., Eds. “Equilibria and Dynamics of
Gas Adsorption on Heterogeneous Solid Surfaces ; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1997.
[3] M. Quintana, M. Pasinetti, A. J. Ramirez-Pastor, G. Zgrablich, Surf. Sci. 600
(2006) 33.
[4] F. Romá, A. J. Ramirez-Pastor, Physica A 328 (2003) 513; Phys. Rev. E 69
(2004) 036124.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 63

0 17:30 P-Tu-049

Analysis of the electronic transport in epitaxial


Y Ba2Cu3O7 − d/La1/3Ca2/3M nO3/La2/3Ca1/3M nO3 trilayers
applying the Simmons and small polarons hopping model
Wilmer Saldarriaga1 , Eval Baca2 , Oswaldo Moran3
1
Universidad del Cauca-Popayan.
2
Universidad del Valle-Cali.
3
Universidad de Nacional-Medellin.

Electronic transport measurements were carried out on epitaxially grown Y Ba2 Cu3 O7 -
d /La1/3 Ca2/3 MnO3 /La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3 trilayered structures. The I-V characteristics
were recorded both by cooling the sample in zero field (ZFC) and in a field (FC)
of 50 mT, applied parallel to the structure surface (in-plane geometry). Although
the I-V characteristics, recorded in the temperature range 15-150 K, featured a
non-linear behavior, they showed no energy gap-like structure associated with the
superconducting layer. Such non linear behavior might be ascribed to a combination
of tunnelling and thermal activation mechanisms. By applying the polynomial ap-
proximation, given by the linear Simmonsś model, to the integral conductance G =
I/V vs V dependence at 15 K, an equilibrium barrier height φ0 ≈ 2.6eV and a barrier
wide t≈ 2.2nm were obtained. In turn, the small polarons hopping model, applied
to the I-V curves, allowed to calculate the hopping distance a and the activation en-
ergy Ea . In the measuring temperature range (15-150 K), the parameter a displayed
a behaviour that was well fitted with the expression a≈ bt exp[-γ(2T /ΘD )], being
ΘD the Debyeś temperature and bt the electronic bandwidth. The ratio 2γ/ΘD took
values of 36 and 95 K −1 for the ZFC and FC procedure, respectively. This finding
pointed out to a dependence of the factor γ on the magnetization history.
Keywords: Heterostructures, electronic properties

0 17:30 P-Tu-050

Influence of the growth time on the optical response of


GaInAsSb films
M. de los Rı́os1 , L. Tirado-Mejı́a1 , G. Fonthal2 , H. Ariza-Calderón1
1
Laboratorio de Optoelectrónica, Universidad del Quindı́o.
2
Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo.

We studied the effect produced by different growth times in the optical response
of Gax In1−x Asy Sb1−y films grown by liquid phase epitaxy technique. Ten samples of
the quaternary alloy GaInAsSb were fabricated on Te-doped GaSb substrates with
different growth times (20-270 seconds) in order to obtain different thicknesses. With
the purpose of identifying the radiative transitions, the samples were characterized
by means of Photoluminescence technique making variations in temperature (11-
300K) and laser power (2-200mW). Two main bands were observed in the spectra

CLACSA XIII
64 Tuesday

for almost all the samples. The band located around 0.72 eV is attributed to bound
exciton transitions and has been reported in the literature for the Gax In1−x Asy Sb1−y
in concentrations of 0.14 and 0.13 for x and y respectively. The low energy band,
located around 0.64 eV, is due to transitions involving defects. When the spectra of
the samples grown with different times were compared, remarkable changes in the
position of the peaks and in the spectra line shape were evidenced. We considered
that the two main contributions to these changes are variations in the stoichiometry
and in the defect density. In order to obtain an estimative of the atomic fractions of
the elements, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used as a complemen-
tary technique. On this work, we present the correlation between the growth time,
the optical response and the atomic fractions of the elements forming the quaternary
alloy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This work was partially supported by the Universi-
dad del Quind and by the Excellence Center for Novel Materials (ECNM), under
Contract No. 043-2005 subscribed with Colciencias.

0 17:30 P-Tu-051

ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES IN


OVERDOPED YBCO SUPERCONDUCTOR THIN
FILMS
A.Galvis1 , H.Castro1 , C. Mejia1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

A fundamental question in understanding the phenomenon of superconductivity


in the high temperature superconductors (HTSC) is the possibility of describing the
electrons in these materials in the frame of the Fermi Liquid theory. In the phase
diagram of temperature vs. doping we find four different phases: Antiferromagnetic,
Pseudogap, Marginal Fermi Liquid and Fermi Liquid. This work is focused in the
study of Fermi Liquid zone, which appears at high doping (overdoped region). It has
been generaly assumed, without much study, that the behaviour of this zone is that
of a normal metal. Nevertheless, our measurements, and data from other researchers
show a different behaviour. We have measured resistivity and Hall effect vs. tem-
perature in overdoped YBaCaCuO thin films. The anomalous transport properties
presented in this region is argued in our conclussions to be evidence of a non Fermi
Liquid behavior.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 65

0 17:30 P-Tu-052

Au THIN FILMS GROWN IN NITROGEN


ENVIROMENT
J.H. Quintero1 , J.M. Gonzalez1 , V.J. Benavides1 , A. Devia1 , J. P. Londoño1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

Au thin films were grown in nitrogen enviroment by Pulsed Arc Plasma Assisted
Physical Vapor Deposition (PA-PAPVD), with a Gold target 99.99 % purity and
deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate. The broadening Au peak orientation ob-
tained by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns is studied. The lattice parameter is
obtained from the XRD pattern. Lattice stability studies are performed by Mul-
liken population analysis, molecular orbital and electron total density using Density
Functional Theory (DFT).
Keywords: Gold, Pulsed Arc, Density Functional Theory.

0 17:30 P-Tu-053

Biocompatibility and physical, morphological and


electrochemical properties of niobium oxides thin films
G. Ramı́rez G.1 , S.E. Rodil2 , S. Muhl2 , H.Arzate3 , J.J. Olaya1 , M. Rivera4 ,
Enrique Camps5 , L. Escobar Alarcón5
1
Unidad de Materiales, Departamento de Ingenierı́a Mecánica y Mecatrónica,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, México D.F. 04510, México.
3
Laboratorio de Biologı́a Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologı́a,
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510, Méxi.
4
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad
Universitaria, 04510, México D.F., México..
5
Departamento de Fı́sica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, México,
D. F. 11801, México, (Apdo. Postal 18-1027).

This work shows the results of the characterization and biomedical evaluation
of niobium oxides (NbOx) thin films deposited using an unbalanced magnetron
sputtering. Thin films of NbOx were grown under different deposition conditions
(O2 flow rate and pressure) and were characterized to obtain growth rates, micro-
structure, surface morphology, optical properties and hardness. The results indicated
that the films were amorphous under any of the conditions used. The corrosion
resistance of the coatings was improved compared to the stainless steel substrate
as demonstrated by the greater polarization resistance and minor corrosion current
density. The corrosion resistance was used as a parameter to determine and select
the optimum deposition conditions to produce films for the biomedical evaluation. A
large number of these NbOx films, with minor corrosion density, were deposited and

CLACSA XIII
66 Tuesday

the response of human cells to these surfaces were evaluated in comparison to NbN
films, AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V. Cellular adhesion and proliferation
assays showed that the NbOx films were biocompatible to human cells. Moreover,
the biomineralization was evaluated studying the formation of CaP minerals on the
surfaces.

0 17:30 P-Tu-054

CdS FILMS DEPOSITED UNDER ROTATION BY


CHEMICAL BATH
A.I. Oliva-Avilés1 , Yenni Farfán1 , Aurora Canul, Candi Tzuc1 , R. Patiño1 and
A.I. Oliva1
1
Cinvestav IPN-Unidad Mérida, Depto. de Fı́sica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex,
97310 Mérida Yucatán México.

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a low cost technique for CdS films prepara-
tion. Traditional method to deposit uses magnetic agitation applied to the bath in
order to homogenize the chemical components. However, different techniques to ag-
itate the bath and/or the substrate, such as ultrasound, oscillation, and microwaves
have been reported. In a preliminary work [1] we demonstrated that oscillating
the substrate into the bath, clean and transparent CdS films can be achieved and
no-precipitations during deposition was observed into the bath. In this work, we
proposed to rotate the substrate during CdS deposition and to study its effect on
their morphological, optical, and structural properties. A group of five CdS films was
deposited at different deposition time onto Corning glass substrates for each selected
rotation velocity (150, 300, 450 and 600 RPM) for chemical deposition. Chemical
bath heated at 75 C typically composed by CdCl2, KOH, NH4NO3 and CS(NH2)2
as chemical reagents was used. A rotator substrate-holder was designed such that a
pair of deposited films can be taken out vertically for each deposition time. Results
show a decrement of the gap energy when the velocity of rotation increases. Better
quality films were achieved at minor velocities as EDS analysis and thickness mea-
surement on films demonstrate. Stoichiometry is affected strongly by the rotation,
giving excess of Cd at higher speed. Thus, we show that the relative motion between
substrate and chemical bath plays an important role on the CdS films properties
obtained. Rotation effects can be of interest for industrial production of CdTe/CdS
solar cells.
[1] Y.A. Salazar, R. Pati, J.L. Pe, W. Cauich, A.I. Oliva. Braz. J. Phys., 36 (3B)
1058-1061 (2006). *Bachelor student at FI-UADY, Mico.
Work supported by Conacyt-Mico through project F1-54173.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 67

0 17:30 P-Tu-055

CHARACTERIZATION BY SEM AND AES OF


HETEROSTRUCTURES (GaAs-Ge)n /GaAs.
E. Gómez Barojas1 , R. Silva González2 , R. Galeazzi-Isasmendi1 , E.
Rosendo-Andrés1 , H. Navarro Contreras3 , M. A. Vidal Borbolla4
1
CIDS-IC,BUAP, MEXICO.
2
INSTITUTO DE FISICA, BUAP, MEXICO.
3
IICO, UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO.
4
ICO, UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO.

Since 2 decades ago the resarches had already identifield the problems encountered
on growing a polar on a nonpolr material for example the polar semiconductor GaAs
on a nonpolar substrate of similar structure like Si or Ge, these are: the problem of
antiphase disorder on the compound side of the interface, b) the problem of lack of
electrical neutrality the interface, and c) the problem of cross doping.
The research in this area has been continued since the semiconductor heterostruc-
tures promised new properties not only for electronic applications, such as hetero-
junction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and solar cells but also for fabricating nonlinear
optical devices and their possible monolithic integration with semiconductor lasers
and the advanced Si electronic technology the research as been continued.
The object of this work was to study the surface morphology, periodicity and the
elemental compositions of a set of 14 (GaAs-Ge)n /GaAs heterostructures grown by
the magnetron sputtering technique where n=15 periods. The set of samples was
characterized by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and Auger electron spec-
troscopy (AES) techniques. To observe the periodicity of the constituent layers of
the heterostructures by SEM, the etching solution NH2 OH:H2 O2 :H2 O (1:5:25) was
used. The etching rate of this solution is preferential to GaAs than to Ge, therefore
grooves patterns were produced in the perpendicular sides of the samples. Depth
Auger profiles were recorded with the same measurement parameters for compari-
son purposes.
This project was partially supported by VIEP-BUAP. Project IIG5301.

CLACSA XIII
68 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-056

Characterization of polycrystalline rhenium oxide


compounds prepared for two different methods
E. Ramı́rez1 , E. Chavira2 , L. Huerta2 , A.I. Martı́nez3
1
Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologı́a Avanzada-Instituto
Politécnico Nacional, Km 14.5 Carretera Tampico - Puerto Industrial.
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, AP 70-360, 04510 México D. F., México..
3
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional
(Cinvestav-IPN), Unidad Saltillo, A.P. 663, 25900 Saltillo Coahui.

The simple tetrahedral oxo-anions and oxides of the transition metals with d0
configuration (AO4y− ) are of considerable interest for the understanding of the nature
of transition metal-oxygen bonds. The scheelite-structured ABO4 compounds can
be formed with several valence combinations of the A and B. It has been observed
that there is an increase in the degree of covalency and decrease in the ionicity when
the A, B valencies change. The polycrystalline samples of KReO4 were synthesized
by solid-state reaction and sol-gel method via acrylamide polymerization. The X-
ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the Re − 4f , Re − 4d, O − 1s
and K − 2p core levels identify the chemical states of KReO4 , ReO2 and ReO3
coexistence in low concentration; the deconvolution fit spectra of Re − 4f7/2 and
Re − 4f5/2 , O − 1s and K − 2p after 45 min etching determine oxidation state of
Re, O and K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows a single phase of KReO4 , the
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the difference in morphology on the
surface of the pellet according to the preparation method. The samples synthesized
by solid-state reaction shows grains with sizes between 1 and 10 µ m at the surface,
while that prepared by sol-gel shows particles with sizes less than 1 µm.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 69

0 17:30 P-Tu-057

Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of AlC, AlN


and AlCN Thin Films Obtained by the r.f. Magnetron
Sputtering technique
L. Yate1 , F. J. Espinoza Beltran2 , J. C. Caicedo1 , G. Zambrano1 , J.
Muñoz-Saldaña2 , P.Prieto3
1
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali - Colombia..
2
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del CINVESTAV-IPN, Querétaro-
México.
3
Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Cali-Colombia..

Aluminum nitride (Al-N), Aluminum carbide (Al-C), and Aluminum Carboni-


tride (Al-C-N) thin films were grown onto Si [100] substrates by r.f. reactive mag-
netron sputtering at 400 C. The Al-N coatings were obtained by sputtering of Al
(99.9 %)target in Ar/N2 atmosphere and the Al-C and Al-C-N by sputtering of a bi-
nary (50 % Al, 50 % C) target in pure argon and in Ar/N2 mixture respectively. The
polarization d.c. bias voltage was varied between 0 and -150 V, in order to investi-
gate its influence on mechanical properties of deposited films. The films were char-
acterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS),
Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nanoindentation. XRD anal-
ysis showed that the polarization bias voltage has a strong effect on the growth of
different phases. EDS analysis indicated that when the bias voltage increases, the
Al content in the films has a tendency to decrease in the Al-C and Al-N films, but
it increases in the Al-C-N films. On the other hand, the nitrogen content varied
between 10 and 14 % at. for Al-N coatings, and it was practically constant (21 %
at.) for the Al-C-N films. The measured Berkovich hardness was 7 GPa, 8 GPa and
14 GPa for Al-C, Al-C-N, and Al-N films, respectively. The elastic modulus was
around 100 GPa for all films.

Keywords:Aluminum Carbide, Aluminum Nitride, Aluminum Carbonitride, mag-


netron sputtering, mechanical properties.

Acknowledgements:This work was supported by COLCIENCIAS, through the


p-2006-0005 Young Researchers 2006 Program and by the Excellence Center for
Novel Materials, CENM, under the RC-043-2005 contract.

CLACSA XIII
70 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-058

Characterization of W-N Thin Films Growth in a Pulsed


Arc System
O. Trujillo1 , R. Ospina1 , Y. C. Arango1 , P. J. Arango1 , A. Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

Tungsten nitride is considered a very important material used in various fields in-
cluding engineering, microelectronics and aeronautics. WN thin films were produced
in a pulsed arc system at various N2 partial pressures in an Ar − N2 gas mixture.
The coatings produced are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique in
order to identify the present phases in the films, and the variation of the lattice pa-
rameter, Chemical states of the WN films were determined by X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques.
It was found that a structure of W2 N was formed with the preferencial orientation in
the plane (111). The lattice parameter was between 4.1917 and 4.1927 Å. Through
XPS analysis the binding energy were determinatated at 33.4 eV for W4f 7/2 and
35.7 eV for W4f5/2 corresponding to W-N bond.

0 17:30 P-Tu-059

Characterization of WO3 thin films grown by hot-filament


metal oxide deposition
Joel Dı́az-Reyes1 , Valentin Dorantes-Garcı́a2 , Aarón Pérez-Benı́tez3 , Miguel
Galván-Arellano4
1
CIBA-IPN.
2
Preparatoria Simón Bolivar-BUAP.
3
FCQ-BUAP.
4
CINVESTAV-IPN.

Thin film of tungsten oxide (WO3) has been studied extensively as an elec-
trochromic material and has numerous applications in electrochromic devices, smart
windows, gas sensors and optical windows. In order to explore the possibility of us-
ing this in electrochromic devices, a preliminary and thorough study of the kinetic
growth and of the optical properties of the WO3 is an important step. The effect of
the annealing temperature on the crystalline structure, surface morphological and
optical properties of WO3 layers has been studied in this work. The WO3 layers
have been grown by the physical vapor deposition method of the sublimation of
electric light filament technique under atmospheric pressure and an oxygen atmo-
sphere. The single phase nature, monoclinic structure and textured nature of layers
has been verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline defects have been
observed from surface morphological studies by AFM. The shift in absorption edge
towards the lower energies region observed from optical studies could be due to the
coloration effect on the layers.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 71

0 17:30 P-Tu-060

Chemical analysis of CNx thin films produced by pulsed


laser ablation
Lina Maria Franco Arias1 , Jaime Andres Pérez Taborda1 , Henry Riascos
Landázuri1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Colombia.

We present an investigation of the effect of process parameters, namely depo-


sition pressure, laser fluence and substrate temperature, on growth and bonding
states of carbon nitride (CNx) thin films deposited by Nd:YAG laser (1064nm) ab-
lation of a graphite target in nitrogen atmosphere. Based on the comparative and
quantitative analysis of changes in measured infrared spectroscopy (IR) versus X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra and on a critical review of the existing
interpretation of IR and XPS data growth conditions that lead to the synthesis
of hard and elastic films having properties close to those of fullerene-like CNx is
proposed.
Keywords Pulsed Laser Deposition; Carbon Nitride; X-ray photoelectron spec-
troscopy.
PACS 61.48.+c; 81.05.Tp; 82.80.Pv

0 17:30 P-Tu-061

CHEMICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF


(Ti-Zr)N THIN FILMS GROWN IN AN ARC PULSED
SYSTEM.
Oscar Alexander Trujillo1 , Lilian Cristina Agudelo1 , Yulieth Cristina Arango1 ,
Harvy Alirio Castillo1 , Alfonso Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

We had been produced (Ti-Zr)N thin films and in this work chemical, mor-
phological and electronics analysis are presented. Thin films were produced by the
PAPVD (Plasma assisted Physics Vapor Deposition) technique, of pulsed arc, in a
mono-vaporizer system using a titanium-zirconium target with 4N purity. Argon-
nitrogen mixture for the discharge was used. For the analyses X-Ray Photoelectron
Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) techniques were used.
XPS results showed the chemical composition. Films were morphologically and tri-
bologically characterized using (SPM), obtaining grain size and friction coefficient.
The electronic properties were determined using a programmable curve tracer.

CLACSA XIII
72 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-062

Comparative study of electrical and morphological


properties of Al doped ZnO thin films based on AFM
Nilson Ferreira1 , Leandro Raniero2 , Cristiano Legnani2 , Carlos Achete1 , Renata
Simão1
1
PEMM/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
2
Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Dimat, Inmetro.

Zinc oxide is a multifunctional material that has large industrial applications


as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in photovoltaics devices. In this work, we
focus on the crystalline aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposition by r.f.
magnetron sputtering at room temperature. However our studies have the aim to in-
vestigate surface morphology and surface electric charge distribution of the films by
atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electric potential microscopy (SEPM)
respectively. AZO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron
sputtering, using a commercial target (diameter 7.62 cm) with small aluminum
plates disposed in its surface. All depositions procedures were started after the
chamber reaches a pressure of 8.0 x 10−4 Pa. The AZO thin films were deposit-
ed at room temperature using the following parameters: Ar gas flow of 16.9 sccm;
r.f. power density was varied from 6.56 to 39.37 W cm−2 ; pressure was varied from
0.8 to 8.0 Pa and 5 cm of separation between the target and substrate. The AFM
topography images analyses of AZO thin films shown a microcrystalline structure
continuous and dense for all r.f. power densities and deposition pressures used. The
surface grain size tends to be bigger when r.f. power density increases, due to high
kinetic energy of the particles. High r.f. power densities allow that the deposited par-
ticles grow with bigger grain, improving thus the surface state density and obtaining
more compact films. SEPM images shown bright regions that indicate regions of the
sample with higher potential gradient, i.e., those surrounding depletion regions are
particularly suggestive of arrays formed by aluminum atoms segregated to grain
boundaries. Aluminum atoms segregated creates a localized impurity state in the
grain boundary and acts as a donor dopant. The resulting charge accumulation at
the grain boundary together with the presence of local bonds that are metallic in
character will influence the mechanism for charge transport across the interface.
Also, it is noted that at high dopant concentrations, many carriers are trapped at
the grain boundary and this become charged create potential barrier that limits the
electron mobility in aluminum doped thin films.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 73

0 17:30 P-Tu-063

Comparison of ZnO thin films deposited by three different


Silar processes
C. Vargas-Hernández1 , J. F. Jurado1 , V. Henao1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Dpto Fı́sica y Quı́mica, Manizales.

ZnO thin films were deposited on amorphous glass substrates using successive
ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The employed baths were ammonium
zincate, with NH3 and NH4 OH as complex agents and ZnSO4 and Zn(NO3 )2 as
precursor source. The first Silar process consists in an ammonium zincate bath
(using NH3 and ZnSO4 ) alternating dipping in the bath and in hot water during 15
y 7 s respectively. In the second Silar process the alternating dipping in the bath
(using NH4 OH and ZnSO4 ) at the hot water is during 2s in each solution. The third
Silar process is the same as the second but the bath contains Zn(NO3 )2 and NH3 .
The films were heat treated (HT) at different temperatures for 15 minutes in air. The
comparison between films deposited by those three processes was studied by means of
X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and - Raman. Results showed that the
deposited films exhibit hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure with highorientation
along c-direction (002). The crystallinity is better from the films deposited by third
and second SILAR. The crystalline sizes are similar to all processes and are between
24 to 31 nm. The band gap is between 3.19 to 3.38 eV and presents no strong
changes with the HT temperature. By -Raman spectroscopy, the principal vibration
modes around 435 and 579 cm−1 were determined in all the films. The evolution
of those peaks with HT temperature is different for each SILAR, in the first there
are not noticeable changes with Temperature but in the other two processes the
vibration modes became more intensive and others three peaks appear around 272,
329 and 381 cm−1 , which are attributed to multi-phonon process and indicate better
crystalline quality. The intensity of those peaks increases more in the third Silar.

CLACSA XIII
74 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-064

Composition and mechanical properties of AlN, AlC, and


AlCN thin films obtained by r.f. magnetron sputtering
technique
Luis Angel Yate1 , Julio César Caicedo2 , A. Hurtado Macias3 , Francisco J.
Espinoza Beltran3 , Gustavo Zambrano1 , Juan Muñoz Saldaña3 , Pedro Prieto4
1
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali, Colombia..
2
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle.
3
Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro,
México.
4
Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Calle 13 # 100-00, Edificio 320-1026, Cali,
Colombia..

Aluminum nitride (Al-N), Aluminum carbide (Al-C), and Aluminum Carboni-


tride (Al-C-N) thin films were grown onto Si [100] substrates by r.f. reactive mag-
netron sputtering at 400 C. The Al-N coatings were obtained by sputtering of Al
(99.9 %)target in Ar/N2 atmosphere and the Al-C and Al-C-N by sputtering of a bi-
nary (50 % Al, 50 % C) target in pure argon and in Ar/N2 mixture respectively. The
polarization d.c. bias voltage was varied between 0 and -150 V, in order to investi-
gate its influence on mechanical properties of deposited films. The films were char-
acterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS),
Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nanoindentation. XRD anal-
ysis showed that the polarization bias voltage has a strong effect on the growth of
different phases. EDS analysis indicated that when the bias voltage increases, the
Al content in the films has a tendency to decrease in the Al-C and Al-N films, but
it increases in the Al-C-N films. On the other hand, the nitrogen content varied
between 10 and 14 % at. for Al-N coatings, and it was practically constant (21 %
at.) for the Al-C-N films. The measured Berkovich hardness was 7 GPa, 8 GPa and
14 GPa for Al-C, Al-C-N, and Al-N films, respectively. The elastic modulus was
around 100 GPa for all films.

0 17:30 P-Tu-065

Computational model of dihydrogen sulfide adsorption


S. Simonetti1 , D. Damiani2 , G. Brizuela3 , A. Juan3
1
UTN-FRBB - UNS.
2
PLAPIQUI.
3
UNS.

Since natural gas is essentially odorless, natural gas distribution companies odor-
ize the gas prior to distribution to residential, commercial and industrial facilities.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 75

In most cases, odorizing is performed using substances which contain sulfur (mer-
captans, sulfides or thiophane). Without these critical components, the safety could
not be assumed. The use of scents in the natural gas is not exempt of problems. One
specific problem is the fade of the odor. Odor-fading can occur by catalytic effects.
Therefore, the odorant adsorption study on solid surfaces can afford important dates
to elucidate this problem. The electronic structure of H2S molecular adsorption on
FeOOH(110) (goethite is a common iron oxide associated with corroded surfaces)
has been studied by ASED-MO cluster calculations. We have analyzed the horizon-
tal and the perpendicular H2S molecular adsorption. The rotation in the plane was
also considered. The calculations show that the selected surface zone offers a place
for several possible geometrical H2S adsorption configurations. The most stable con-
figuration results to be the flat non rotated molecule on goethite surface. For this
configuration, the S-H(goethite) is the major interaction with OP values of 0.199 at
the distance of 1.90 There is also a H(H2S)-Fe small interaction. The interaction
mainly involves Fe 3dx2-y2 atomic orbitals with lesser participation of the rest Fe
atomic orbitals. There is an electron transfer of 0.31 e- to the Fe atom from the
H(H2S) atom. On the other hand, there is an electron transfer of 0.02 e- from the S
atom to H(goetithe) atom. No others important OP values have been obtained for
the studied configuration.

0 17:30 P-Tu-066

Computational Study of nanostructures for Hydrogen


Storage, effects of ligands
Arturo I. Martinez1 , Alfredo Tlahuice2
1
Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute
(CINVESTAV-IPN). Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Mty. Km 13, 5900 Ramos Arizp.
2
Facultad de Fisico-Matematicas, UANL. San NIcolas de los Garza N. L. 66450
Mexico.

Density functional theory calculations of hydrogen storage capacity for differ-


ent organometallic structures have been carried out. Sc, Ti and V bound to C4 H4 ,
C5 H5 , and C60 have been considered, all their complexes present a hydrogen storage
capability limited by the 18-electron rule. Diffrent coordination modes have been
considered for all ligands. In order to stabilize complexes, which the 18-electron rule
is not completed, additional ligands are considered, namely -H, -CH3 , -NH2 , -OH
and -F. These ligands affects the H2 -metal bond; particularly the back donation
effect from the metal atom to the sigma* antibonding state of H2 and then its H2
storage capacity.

CLACSA XIII
76 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-067

Constant hexagonal phase of CdS thin films deposited by


multiple dips in an oscillating chemical bath.
C. Gutiérrez1 , E. Rosendo2 , M. Ortega1 , I. Oliva3 , H. Juárez2 , G.
Garcı́a-Salgado2 , T. Diaz2 , M. Rubı́n4
1
Departamento de Ingenierı́a Eléctrica, SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN.
2
Centro de Investigación en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autónoma
de Puebla.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Mérida.
4
Facultad Ciencias de la Computación, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
Puebla.

CdS thin films were deposited by three dips in an oscillating chemical bath [1],
using a Teflon stirrer connected to an electrical dental brush that oscillates at 37Hz
when it is submerged. Commercial glass substrates were placed on the inner-walls
of a 500mL glass-beaker and the following aqueous solutions were added: CdCl2 ,
KOH, N H4 N O3 and CS(N H2 )2 . The bath temperature was 75o C and the depo-
sition times were of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 min. The CdS thin films were uniform
and have excellent adhesion. In order to increase the film thickness, the samples
were dipped up to two more times, following the same experimental procedure. The
deposited films by two and three dips also were with excellent adhesion and unifor-
mity. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the initial deposits have a preferential
hexagonal structure (alpha-Greenockite), highly oriented in (002) direction, charac-
teristic that also presented the samples deposited by two and three dip.
The AFM images confirm the results obtained by X-ray diffraction, since the super-
ficial grains show a preferential direction; the morphology of the superficial grains
depends of the deposition times and this dependency stays for CdS thin films de-
posited by two and three dips. The stoichiometry results, obtained from EDAX
analysis, are satisfactory, such that, the ion concentration of S and Cd, differs from
the ideal (50 % − 50 %) value in 3.3 % for single dip films; with the subsequent de-
posits, Cd ion concentration was reduced in 2 %.
Band gap energy was measured by first derivative of transmittance data. In the
transmittance curves it is observed that when the deposition time increases, the
number of oscillations increases at low energy; this is attributed to the increase of
the film thickness. For deposits made by two and three dips, the thickness of the sam-
ples is greater and therefore, their spectra present a greater number of oscillations
and absorption. The band gap energy value is reduced slightly with the deposition
times. The mean values of band gap energy were 2.48 eV for single dip samples,
2.47 eV for two dips samples and 2.36 eV for three dips samples.
[1] Y.A. Salazar, R. Pati, J.L. Pe, W. Cauich, A.I. Oliva, Brazilian Journal of Physics,
Vol. 36, No. 3 (1) 2006.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 77

0 17:30 P-Tu-068

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE AND SURFACE


COMPOSITION OF NbNX THIN FILMS GROWN BY
RF. MAGNETRON SPUTTERING
J. E. Alfonso1 , J. Torres1 , J. Buitrago1 , J. F. Marco2 , B. Santos3
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 14490, Bogotá DC, Colombia..
2
Instituto de Quimica-Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, c/Serrano,119 ,28006 Madrid,
Spain..
3
Departamento de Fı́sica de la Materia Condensada y Centro de Microanálisis de
Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain..

This work presents the results obtained from growing NbNx thin films on com-
mon glass substrates through the rf magnetron sputtering technique. The structure,
morphology and surface composition of the resulting films have been characterized
with X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray
Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, respectively. The results from XRD
show that the films deposited at room temperature, varying the power between 100
and 300 W, grew in amorphous manner. The films deposited at 300 W and 120oC
grew along the (111) and, with smaller intensity, (200) planes of the Nb4N3.92.
phase. The films morphological study indicates that the surface evolves from low to
high coalescence depending on temperature and power. On the other hand, the Nb
3d XPS spectra recorded from all the samples showed always three components. A
major one located at 207.3 eV (BE of the Nb 3d5/2 core level) which corresponds
to Nb2O5; a second one at 203.5-204.3 eV which we associate with the presence of
NbNx, (we observed small binding energy differences for this component depending
on the samples which are probably due to small differences in stoichiometry of the
NbNx phase) and, finally, we observed a third component at 204.8-205.5 eV which
corresponds to a niobium oxynitride phase probably located in the interface be-
tween the NbNx layer and the outer Nb2O5 oxide layer. The relative concentrations
of these three phases are different in the different samples. The N 1s spectra showed
always a main component at 396.7-397.5 eV which is due to Nb-N bonds. Some
other contributions appearing at higher binding energies were also observed and we
associate them with the presence of N-O bonds.

CLACSA XIII
78 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-069

DEPENDENCE OF THE SUBSTRATE IN THE


ELECTRICAL STRUCTURAL AND MORPHOLOGIC
PROPERTIES OF THIN MOVIES OF DIOXIDE OF
VANADIUM GROWN BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING
R.F.
Juan Jose Morales1 , Gilberto Bolaños P1
1
Universidad del cauca.

We report on the deposition of VO2 thin films by R.F Magnetron Sputtering at


13.56MHz on Sapphire c(0001), SrTiO3 (100), Si (100) and common glass substrates.
The substrate temperature was kept at 480C during the deposition process. The films
were sputter deposited in a mixture argon and oxygen atmosphere at 9x10-3 mbar
with a oxygen flow of 1,00 sccm. The samples were growth in 1 hour and 15 minutes
of annealed in situ. The structural characterization was realized by means of X-rays
diffraction (DRX) where is observed only the presence of dioxide of vanadium in the
samples, besides the fact that the structure and the planes family presence of VO2
depends on the used substrate. The morphologic characterization was realized by
means of measurements of atomic force microscopy (AFM) Where itś observed that
the morphology, this is the homogeneity, the uniformity in the distribution of the size
of grain and the ruggedness of the films also depends strongly on the substrate where
they are deposited Electrical resistance as a function of temperature measurements,
show the substrate effects on electrical properties and a semiconductor to metallic
phase transition with electrical resistance changes as large as 103 at 68 C. Also is
observed that a relation exists between the morphologic, structural and electrical
properties of the thin films and the properties of the substrates where they were
deposited.
Key Words: Electrical resistance, thin films, phase transition and magnetron
sputtering R.F.

0 17:30 P-Tu-070

DEPOSITION AND COMPUTACIONAL ANALYSIS OF


WC THIN FILMS GROWN BY PAPVD
R. Ospina1 , J.M Gonzales1 , A. Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Manizales.

In this work the production of WC coatings used a repetitive pulsed arc Plasma
Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition (PAPVD) system is employed. During the
grown process, a W target was used as cathode. The work atmosphere is methane
and as it is knew, the use of this gas as precursor for WC production, causes the
apparition of different phases such as WC and W2 C. The power supply allows varying
the active and passive time of the pulses. The coatings produced are characterized by

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 79

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning


Probe Microscopy (SPM); The last characterization techniques allow determining
properties such as chemical composition, structure, stoichiometry, thickness and
grain size. Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods are performed to stability
studies of the WC using computational techniques by means of charge distribution,
molecular orbital and electron total density.
Key Words: WC, DFT, grown process, pulsed arc.

0 17:30 P-Tu-071

DEPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF


CARBON NITRIDE THIN FILMS
A.M Muñoz1 , D. S Galeano1 , S. Vargas1 , A. Ruden1 , J.M Gonzales1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

The beta phase carbon nitride (β − C3 N4 ) has a volumetric coefficient (B) com-
parable or even higher than diamond, which has a 443 GPa value and possesses high
thermal conductivity. Other carbon nitride phases such as CN2 presents a 405 GPa
volumetric coefficient value which is higher than the cubic-boron nitride (c-BN), that
results in high hardness. Fullerene-like phase combines high hardness (40-60 GPa)
and extreme elastic recovery (60 − 90 %). β − C3 N4 thin films were deposited by
pulsed arc Plasma Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition (PA-PAPVD) on 316L sur-
gical stainless steel. Analysed by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
to determinate the films composition and the crystalline structure was observed by
X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). A structural analysis is also performed using Density
Functional Theory (DFT) to observe phase stability of the different proposed struc-
tures of this compound.
Key words: Carbon nitride, superhard materials, Volumetric coefficient, Density
Functional Theory

0 17:30 P-Tu-072

Description of Langmuir monolayers by mean-field models


Gilmar de Almeida Gomes1 , Weber da Silva Robazzi1 , Bernhard Joachim Mokross2
1
Santa Catarina State University.
2
University of São Paulo.

Langmuir monolayers have been the subject of research for many years. They
are formed by amphiphilic molecules which have hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
such that part of the molecule repels water while the other one is attracted to
it. Those systems are important as models to understand transport processes in
biological membranes and also as the basis for bio-electronic sensors. The basic
experimental technique applied to study those systems is to measure the surface
tension in function of the compression of the surface. The resulting isotherms show

CLACSA XIII
80 Tuesday

that the monolayer undergoes several phase transitions that depend on the nature of
the molecule and on the temperature. Studies showed that during the compression
the following events are observed: at the beginning the molecules are disperse and do
not interact behaving as isolated molecules in a gaseous phase. The next stage when
the molecules begin to feel the presence of their neighbors is designated expanded-
liquid, since there is no definitive structural arrangement. With further compression
the hydrophobic tails of the molecules lift above the interface with inclinations that
depend on the nature of the molecule. In the last stage the tails are ordered in
a solid like phase. The theoretical study of the phase transitions allow a better
understanding of the nature of the interaction forces that act between the molecules.
There are many approaches which explain the transitions. Due to the complexity
of the system numerical simulations that consider all molecular interactions are
unfeasible. Therefore more general treatments based on thermodynamic concepts
are advisable. We developed a lattice model able to describe the behavior of the
monolayers during isothermal compression. The interface is taken as a bi-dimensional
lattice where the number of sites changes under compression. These molecules are
described by a model analogous to the Flory-Huggins theory for polymer solutions
where only interactions between nearest neighbors are considered. The description of
the hydrophobic tails lifted above the interface due to compression is done by three
different mean-field methods: the first one considers the lifted tails as rigid rods
without any flexibility, the second one considers that the segments are distributed
in a random way and the third one which considers connection among the segments
and having flexibility. The results show that, for given values of the interaction
energy among nearest-neighbor segments, there are two phase transitions for two of
these models.

0 17:30 P-Tu-073

Determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of R6G


solution mixed with gold metallic nanoparticles by thermal
lens measurements
J. L. Jiménez Pérez1
1
CICATA-IPN.

In this work the thermal lens spectrometer is introduced as a tool to measure the
fluorescence quantum efficiency (#951;) of luminescent R6G dye solution with gold
nanoparticle. This methodology exhibits the conventional methods, like for instance
need to use a reference sample. Our results indicate a high #951; for Rhodamine
compared with the R6G dye solution with gold nanoparticle. The Rhodamine was
firstly chosen for our study because its properties are very well known. Our results
suggest that the method can be used for measurements of semitransparent liquid
with nanoparticles.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 81

0 17:30 P-Tu-074

Development of a tool for optical emision spectra automatic


analysis generated in thin films production
Elisabeth Restrepo Parra1 , Andres Felipe Serna Morales1 , David Cárdenas Peña1 ,
Juan Carlos Riaño Rojas1 , Flavio Augusto Prieto Ortiz1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Manizales.

Optical Emission spectroscopy (OES) is a powerful tool for determining plasma


characteristics in situ. Normally, the experimental implementation is easy, but the
spectra analysis is extensive if the process is carried out manually. In this work is
proposed an automatic characteristic extraction of spectra taking in TiAlN coating
production employing the magnetron sputtering technique. The first step consists in
an automatic determination of spectra peaks and their wavelength; using the NIST
data base each spectra peak is identified as a chemical element. Many peaks charac-
teristics such as intensity, FWHM continuous, and profile are extracted. With these
quantities, electronic density and plasma temperature are obtained by employing
spectroscopic methods such as line to line ratio and relation between lines with dif-
ferent grade of ionization. Moreover, a graphic user interface was built, using Builder
C++ software, allowing an easy calculation.

0 17:30 P-Tu-075

DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE MULTIFERROIC


THIN FILM YMnO3
J. Narváez1 , A. Cortes1 , M. E. Gómez1 , P. Prieto1
1
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas - Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.
A. 25360 Cali, Colombia.

The hexagonal manganite YMnO3 is one of the representative multiferroic ma-


terials which exhibit simultaneously ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism. YM-
nO3 undergoes a paraelectric ferroelectric transition at the Curie temperature TC
of 900 K, and it displays an paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at around
70 K in bulk. As multiferroic system, YMnO3 in form of thin film has attracted
much attention in many researchs laboratories. In this work, we report the growth
of YMnO3 thin film by RF magnetron sputtering performed in a pure O2 atmo-
sphere with a work pressure of 7*10-2 mbar and a RF power of 60W. The substrate,
Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si, were maintained during the growth at temperature of 850C. Di-
electric properties were measured in the samples using a capacitive structure of
the type Ag/YMnO3/Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si. We employed the RT66A system (Radiant
Technology). The Ag electrode was evaporated with a mask that it allows us to ob-
tain capacitors with four different: areas: 1.3*10-3, 1.6*10-3, 3.8*10-3, 4.4*10-3 cm2.
In the capacitive structures were measured electric polarization P as function of the

CLACSA XIII
82 Tuesday

applied electric field E. The resulting ferroelectric hysteresis yield a saturation po-
larization Ps, a remnant polarization Pr and a coercive field, in range of, 2.09-14.02
#956;C/cm2, 1.00-6,01 #956;C/cm2, 1.94-3.77 KV/cm respectively.

KEYWORDS:PACS:ferroelectric material, hysteresis ferroelectricity, Polariza-


tion.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This work has been partially supported by Colcien-
cias, project 1106-05-17612, contract 239-05 and the Excellence Center for Novel
Materials CENM Colciencias contract 043-2005.

0 17:30 P-Tu-076

EFFECT OF FLUCTUATIONS IN REACTANT


PRESSURES ON THE BISTABILITY OF CO
OXIDATION ON Pt SURFACES
L.D. López-Carreño1
1
Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT. Physics
Department. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Mean Field kinetic equations were used to study CO oxidation on the Pt surfaces.
It is well known that reaction occurs via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism.
Two rate equations describe the variations of CO and O surface coverages, both
chemisorbed on the surface. These equations are coupled by the term kr θCO θO which
takes into account the reaction between adsorbed CO and O. When the reaction
significantly affects the surface coverages, the equations have three solutions for the
reaction rate R, over a limited range of CO partial pressure. One solution is unstable
and two are stable. This system exhibits bistability at fixed CO and O2 pressures.
A plot of R as a function of the normalized CO impingement rate presents two
critical points ζ1 and ζ2 that define a bistability window. The first stable solution
corresponds to a state with a surface which is covered predominantly with CO. The
high θCO effectively blocks the adsorption of oxygen, leading to a low value of θO
and resulting in a low value of R. The other stable solution corresponds to a state
with a surface which has a relatively high θO . In this case CO adsorption is not
inhibited by the high oxygen coverage, which results in a higher value of R than for
the CO dominated surface. The bistability of the reaction rates derives primarily
from the difference in the adsorption kinetics of CO and O2 . A feedback mechanism
is required to spontaneously switch between the two stable states. In this work
the effect of periodic forcing of reaction kinetics via small temporal perturbation
of reactant pressures on the bistability region was studied. To center the analysis
on bistability, the mean CO and O2 pressures were chosen so that the unperturbed
system is inside the bistability window. The response of the system was in this case
strongly depend on the forcing frequency, amplitudes and phase of perturbations.
If the amplitudes are sufficiently small, the perturbation is not able to shift the
system outside the bistability window, and accordingly the reactant concentrations
oscillate near the point corresponding to one of the unperturbed stable steady-states

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 83

irrespective of frequency. For the in-phase perturbation, the system also is inside the
bistability window even if the amplitudes of perturbations are appreciable. For the
other cases, with increasing amplitudes the system move along the hysteresis loop,
there is a single oscillatory state, provided that the frequency is not too high. With
increasing frequency, the system has no time to jump from one state to other on the
hysteresis loop, and accordingly it again is trapped close to one of the steady-state
points.

0 17:30 P-Tu-077

EFFECT OF NANOSIZED CERAMIC FILLERS ON THE


PHASE BEHAVIOR OF NH4H2PO4
Elsa Marı́a Materón1 , R. A.Vargas1 , J.H.Castillo2
1
Universidad del Valle.
2
Universidad del Quindio.

The phase behavior of the composite protonic conductor based on ammonium


dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) (ADP) and nanosized ceramic powders (ZrO2,
TiO, SiO2 and Al2O3 (with different acidic levels)) has been investigated by means
of thermal and transport measurements. The composites were prepared by mechan-
ically mixing of components followed by heating at temperature near ADP melting
point (423 K). Heterogeneous doping of ADP is shown to change its phase bound-
aries, especially to its highly conducting superprotonic phase at about Tp = 453 K
for pure ADP, which is characterized by a dynamically disordered net of hydrogen
bonds. Although simultaneous measurements of high-resolution differential scanning
calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) support Lees [assump-
tion that dehydration occurs on heating above Tp and hydrolysis takes place on
subsequent cooling process under the appropriate vapor pressure in all composites,
different phase boundaries are found at lower temperatures. The low-temperature
transitions scatter widely according to the ceramic filler and its content in the cor-
responding composite (less than 10 wt. %), but none of them is accompanied by
weight variation indicating the existing of structural-type phase boundaries at tem-
peratures below Tp rather than thermal dehydration at reaction sites on the surface
of the sample. Most of these transitions are quasi-irreversible in nature, and some of
them have been previously reported for pure ADP under appropriate experimental
conditions and probes. The addition of ceramic poder increased the ionic conductiv-
ity of pure ADP over an ambient temperatura range, which becomes of the order of
1.00-6 S cm-1 The observed effects of the ceramics addition on the phase behavior
and ionic conductivity of ADP are discussed from the view points of changes in the
lattice dynamics due to increasing disorder of the hydrogen

CLACSA XIII
84 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-078

EFFECT OF THE ADSORBATES MOBILITY ON THE


REACTION CO+O2 → CO2 + O CATALIZED BY Pt
NANOPARTICLES
D.J. Rodriguez1 , L.D. López-Carreño1
1
Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT. Physics
Department. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Most of the research on heterogeneous catalysis is directed nowadays to un-


derstand the substrate properties effect on the reaction velocity. One of the most
interesting reactions by its technological application is CO+O2 → CO2 + O; the
most efficient catalyzer for this reaction is, as of today, platinum of nanometric di-
mension. CO oxidation was simulated using the Monte Carlo method, employing
as catalyzer agent platinum cubes of side ∼20 nm and all their faces with Pt(110)
structure. The boundary effect on the catalyzer crystal faces upon the adsorbates
mobility was analyzed in this work. This reaction shows temporal oscillations of the
reaction velocity, associated to the structural change induced by the adsorbates and
their diffusion. The probabilities of occurrence for the reactions elemental processes
are obtained by normalizing Arrhenius Equation and subsequent fitting to the exper-
imental information available in the literature. The behavior of the surface coverage
and of the reaction rate as a function of the adsorbates mobility between the crystal
faces and the COs diffusion probability, were analyzed. Interference patterns, asso-
ciated to the propagation of independent chemical waves in each face, are observed
when the diffusion coefficient between faces is assumed equal to zero (σ = 0). This
phenomenon disappears and the propagation of the adsorbates is carried out over
the entire surface when the mobility increases; this fact stimulates the reaction to
occur over the entire particle. Small mobility changes of the adsorbed species pro-
duce trajectory deformations in the phase space, variations of the Fourier spectrum
and of the structure of the temporal fluctuations. Chaotic, periodic or semi-periodic
regimes that depend on the systems parameter set are found in the latter case. To
quantify the oscillation irregularity was calculated the correlation dimension which
is proportional to the fractal dimension of the attractor.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 85

0 17:30 P-Tu-079

EFFECT OF THE CATALYST SIZE ON THE KINETIC


OSCILLATIONS IN THE CO OXIDATION OVER
Pt(100)-NANOPARTICLES
D.J. Rodrı́guez1 , L.D. López-Carreño1
1
Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT. Physics
Department. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Modern commercial devices used for controlling toxic gases are based upon the
deposition of noble metal nanoparticles on porous substrates. Among them the most
utilized for its high efficiency are the reduced dimension platinum crystals. The ef-
fect of the catalyst size on the reaction rate in the CO oxidation was studied in
this work. The technique employed was numeric simulation using the Monte Car-
lo method. The catalyst is cubic with its edge varying between 5 to 100 nm. The
crystallographic structure of each face corresponds to the Pt(100)0 s. The Pt(100)
surface presents two stable phases with structures 1x1 and hex. The Pt(100) crys-
tallizes in the 1x1 phase under 500K. The CO adsorption over the 1x1 phase induces
a structural transformation of the substrate to the hex phase. This transformation
paired with diffusion-reaction mechanisms, generates temporal oscillations of the
reaction velocity as well as on the surface coverage. The morphology of this type of
fluctuations strongly depends on the gaseous CO partial pressure. The oscillations
are irregular at low pressure; when it increases the oscillations become stable up to
a limiting value in which they disappear and the reaction velocity is nil. The system
undergoes a phase transition at this point; this points position decreases propor-
tionally to the catalyst size. It was also established quantitatively the effect of the
catalyst surface size variation on the kinetic oscillations. The correlation dimension
and frequency spectrum were calculated from the analysis of the system phase space,
which allowed measuring the irregularity of these oscillations. It was found that the
increase of the substrate catalytic efficiency is accompanied by the irregularity of
the temporal fluctuations and the reduction of the particle size.

CLACSA XIII
86 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-080

Effects of the confining interaction on mesoscopic


superconducting cylinders under the action of an axial
magnetic field.
A. Pasaje1 , J. M. Calero2 , J. C. Granada2 , E. Z. da Silva3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad de Nariño, A. A. 1365, Pasto, Colombia.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali, Colombia.
3
Instituto de Fisica, Universida de Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, C.P. 6165,
Campinas, Brazil.

In the framework of a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory proposed by Sha-


nenko and Ivanov, we analyze the contribution of the confinement interaction of
the Cooper pairs to the system energy, for a cylindrical mesoscopic superconducting
sample placed in an axial magnetic field. Special attention is paid to investigate how
the confinement energy depends on the shape and on the sample size. It is shown
that the sample size and shape have a significant effect on the confinement energy in
such a way that as well as the cylinder height or the radius diminishes, the confine-
ment energy rise, being more pronounced the effect associated to the longitudinal
confinement.

0 17:30 P-Tu-081

Electrical characterization of GaAs epitaxial films and InSb


monocrystals by the Van der Pauw technique for the Hall
device manufacture
Miguel Galván-Arellano1 , Joel Dı́az-Reyes2 , Ramón Peña-Sierra1
1
CINVESTAV-IPN.
2
CIBA-IPN.

The effect Hall is known from 1879. This it consists of that when it settles down
a electrical current flow, to the application of a perpendicular magnetic field to the
flow, pronounces the Lorentz force, producing a potential difference or Hall voltage.
Nevertheless, only in the last decades it has gotten to be relevant by his application
to devices, which are included in many products (computers, automobiles, airships,
medical equipment, etc.). The present work we will show a methodology for the
elaboration of Hall devices from semiconductor samples for its application in the
detection of small magnetic fields, like the generated ones by the human body. In
this work present the results for intensities of magnetic field used normally in the
characterization of semiconductors materials.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 87

0 17:30 P-Tu-082

Electrochemical modification of transparent conductive


oxides
Nancy Gamez1 , Natalia Montoya1 , Adriana Diaz1 , Gerardo Gordillo2 , Cesar
Quiñones2 , Oscar Rodriguez2
1
Universidad de America.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

the morphologic and structural properties of indium doped tin oxide thin films
modified electrochemically were studied. Atomic Force Microscopy shows that the
treatment strongly modifies the material morphological properties. The XRD study
presents no structural change. The surface modified electrochemically make this
materials more appropiated for their use as counter electrode in dye sensitized solar
cells.

0 17:30 P-Tu-083

ELECTROCHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL


CHARACTERIZATION OF VANADIUM NITRIDE (VN)
THIN FILMS
F. Posso1 , W. Aperador1 , L. Yate1 , L. Ipaz1 , J. C. Caicedo1 , L. Escobar-Alarcon2 ,
E. Camps2 , G. Zambrano1
1
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali - Colombia..
2
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Toluca México..

Vanadium Nitride (VN) thin films were grown by reactive d.c. magnetron sput-
tering process, from a vanadium target (99.999 %) in a Ar/N2 gas mixture at dif-
ferent bias voltages. Films were deposited onto silicon [100] and RUS-3 steel sub-
strates at 400C. Structural, electrochemical and mechanical characterizations were
performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
(EIS), Tafel polarization curves and nanoindentation, respectively. X-ray diffraction
patterns show the presence of [111], [200] y [220] crystallographic orientations as-
sociated to the VN cubic phase. EIS and Tafel curves showed that the corrosion
velocity of steel, covered with a VN thin film deposited without bias voltage, dimin-
ishes 90 % compared to the steel without coating. On the other hand, when the VN
film was deposited at the highest bias voltage (-150 V), the corrosion velocity was
greater than in the steel without VN coating. This last result could be attributed
to the formation of porosities produced by the ion bombardment during the depo-
sition process. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that when the bias voltage
increases from 0 to -150V the hardness and elastic modulus diminish from 20 to 11
GPa and from 220 to 190 GPa, respectively.

CLACSA XIII
88 Tuesday

Keywords:Vanadium Nitride, hard coatings, magnetron sputtering, electrochem-


ical impedance spectroscopy, mechanical properties.

Acknowledgements:This work was supported by COLCIENCIAS and by the


Excellence Center for Novel Materials, CENM, under the RC-043-2005 contract

0 17:30 P-Tu-084

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) study of


Al2O3/YSZ nanostructured thin layers deposited onto AISI
304 stainless steel substrates
César Andrés Amaya1 , William Aperador1 , Julio César Caicedo1 , Rubén Vargas2 ,
Gustavo Zambrano1 , Pedro Prieto3
1
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali, Colombia.
2
Grupo de Transiciones de Fase, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali, Colombia.
3
Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Calle 13 # 100-00, Edificio 320-1026, Cali,
Colombia..

Stainless steels with high content of Ni and Cr, have a limited use in aerospace in-
dustries, since over 650C are susceptible to corrosion. In order to improve this issue,
a Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) of ZrO2-8 % mol Y2O3 (8YSZ) were deposited
onto AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by r.f (13.56 MHz) multi-target magnetron
sputtering. A buffer layer of Al2O3 was incorporated to improve adhesion of YSZ
monolayer to the substrate. The influence of the Al2O3/YSZ coating on the elec-
trochemical conductance and the corrosion evolution when the steels are exposed
at temperatures of 700 and 500C for 2, 4 and 6h, was examined. Electrochemical
Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that electrochemical con-
ductance diminished from 3.7x10-3 to 1.2x10-6 Siemens and the corrosion velocity
was reduced from 53.4 to 6.8 mpy, when the AISI 304 stainless steel was covered
with the Al2O3/YSZ coatings. An opposite behavior was observed after annealing
at 500 and 7000C for 2, 4 and 6 hours. The electrochemical conductance at 7000 C
after 6 hours of exposure was one order of magnitude lower (4.8 x 10-4 Simens) than
for the AISI 304 stainless steel without Al2O3/YSZ thermal barrier coatings. This
behavior of can be correlated with the thermal conductivity of these nanostructured
TBC, deposited in our conditions and determinates by other techniques.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 89

0 17:30 P-Tu-085

Electron inelastic mean free path for B4 C and BC2 N


determined by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy
H.A. Castillo1 , A. Devia1 , G. Soto2 , J.A. Dı́az2 , W. De La Cruz2
1
Laboratorio de Fı́sica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede
Manizales, Colombia.
2
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma
de México, A. P. 2681, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C., Mexico.

Amorphous B4 C and BC2 N films were prepared on (111) silicon substrates by


reactive laser ablation using a B4 C target. For the depositions of BC2 N a nitrogen
pressure of 63 mTorr in the growth chamber was used. These films were analyzed
in-situ by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Reflection Electron Energy
Loss Spectroscopy (REELS). The stoichiometry of the films were obtained from XPS.
The electron Inelastic Mean Free Path (IMFP) for B4 C and BC2 N were calculated for
energies between 200 and 2000 eV from their respective energy-loss functions, which
was obtained from quantitative analysis of REELS. The IMFPs obtained for BC2 N
has a smooth behavior in the 4.4 and 29.3 range and the B4 C has a similar behavior
in 4.2 and 27.6 range (for the energy range studied in this work). The IMFPs are
analyzed in term of the equation for inelastic scattering of Bethe. REELS results
were used to obtain the dielectric function of the B4 C and BC2 N in the energy range
from 4 to 100 eV.

0 17:30 P-Tu-086

Energy transfer in polycrystalline Al2O3 pellets doped with


Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions.
R. Martı́nez-Martı́nez1 , M. Garcı́a-Hipólito1 , O. Álvarez-Fregoso1 , U. Caldiño2 , G.
Muñoz H2 , I. Camarillo2 , C. Falcony3
1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacán, 04510
México, D.F..
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO
Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF, México..
3
Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de
Fı́sica, PO Box 14-7400, 7000 México, DF, México..

The optical properties in polycrystalline Al2 O3 pellets doubly doped with Ce3+
and Mn2+ ions have been analyzed. In this pellets, broad-band blue and red emis-
sions are observed under ultraviolet light excitation. The spectroscopy data obtained
clearly indicate that the energy transfer takes place from Ce3+ to Mn2+ ions. The
blue emission is due to the de-excitation of Ce3+ ions from their excited state 5d
to the split ground state 2 F. The usually weak red emission attributed to 3d →3d
de-excitation of Mn2+ is enhanced through an efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to

CLACSA XIII
90 Tuesday

Mn2+ ions. From spectroscopic data it can also be inferred that the energy transfer
is nonradiative in nature and it takes place between Ce3+ -Mn2+ clusters formed in
the pellets through a short-range interaction mechanism. This ion clustering could
be useful for the design of efficient conversion phosphors of ultraviolet to blue and
green light. The structural, morphology and chemical composition characteristics of
the Al2 O3 :Ce3+ :Mn2+ pellets are also presented.

0 17:30 P-Tu-087

Enhacement of TiN Based in Multilayer Coatings of Ti/TiN


Growth on Steels Type SAE 5160, 4140, and S600 via
Magnetron Sputtering R.F
Faber Correa1 , Carlos A. Rincón2 , Gilberto Bejarano3 , Julio César Caicedo4
1
Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Grupo de Ciencias e Ingenierı́a de
Materiales, Cali-Colombia.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán-Colombia.
3
Group for Corrosion and Protection, Group for Engineering and Composite
Materials, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellı́n-Colombia.
4
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali-Colombia.

With the aim of improving the industrials applications of the TiN were designed
Ti/TiN multilayer hard coatings with thickness between 2.5 and 3.0 um were de-
posited by the r.f. magnetron sputtering multitarget set up of the Tecnological and
Development Center ASTIN. In order to determine the influence of the bilayers num-
ber and type of substrate on mechanical properties of deposited multilayer system,
Ti/TiN coatings with 5, 10 15 and 20 bilayers were grown on to steel AISI 4140,
AISI 5160, S600 and silicon (100) substrates. The Ti/TiN multilayers were deposited
by alternated variation of nitrogen gas flow in to the chamber. Chemical composi-
tion and phase analysis were investigated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
(EDX) and X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD), respectively. The microstructure
and topography were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atom-
ic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scratch test and microindentation measurements were
used to evaluate the thickness, adherence and hardness of the coatings. An adher-
ence and hardness improvement were observed by increasing the bilayers number
of the coatings, obtained the highest performance by the hard coating multilayer
grown on to steel AISI 5160 substrates, which represents an improvement of 73 %
in hardness.

Keywords:magnetron sputtering, multilayers, titanium nitride, hard coatings.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 91

0 17:30 P-Tu-088

Fe DOPED SnO2 OBTAINED BY MECHANICAL


ALLOYING
L.C. Sánchez1 , A. M. Calle1 , J.D. Arboleda1 , J. Osorio1 , K. Nomura2 , C.A.
Barrero1
1
Grupo de Estado Sólido, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de
Antioquia A A 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.
2
Dep. Applied Chemistry School of Engineering, University of Tokyo.

The progress in the field of spin-based electronics critically depends on the devel-
opment of new semiconductors exhibiting room temperature ferromagnetism. Oxide
diluted magnetic semiconductors belongs to this class of materials and within this
family, the transition metal doped SnO2 is a promising candidate. Different methods
for producing this material either as thin films or powders have been explored up to
date. However, very few works have used the mechanical alloying [1]. In this work,
iron-doped SnO2 powders were prepared by mechanical alloying in a planetary ball
mill Fristch Pulverisette 5 and using SnO2 and metallic iron ( ;-Fe) as precursors.
The influence of different milling conditions on the structural and magnetic proper-
ties of the products were investigated. Powder to ball weight ratio (1:20, and 1:40);
milling time (6, 12, 18 and 24 hours); rotation speed of the supporting disc (250
and 390 rpm) and concentration of the dopant (1, 4 and 8 at %) were considered
as variables. All the milling processes were performed at room temperature and at-
mospheric pressure. Additionally an analysis was made of the structural evolution
of the pure SnO2 submitted to milling. The Msbauer spectra of all the samples
consisted of one doublet and a sextet. The parameters of the doublet were assigned
to the presence of Fe3+ in octahedral sites, which suggest substitution of the Fe
by the Sn in the SnO2 structure. In the sample with a nominal Fe concentration
of 4 at. %, and milled during 12 hours, an additional doublet was observed, whose
parameters suggested the presence of Fe2+. Rodriguez Torres and coauthors [1]
suggested the presence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ oxidation states for the milled samples of
SnO2 with #945;-Fe, which would correspond to substituted iron ions with different
environments. On the other hand, the parameters of the sextet, detect the presence
of #945;-Fe, corresponding to that part of the powder that was not incorporated
into the SnO2 structure.
[1] C. E. Rodruez Torres, A. F. Cabrera and F. H. Sánchez. Physica B 389 (2007)
176-179

CLACSA XIII
92 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-089

Fe doped TiO2 prepared by mechanical alloying


A. M. Calle1 , L.C. Sanchez1 , J.D. Arboleda1 , J. Osorio1 , K. Nomura2 , C. A.
Barrero1
1
Grupo de Estado Sólido, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de
Antioquia A A 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.
2
Dep. Applied Chemistry School of Engineering, University of Tokyo.

Fe-doped TiO2 powders were obtained by mechanical alloying using the plane-
tary ball mill Fritsch Pulverisette 5. The starting materials were anatase TiO2 and
metallic iron (α-Fe). The influence of different milling conditions such as: ball to
powder weight ratio (20:1, 40:1); milling time (6, 12, 18 and 24 hours); rotation
velocity of supporting disc (250 and 390 rpm) and dopant concentration ( 1, 4 and
8 at %) on the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The structural
evolution of mechanically alloyed pure TiO2 was also analysed. All experiments were
performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The milled powders were
characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) using Rietveld refinement and room tem-
perature Mössbauer spectrometry. The XRD patterns of all samples show broad
lines due to the diminution of the grain size and to the increment of the lattice
strain and evidence the coexistence of both anatase and rutile phases and also the
high-pressure srilankite phase. Msbauer spectra reveal the presence of Fe2+ and Fe3+
states as well as α-Fe in samples obtained from metallic iron. The Fe3+ contribution
could be attributed to Fe incorporated in the TiO2 structure and the Fe2+ can be
assigned to surface ferrous ions in the TiO2 .

0 17:30 P-Tu-090

Ferroelectric Properties of
CoFe2O4/Ba0.90La0.067Tio.91Zr0.09O3 Composite Thin
Films
E. Delgado1 , C. Ostos2 , M. L. Martı́nez-Sarrión3 , L. Mestres3 , D. Lederman4 , P.
Prieto5
1
Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
Cali, Colombia.
2
Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional Bogota, Colombia.
Universitat de Barcelona, España..
3
Grupo de Quimica del Estado Solido, Universidad Nacional Bogota, Colombia.
Universitat de Barcelona, España..
4
Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
5
Excellence Center for Novel Materials.

Multifunctional materials in which two or all three ferroic order parameters coex-
ist in the same phase, are currently gaining more and more attention. In particular,

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 93

those wherein magnetic and ferroelectric order occur simultaneously. In the present
work we report the ferroelectric behavior in CoF e2 O4 /Ba0 .90La0 .067T i0 .91Zr0 .09O3
(CFO/BLZT) composite thin films. Such system was deposited on single-crystal
SrTiO3 (100) substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering under high oxygen pressure
atmosphere at substrates temperatures around 870 K. The films have been character-
ized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling of the constituent elements
The surface roughness and morphology were studied by atomic force microscopy
(AFM). Electrical characterization was carried out by P-E hysteresis loops and
leakage current density as function of applied voltage across Au/CFO/BLZT/STO
capacitors structures. We found that the CFO is intermixed with the BLZT, and
CFO is phase separated into BLZT matrix to form a composite film The coupling be-
tween the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order parameters has been demonstrated
through the reduction of ferroelectric polarization when measured under an applied
magnetic field.

Keywords: Multifunctional Materials, composite thin films.

Acknowledgements: This work has been partially supported by the Excellence


Center for Novel Materials CENM under COLCIENCIAS contract 043-2005

0 17:30 P-Tu-091

Finite elements modeling of nanomentric multilayers of


Cr-CrN with different period.
Elisabeth Restrepo Parra1 , Sebastian Amaya Roncancio1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Manizales.

Theoretical studies of material properties behavior such as mechanical and tri-


bological have been carried out by different authors, in order to compare these
results with experimental data. There have been special interest in coatings, films
and multilayers with nanometric scales, because their high performance for different
applications. One of the most used method for modeling for different materials and
their propertieshave been finite elements. In this work, mechanical properties of Cr-
CrN nanometric multilayers coatings have been modeling by using finite elements,
varying the period of layers (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bilayers) and the thickness of the
films in order to determine the behavior of the system. For this model, the software
ANSYS multiphysics was used to carry out simulation of the indentation process for
hardness determination and the calculation of vibrational modes and fatigue. For
the analysis, a conical Berkovich indenter was built, and the modeling is produced
employing models proposed by R. G. Veprek. The simulation consists in generating
the strain stress curves in the charge and discharge modes, to obtain the Young
modulus of the total system, including the subtract, which is made by stainless steel
304.

CLACSA XIII
94 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-092

Flicker Noise Analysis of Laminar Voltage Signals of Porous


Silicon Films
A. Ramı́rez-Porras1
1
Universidad de Costa Rica.
A special kind of noise analysis is applied on voltage signals recorded when the
electrochemical etching of crystalline surfaces of silicon is performed. The result-
ing material, named porous silicon (PS), exhibits nanocrystalline formations and
has interesting properties which can be employed in the development of optical,
electronic or biological sensor devices. These characteristics depend mostly on the
resulting morphology after etching. The Flicker Noise Analysis is a suitable way to
extract information on the dynamics of the pore formation and its correlation with
morphology. This study shows some of the analysis results.

0 17:30 P-Tu-093

Fluorine-doped effect on conductive and transparent


properties in tin oxide films deposited by APCVD
C. Morales1 , H. Juárez2 , T. Diaz2 , Y. Matsumoto1 , E. Rosendo2 , G.
Garcı́a-Salgado2 , M. Pacio1 , F. Mora2
1
Ingenierı́a Eléctrica, Sección Electrónica del Estado Sólido, Centro de
Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N.,.
2
Centro de Investigación en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autónoma
de Puebla.
Tin oxide films using tin tetrachloride, H2 O vapor and HF as fluorine dopant
source were obtained. Electrical, structural and optical studies with respect to the
concentration of fluorine impurities in the films were performed. The films were de-
posited on glass substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
(AP CV D) technique at deposition temperatures from 175 to 400 o C and deposition
times from 10 to 45 min. The final oxide thicknesses ranged from 100 to 5000 nm.
From X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements shown the films have a policrystalline
tetragonal structure but a temperature deposition dependence on the preferential
orientation was observed. For films obtained at temperatures from 175 to 225 o C
the films exhibited a preferred orientation in (200) and when the temperature is
increased up to 400 o C, this behavior was no observed.
It was found that depending on the percentage of fluorine impurities that are incor-
porated to the films it is possible to obtain a structural change of the SnO2 films
and therefore it is possible to get a change in the transmission percent and as con-
sequence to improve the conductivity of the films. Atomic force microscope (AF M )
images show that the size of grain increases with the increase of the deposition tem-
perature, which is related to the adherence of homogenous nuclei from the gaseous
phase, reducing the oriented growth and increasing the random direction growth.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 95

0 17:30 P-Tu-094

Fux-flow noise in type II superconductor thin films


Paula Giraldo.1 , Alejandro Perez.1
1
Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia..

The dynamic of vortexes inside type II superconductor thin films in the mixed
state, that is, under their critical temperature and immersed in a DC magnetic field
below its critical value, can be studied by means of the measurement of flux-flow
noise, generated by jumps of fluxons inside and outside a pick-up coil located on
the thin film. The change in the magnetic flux in the coil can be measured like a
very small voltage, and the frequency spectrum of the signal can be analyzed. We
measure the response of the system for different frequency excitations generated by
a lock-in amplifier and different magnetic field magnitudes, for thin films of YBCO
.

0 17:30 P-Tu-095

GaAlAs/GaAs-GaInAsSb/GaSb TANDEM SOLAR CELL


M. L Gomez-Herrera1 , J. L. Herrera-Perez1 , J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez2 , P.
Rodriguez-Fragoso3 , G. Torres-Delgado4 , I. Riech5
1
Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologı́a Avanzada-IPN,
Legaria 694, Col. Irrigación, 11500, México DF., México.
2
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Depto. de Fiı́sica, P.
O. Box 14-740, México, 07360 D.F., México.
3
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Depto. de Fı́sica, P.
O. Box 14-740, México, 07360 D.F., México.
4
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro.
AP. 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001, México.
5
Facultad de Ingenierı́a Fı́sica, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yuc.,
México.

We have developed a tandem solar cell by wafer bonding a p-n GaAs/AlGaAs sub
cell with p-n InGaAsSb sub cell, in order to take advantage of the visible and infrared
parts of the solar spectrum. Fusions at different temperatures were studied. Cross-
sectional scanning electron microscopy reveals that the interface is composed of a
regular array of two sets of edge dislocations. If a twist is created due to misalignment
of the two substrates, the dislocations are not edge dislocations but also have a screw
component. Analysis of the thermal diffusivity of these interfaces demonstrates the
role that the union plays in heat transport in these systems as a function of the
temperature used in the bonding process. The thermal diffusivity measurements
were carried out by means of the photoacoustic technique in a heat transmission
configuration. The thermal diffusivity degrades significantly below 500C, although
mechanically stable junctions were obtained at temperature of 400C

CLACSA XIII
96 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-096

Germanium carbide films prepared by reactive laser


ablation and characterized by means of x-ray diffraction
(XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
M.H. Farias1 , L. Ulloa2 , M.P. Hernandez3
1
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma
de México, AP 356, Ensenada, BC 22800, Mexico.
2
Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCEI), CP 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
3
Universidad de La Habana, San Lázaro y L. Plaza, CP 10400, La Habana, Cuba.

Characterizing new materials is essential for creating and developing technology.


Here, we present the synthesis and study of germanium carbide (GeC) thin films,
considering the potential that could have its application in electronic industry. Alloys
of group IV elements, including C, Si, Ge and Sn, have been investigated for its use
as heterogeneous assembly devices compatible with silicon circuit technology. The
diamond structure of C has a wide band gap of 5.3 eV, which is considerable larger
than Si (1.1 eV) or Ge (0.7 eV), such that adding C to Ge could increase the band
gap of GeC close to that of Si. Its is predicted that a GeC layer with a substitutional
C content (x) between 0.04 and 0.11, possesses a direct band gap [1,2].
Films were deposited by means of a laser ablation system with an in situ x-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) system. Deposition succeded by ablating a Ge
99.999 at. % target in a high purity molecular methane environment at a pressure
of 0.1 Torr. Layers were deposited on n-type Si(111) wafers, without a previous
cleaning procedure. The base pressure in the vacuum chamber is in the ultra high
vacuum regime, while the substrate temperature was varied between 250 and 400C
in order to obtain different C concentrations of the films.
For XPS analysis, Al Kα emission at 1486.6 eV was utilized. Also, an x-ray
diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed in order to recognize the structural phases
and obtain the lattice parameters. Quantification of XPS data of both analyzed sam-
ple series was performed by using two methods, matrix factor and Scofield param-
eters, in order to compare and verify the obtained results. Position and half-width
of the GeC peaks vary as a function of substrate temperature, which indicates a
lattice parameter change due to atomic C incorporation. By means of XRD, a 3.2 %
of crystalline GeC was calculated in addition to the amorphous GeC detected by
XPS.
[1] B. A. Orner, et al., J. Electr. Mater. 25 (1996) 297
[2] J. Kolodzey, et al., J. Crys. Growth 157 (1995) 386

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 97

0 17:30 P-Tu-097

STUDY OF THE ERROR IN THE CALCULATION OF


DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS AND THICKNESS OF
TRANSPARENT FILMS USING TRANSMITTANCE
AND BREWSTER ANGLE MEASUREMENTS
L.C. Jiménez B.1 , M. E. Ramı́rez O.1 , L. C. Jiménez A.2
1
Thin Films Groups. Department of Physics. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana,
Bogotá. Colombia.
2
Thin Films Groups. Department of Electonics. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana,
Bogotá. Colombia.

Tin oxide and indium films grown onto a soda lime substrate by reactive ca-
thodic pulverization, with a thickness of 100 to 150 nm, were characterized by their
optical properties from the transmittance an brewster angle measurements in the
region of VIS and near IR. The refraction index and dielectric constants were cal-
culated in terms of the wave length and the thickness. The measurements obtained
were studied and compared with those obtained by the methods of transmission
spectrum, Brewster angle measurement and differential reflectance. For films with
thickness lower than 100 nm the measurement of the refraction index by means of
this angle showed to be a method that enhances remarkably the error in the thick-
ness calculation. The differential reflectance analytical method, suggested to ideally
characterize the film growth is based on the Rp reflectivity changes very near the
Brewster angle of the substrate. It is proposed that these changes are enough to
determine the refraction index and the film thickness. To the signal, reflectance and
transmittance data analysis, the calculations are processed by the transform based
on Legendre polynomial expansions. The study covers the multiple reflections and
the momenta methods to determine the error measurement.

0 17:30 P-Tu-098

Growth mechanism of iron nanoparticles on (0001) sapphire


wafers
W. De La Cruz1 , C. Gallardo-Vega2 , S. Tougaard3 , L.Cota1
1
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, 22800
Ensenada, B.C., México.
2
Centro de Investigación Cientı́fica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B. C.
(CICESE), Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2732, 228.
3
Physics department, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M,
Denmark.

Laser ablation of a high purity (99.7 %) iron target was used to deposit iron
nanoparticles on the (0001) face of single crystal sapphire wafers. The deposit was

CLACSA XIII
98 Tuesday

carried out in steps; in each step a certain amount of iron was deposited and imme-
diately after, the deposition is characterized in-situ by X-ray Photoelectron Spec-
troscopy (XPS). At the end of each step, the fresh deposit is used as the substrate for
the next step. The total number of pulses used in this deposition was 600. Some sam-
ples were duplicated on dimpled substrate, in order to allow for the nanoparticles to
be observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The growth mechanism
was determined by applying the QUASES-Tougaard methodology to the extended
part of the background intensity of the Fe KMM peak in XPS spectra. An island
growth mechanism is proposed for the initial growth of Fe on sapphire. After 600
laser pulses the islands coalesce to form a continuous film. The heights of nanoparti-
cles obtained are between 3.5 and 6.5 nm. In the first 150 laser pulses, the heights of
nanoparticles remain constant. After 150 pulses the heights increase with the num-
ber of laser pulses. The amount of iron deposited (AID), defined as the product of
the height of nanoparticles with its respective coverage, increases with the number
of pulses up to 150 pulses and after that amount the AID was observed to remain
constant. At 150 laser pulses the coverage is estimated to be 81.5 % of the sapphire
surface. The heights of nanoparticles determined by XPS are similar to the diameter
of nanoparticles obtained by TEM measurements, indicating that the nanoparticles
are likely to show spherical symmetry.

0 17:30 P-Tu-099

Hardness and structure characterization of Ti6Al4V films


produced by reactive magnetron sputtering on a
conventional austenitic stainless steel
Carlos M. Garzón1 , José E. Alfonso1 , Edna C. Corredor1 , Abel A. Recco2 ,
André P. Tschiptschin2
1
Physics Department - National University of Colombia, UNaL.
2
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of São Paulo,
USP.
This contribution addresses hardness and structural characterization analysis of
Ti6Al4V thin films produced by reactive magnetron sputtering on a conventional
austenitic stainless steel. Deposition experiments were carried out with neither ex-
ternal heating of the substrate nor substrate bias voltage, being both the deposition
chamber pressure and plasma power varied between 0.05 and 0.005 mbar and be-
tween 200 and 500 W, respectively. Highly textured thin films, according to X-ray
diffraction (XRD) analysis, were obtained. Crystallites were columnar grains circa
10 30 nm in diameter, according to XRD and atomic force microscopy analysis.
Coalescence of crystallites was rather high, a low fraction of porous at the surface
of the films being observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experiments.
The porous distribution actually was significantly influenced by both the deposition
chamber pressure and plasma power. In general terms, the area fraction of pores
was lower than aprox. 0.1 percent and their equivalent circle diameter was aprox.
between 0.5 and 2.0 micra. Chemical composition of the thin films and hardness

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 99

on top of them were almost unaffected when deposition parameters were varied.
Chemical composition was near, but not equal, to chemical composition of target
material (Ti6Al4V). On the other hand, thin films hardness was around 10.0 GPa.
That hardness values were obtained using a maximum load of 5.0 mN in a instru-
mented nanoindentation equipment, this implemented with a Berkovitch diamond
tip. Qualitative adherence of thin films on the steel substrate as well as thin film
fracture toughness were analyzed by SEM examination on top of samples submitted
to Rockwell C indentations test (macro-hardness tests where the indenter is conical
and the maximum load is 150 kgf). A rather high toughness of the films as well
as a rather good adherence were observed. That both qualitative toughness and
adherence where significantly modified when deposition parameters were varied.
The results observed regarding porous distribution on top of the thin films, hard-
ness and qualitative adherence are explained based on the main physical phenomena
controlling the deposition process, this as a function of deposition pressure and plas-
ma power. In addition, the technological role of observed hardness and structure of
the thin films is discussed aiming biomedical applications, primarily the processing
of bio-implant materials.

0 17:30 P-Tu-100

HAUSSDORFF DIMENSION OF ADSORBATE


STRUCTURES IN CO OXIDATION ON REDUCED SIZE
Pt-CRYSTALS
L.D. López-Carreño1 , O.L. Cortes-Bracho2
1
Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT. Physics
Department. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
2
Electronic Engineering Department. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Research on the so called complex systems has increased significantly in the last
decades. The dynamic of these systems is characterized among other aspects, by
presenting oscillations, kinetic phase transitions and the formation of dissipative
structures. The chemical reactions catalyzed by surfaces, metallic in general, often
present this type of behavior. Among these reactions the oxidation of CO is one of
those arising great interest from the scientific community because of environmen-
tal concerns and, in particular, because of the need to eliminate polluting chemical
products such as CO, nitrous oxides and some light hydrocarbons, among others.
The production of these types of pollutants is mainly associated to the internal com-
bustion of engines used in the automotive industry. In this work, the kinetic reaction
2CO+O2 → 2CO2 on Pt nanoparticles was studied using the Monte Carlo simula-
tion method. The particles have a rectangular truncated pyramid geometrical shape
and show surfaces with structures (1x2) and (1x1) with phases α and β, respective-
ly. The reaction is considered to follow a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism.
The CO2 production rate depends on the CO partial pressure Pco, and it presents
two critical points ξ1 and ξ2 that define a reactive zone. The production of CO2 is

CLACSA XIII
100 Tuesday

zero outside this interval. The surface of the catalyst, in steady state and within the
interval [ξ1 , ξ2 ], is partially coated with particles of CO and O. The adsorbates are
arranged on the surface forming fractal structures. This work determines using the
box counting method the Haussdorff dimension D of the adsorbate distribution in
the reactive zone. As a function of Pco; D varies in the range [1.0, 2.0]. This function
is greatly affected when the CO diffusion and desorption processes are considered.

0 17:30 P-Tu-101

Hydrostatic Pressure effects on the binding and transition


energies for Wannier excitons in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As
quantum wells.
P. Aristizábal1 , W. Ospina1 , R. L. Restrepo1 , C. A. Duque2
1
Escuela de Ingenierı́a de Antioquia.
2
Universidad de Antioquia.

In this work, we present theoretical calculation for the exciton binding energy in
GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As quantum wells. Results are obtained in the effective mass approx-
imation and using a variational procedure. The intraexcitonic transition energies,
and the corresponding oscillator strength, are discussed for the 1s, 2s, 2px , 2pz , 3s,
3px , and 3pz -like states. The expectation value for the electron-hole distance in the
growth direction of the well and the expectation value of the electron-hole distance
in its transverse direction are calculated. Moreover, we study the effects of hydro-
static pressure on the excitonic system. Our results are compared with previous
experimental and theoretical findings.

0 17:30 P-Tu-102

Hydrothermal preparation of thin films and nanostructures


of metal oxides
V. M. Fuenzalida1 , R. A. Zárate2 , J. P. Wiff1
1
Universidad de Chile, FCFM, Departamento de Fı́sica, Chile.
2
Universidad Católica del Norte, Departamento de Fı́sica.

The hydrothermal method, assisted with electrochemical activation, can be used


to grow thin films and nanostructures of metallic oxides.
Perovskite thin films of the family (Ba,Sr)(Ti,Zr)O3 can be grown on metal-
lic substrates, alloys, or even silicon, glass and plastic coated with metal or alloy
at temperatures as low as 80 C. The films are polycrystalline and stoichiometric.
Microstructuring up to 2 µm can be achieved with conventional lift-off techniques.
The procedure can also been used to the preparation of different kinds of oxide
nanostructures. The procedure is of low energy consumption and scalable.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 101

0 17:30 P-Tu-103

Impedance spectroscopy studies of the polymer electrolyte


based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (NaI + 4AgI) H2 O.
J. E. Diosa1 , M. E. Fernández1 , R. A Vargas1
1
Universidad del Valle.

The polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), (NaI+4AgI) and


water have been synthesized. The polymer electrolyte exhibited an ionic conductivity
of the order 10−1 cm−1 and shows to be stable and constant in a wide temperature
range (10 to 70 C) for the hydrated samples. The Impedance spectroscopy studies
were obtained from 106 Hz to 109 Hz and over the temperature range 10 to 70 C.
The results reveal three dielectric relaxations that appear in both the imaginary and
real part of the permittivity. These relaxations are normally labeled as α, α0 and β
in dielectric data. The α0 relaxation, also known as the normal-mode relaxation, is
strongly dependent on molecular weight, and its amplitude is lower than the other
ones. Theα relaxation can be related to the cooperative segmental movements of
the macromolecular chains and their temperature dependence. The beta relaxation
is suggested to be associated with localized motions of the structural units.

0 17:30 P-Tu-104

Influence of Incident Radiation on the Electrical Response


of GaSb and GaInAsSb
A. Villada1 , L. Tirado-Mejı́a1 , D. G. Espinosa1 , C. A. Ortiz1 , D. F. Zuluaga1 , H.
Ariza-Calderón1
1
Laboratorio de Optoelectrónica, Universidad del Quindı́o.

Dark current-voltage characteristics and spectral response have been studied in


GaSb single crystals and GaInAsSb films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The GaSb
is used as substrate of the quaternary compound, and both materials are widely used
in heterostructures for devices such as photodetectors and thermophotovoltaic cells
operating in the infrared wavelength range. The low-band gap III − V antimony-
based semiconductors are also considered suitable materials as radiator converters,
due to their working range temperature and efficiency. The method used in this
work to obtain I − V curves is the four point parallel probe known as Van der Paw
convention. The electrodes were deposited by using thermo-electric evaporator under
high vacuum, in a four corner configuration on the surface of the samples. In this
work, we analyzed the photoelectric response of GaSb single crystal and GaInAsSb
films at room temperature for incident wavelengths in the range of visible to near
infrared radiation. The applied current ranges between -10 mA to 10 mA. The line
shape of I − V curves is associated for the GaSb with ohmic contacts and for the
quaternary alloy with Schottky barrier, considering a metal-semiconductor-metal
structure. We compared the variation in the characteristic curves of single crystal and

CLACSA XIII
102 Tuesday

epilayers with incident light. The activation energy was obtained from the correlation
between the light frecuency and the threshold current, and the dependence of the
line shape with the current intensity was analyzed.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This work was partially supported by the Universi-
dad del Quind and by the Excellence Center for Novel Materials (CENM), under
Contract No. 043-2005 subscribed with Colciencias.

0 17:30 P-Tu-105

INFLUENCE OF THE In CONCENTRATION ON THE


SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF InGaAs-GaAs
HETEROSTRUCTURES GROWN BY MBE ON GaAs
SUBSTRATE
E. Gómez Barojas1 , R. Silva González2 , R. M. Serrano Rojas2 , M. A. Vidal
Borbolla3
1
CIDS-IC, BUAP, MEXICO.
2
INSTITUTO DE FISICA, BUAP, MEXICO.
3
IICO, UASLP, MEXICO.

Since the decade of the 80s, considerable interest had been devoted to the growth
of heterostructures based on lattice mismatch epitaxial layers in order to improved
device performance and obtain new properties. Among strained semiconductors
structures Inx Ga1−x As/GaAs (lattice mismatch 0 % to 7.2 %) has been one of the
most studied systems for its potential applications in both microwave and optoelec-
tronic technologies.
The aim of this work is to study ex situ the surface morphology, the periodicity and
elemental composition of a set of 3 InGaAs-GaAs heterostructures grown on GaAS
(100) substrate by a molecular beam epitaxy system (MBE). The heterostructures
are formed by 10 periods of InGaAs-GaAs epitaxially grown on GaAs substrate with
nominal thickness of 500 and 1000 respectively. The techniques used for this pur-
pose are the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy
(AES) in combination with and Ar ion beam sputtering system. We present results
from three growth rums A, B, and C. SEM micrographs show different surface mor-
phologies of the samples. To observe by SEM the periodicity of the constituent thin
films of the heterostructures, the etching solution NH2 OH:H2 O2 :H2 O (1:5:25) was
used. The etching rate of this solution is greater for the GaAs than for the InGaAs
alloy therefore, grooves patterns were produced on the perpendicular sides of each
heteroestructures. By means of Auger depth profiles recorded from the

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 103

0 17:30 P-Tu-106

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY WITH ATTENUATED


TOTAL REFLECTANCE APPLIED IN THE STUDY OF
DECOLOURIZATION OF REMAZOL BLUE DYE
J. Juárez-Hernández1 , G. Dı́az-Godı́nez1 , M.E. Zavala-Soto2 , R. Delgado-Macuil2 ,
M. Bibbins-Martı́nez2 , M. Rojas-López2
1
CICB-Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, México.
2
CIBA-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Tepetila, Tlaxcala, México.

Infrared spectroscopy technique with attenuated total reflectance has been used
to study the decolourization of remazol blue dye by laccase. This enzyme is a cop-
per containing polyphenol oxidase which has been tested as a potential alternative
in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters
generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation
of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase
oxidazes dyes. In this work we have analyzed the FTIR spectra of degradation prod-
ucts of remazol blue dye, obtained as a result of the oxidative activity of enzyme
laccase. Individual spectra have been recorded for several reaction times at room
temperature during four weeks, obtaining a diminishing in intensity of the most
intense bands from remazol blue dye. Some of these bands are associated mainly
to anthraquinone and sulphonic functional groups. Such decreasing of the intensity
of IR bands is consistent with a similar behaviour observed in spectrophotometric
UV visible measurements, whose main absorption band is located at 600 nm. Dur-
ing the reaction several parameters as enzyme concentration, pH and temperature
play an important role for the formation of products as the reaction time increas-
es. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a
future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile
operations.

0 17:30 P-Tu-107

Initial stages of vanadium adsorption on the Si(111) 7x7


surface
F. Stavale1 , H. Niehus1 , C. A. Achete1
1
Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais(DIMAT), INMETRO, CEP
25250-020,Xerém, Duque de Caxias, RJ, Brazil.

Vanadium and its compounds play an important role in materials science. Among
others, Vanadium oxides are used for significant applications in the field of hydrocar-
bon catalysis whereas Vanadium alloys including V-silicides serve as components in
material engineering (magnetism, metal-ceramic materials, etc). These compounds
exhibit a broad variety of electronic, magnetic and structural properties, includ-
ing high melting point, high hardness, strength, thermal stability, excellent wear

CLACSA XIII
104 Tuesday

and corrosion resistance. In this work, we report the initial adsorption process of
vanadium on Si(111) 7x7 surface from 160K up to 850K using scanning tunneling
microscopy (STM). The vanadium clusters have a preferential adsorption site in the
faulted halves. Some clusters in the faulted and the unfaulted halves exhibit differ-
ent features which indicate the different adsorption energy and chemical activity of
the two half-cells. For the annealed clusters we observed a characteristic star shape
and at a particular voltage protrusions which suggest the vanadium atom position.
Severe spectroscopy effects were observed that might indicate a spontaneous sili-
cide interface formation as our initial theoretical calculations results suggest. The
formation mechanism and possible structures are discussed.

0 17:30 P-Tu-108

Localized modes in superconductor-dielectric photonic


crystals with broken translational symmetry
G. Becerra O.1 , J.C. Granada E.2
1
Universidad San Buenaventura, Cali. Fac. de Ingenierı́as, A.A. 25162, Cali.
2
Universidad del Valle, Dep. de Fisica, A.A. 25360, Cali.

During last years a explosion of research into the design and fabrication of pho-
tonic crystals [1] with complete photonic band gap has inspired a wealth of po-
tential telecommunication applications, including waveguides, channel drop filters,
and omnidirectional reflectors. In particular, the modes arising in a photonic crystal
consisting in a binary system of polar rods immersed in a homogeneous dielectric
medium were considered [2]. In the particular case of photonic crystals contain-
ing superconductor slabs [3] there exists a low-frequency plasma gap associated to
the non-zero density of superconductor carriers, and a photon-superelectron hybrid
mode around the polariton gap. In the present communication, on the basis of the
linear response theory, we calculate the components of the electromagnetic propa-
gator of a non magnetic system, consisting of alternating superconductor-dielectric
slabs of different thicknesses in the case when one of the layers breakes the transla-
tional symmetry. The photonic band structure and the corresponding power spectra
are studied from the poles and the imaginary part of the electromagnetic propa-
gator. It is shown that, for a given lattice period, when the superconducting slab
occupies a major percentage of the unitary cell of the photonic crystal, the num-
ber of bands in a fixed range of frequencies diminishes, the intervals of forbidden
frequencies decrease and the respective allowed bands present a strong dependence
with the wave quasivector. Additionally, as well as the London penetration length
decreases, the bands become less dispersive, which indicates the role played by the
superconductor slabs in the coupling of neighbour unit cells. Key Words: Photonic
crystals, photonic band gap, superconductor materials, optic materials.
[1] E. Istrate and E. H. Sargent, Rev. Mod. Phys, 78, 455 (2006).
[2] K.C. Huang, P.Bienstman, J.D. Joannopoulos, and K.A. Nelson, Phys. Rev. B
68, 075209 (2003)

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 105

[3] H. Takeda, K. Yoshino, A.A. Zakhidov, Phys. Rev. B 70, 085109 (2004); Chien-
Jang Wu a, Mei-Soong Chen, Tzong-Jer Yang, Physica C 432 , 133 (2005)

0 17:30 P-Tu-109

Low field vortex dynamics of BSCCO-2223


H. Martı́nez.1 , A. Mariño.2 , J. E. Rodrı́guez.2 , R. Jiménez.1
1
Universidad de Córdoba, Monterı́a..
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá..

Highly oriented BSCCO thin films were produced by r. f. magnetron sputtering


on MgO(100) substrates. The magnetic properties of these single high Tc-phase with
different granularity were analized in the low magnetic field, region 0¡H¡0.08 T. The
Tirr (H) data for all the samples fitted well to Almeida-Thoules (AT)-like power law.
On the other hand the irreversibility line (IL) was shifted to lower temperatures and
both critical current density and activation energy decreased by reducing the grain
sizes.

0 17:30 P-Tu-110

Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Multiferroic


TbMnO3 doped with Al
Fatima Perez1 , Jesus Heiras2 , Roberto Escudero3 , Alejandro Duran2 , Jesus
Siqueiros2
1
Centro de Investigación Cientı́fica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada.
2
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada de la UNAM.
3
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales.

The coexistence and interaction between ferromagnetic and ferroelectric prop-


erties in the same structural phase, such as in multiferroic materials, is very inter-
esting for new technological applications.Actually, there are only a few of this kind
of materials. Recent studies have focus on rare earth manganites because a strong
interaction has been found between magnetic properties and structural order [1].
Although T bM nO3 is being considered as an interesting multiferroic material, its
properties are not comparable to those of the first found multiferroic, the iodine-
nickel boracite [2-3]. In this work, a study of magnetic and dielectric properties of the
T bM nO3 compound doped with Al and earlier Ga results at different concentrations
is presented. Samples were synthesized by the powder solid state reaction method
producing single phase compounds. Rietveld refinement suggests the possibility that
Al replaces the Tb ion in the crystalline structure. SEM analysis exhibits the porous
nature of the samples. Magnetic measurements demonstrate the antiferromagnetic
phase of the undoped compound and the coexistence of weak ferromagnetism and
antiferromagnetism for the samples doped with Al. The magnetic order is mainly
attributed to the T b+3 ions. Dielectric measurements show that samples behave like

CLACSA XIII
106 Tuesday

a dielectric with high losses.


[1] T. Kimura, H. Shintani, K. Ishizaka, T. Arima and Y. Tokura, Nature 426 (2003)
55-58.
[2] S. Kharrazi, D. C. Kundaliya, S. W. Gosavi, et al., Sol. St. Comm. 138 (2006)
395-398.
[3] Y. Cui, L. Zhang, G. Xie, R. Wang, Sol. St. Comm. 138, no.10-11 (2006) 481-484.

0 17:30 P-Tu-111

Magnetic and mechanical changes of heat and plasma


treated amorphous 2605S3A Fe-based alloy studied by
several techniques.
F. Garcı́a-Santibáñez1 , A. Cabral-Prieto,2 , A. López1 , N. T. Nava-Entzana3 , P.G.
Reyes1 , E. Méndez1
1
Laboratorio de Fı́sica Avanzada, Facultad de Ciencias, UAEMex, Instituto
Literario 100, Toluca, Estado de México. México.
2
Departmento de Quı́mica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares,
Apartado Postal No. 18-1027, Col Escandón, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, 118001,.
3
Departamento de Caracterización de Materiales. Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo,
Av. Cien Metros, México, D.F..

Magnetic and mechanical changes of heat and plasma treated amorphous 2605S3A
Fe-based alloy studied by several techniques. The diversity of applications of mag-
netic alloys has generated interest in the study of their mechanical, magnetic and
electric properties variations with different treatments. In this work, the changes
in microhardness and Msbauer parameters of heat and plasma treated amorphous
2605S3A iron-based alloy are analyzed. In a vacuum of 7x10-7 Torr, the alloy sam-
ples were heat treated between 296 and 813 K in steps of 25 and 50 K during 20
minutes each. The experimental results showed a slow increase in Hyperfine mag-
netic field and fluctuation in Vickers microhardness around 11 % up to 749 K; also,
an increase around 35 % in microhardness at 813 K. In a chamber at 2.3 mTorr in
an oxygen atmosphere, a glow discharge between two copper electrodes separated
2 cm was produced. The sample was hold over the cathode keeping the discharge
during 10 hours, and simultaneously the emission spectra of plasma was obtained.
The voltage was varying from 350 to 600 volts and the current from 250 to 300
mA. After this treatment, the microhardness increased to 867.4 GPa (7.8 %). The
experimental results obtained after the sample is subjected to higher currents and
other gases also will be presented. In order to monitor the phase transition from
amorphous to crystalline state X-ray diffraction was used.

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 107

0 17:30 P-Tu-112

Magnetic interaction between FM/AF systems across a


spacer layer
Miguel Tafur1 , W. Alayo2 , V. P. Nascimento3 , E. B. Saitovitch2 , W. D. Brewer4
1
Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas.
2
Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas.
3
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro.
4
Institut Für Experimentalphysik Freie Universit Berlin.

The interlayer exchange coupling, between ferromagnetic (FM) separated by a


non-magnetic (NM) metal spacer [1] was discovered in late 1980s. The attempts to
explain this interaction were summarized by Bruno [2] where it was shown that inter-
layer exchange coupling can be ascribed to the spin-dependent change of the density
of states resulting from the quantum interference of conduction electron waves. The
exchange bias [EB] is another phenomenon that emerges from the coupling between
a FM and AF material [3] and it is characterized by the shift of the hysteresis loop
along the field axis. Originally, one though that the EB is a result from the coupling
between the nearest-neighbors at the FM/AF interface exclusively, however, it has
been experimentally shown that the magnetic coupling can also occurs across a thin
NM spacer trying to explain it long-range contributions to EB have been claimed
[4,5] as well as negated [6]. In all cases where the EB strength has been analyzed as
a function of the spacer thickness, the induced EB and the coercivity were found to
decreased with increased NM thickness. Nevertheless, it has not established whether
the interlayer exchange coupling in FM/NM/AF systems is a general phenomena,
and there remains some controversy. Is the EB transferred through pinholes in the
spacer? or is it in fact a long-range coupling persisting through the NM spacer?. The
coupling in EB systems is strongly influenced by the interactions at the FM/AF in-
terface. The insertion of a NM spacer between the FM and AF layers modifies this
interface coupling. Therefore, it is of great interest to obtain information on the
spin directions in the vicinity of the interface, specially in the NM spacer, and to
study how induced magnetic moments are formed in or transferred across the spacer
layer. The XMCD spectroscopy using electron yield detection is a well-established
technique to study surfaces and interfaces because of ots high surface sensitivity.
[1] S. S. P. Parkin, N. More and K. P. Roche. Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2304(1990)
[2] P. Bruno. Phys. Rev. B. 52, 411 (1995)
[3] W. H. Meiklejohn and C. P. Bean. Phys. Rev. 102,1413 (1956)
[4] N. J. Gokemeijer, T. Ambose, C. L. Chien. Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4270(1997)
[5] M. Gruyters, M. Gierlings and D. Riegel. Phys. Rev. B. 64, 132401 (2001)
[6] Luc Thomas, Andrew J. Kellock and S. S. P. Parkin. J. Appl. Phys. 87, 5061
(2000)

CLACSA XIII
108 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-113

ANTIREFLECTIVE MACROPOROUS SILICON LAYERS


ON CRYSTALLINE SILICON
Faruk Fonthal Rico1 , Trifon Trifonov, Angel Rodrı́guez2 , Clara Goyes1 , Josep
Pallar3
1
Universidad Autónoma de Occidente.
2
Universitat Politnica de Catalunya.
3
Universitat Rovira i Virgili.

A macroporous silicon (ma-PS) layer electrochemically grew on crystalline sili-


con surface can be used as an efficient antireflective layer for the optical devices as
antireflection coating and photodiode. In this work, we presented the ma-PS lay-
ers on n-type and p+-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) obtained by electrochemical HF
etching of Si wafers with short etching times (below at 9 min.). The morphology,
porosity, thickness of ma-PS layer can be adjusted by controlling the electrochemi-
cal formation conditions. The optical behavior of the antireflective layers under the
UV-Vis-NIR spectrum is determined, the reflectivity measurements were evaluat-
ed at 45 in the wavelength range of 200 to 1100 nm in the different samples the
ma-PS/c-Si and how influence the etching time used for the formation the ma-PS
layer; resulting in very low values of normalized reflectivity coefficient (below 5 %).
We have investigated the photosensitivity of porous silicon/silicon diodes with low
porosity using the Au/PS/p-Si/Al structure. Our results show a linear dependence
between the measured photocurrent and the illumination power for a cold white
lamp; resulting in very low values of the dark photocurrent for the photodiode ( 40
nA).
Aims
First, to develop a fabrication technique to produce PS layers on different c-Si
types.

Second, in order to study the optical behavior of the antireflective layers, to


measure the normalized reflectivity in the UV Visible - IR range.

Finally, to obtain the dark I-V characteristic of Au/PS/p-Si/Al photodiode


and to determine the linear dependence between the measured photocurrent
and the illumination power.
PACS: 85.60.-q, 82.45.Vp, 81.05.Rm, 42.79.-e
Keywords: Antireflection coating, Photodiode, Macroporous silicon, Electrochemical
HF etching.
References
[1] V.Parkhutik, Solid-State Elect, 43 (1999), 1121-1141.
[2] R.J.Martin-Palma, R. Guerrero-Lemus, J.D. Moreno, J.M.Martinez-Duart, Solid-
State Elec, 43 (1999), 1153-1157.
[3] S.Yae, T.Kobayashi, T. Kawagishi, N.Fukumuro, H.Matsuda, Solar. Energy, 80

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 109

(2006), 701-706.
[4] F. Fonthal, T. Trifonov, A. Rodruez, L.F. Marsal, J. Pallar. Proceeding EDS05
IMAPS CS, 1 (2005), p. 294 299.
[5] F. Fonthal, T. Trifonov, A. Rodruez, C. Goyes, L.F. Marsal, J. FerrBorrul, J. Pal-
lar. Accepted to Iberoamerican Conference on Optics(RIAO), Latinamerican meet-
ing on Optics, Lasers and Applications(OPTILAS) (2007).

0 17:30 P-Tu-114

APPLICATION OF NANOPOROUS ADSORBENTS


BASED ON CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CLAYS FOR
THEIR USE IN DEPURATION OF POLLUTED LIQUID
EFFLUENTS
M.R. Sun Kou1 , S.M. Delgadillo1 , G. Picasso1 , R. Trujillano2 , M.A. Vicente2 ,
S.A. Korili3 , A. Gil3
1
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Departamento de Ciencias, Sección
Quı́mica,.
2
Departamento de Quı́mica Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Quı́micas,
Universidad de Salamanca.
3
Departamento de Quı́mica Aplicada, Edificio Los Acebos, Universidad Pública de
Navarra.

In this work, the application of chemically activated natural clays as adsorbents


of surfactants presents in polluted liquid effluents is studied. Clays from various
mine zones in Peru have been selected and modified by thermal acid activation and
intercalation with ammonium salts. The adsorption experiments of a surfactant, lin-
ear sodium alkyl benzene sulphonic (LAS), have been accomplished, in kinetic and
equilibrium conditions, in slurry-type tank reactor. The remaining concentration of
the surfactant has been followed by potenciometric titration. The clay intercalated
with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide shows the best performance in adsorp-
tion, and various pH conditions have been also studied. The results obtained are in
according with the cationic superficial exchange in acidic conditions. Key Words:
nanoporous adsorbents, activated clays, polluted liquid effluents
This work was supported by the Spanish Agency of International Coopera-
tionAECI (A/6424/06).

CLACSA XIII
110 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-115

Assessing hardness through instrumented indentation:


Comparison between classical and energy based models
J. M. Meza1 , M. C. M. Farias2 , R. M. Souza2 , J. Cruz1
1
New Materials Research Group, Pontifical Bolivarian University.
2
Surface Phenomena Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department,
Politechnic School- Sao Paulo University.

Nanoindentation is the most important technique to measure the materials’hardness


at nanometer scale. During the last 30 years many hardness definitions have been
developed, they can be grouped into: conventional hardness based on the contact
area after unload, Oliver and Pharr hardness based on the contact area at maximum
load and the Work of indentation hardnesses based on the elasto-plastic energies.
The main objective of the present study is to determine the conditions for the work
of indentation methods produce results in agreement with the conventional ones.
Bulk materials as well as coated systems, both covering a wide range of plastic to
total energy ratio, WP/WT, were studied. It was found that the WP/WT ratio,
directly related to the deformation mechanism, allows to predict when the work of
indentation models can be used with confidence. For WP/WT¡0.7, WT based mod-
els produce reasonable values but still far from conventional ones. For WP/WT¿0.7,
WP based models produce more reasonable values and, when WP/WT1 results are
in agreement with the conventional hardness. Indenter tip roundness effects on dif-
ferent hardness definitions are also discussed.
Keywords: hardness, nanoindentation, plastic energy, elastic energy.

0 17:30 P-Tu-116

Barium Hexaferrite Samples Prepared by Sol-Gel and


characterized Magnetically
J. L. Galán1 , P. Medina2 , H. Castro2
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
2
Universidad de los Andes.

A analysis of the thermally activated magnetization processes taking place in


Sol-Gel derived Barium hexaferrite samples is presented. We studied the variation
of the magnetization and coercivity with the calcinations time, besides we have
measurement susceptibility magnetic at temperatures different. Is important to un-
derstand the different thermally activated demagnetization processes taking place
in these samples. Metastability of magnetization configurations present in magnet-
ically ordered materials is manifested by the phenomenon called hysterisis in ferro
and ferromagnetic materials

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 111

0 17:30 P-Tu-117

Characterization of p-InGaAsSb/n-GaSb and


p-GaAs/n-GaAs Structures for the Fabrication of
Fusion-Stacked Solar Cells
M.L. Gomez-Herrera1 , J.L. Herrera-Perez1 , P. Rodriguez-Fragoso2 , I. Riech3 , G.
Torres-Delgado4 , J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez2
1
CICATA-IPN. Unidad Legaria. Av. Legaria 694. México DF 11500. México.
2
Dept. de Fı́sica. Cinvestav-IPN. Apdo. Postal 14-740. México DF 07000, México.
3
Fac. de Ingenierı́a Fı́sica. Univ. Autónoma de Yucatán. Merida, Yuc. México.
4
Cinvestav-IPN. Unidad Querétaro. México.

Higher-efficiency photovoltaic devices can be realized through an improved use


of the solar spectrum using a two solar cell configuration; one for the visible part
and the other for the infrared one. We are developing a two-stacked solar cell, using
for the infrared portion a p-InGaAsSb/n-GaSb heterostructure, and a p-GaAs/n-
GaAs for the visible part. Both structures were grown using the liquid phase epitaxy
growth technique, and doping at different levels the p-type layers in order to obtain
p-n junctions with different electrical characteristics and depletion layer depths. For
the quaternary layers, p-type doping was achieved using Zn as the impurity; and
for the GaAs layer, Ge was used as the p-type dopant. We present results on the
characterization of both structures using the photoluminescence spectroscopy to
characterize the layer crystalline quality [1], and the photoacoustic effect to char-
acterize the layer-substrate interface [2] for both structures. Also, we present the
results on the I-V characterization and spectral response of both p-n structures for
the different doping levels in the p-type layers used. Finally, details on the fusion
process to stack the two solar cells are discussed.
[1] J. Diaz-Reyes, J.A. Cardona-Bedoya, M.L. Gomez-Herrera, J.L. Herrera-
Perez, I. Riech, and J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 8941
(2003)
[2] I. Riech, J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez, M.L. Gomez-Herrera, J.L. Herrera-Perez, Semi-
cond. Sci. Technol. 18, 763 (2003)

CLACSA XIII
112 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-118

Characterization of single crystals of sodium hexatitanate


nanowires by HRTEM, Raman Spectroscopy and XRD
R.A. Zárate1 , S. Fuentes1 , V.M. Fuenzalida2 , A.L. Cabrera3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte -
Chile.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Facultad de Ciencias Fı́sicas y Matemáticas ,
Universidad de Chile.
3
Facultad de Fı́sica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

Single crystals of sodium hexatitanate nanowires have been synthesised using a


simple hydrothermal reaction in a sealed reactor at 130o C among particles of pure
anatase T iO2 and a NaOH solution. Later, the samples were annealed at 500o C in
air for 24 hours. FEG-SEM and low magnification TEM inspection showed wirelike
structures with uniform diameters and high contrast, which indicated the formation
of single crystals. HRTEM and 2-dimension Fast Fourier Transform confirmed that
the annealed nanostructures correspond to sodium hexatitanate single crystals with
diameters between 20 and 120 nm and lengths that range from 500 nm to 1 microme-
ter. Structural characterization was also obtained by XRD and Raman spectroscopy.
These studies indicated that annealed samples presented diffraction patterns and
Raman vibrational spectra which correspond to the sodium hexatitanate indexed as
N a2 T i6 O13 . On the other hand, the as synthesised samples, without post-treatments,
were inspected by FEG-SEM and TEM techniques. Analysis indicated the samples
were composed of belt-like and wirelike structures with diameters between 10 and
60 nm and several micrometers in lengths. However, their crystalline structure could
not be determined using the same techniques as in the case of the annealed samples.

0 17:30 P-Tu-119

Comparative study of electrical and morphological


properties of Al doped ZnO thin films based on AFM
Ferreira, N. S1 , Raniero, L2 , Legnani, C2 , Achete, C. A3 , Simão, R. A1
1
Grupo de Superfı́cies e Filmes Finos, PEMM/COPPE, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
2
Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Dimat, Inmetro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
3
Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Dimat, Inmetro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil y
Grupo de Superfı́cies e Filmes Finos, PEMM/COPPE, Universidade Federal.

Zinc oxide is a multifunctional material that has large industrial applications


as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in photovoltaics devices. In this work, we
focus on the crystalline aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposition by r.f.
magnetron sputtering at room temperature. However our studies have the aim to in-
vestigate surface morphology and surface electric charge distribution of the films by

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 113

atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electric potential microscopy (SEPM)
respectively. AZO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron
sputtering, using a commercial target (diameter 7.62 cm) with small aluminum
plates disposed in its surface. All depositions procedures were started after the cham-
ber reaches a pressure of 8.0 x 10−4 Pa. The AZO thin films were deposited at room
temperature using the following parameters: Ar gas flow of 16.9 sccm; r.f. power
density was varied from 6.56 to 39.37 W cm−2 ; pressure was varied from 0.8 to 8.0
Pa and 5 cm of separation between the target and substrate. The AFM topography
images analyses of AZO thin films shown a microcrystalline structure continuous
and dense for all r.f. power densities and deposition pressures used. The surface
grain size tends to be bigger when r.f. power density increases, due to high kinetic
energy of the particles. High r.f. power densities allow that the deposited parti-
cles grow with bigger grain, improving thus the surface state density and obtaining
more compact films. SEPM images shown bright regions that indicate regions of
the sample with higher potential gradient, i.e., those surrounding depletion regions
are particularly suggestive of arrays formed by aluminum atoms segregated to grain
boundaries. Aluminum atoms segregated creates a localized impurity state in the
grain boundary and acts as a donor dopant. The resulting charge accumulation at
the grain boundary together with the presence of local bonds that are metallic in
character will influence the mechanism for charge transport across the interface.
Also, it is noted that at high dopant concentrations, many carriers are trapped at
the grain boundary and this become charged create potential barrier that limits the
electron mobility in aluminum doped thin films.

0 17:30 P-Tu-120

Control of the position of self-assembled InAs quantum dots


by anodic oxidation nanolithography
P. T. Valentim1 , B. R. A. Neves1 , P. S. S. Guimaraes1 , M. P. Pires2 , P. L. Souza3
1
Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2
Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.
3
LabSem, CETUC, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Semiconductor photonic crystals and other nanocavities have attracted much
attention since they provide a convenient system to control spontaneous emission
and to study cavity quantum electro- dynamics phenomena such as strong coupling
between photons and matter. They are also promising structures for the fabrication
of low threshold lasers, efficient light emitting diodes and other new devices, in spe-
cial for quantum information applications. Self-assembled quantum dots are nearly
ideal light emitters for this kind of structure due to their delta function-like emis-
sion spectra, high radiative efficiency and ease of fabrication and integration with
standard optoelectronic de- vices. However, the serious drawbacks of self-assembled

CLACSA XIII
114 Tuesday

quantum dots are that there is no control over their positioning and it is not possi-
ble to determine a priori their exact emission wavelength. Therefore, the tuning of a
quantum dot emission with the nanocavity in which it is embedded relies basically
on luck. This is specially critical for photonic crystals, due to the very low photonic
mode volumes achieved in these nanocavities. Some solutions have been proposed
for this problem. For example, Hennessy et al. (Nature vol. 445, p. 896, 2007) use
atomic force microscopy to locate each quantum dot in a low density sample and
then micro-photoluminescence to determine the energy of its excitonic emission,
prior to fabrication of the photonic crystal nanocavity. This and other proposals
have the disadvantage that it is not possible to determine previously the operation
wavelength and position of the desired device, instead both are determined after
dot growth. In this work, we propose a method to precisely locate self-assembled
quantum dots before growth and, in addition, to better control the emission wave-
lengths of self-assembled quantum dots. We use the technique of anodic oxidation
nanolithography to pattern layers of InP and GaAs. The tip of an atomic force mi-
croscope is used to generate InP (GaAs) oxide nanodots at the sample surface. After
removal of the oxide nanodots the holes left in the surface act as nucleation centers
for self-assembled dot growth. The size, and consequently emission energy, of each
quantum dot can be controlled to some extent by the size of the nano-holes, which
depend on the oxidation parameters, and also by adjusting the growth parameters
of the quantum dots. We report the characterization of several samples produced in
this way, with dots of different sizes and morphologies. We also report on the optical
characterization of the self-assembled quantum dots thus fabricated.

0 17:30 P-Tu-121

EFFECT OF CO2 LASER ANNEALING ON


MICROSTRUCTURE OF SPUTTERED SILICON
CARBIDE NANO-SCALE FILMS
Clara Goyes1 , E. Solarte2 , A.Devia3 , F. F. Rico1 , F. Sequeda2
1
Universidad Autónoma de Occidente.
2
Universidad del Valle.
3
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) nano-scale films were deposited on silicon and quartz sub-
strates using a Magnetron Sputtering system with SiC target. Aim of this work is to
present an alternative method for as-deposited silicon carbide nano-scale processing
based on CO2 laser irradiation. (Wavelength, l= 10.6 mm). All the films were pre-
pared in order to obtain a thickness of 100 nm. The combined effects of deposition
pressure and RF-DC discharge power and CO2 laser annealing (power and time)
on the film microstructure was investigated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
(XPS), Glazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption and
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It has been found that the microstructure of these
materials can be controlled by CO2 laser power and irradiation time. The presence
of SiC and a-SiC/SiC mixtures phases was confirmed when annealing laser power

CLACSA XIII
Tuesday 115

was at 8W and 14W. Also, the annealing effect on grain size and roughness was
studied. As deposited SiC films showed recrystallization effect after laser annealing.
Key words: Silicon carbide, Sputtering, Nanolayers, CO2 laser annealing

0 17:30 P-Tu-123

Electronic properties of nanoribbon junctions


A. León1 , Z. Barticevic1 , M. Pacheco1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Técnica F. Santa Maria, Casilla postal 110
V, Valparáso, Chile.

The electronic and optical properties of carbon-based nanoscaled materials such


as carbon nan- otubes, single or bi-layer graphene, and nanoribbons[1] are being in-
tensively studied due to their fundamental and technological interest. Recent studies
have shown that the electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) exhibits
remarkable geometric-dependent properties: it can have metallic or semiconductor
behavior depending on the ribbon width and on the arrangement of the atoms on
its side edges. It has been demonstrated that the transport and optical properties
of GNRs are strongly aected by the edge shape, in particular in the case of ribbons
with zigzag edges due to the existence of localized edge states which gives a sharp
peak in the density of states at the Fermi level[2]. Dierent devices junctions based on
patterned GNRs have been proposed[3] and constructed which can connes electronic
states realizing quantum-dot like structures. The elec- tronic states of these conned
GNRs structures can be manipulated by chemical edge modications or impurities
addition. In this work we show a theoretical study on the electronic and optical
prop- erties of boron- and nitrogen-doped z-shaped GNRs junctions. We use the
tight-binding method and density functional theory calculations to study the role of
the conned states on the electronic and optical properties of GNRs heterostructures.
[1] T. Ohta et al,Science 313, 951 (2006); S. Stancovich et al, Nature 442, 282 (2006)
[2] K. Nakada et al, Phys. Rev B 54, 17954 (1996); K. Wakabayashi and H. Hiroshi-
ma, Phys. Rev B 64, 125428 (2001)
[3] Z. F. Wang et al, Cond-Mat/075.0023 v1, (2007)

CLACSA XIII
116 Tuesday

0 17:30 P-Tu-124

Energy relaxation paths in doped AlGaAs/GaAs


superlattices in the presence of a high magnetic field.
W. H. M. Feu1 , G. S. Vieira2 , P. S. S. Guimaraes3 , S. J. Allen4
1
Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2
Divisao de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, 12228-840 Sao Jose
dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
3
Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
4
Center for Terahertz Science and Technology, University of California at Santa
Barbara.

Intraband energy relaxation plays a fundamental role in electronic transport in


both strongly and weakly coupled superlattices. For instance, the inelastic processes
that couple the subbands of the conduction band of multi-quantum well structures
are crucial for the performance of quantum cascade lasers and quantum well infrared
photodetectors. The presence of a magnetic field affects electron scattering mecha-
nisms in many important ways and the application of strong magnetic fields consti-
tute a powerful tool for studying the electron dynamics in quantum well structures.
In this work we perform magneto-tunneling measurements at low temperature, 20 K,
in doped GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum well structures, with the magnetic field ap-
plied perpendicular to the quantum well layers. In order to experimentally verify the
effect of the magnetic field on the current across doped weakly coupled superlattices
in different conditions, we used two multi-quantum well structures grown by molec-
ular beam epitaxy. Both structures have ten GaAs wells and eleven Al0.3Ga0.7As
barriers sandwiched between two layers of 50 nm GaAs of the same uniform doping
of the wells and barriers, 3015cm-3 of Si. These structures were again sandwiched
between two 300 nm thick GaAs layers heavily doped with Si at 2 1018 cm-3. For
sample 1 the nominal thickness of the wells and barriers were 15 nm and 5 nm,
respectively. For sample 2 these values change to 33 nm and 4 nm. We find evidence
of a significant magnetic field-induced reduction of low energy electron scattering
mechanisms, while the effect of the magnetic field on the energy relaxation paths
that include longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission is much less significant. The
effect of the magnetic field on the electron scattering mechanisms shows itself on
the processes of scattering- assisted tunneling, resonant tunneling and intersubband
relaxation. Through careful analysis of the data we can distinguish the effect of the
magnetic field on each of these processes. We find that while scattering assisted
tunneling is inhibited by the magnetic field, resonant tunneling can be favored. The
intersubband relaxation via LO phonons is not affected by the magnetic field to the
point of becoming a limiting factor on the current. On the other side, the intersub-
band relaxation without LO phonon emission is clearly inhibited by the magnetic
field to the point of becoming comparable to the resonant tunneling rate.

CLACSA XIII
Wednesday 117

Plenary
1 08:30 Pl-We-5

Colloidal Delivery System: Applied Nanotechnology


A Colombian ”Nano” - A technological investigation being
exported wordwide from Colombia
G. Moreno1
1
Kemtek Ltda.
KEMTEKO is a 100 % Colombian Comnpany, created since 1990, committed
to the design and development of synthesis and chemical formulations or industlid
use. KEMTEK has developed, proved and commercialize a New Applied Technolo-
gy, in the field of Colloidal Systems, for which, from now on. We will refer as CDS
(Colloidal Delivery Systems). In contrast to the orthodox thinking which adheres
to several basic concepts that describe physical characteristics which are necessary
for effective colloidal delivery systems, KEMTEK believes now has come the mo-
ment to challenge conventional ”wisdom.and to generate new ideas, presenting to
the world a revolutionay, innovative & successful CDS. This Technology has been
endorsed (proved and guaranteed) by at least 15 Agroscience Institutes of the Eu-
ropean Commnunity and others, and up to now KEMTEK has obtained license and
registries in various European, Afiican, Asian, Latin & North American countries.
The CDS Technology developed by KEMTEK is aimed to offer optimal and effective
solutions to old and new problems, while obtaining results and benefits that follow
and fulfill paanetas established by the W.T.O as well as principles and guidelines of
Enviromental and Health organizations worldwide. Our CDS’s are exempt and ful-
fill requirements established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, USA)
being recognized as a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) product and there-
fore offering the pertinent advantages for environmnent, animals and humans. The
CDS Technologies are now being exported from Colombia to be commercialized and
applied mainly for rationalization of ag-chemical products in the European Comm-
nunity, Latin America, Asia and North Africa.
For the specific use of CDS in the ag-sector we guarantee the following advantages:
1. Rationalization in the use and application of ag-chemical products improving
perfomance of commercial traditional rates. 2. Reduction of chemical residue lev-
els at havest. 3 Reduction of farm production costs. 4. Increase of the productivity
(”greening effect”). 5. Less environmental impact.
The CDS Technologies have challenged, confronted and successfully demonstrated
impressive results in the ag-sector as well as in various other application fields:
Agriculture(Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides, Nematicides, Fertilizers, Ento-
mo-pathogens and others)
• Rationalization values between 25 % to 80 % of commercial traditional
doses
• Bio-pesticides products remain active without refrigeration & storage at
room temperature

CLACSA XIII
118 Wednesday

• The recommended doses of CDS perHa: 40 to 50 c c


Construction(Concrete, Cement, Roads and other civil engineering applica-
tions)
• Diminishing amount of cement and replacing gravel/sand by native soils
Combustibles (Oil and fuel industry)
• Replacing gasoline and diesel oil by CDS in combustion engines
Electro-chemistry
• Increasing shelf-life and electrical density charge in batteries (accumula-
tors)
Industrial and household laundry systems
• Replacing VOCs by water
Paints and Dyestuffs / Leather Industry / Pharmaceuticals & biological prod-
ucts(vaccines) / Improvement of chemical processes.

Besides international licenses and registrations, KEMTEK has obtained an interna-


tional PCT Patent for the protection of its Intellectual Property in 134 countlies
around the world. However, considering all of the above CDS application fields as
well as the potential ones, we continue evaluating additional patent alternatives for
the CDS technology as a system; reason why we are looking foward to Umbrella
patent alternatives, which can offer us the protection for the whole concept and not
just application by application. Recently, our CDS product for the agicultural sector,
under the Trademark GREEMAX, has been awarded by the Agricultural Ministry
of the Czech Republic on the last Annual Agicultural Fair of August 2003, with the
”Zlaty Klas.award meaning ”Golden Stem”for being best product and innovation of
the year contributing to residue reduction in the environment.
WITHIN NATURE, WHEN WE TALK ABOUT APPLIED NANOTECHNOLO-
GY, A WHOLE UNIVERSE OF POSSIBILITIES OPENS UP, BEING THE BEST
EXAMPLE LIFE, CORRESPONDING ITSELF TO A WHOLE SET OF SPE-
CIALIZED COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS.

CLACSA XIII
Wednesday 119

Invited Talks
1 09:30 In-We-9

Study of structural and transport properties of the


Ba2FeZrO6 complex perovskite in nanosized and bulk form
J. Roa-Rojas1 , L.T. Corredor1 , J. Albino Aguiar1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

In the last decades, the production of advanced ceramics of perovskite type


has incremented dramatically, due to the enormous possibilities of crystallographic
structures, which yield diverse electrical, magnetic, optical, mechanical and ther-
moelectric properties. On the other hand, the specific advantages of nanocrystalline
materials such as superior phase homogeneity, sinterability, and microstructure that
lead to unique physical and catalytic properties demand the development of new
methods of perovskite compounds preparation. This work presents the production
of barium iron zirconate, a complex perovskite oxide, for the first time, to the best
of our knowledge, by two different methods: solid state reaction, which leads to bulk
samples, and a novel production method of nanosized powders, involving combus-
tion synthesis from mixture of nitrates and fuel. The morphological properties of
the nanopowders were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET
surface area determination, which confirm a crystallite typical size of 150 nm. The
sintered samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and energy disper-
sive X-ray analysis. On the other hand, resistivity measurements were made on the
bulk samples, besides of structural and morphological characterization. The crystal
structure at room temperature of the compound was determined as cubic, with lat-
tice parameter a= 8; 310A. The results of both types of samples were complemented,
both showing that the formation process of the perovskite requires the material to
undergo transformations passing through different stages before reaching a unique
phase character. Magnetic ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements re-
veal a paramagnetic behavior. Implications of these results are widely discussed, the
advantages of each type of sample are pointed, and possible applications of the new
perovskite are proposed.

2 09:30 In-We-10

Use and abuse of the effective-index-of-refraction concept in


turbid colloidal systems
Rubén G. Barrera1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

In this talk I present the calculation of the effective electromagnetic response of


a colloidal system when the size of the inclusions is comparable to the wavelength
of the incident radiation, thus due to multiple scattering the system actually looks
turbid. I start by describing the way the effective index of refraction of turbid colloids

CLACSA XIII
120 Wednesday

is actually measured and I comment about the conceptual difficulties involved in such
results as well as the importance and applications of these measurements in a great
variety of systems. Then I define as an effective electromagnetic response in these
kind of systems as the one related only to the coherent (average) component of the
electromagnetic field. In order to perform the calculation of this response I use a
model consisting of randomly located identical spheres and show that it exhibits
a non local behavior (spatial dispersion). I show that besides a nonlocal dielectric
response there is also a nonlocal magnetic permeability, assuring the existence of
a legitimate magnetic response in the optical frequency range. Thus our results
clarify the conceptual problems related to the optical magnetic response of colloids
with nonmagnetic constituents. I then derive, from the dispersion relation of the
transverse modes, a frequency-dependent effective index of refraction and conclude
that due to its nonlocal nature, its use is restricted only to the description of wave
propagation, that is, it cannot be used as an usual index of refraction in continuum
electrodynamics to calculate quantities like energy transport in the bulk or reflection
amplitudes from a flat interface. Finally, I show some possible alternatives to treat
the reflection problem within an effective-medium approach, and warn about the
abusive use of the effective index of refraction in dealing with this problem.

CLACSA XIII
Wednesday 121

Oral reports
1 10:00 OR-We-14

Scrutinizing localization properties in heuristic models for


DNA molecules: localization lengths versus participation
ratios
H. Carrillo-Nuñez1 , Peter A. Schulz1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cx. P.
6165, 13083-970 Campinas SP Brazil.

The potential applications of DNA in nanotechnology has attracted a great at-


tention from different research communities. One of the leading questions at the
moment is the possibility of building up nanoelectronics based on DNA circuits,
therefore leading to an even more fundamental question: what are the electronic
properties of DNA and how can they be tuned ? In such scenario, another point has
proved to be relevant, namely the localization of electronic states in these macro-
molecules. Several aspects are involved here: environment, intra-chain correlations,
as well as the configuration (single-strand, double-strand or even four-helix chains).
In the present work, two different tools for evaluating the degree of localization are
systematically investigated and compared: the participation ratio, obtained from fi-
nite system diagonalization and the localization length, extracted from transmission
probability calculations, i.e. from finite chains conected to semi infinite contacts. In
a first step both tools are applied to well known toy models, where a delocalization-
localization transition is unambigously present ( repulsive binary alloys). In a second
step, several heuristic models for DNA molecules [1], investigated within a tight-
binding framework, have their localization properies scrutinized by means of both
methods in order to specify possible effective delocalizations [2].
References
[1] V. M. K. Bagci and A. A. Krokhin, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 34, 104 (2007)
[2] R. A. Caetano and P. A. Schulz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 126601 (2005)

2 10:00 OR-We-14

Ondulating 2D waveguides. Dynamical and transport


properties
G. A. Luna-Acosta.1 , J.A. Méndez-Bermúdez.1 , J. Reyes-Salgado.1
1
Instituto de Fisica, Univ. Aut. de Puebla, Apdo Postal J-48, Puebla, 72570, Pue,
Mexico.

We study transport and dynamical properties of ondulating 2D waveguides. We


compare the wave and particle transport properties of two types of ondulation: In
one, the profile is formed by semicircles ( transversal cross section is constant) and
in the other the profile is sinusoideal [1] (distance between the upper and lower
boundaries is constant). One important differences is that in the semicircle shaped

CLACSA XIII
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waveguide the classical transport is unidirectional [2].We characterize their dynamics


by distinct Poincare maps and their transport properties by the mean transverse
distance and scattering probability matrix. We also calculate wave functions, Husimi
distributions, and conductance for representative parameters.
[1] G. A. Luna-Acosta, J. A. Mendez-Bermudez y F. M. Izrailev, Phys. Rev. E 64,
036206 (2001).
[2] M. Horvat y T. Prosen, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37, 3133 (2004).

1 10:20 OR-We-15

Enhanced of the Ethylene Glycol Thermal Diffusivity


Containing Au/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles with Different
Concentrations
J.L. Jiménez Pérez1
1
CICATA-IPN.

Ethylene Glycol (EG) with Au/Pd nanoparticles were prepared in a solution. Us-
ing a thermal lens (TL) experimental setup, the thermal diffusivity of EG in presence
of Au/Pd nanoparticles with different concentration was measured. The results show
that, the thermal diffusivity of EG mixed with Au/Pd nanoparticles increases with
the increase of the metallic particle concentration, enhancing the thermal diffusivi-
ty in the solution. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was studied for different
concentration of Metal(Au/Pd) /EG. From the TL spectroscopy signal intensity it
was possible to determinate the characteristic time constant of the transient thermal
by fitting the theoretical expression, for transient thermal lens, to the experimental
data. From this characteristic time, it was obtained the thermal diffusivity for each
solution. UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM were used to characterize the EG with
Au/Pd nanoparticles.

2 10:20 OR-We-15

Optical properties of Zr and ZrO2 films deposited by laser


ablation
L. Prieto-López1 , F. Yubero2 , R. Machorro1 , W. De La Cruz1
1
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, A. P. 2681, C.P. 22860
Ensenada, B.C., Mexico.
2
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla). Avda.
Américo Vespucio 49. 41092 Sevilla (Spain).

Optical properties of Zr and ZrO2 films in the energy range from 1.6 to 100 eV
were obtained by quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy
(REELS) and ellipsometry. The films were prepared on (111) silicon substrates by
reactive laser ablation using a zirconium target. For the growth of ZrO2 film a
pressure of 5 mTorr of oxygen in the growth chamber was used. The substrate

CLACSA XIII
Wednesday 123

temperature during the deposition was 400C. The deposits were studied ex-situ by X-
ray diffraction and in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and REELS.
The films were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. The XPS results showed
that the oxygen pressure used is the optimal control to produce ZrO2 films by laser
ablation. A gap of 5 eV for the ZrO2 film was measured by REELS

CLACSA XIII
124 Wednesday

Invited Talks
1 11:10 In-We-11

Re-entrant behaviour of Superconductivity induced in S/F


bilayer structures
Edgar Patiño1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

We have previously investigated the proximity effect of SF structures in Nb/Co


bilayers [1]. An increase in the critical current was found by applying a magnetic
field of the order of the coercive field of the ferromagnet. This was attributed to
cancellation of the exchange field at domain walls in the ferromagnet. A similar effect
was reported in Nb/CuNi trilayers by Rusanov et al. [2]. Recently Ryazanov et al.[3]
reported magnetoresistive peaks in differential resistance measurements, attributed
to spontaneous vortex state formation in proximity to the magnetic domain structure
of the ferromagnet.
We have grown Nb/Co and Nb/Perm bilayers on Si (100) substrates with a
strong anisotropy showing easy and hard axis configuration. Three different tracks
were patterned by a photolithographic process and Ar ion milling. The geometry of
the mask is stray field free. After patterning along the hard axis direction, depairing
current measurements were made, on Nb/Co and Nb/Perm bilayers with the field
parallel to the track. The results exhibit sudden drops that disappear when the fer-
romagnet is below 30 nm thick. The variation is accompanied by vortex flux flow.
When patterned along the hard axis direction no variation of the depairing current
was observed indicating correlation with the anisotropy of the cobalt. Magnetorestis-
tance measurements close to Tc show a sharp increase near saturation fields of the
ferromagnet, showing a re-entrant behaviour to superconductivity. These results are
explained as being due to inplane stray fields from the poles of the ferromagnet and
Bloch domain wall formation.
[1] R. J. Kinsey, G. Burnell and M. G. Blamire, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.,
11, 904, (2001).
[2] A. Rusanov, M. Hesselberth, S. Habraken and J. Aarts, Physica C, 404, Issue
1-4, 322 (2004).
[3] V.V. Ryazanov, V. A. Oboznov, A.S. Prokofev, and S. V. Dubonos, JETP Lett.
77, 39 (2003).

CLACSA XIII
Wednesday 125

2 11:10 In-We-12

Structure and properties of magnetorheological slurries


under perturbation
J. L. Carrillo1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica de la Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. A.P. J-48 Puebla
72570, México..

Micrometric magnetic particles dispersed in inert liquids exhibit complex aggre-


gation processes when they are exposed to a static magnetic field. The multifractal
structure generated in the dispersion under these conditions, can be conceived as
resulting of the sequential formation of clusters of various different generations[1]. If
in addition to the static field, it is applied on the dispersion an oscillatory magnetic
perturbation, the structure formed by the particles, and consequently some of the
physical properties of the system, can be strongly affected[2]. Under certain condi-
tions, by the influence of the perturbation, the structure in the dispersion can be
reconstructed becoming an ordered one. In this work, these phenomena are discussed
addressing the transformation of the structure in the scheme of a glass transition.
For low particle concentration the pattern formation, in the presence of the static
and perturbation fields, is quite different. We discuss the relationship between the
pattern formation and the rheological properties of dilute dispersions.
[1] J.L. Carrillo, F. Donado, and M.E. Mendoza, Phys. Rev. E, 68 061509 (2003).
[2] F. Donado, J.L. Carrillo, and M.E. Mendoza, J. Magn. Magn. Mat. (in press).

1 11:40 In-We-13

MechanismofunfoldingbyForce:
InsightfromQuasi-EquilibriumMolecular
DynamicsCalculations
G. Pabon1
1
Universidad Javeriana and Departmentof Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry,
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

We have studied the unfolding by force of one of the immunoglobulin domains


of the muscle protein titin using molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K. Previous
studies, done at constant pulling rates,showed that under the effect of the force two
strands connected to each other by six backbone H-bonds are pulled apart. No details
about the mechanism of H-bond breaking were provided. Our simulation protocol
pull and wait was designed to correspond to very slow pulling, more similar to the
rates used in experiments than are the protocols used in previous computational
studies. Under these conditions interstrand backbone H-bonds are not ripped apart
by the application of the force. Instead, small elongations produced by the force
weaken specific backbone H-bonds with respect to water-backbone H-bonds. These

CLACSA XIII
126 Wednesday

weakened bonds allow a single water molecule to make H-bonds to the CO and the
NH of the same backbone H-bond while they are still bound to each other.
The backbone H-bond then breaks (distance > 3.6 Å), but its donor and acceptor
atoms remain bound to the same water molecule. Further separation of the chains
takes place when a second water molecule makes an H-bond with either the protein
backbone donor or acceptor atom. Thus, the force does not directly break the main
chain H-bonds: it destabilizes them in such a way that they are replaced by H-bonds
to water. With this mechanism, the force necessary to break all the H-bonds required
to separate the two strands will be strongly dependent on the pulling speed. Further
simulations carried out at low forces but long waiting times (> 500 ps, < 10 ns)
show that, given enough time, even a very small pulling force (,400 pN) is sufficient
to destabilize the interstrand H-bonds and allow them to be replaced by H-bonds to
two water molecules. As expected, increasing the temperature to 350 K allows the
interstrand H-bonds to break at lower forces than those required at 300 K.

2 11:40 In-We-14

Crystallographic structure and surface composition of nbnx


thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering
J. E. Alfonso1 , J. Buitrago1 , J. Torres1 , J. F. Marco2 , B. Santos3
1
Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnológicas - GMAT, Universidad
Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 14490, Bogotá DC, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Quimica-Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, c/Serrano, 119 ,28006 Madrid,
Spain yDepartamento de Fı́sica de la Materia Condensada y Centro de Mic.
3
Instituto de Quimica-Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, c/Serrano, 119 ,28006 Madrid,
Spain..
This work presents the results obtained from growing NbNx thin films on com-
mon glass substrates through the rf magnetron sputtering technique. The structure,
morphology and surface composition of the resulting films have been characterized
with X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray
Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, respectively. The results from XRD
show that the films deposited at room temperature, varying the power between 100
and 300 W, grew in amorphous manner. The films deposited at 300 W and 120oC
grew along the (111) and, with smaller intensity, (200) planes of the Nb4N3.92.
phase. The films morphological study indicates that the surface evolves from low to
high coalescence depending on temperature and power. On the other hand, the Nb
3d XPS spectra recorded from all the samples showed always three components. A
major one located at 207.3 eV (BE of the Nb 3d5/2 core level) which corresponds
to Nb2O5; a second one at 203.5-204.3 eV which we associate with the presence of
NbNx, (we observed small binding energy differences for this component depending
on the samples which are probably due to small differences in stoichiometry of the
NbNx phase) and, finally, we observed a third component at 204.8-205.5 eV which
corresponds to a niobium oxynitride phase probably located in the interface be-
tween the NbNx layer and the outer Nb2O5 oxide layer. The relative concentrations

CLACSA XIII
Wednesday 127

of these three phases are different in the different samples. The N 1s spectra showed
always a main component at 396.7-397.5 eV which is due to Nb-N bonds. Some
other contributions appearing at higher binding energies were also observed and we
associate them with the presence of N-O bonds.

CLACSA XIII
128 Wednesday

Oral reports
1 12:10 OR-We-16

Non equilibrium thermal entanglement


Marı́a E. Ramı́rez1 , Roberto Parı́s1 , Ferney J. Rodriguez2 , Luis Quiroga2
1
Universidad Javeriana ,Bogotá D.C..
2
Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá D.C..

Results on heat current, entropy production rate and entanglement are reported
for a quantum system formed by two interacting qubits in thermal contact with
different temperature reservoirs. The aim of the present work is to correlate ther-
modynamical non- equilibrium steady- state features with entanglement properties
of this nanosystem. By applying a temperature gradient and using the concurrence
to evaluate the entanglement, different quantum states can be found with exactly
the same amount of entanglement but different purity degrees and heat currents.
Interesting cases, like symetric case, where the splitting of the qubits has the same
value, and the non symetric case, are presented in both, strong and weak coupling
limits. Furthermore a non equilibrium enhancement- suppression transition behavior
of the entanglement is identified.

2 12:10 OR-We-16

Effect of CO2 laser annealing on microstructure of


sputtered silicon carbide nano-scale films
Clara Goyes1 , Efraı́n Solarte2 , Alfonso Devia3 , Faruk Fonthal Rico1 , Federico
Sequeda O.2
1
Universidad Autónoma de Occidente.
2
Universidad del Valle.
3
Universidad Nacional de Cololombia - Sede Manizales.

Silicon Carbide (SiC) nano-scale films were deposited on silicon and quartz sub-
strates using a Magnetron Sputtering system with SiC target. Aim of this work is to
present an alternative method for as-deposited silicon carbide nano-scale processing
based on CO2 laser irradiation. (Wavelength = 10.6 um). All the films were pre-
pared in order to obtain a thickness of 100 nm. The combined effects of deposition
pressure and RF-DC discharge power and CO2 laser annealing (power and time)
on the film microstructure was investigated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
(XPS), Glazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption and
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It has been found that the microstructure of these
materials can be controlled by CO2 laser power and irradiation time. The presence
of SiC and SiC/SiC mixtures phases was confirmed when annealing laser power was
at 8W and 14W. Also, the annealing effect on grain size and roughness was studied.
As deposited SiC films showed recrystallization effect after laser annealing.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 129

Plenary
1 08:30 Pl-Th-6

Electronic states delocalization processes in low dimensional


self assembled systems
Peter A. B. Schulz1
1
UNICAMP.

We review in this work the possible mechanisms that promote localization length
enhancement or even metal-insulator transitions in low dimensional systems based
on self assembling processes. We specifically address a quasi one dimensional system,
namely double strand DNA chains, as well as two dimensional examples: self assem-
bled quantum dot systems and the recently synthetized DNA square grids. Further
possibilities are briefly discussed, in special the localization problem in Graphene
based devices.

CLACSA XIII
130 Thursday

Invited Talks
1 09:30 In-Th-15

Screening of charged macromolecules


G. Tellez1
1
Universidad de los Andes.
We present several aspects of the screening effect of cylindrical charged macro-
molecules, such as ADN, in an electrolyte. After a review of the basic mean field
approach and the concept of renormalized charge, we present several new results
from our recent work, which take into account the effect of the correlations between
microions. Some interesting properties arise due to the correlations, for instance the
charge inversion phenomenon, where the screening cloud around a macromolecule is
able to overscreen it, therefore inverting the natural tendency of the macromolecule
to repel object with the same charge.

2 09:30 In-Th-16

Optical and Morphological Properties of Self-Assembled


Quantum Dots Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on
Novel IndexSurfaces
M. Henini1
1
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham.
The study of strained heterostructures based on III-V semiconductors has at-
tracted much interest due to the possibility of obtaining defect-free quantum dots
(QDs) by spontaneous self-assembling [1,2]. In particular, InxGa1-xAs/GaAs QDs
have good optical properties [3-5]. Recently, it has been shown that the photolu-
minescence (PL) properties of In0.5Ga0.5As QDs on GaAs can be improved by
growing the dots on high index (n11) substrates [6-9]. Also a clear morphological
ordering of (311)B (InGa)As QDs has been observed [10,11]. In this talk I will report
a study of the optical and microscopic properties of InxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostruc-
tures grown on various high index GaAs surfaces. The substrate orientation strongly
affects the two-dimensional to three-dimensional growth mode transition. References
[1] L. Goldstein et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 47, No.10, 1985, pp.1099-1101.
[2] C. W. Snyder et, Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, No.23, 1991, pp.3032-3035
[3] J. Oshinowo et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, No. 11, 1994, pp.1421-1423.
[4] K. Kamath et al, Appl. Phys Lett. 71, No. 7, 1997, pp. 927-929.
[5] S. Raymond et al, Phys. Rev. B 54, No. 16, 1996, pp. 11548-11554.
[6] K. Nishi et alJ. Appl. Phys. 80, No. 6, 1996, pp. 3466-3470.
[7] D. I. Lubyshev et alJ. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, No. 3, 1996, pp. 2212-2215.
[8] P. O. Vaccaro et al, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, No. 9, 1996, 2221-2228.
[9] R. Nzel, , Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, No. 10, 1996, pp.1365-1379.
[10] K. Nishi et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, No. 26, 1997, pp. 3579-3581.
[11] M. Kawabe et al, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, No. 6B, 1997, pp. 4078-4083

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 131

Oral reports
1 10:00 OR-Th-17

The electrochemical behaviour by electrochemical


impedance spectroscopy EIS of Ti6Al4V ELI in SBF,
superficially modified by anodic oxidation.
Manuel José Andrade Romero1 , Hugo Armando Eestupiñan Duran1 , Dario Yesid
PeñaBallesteros1 , Custodio Vásquez Quintero1
1
Grupo de Investigaciones en Corrosión, UIS.

The electrochemical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI anodized alloy was investigated


in a simulated body fluid (SBF), developed by Kokubo at 27 0 C. This titanium
alloy is employee as of orthopedic implants applications owing to their appropri-
ate mechanical properties and their excellent corrosion resistance. The aim of this
study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance in an artificial physiological solution
In vitro, through the spectroscopy of electrochemical impedance technique, EIS, af-
ter 0, 120, 240 and 360 hours of immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF). The
Impedance spectra obtained by EIS showing a typical behavior of a stable passive
layer, comprising by an inner barrier and an outer porous layer, exhibiting high val-
ues of impedance at low frequencies, evidence of the formation of a highly stable film.
The surface morphology of anodized titanium alloy was characterized by scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) measurements.

2 10:00 OR-Th-17

ION DYNAMICS IN PVOH-LiClO4 POLYMER


ELECTROLYTES MODIFIED BY NANO-POROUS Al2O3
W. A. Castro1 , Z. H. Zapata1 , R. A. Vargas1 , B.-E. Mellander2
1
Universidad del Valle.
2
Chalmers University of Technology.

Broadband admittance spectroscopy was used to examine the ion conduction


mechanisms in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) complexed with LiClO4, in which mi-
croparticles of Al2O3 with pore size of the order of 58 were thoroughly dispersed. The
dc-conductivity of the PVOH-LiClO4 films show a more than one order of magnitude
increase with the addition of the ceramic filler, with a filler concentration depen-
dence that level out above 10 wt % Al2O3 that it has been attributed to an increase
dissociation of the salt in the surface region of the fillers at its percolation thresh-
old [1]. A power law frequency dependence of the ac conductivity is observed over
a broad temperature and salt concentration ranges, which is characteristic of the
effects of ion-ion and/or ion-chain correlation in ion hopping. This variation is well
fitted to a Jonscher expression where &#61555;0 is the dc conductivity, &#61559;p
is a characteristic frequency relaxation and n is a fractional exponent between 0 and
1. For further quantitative, the data from the frequency dependence of the electric

CLACSA XIII
132 Thursday

modulus, M (&#61559;), has been fitted with a stretched exponential function of the
form [2]. By increasing temperature, ionic conductivity values of a prototype sample
with concentration 0.9PVOH-0.1LiClO4/0.07Al2O3 change significantly and the ex-
ponent n is found to decrease from n = 0.6 to n = 0.4. These results point to weaker
correlation effects among lithium atoms when the temperature is increased. Tem-
perature dependence of lithium conductivity parameters (&#61555;0, &#61559;p
and 1/&#61556;) follow the empirical Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) model, exp
(-B/(T-T0)), where B is a pseudo activation energy required for the free volume
redistribution and T0 is generally related to the glass transition temperature of the
polymer blend, Tg = T0 + &#61508; (50 &#61603; &#61508; &#61619; 70 K) [3].
Thus, this result suggests the contribution of polymer chain relaxation to ionic hop-
ping.
1 10:20 OR-Th-18

Role of Antenna Complexe’s Architecture in the


photosynthesis of purple bacteria
Felipe Caycedo Soler1 , Ferney Javier Rodrı́guez1 , Luis Quiroga1
1
Universidad de Los Andes.

The photosynthetic membranes in purple bacteria are formed by Light Harvest-


ing 1- Reaction Center complexes (LH1-RC) and antenna complexes LH2. Mem-
branes vary the complexeś stoichiometry with changing light intensity. Our classical
hopping model treats exlicitly thermal light statistics, excitation transfer and dis-
sipation, and implictly quinone difussion. The results give insight of stoichiometry
variation and explains quantitavely the advantage of the architectures resolved re-
cently by Atomic Force Microscopy.

2 10:20 OR-Th-18

Transport Boundary Condition for Semiconductor


Structures
I. N. Volovichev1 , J. E. Velázquez-Pérez1 , Yu. G. Gurevich2 , J. Giraldo3
1
Departamento Fı́sica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced,
E37008, Salamanca, Spain.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, C.P. 14-740, México
D.F., México.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C.,
Colombia.

Boundary conditions (BC) to the Poisson and transport equations for station-
ary transport processes of nonequilibrium carriers in semiconductor structures are
formulated. The applicability of the resulting boundary conditions for several materi-
als (metals, bipolar semiconductors, including ones in the quasineutrality approach,
QNA) and their structures are analyzed for both closed and open circuits. As a first

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 133

step, general BC for different types of contacts between two materials and between a
solid and the vacuum under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are thoroughly
discussed. Later on, BCs are presented for the general case of a contact between a
solid (this contact is considered as a free-surface in a broad sense) and the vacuum
under non-equilibrium conditions. The concept of free-surface, and its BCs, can be
extended and applied to other interfaces such as semiconductor-insulator that has
a large interest in Electronics. Finally, the case of a hetero-contact between two
conducting media under a current flow is addressed and it is found that BCs for
closed-circuit conditions are a limiting case when the current flow is set to zero. In
all the cases here considered the changes operated in the BCs if the QNA is invoked
are carefully studied.

1 11:10 OR-Th-19

In vitro sliding behaviour and wear patterns in Stainless


Steel wires with Glass coatings Applied by Sol Gel Method
Alejandro Pelaez Vargas1 , Claudia Garcı́a Garcı́a2 , Juliana Rendón Vera3 , Yesid
Montoya Góez3
1
Universidade do Porto,INEB.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellin, Facultad de Ciencias.
3
Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, Ingenierı́a Biomédica.

Currently one of the concerns in the orthodontic practice goes to reduce the
sliding resistance between brackets and archwires, one of the solutions for this specific
problem is modified the surfaces involved in the sliding. In this study the purpose
was to compare the sliding and wear patterns in bracket/wire orthodontics couples
using ceramic and metallic bracket and Stainless Steel wires with and without glass
coatings applied by sol-gel process. Sixty specimens of wires were evaluated and
grouped by composition of brackets Inyected Austenitic Stainless Steel and Sapphire
Monocrystaline Brackets. The sliding force were applied using a Testresources testing
machine at 21 C room temperature in dry state. Materials characterization pre
and post-test was done under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical
Microscopy. Finally results showed an abrasive wear patterns in the Sol-Gel glass
coating, associated with an increase in the sliding resistence force. The stainless steel
wires group (CONTROL) showed the lowest values for static friction force, followed
by the glass coated steel wires group (SOLGEL). Ceramic brackets group showed
the higher frictional force, followed by the inyected stainless steel brackets group.
The performance evaluation of the surfaces was a meaningful study to re-evaluated
the necessaries properties of glass coatings, and also the obtaining process.

Key words: Abrasive wear, sliding resistence force, Sol-Gel, glass coating, stainless
steel

CLACSA XIII
134 Thursday

2 11:10 OR-Th-19

Analysis of the X-ray Diffraction on GaInAsSb films


fabricated by EFL
L. Tirado-Mejı́a1 , J.A. Peñafiel1 , J.F. Gómez1 , M.E. Rodrı́guez-Garcı́a2 , H.
Ariza-Calderón1
1
Laboratorio de Optoelectrónica, Universidad del Quindı́o.
2
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Fı́sica Aplicada y
Tecnologı́a Avanzada, Departamento de Nanotecnologı́a, Campus Juriquilla.

In this work we present the analysis of the X-ray diffraction of GaInAsSb semi-
conductor films grown by liquid phase epitaxy, over GaSb substrates with (100)
crystallographic orientation. The X-ray diffraction patterns obtained with a θ − 2θ
Bragg-Brentano configuration exhibit two main peaks which correspond to substrate
crystalline structure. The presence of some other low intensity peaks is associated
to metallic clusters in the surface of the samples. The deconvolution of (400) peak
evidences the discrepancies due to the film between the single crystal peak report-
ed and the experimental peak. In order to minimize the substrate contributions,
grazing-angle measurements were performed. The diffraction peaks obtained are not
due to phases formed by binary compounds as these peaks can not be attributed to
any of the possible four binary compounds formed with the quaternary constitutive
elements. It is evidenced a crystalline phase and its structure was modeled by using
CaRIne software. We used these results to calculate the mismatch between layer and
substrate. This study was accomplished by varying the incident grazing angles.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This work was partially supported by the Universi-
dad del Quind and by the Excellence Center for Novel Materials (ECNM), under
Contract No. 043-2005 subscribed with Colciencias.

1 11:30 OR-Th-20

Bose-Einstein condensates collapse: a variational solution


A. M. Lobo1 , Valery Shchesnovich1 , S. B. Cavalcanti2
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Experiments on dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with attractive in-


teractions have evidenced the collapse of the condensate for a number of atoms N
higher than a critical value Ncr. For a spherically symmetric trap the Ncr measured
value is in reasonable agreement with mean field results. A series of collapses has
been observed in a condensate of Li due to the interatomic attraction . After a col-
lapse, the number of atoms N in the condensate is reduced so that for N below Ncr
a stable configuration is attained. By increasing the number of atoms in the con-
densate up to the point where N ¿Ncr a further collapse is induced and so on, this
process may be repeated and a series of collapses may be observed. In this work we

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 135

investigate analytically the behavior of the collapsing condensate within the frame-
work of a time-dependent nonlinear mean field Gross-Pitaevskii equation, suitable
to describe the dynamics of the order parameter (t) of a BEC magnetically trapped
in a harmonic three-dimensional potential. Two and three-body inelastic collisions
which remove atoms from the condensate are included. By using a variational ap-
proach based on dAlemberts principle and suitable for non-conservative systems we
demonstrate that a Gaussian ansatz captures this pulse-like behavior by simulating
numerically the variational equations that determine the temporal behavior of the
order parameter (t).

2 11:30 OR-Th-20

Colloidal II-VI semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic


quantum dots for bioimaging
Patrı́cia Maria A. Farias1 , Beate S. Santos1 , Adriana Fontes1 , Regina Célia B. Q.
Figueiro2 , Claudilene R. Chaves1 , Ricardo Ferreira1
1
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.
2
Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães - FIOCRUZ.

Nanostructured materials based on semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) present


intrinsic properties which make them a powerful tool for labelling biological systems.
Compared to organic fluorophores, QDs show higher photostability, narrower pho-
toluminescence with high quantum yield, broader absorption bands, large effective
Stokes shifts and higher absorption coefficients. In order to target them to specif-
ic molecules (e.g. proteins, peptides, DNA) present in the biological system under
study, their surface must be modified with organic species, such as polymers. The
resulting system, considered as a hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructure, is very
compatible with fluorescence or confocal microscopy analysis commonly used to in-
vestigate biological systems.
In this work we show several well succeed examples of the application of CdS, CdSe
and CdTe QDs (d=2-6nm) prepared in colloidal aqueous medium using polyphos-
phate or mercapto acetic acid stabilizing agents. These systems show fluorescent
maxima at 490 nm, 550 nm and 512 nm respectively, with a FWMH = 50 nm. The
particles were functionalized with organic compounds, in physiological medium. The
biological samples were alive and showed no sign of damage after the incubation with
the colloidal quantum dots suspensions.
Keywords: quantum dots, nanotechnology, biological labeling, bioimaging
PACS: 87.83.+a; 61.46.Hk; 81.07.Ta;

CLACSA XIII
136 Thursday

1 11:50 OR-Th-21

VIBRATIONAL, STRUCTURAL AND MAGNETIC


PROPERTIES OF IRON OXIDES NANOPHASES
FORMED ON STEEL CORRODED SURFACES
F. R. Pérez1 , C. A. Barrero2 , A. Hight Walker3 , K. E. Garcia2 , J. Tobón2 , F.
Londoño2
1
Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.
2
Universidad de Antioquia.
3
National Institute of Standards and Technology.

The investigation of the surface corrosion products (rust) formed on steels con-
stitutes a fundamental theme in the field of corrosion science, since their protective
ability depends not only on the rust constituents but also on their different physical
properties. The morphology, nanometric grain sizes and some cationic substitutions
have been reported as determinant characteristics for proper performance of the
steels. These investigations have resulted in the development of different steels that
can be used in structural applications without painting. In the present work, we
have investigated some physical properties of iron oxide nanophases formed on steel
surfaces submitted to total immersion tests. The chloride concentration in the so-
lution, the type of steel, and the immersion time were considered as variables. The
corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance Fouri-
er transform infrared and Micro-Raman spectroscopies as well as by Mössbauer
spectrometry. The iron phases which stay bounded to the metal surface, so-called
adherent rust (AR) and the iron phases which are loosely bounded to the metal
surface and dispersed into the solutions, so-called non-adherent rust (NAR), were
carefully studied. Non-stoichiometric magnetite nanoparticles were detected in all
AR samples formed on carbon steels (CS) independent upon the immersion time
and the chloride concentration. In addition, magnetite was only detected in the
NAR formed on CS after 14 days of immersion independent upon the chloride con-
centration. In contrast, magnetite was detected neither in the AR nor in the NAR
of weathering steels. These results suggest that the alloying composition greatly in-
fluences the formation of magnetite. On the other hand, goethite, lepidocrocite and
akaganeite of nanometric sizes were found in all NAR of both steels. The effect of
the different variables on the vibrational, morphological, magnetical and structural
characteristics of the different iron phases is presented and discussed.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 137

2 11:50 OR-Th-21

INFLUENCE OF THE LASER POWER ON THE


OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MOO3 THIN FILMS
PREPARED BY CO2 LASER EVAPORATION
Jaime Torres1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

A study of the influence of the laser power on to the optical properties of MoO3
thin films is presented at this work. Samples were prepared by the laser evaporation
technique using a CO2 laser working at continuous wave. The films were prepared
in a oxygen atmosphere of 6.2 x 10-3 Torr at laser powers ranging between 1.21 and
3.26 W/mm2, substrate temperature of 350 oC and deposit times of 40 minutes.
MoO3 Samples were characterized by XRD and transmittance at the visible spec-
trum. It was observed an evolution of the crystal structure from the MoO3 to the
mixed phases of MoO3 as the laser power is increased. The transmittance spectra
show absorption in all the evaluated region (NUV, Visible and NIR), The strong
absorption at the NUV is due to the material gaps which is shifted to short wave-
lengths as the laser power is increases, this behavior may be due to an increase in
the oxygen vacancies quantity as the laser power is increased.

1 12:10 OR-Th-22

Growth and structure of ultrathin Fe and Ni films on


ZnO(0001)-Zn
Paola Lazcano1 , Patricio Herle1 , Robert Bartynski2 , Sylvie Rangan2
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marı́a, Valparaı́so,
Chile.
2
Department of Physics and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers
University, NJ08854, USA..

Interest on the study of the electronic structure of thin metal films adsorbed on
oxide surfaces and their diffusion into the bulk, has increased significantly in the few
last years. This is due mainly to their relevance as materials for electronic devices in
the form of dilute magnetic semiconductors, for room temperature spintronics ap-
plications. In this work, we describe the room temperature, in vacuum growth and
structural properties of ultrathin Fe and Ni films on the polar surface ZnO(0001)-
Zn. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
have been used to describe the growth modes and morphology of the early formation
of Fe and Ni films, below one monolayer (ML).
The clean substrate surface exhibits large terraces of triangular shapes which are
separated by single-layer atomic steps. The presence of this structure, previously
observed, can be explained as part of a stabilization mechanism, for this polar ZnO
surface.

CLACSA XIII
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Preliminary results show that the initial growth mode of Fe on ZnO(0001)-Zn and
Ni on ZnO(0001)-Zn surface occurs via the formation of three dimensional islands,
starting from the very earliest stages of deposition. From our preliminary data, close
to one monolayer coverage, we observe the formation of nucleation patterns for the
Fe case but we dont́ see any preferentially nucleation sites for the case of Ni. The
height of islands, as measured from STMś images are consistent with growth along
the (111) and (100) directions for Fe and Ni respectively.

This research has been partially funded by the following grants: PBCT; ACT027,
and Mecesup 0204, Chile.

2 12:10 OR-Th-22

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MASSIC AND NANOTUBE


CeO2 CATALYSTS
R. RANGEL1 , FERNANDO HUERTA2 , EUNICE VARGAS2 , ANDREY
SIMAKOV3 , FELIPE CASTILLÓN3
1
UNVERSIDAD MICHOACANA.
2
UNIVERSIDAD MICHOACANA.
3
CCMC-UNAM.

Atmospheric pollution it is greatly affecting our planet contributing to Global


warming and global heating. COx, NOx, SOx known as greenhouse gases are the
major contributors to both effects. Catalytic oxidation of CO at low temperature has
attracted considerable attention because of its applications in automotive emission
control, mainly, and in exhaust abatement for smokestack gases. The cerium oxide
has attracted considerably the attention due to the diversity of its applications. It
is used as catalytic converter of hydrogenation of unsaturated systems, and has also
opened the doors for semiconductors based on metallic oxides, in solar panels for
ultra-violet rays absorption, and in luminescent materials for violet blue fluorescence.
Also it is very known its properties as a part of three way-catalysts extensively used
for reduction of polluting agents that arisen from the incomplete combustion of
hydrocarbons. On the other hand, a great number of physical phenomena come
up when the size of the system diminishes, by example the electronic properties of
the materials are altered remarkably when great reductions in the size of particle
exist; and also one important fact is that in some systems the decreasing in size
of particles increases the volume-surface area quotient, considerably. The present
project comprises the synthesis of catalysts of CeO2 in massic by means of the Sol-
Gel method and also in nanotube or nanorod like shapes. We obtained the samples
by means of the thermal hydrotreating in NaOH presence and using a high pressure
Teflon lined reactor. The results of catalytic activity show us that the cerium oxide
as nanotube like nanostructures reaches a conversion of the 100

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 139

Acknowledgements R. Rangel acknowledges grant CB0702161 5, from COECyT-


UMSNH, 2007 and grant CIC-UMSNH under project 20.7.

Keywords: nanotube, nanostructures, catalysts, CO oxidation, greenhpuse ef-


fect

CLACSA XIII
140 Thursday

Plenary
1 16:00 Pl-Th-7

Structure, magnetism and exchange bias effect in epitaxial


systems
W. A. A. Macedo1 , M. J. M. Pires1 , R. B. de Oliveira Jr1 , M. D. Martins1 , W. C.
Nunes2 , M. Knobel2 , P. Rappl3 , P. Motisuke3
1
Laboratório de Fı́sica Aplicada, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia
Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
3
Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas
Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

Magnetic interaction at interfaces between different layered magnetic materials is an


important current topic in physics and materials science, particularly when combin-
ing ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors, due the emergence of the spintronics.
The semiconductor/metal integration in nanoelectronic devices is a current task
for several applications, as well as the inclusion of controllable magnetic proper-
ties in these devices. In this field, besides the obvious interest in diluted magnetic
semiconductors, there is also a renewed interest in bulk magnetic semiconductors,
among them the europium chalcogenides. The exchange bias effect (EB) associat-
ed with the exchange coupling between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic
(AFM) systems is being extensively studied both due to its key role in spin valves
and tunneling magnetoresistance devices, among others, and due to its interesting
basic properties. EB systems with AFM phases of high Nl temperature (TN), like
L10 NiMn (phase with a CuAu-I-type structure and TN 1070 K) are also very
interesting for devices and have been largely explored. The exchange bias effect in
semiconductor nanostructures has also been experimentally investigated, although
not using semiconductors at the AFM layer. AFM L10 NiMn films are difficult
to obtain without heat treatments at high temperatures, and epitaxy on adequate
substrates can be an interesting alternative for that. EuTe, one of the europium
chalcogenides, is a magnetic semiconductor extensively investigated and a type II
Heisenberg AFM. EuTe(111) surface constitute an ideal uncompensated surface and
ferromagnetic/EuTe bilayers are promising systems for the study of fundamental
properties related to EB, phenomenon that still needs a complete understanding.
In this talk, recent results on the exchange bias effect in Fe/EuTe(111) bilayers [1],
on the growth and structure of equiatomic NiMn monolayers on Cu3Au(100) and
on the magnetism of Fe/NiMn bilayers on this substrate [2] will be presented and
discussed.
[1] W. A. A. Macedo, M. D. Martins, M. J. M. Pires, R. B. Oliveira Jr., C. J. S. M.
Pombo, W. C. Nunes, M. Knobel, P. H. O. Rappl, P. Motisuke, J. Appl. Phys. 102,
033908 (2007).
[2] R. B. Oliveira Jr., M. Sc. Thesis, CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (2007).

CLACSA XIII
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Invited Talks
1 17:00 In-Th-17

Spin dynamics in AC-Driven InSb coupled quantum dots


Lilia M. Montes1 , Arezky H. Rodriguez2 , Sergio Ulloa3
1
Instituto de Fiisica Luis Rivera Terrazas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla,
Apdo. Postal J-48 Puebla, Pue. Mexico 72570.
2
Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 20-364, San Angel 01000, Mexi.
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy, CMSS and Nano and Quantum
Phenomena Institute, Athens, OH USA.

Control of spin is a very important task in spintronics and quantum computation.


Here we combine electric and magnetic fields as well as spin-orbit to control spin in
quantum dots. The time-dependent Hamiltonian for a single electron in the effective
mass approximation is solved. We have applied the Floquet formalism to study the
effects of an ac driven field applied to InSb coupled quantum dots. Both SIA and BIA
spin-orbit effects are included. We give an explicit analytical representation for the
quasi-energy spectrum and the time dependent electronic states as function of the
frequency and field intensity. The time evolution of the spin clouds is discussed and
the resulting occupation probabilities are analyzed. The conditions for dynamical
localization or quasi-periodic motion of the electron will also be given.

2 17:00 In-Th-18

Synthesis and study of optical and structural properties of


thin films based on new photovoltaic materials
G. Gordillo1 , M. Botero1 , J.S. Oyola1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.

The development of devices which incorporates cost effective, abundant, and


non-toxic photovoltaic materials is required for widespread deployment of thin film
photovoltaic devices. Among the materials which fulfill these characteristics, SnS
have been previously reported to be a suitable solar absorber for use in thin film
photovoltaic devices.

We have synthesized SnS:Bi thin films using a novel method based on sulphuriza-
tion of the precursors metallic species. The SnS:Bi films were characterized through
spectral transmittance and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements to determine
both, the optical constants (refractive index n, absorption coefficient ? and optical

CLACSA XIII
142 Thursday

gap Eg) and structural properties ( phase, structure and lattice parameters). The
studies revealed that the SnS:Bi films tend to grow with a mixture of the SnS and
Bi2S3 phase; however the Sn2S3 phase was also identified in some samples. It was
also found that the SnS:Bi films present a high absorption coefficient (greater than
104 cm-1) and an energy band gap of about 1.3 eV, indicating that this compound
has good properties to perform as absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 143

Oral reports
1 17:30 OR-Th-23

Electronic localization in quasi-one dimensional DNA arrays


P. A. Schulz1 , R. R. Rey-González2
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, Campinas, Brasil.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad
Universitaria, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.

The development of a versatile and readily programmable assembly system for


the controlled placement of matter at the molecular scale remains a major goal
for nanoscience, nanotechnology, and supramolecular chemistry. So, periodic arrays
from DNA molecules has been a goal of DNA nanotechnology since the early 1980.
The idea behind this nanotechnology is the control of the detailed structure of
matter on the finest possible scale. This goal may be approached in two steps: first,
the construction of individual molecules through synthetic chemistry; and second,
the arrangement of molecular building blocks into larger structures. The simplest
periodic array from DNA molecules is a tridimensional wire of DNA. A wire formed
by the coupling of two base paired DNA chains. In spite of large experimental
efforts to obtain controllable DNA nanostructures, very few theoretical works had
been done in order to understand its electronic and optical properties.

On the other hand, a widely accepted view in solid-state physics is that disorder
prevents the presence of long-range transport in one dimension. However, it has been
established that one dimensional finite systems with correlated disorder show both
localized and non-trivial extended states. This effect on localization in disordered
systems has been shown to be important to understand transport properties on
mesoscopic systems. DNA chains exhibit positional disorder intrinsically .

In this work we treat a quasi-one-dimensional system including correlations in


the disorder. Having arrays of DNA lattices in mind, the system can be considered
as a set of few interacting chains. Each DNA chain is modeled as a random binary
(or quaternary) alloy. Using a tight-binding framework with one orbital per site and
nearest neighbors interactions only, we explore the role of disorder and interchain
and intrachain coupling on the localization of states. Within this procedure we are
able to investigate the localization properties of not only double chains, but also
other DNA structures, like triple and quadrupole strands.

CLACSA XIII
144 Thursday

2 17:30 OR-Th-23

CHARACTERIZATION OF TiN/ZrN/TiN/ZrN
MULTILAYERS COATINGS GROWN BY CATHODIC
ARC TECHNIQUE
Diego Fernando Arias1 , Alfonso Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

Thin films of TiN/ZrN/TiN/ZrN were grown on stainless steel 316 substrate


using the pulsed cathodic arc technique with different number of discharges (one to
five discharges for layer), TiN and ZrN possess fcc crystal lattices. The coatings were
characterized in terms of crystalline structure, microstructure and stoichiometric by
X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) plane orientations so
much for TiN as for ZrN, and the texture coefficient for the plane (200) of the TiN
phase is always greater than in the phase ZrN in the multilayers when increasing
the number of discharges. Stoichiometric in multilayer shows that the ZrN layer has
a grater content of nitrogen that in the TiN layer. The grain size and roughness
parameters are increased with the increase of the number of discharges.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 145

Poster session
0 17:30 P-Th-001

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional


analysis of titanium oxide coating on titanium alloy
Enrique Mejı́a-Ospino1 , Rafael Cabanzo1 , Dario Yesid Peña1 , Hugo Estupiñán1
1
Universidad Industrial de Santander.

Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS or LIBS) is an alternative elemental


analysis technology based on the optical emission spectra of the plasma produced by
the interaction of high-power laser with gas, solid and liquid. The increasing popu-
larity of this technique is due to the ease of the experimental set-up and to the wide
flexibility in the investigated material that does not need any pre-treatment of the
sample before the analysis. In this work, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
(LIBS) is used to determine the composition of titanium oxide film produced by
anodized of Ti6Al4V alloy. We have used the spectral region between 494-503 nm
to determine temperature of the plasma generated on anodized surface of Ti6Al4V
alloy. In this region, we used the Ti lines 498.173, 499.107, 499.151, 500.721, 501.419
and 503.591 nm for temperature determination by Boltzmann plot method. In or-
der to measure the content of oxygen on the surface the alloy, we have used the
lines 777.194, 777.417 and 777. 539 nm observed in an ambient of argon. We have
determined the best conditions of electro-deposition, observing the intensity of the
oxygen lines. Finally, we report the possibilities for the determination of the coating
chemical composition using LIBS.
[1]. C. Arag, V. Madurga, J.A. Aguilera, Applied Surface Science, 197-198 (2002)
217-223.
[2]. J.A. Aguilera, C. Arag, Aguilera, Applied Surface Science, 197-198 (2002) 273-
280

0 17:30 P-Th-002

OPTICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF


BYOPOLIMERS: CELLULOSE FRAGMENTS
Salazar-Valencia P.J.1 , Bolı́var-Marinez L.E.1 , Pérez-Merchancano S.T.1
1
Universidad del Cauca.

The wood chemical structure is extremely complex and presents huge variations
from species to species, but some of the key characteristics are general to all the
terrestrial plants; there are three fundamental polymeric components, the cellulose,
the hemicellulose and the lignin. The cellulose is a polysaccharide polymer, linear,

CLACSA XIII
146 Thursday

insoluble, and rigid made of beta glucose that forms the elementary fibers of wood
and therefore constitute the ligneous material of the plant. This is a very stable
byopolymeric system that is linked by means of hydrogen bonds with the other
components of the woody tissue thus providing it a greater rigidity and tension
resistant characteristics. It is also one of the greatest sources of terrestrial biomass
with an annual production of more than 1.5 x 109 tons, and plays a fundamental
role in industries from the food production to the biofuels; in this work some of
their molecular characteristics and properties will be studied using semiempirical
methods of the computational quantum chemistry such as MNDO, AM1, PM3 and
ZINDOS/CI, exploring the structural, electronic and optical properties of precursory
monomer as of the long chains that forms.

0 17:30 P-Th-003

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CYCLODEXTRIN AND


CYCLODEXTRIN- ACETYL FERROCENE
Mayamarú Guerra1 , Néstor Cubillán2 , Miguel Angel Ramos1 , Ysaı́as J. Alvarado2 ,
Reinaldo Atencio1
1
Laboratorio de Tecnologı́a Laser y Optoelectrónica, Instituto Zuliano de
Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Maracaibo - Zulia, Venezuela.
2
Laboratorio de Electrónica Molecular, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, La
Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo - Zulia, Venezuela.

Cyclodextrin (CDx) consists of six or more linked glucopyranose rings and forms
a doughnut-shaped compound. The number of glucose units of CDx is designated
α for six, β for seven, and γ for eight, and so forth. The interior of the toruses of
CDxś is relatively apolar compared to water and therefore is capable of including
aromatic compounds, alkyl halides, gases, etc., as guest molecules in the cavity.
The capability of saccharides to solubilise lipophilic compound in aqueous media
sources from their ability to form hydrophilic and lipophilic domains at hidrophobic
interfaces, thus forming cyclodextrin-like structures around the lipophilic sustrate.

Understanding the thermodynamics of interaction of lipophilic sustrate with


ciclodextrin-like complexes is of both, practical and fundamental interest. The prac-
tical interest lies in the importance of thermodynamics in the rational design and
development of new inclusion complexes. Thermodynamics offer key insights into the
molecular forces that drive complex formation that cannot be obtained by structural
and/or computational studies alone.

In the last decade the number of publications directed to the spectroscopic study
of the ciclodextrin and inclusion complex of ciclodextrin – lipophilic sustrate has in-
creased, in most of the cases measures of thermodynamic properties are shown using

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 147

UV-Vis and RMN spectroscopy. For this reason, we propose in this case the charac-
terization of ciclodextrins and/or other disaccharide complex with acetyl ferrocene
through FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The obtained re-
sults were compared with previously reported values and a good correlation between
these were found.

0 17:30 P-Th-004

Study of complex charge distributions in an electrolyte


using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation by
Lattice-Boltzmann method
A. Franco1 , F. Fonseca1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

The main goal of this work is the computational study of the Poisson-Boltzmann
(PB) equation for a group of circular and elliptical charges immerse in a strong
electrolyte using the Lattice-Boltzmann method. We remark that this kind of charge
distributions has not analytical results due to the non-linearity of PB equation
and the complexity of the charge distributions. The model describes the electrical
potential and his interactions produced by ions adsorption on the surface of circular
or elliptical charged particles and other geometries. We contrast our results with
previous analytical outcomes for exact solutions to the cylindrical PB equation.
Finally, we analyze the evolution and stability of the method.

0 17:30 P-Th-005

THE EUMELANIN LIKE CELLULAR PROTECTOR


M. M. Falla Solórzano1 , L. E. Bolı́var Martı́nez1 , S. T. Pérez Merchancano1
1
Universidad del Cauca.

The parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative central nervous system illness that


occurs when the nervous cells or neurons die of are damaged, in an area of the brain
well known like substancia nigra, this name is because most of the neurons that
conform it they have great amounts of eumelanina that gives them their charac-
teristic dark coloration. The eumelanin is a biological pigment found especially in
the eyes, skin, inner ear and nervous cells of the human beings, experimental data
suggest that eumelanin can behave as a protection mechanism for these cells since
it can be united to a series of possibly cytotoxic substances, and inactivate the free
radicals, that can cause the disease. Normally the neurons in the substancia nigra
produce a substance called dopamine, its a chemical messenger that is responsible

CLACSA XIII
148 Thursday

for the signal conduction between the brain and the substancia nigra that causes the
smooth and fine limb movements. Some studies have shown that Parkinson disesase
patients have lost nearly 60 to 80 percent of the dopamine producing neurons in the
substancia nigra that produces pallor in this part of the brain, by the time the first
signs of the disease appear. The exact melanin structure is not yet known and this
is because to the strong attachment that it exhibits with the protein matrix that
contains it which makes very difficult to isolate it, therefore a complete separation
is not possible. Nevertheless it has been shown that the 5, 6 indolquinone (IQ) and
their reduced forms, semiquinone (SQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) are the main parts
of the polymeric structure of the pigment.

In this work the structural, electronic and optical properties of monomers and
dimmers of the pigment conformational parts are studied in different environments
(water, vacuum) by means of the semiempirical methods MNDO (Modified neglect
differential overlap), AM1(Austin method 1), PM (Parametric method 3) and ZIN-
DOS/CI (Zernerś Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap in configuration in-
teractions mode) with the objective of analyzing the electronic preferences of the
structures and therefore their cellular protection mechanism. On the other hand, the
optical properties show the amorphous tendencies of the semiconductor structure;
this can be also found in the preferential growth mechanisms.

Keywords: Eumelanin, semiempirical methods

0 17:30 P-Th-006

Lattice distortion in the one-dimensional double and


super-exchange model
E. Vallejo1 , J.R. Suárez1 , O. Navarro1 , M. Avignon2
1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 México D.F., México..
2
Institut Néel-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique(CNRS) and
Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

The coupling between localized spins and the conduction electrons is an impor-
tant mechanism in the context of manganites. The coupling can be either ferromag-
netic as a result of Hundś coupling or anti-ferromagnetic as in heavy-fermion systems
or Kondo insulators. For a strong Hundś coupling, the double-exchange model was
mainly introduced to study manganites1 . The ferromagnetic tendency is expected
to be thwarted by anti-ferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between localized
spins leading therefore to interesting and unusual magnetic states. The effect of lat-
tice distortion was introduced in this work by using springs to join the atoms in the
linear chain. The magnetic phase diagram was obtained for a typical value of the
elastic energy. For this goal, an analytical optimization and a classical Monte Carlo

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 149

method were used. Phase separation and an important magnetoelastic effect were
found.
1
C. Zener, Phys. Rev. 82, 403 (1951); C. Zener, Phys. Rev. 81, 440 (1951); P. W.
Anderson and H. Hasegawa, Phys. Rev. 100, 675 (1955).

0 17:30 P-Th-007

MAGNETIC AND CONFINEMENT EFFECTS ON


OPTICAL TRANSITION ENERGIES IN GaAS-(Ga,Al)As
DOUBLE QUANTUM RINGS
F. J. Culchac1 , N. Porras-Montenegro1 , A. Latgé2
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25.360, Cali, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica,- Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litorea sn,
24210-340, Niterói-RJ, Brazil.

We study the effect of the geometric confinement and the influence of the magnet-
ic field on the energy levels of the electron, heavy and light hole in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As
double quantum rings. The solution of this system is exactly calculated using lin-
ear combinations of confluent hypergeometric functions using the effective-mass ap-
proximation. We examined the energy spectrum of carriers for both symmetric and
asymmetric rings. The probability amplitude of finding the carriers in any of the two
rings depends of the magnetic field, the angular momentum and the well width of
each ring. This is apparent in the electron-heavy and electron-light hole optical tran-
sition energies which are analyzed as a function of the width of the inner and outer
rings, the barrier width between the two rings and the applied magnetic field. The
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are also examined for this system under the conditions
mentioned above.

0 17:30 P-Th-008

Magnetism in the system TiO2 doped with Vanadium


Leonardo Salazar A1 , Gilberto Bolaños P1
1
Universidad del Cauca.

Using the reaction of solid state method, in an Argon atmosphere TiO2 in bulk
system was make doped with vanadium Ti1-xVxO2 at 1200 C of temperature. The
structure was identified with x-rays Diffration meas-urements, since secondary phas-
es in our process were not observed. The magnetic properties of the material in bulk
were investigated by meas-urements of magnetization both like function of tempera-
ture between 30-300K and like function of magnetic field. The obtained results show

CLACSA XIII
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a ferromagnetic behavior and in addition it is observed that the magneti-zation is


increased with the increase the quantity of vanadium. This doped its was make
having in account an ample range of combinations between titanium oxide and the
vanadium, it was used 2 structure types of titanium oxide anatase and rutile too.
It was make resistance measurements in function of temperature, between 30 - 300
K having used the method of Van Der Paw, these measurements also were make
in presence of different applied magnetic fields, in addition the magnetic fields are
arranged cross-sectionally to the sample and longitudinally. For an air atmosphere
sinterized samples it is observed lost in the ferromagnetic properties and too high
resistivities, locating the formed compound in the rank of the electrical insulators.

0 17:30 P-Th-009

Magneto-absorption spectrum of donor impurities in


quantum well wires
J. D. Correa1 , Z. Barticevic1 , M. Pacheco1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Técnica F. Santa Marı́a.

We show calculations for optical absorption of shallow-donor impurities in GaAs-


Alx Ga1-x As quantum well wires in the presence of an external magnetic field. The
wave functions and the eigenvalues are obtained in the effective-mass approxima-
tion by using an extended variational approach in which the ground and excited
magneto-impurity states are simultaneously obtained. We investigate the allowed
intra-donor transitions for radiation circularly polarized in the plane perpendicular
to the magnetic field. We present results for the absorption coefficient as a function
of the photon energy for several field strengths and arbitrary impurity positions.
We analyze the dependence of the infrared magneto-absorption with the geometric
wire-confinement by adopting different confining potential models.

0 17:30 P-Th-010

MAGNETOELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN COMPÓSITES


OF La0,67 Ca0,33 MnO3 /Ba0;9 La0,067 Ti0,91 Zr0,09 O3
J. Cardona1 , M.E. Gomez1 , C. Parra2 , D.A. Landı́nez Téllez2 , J. Roa-Rojas2
1
Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia..
2
Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales Universidad Nacional De Colombia,
Bogota, Colombia.

The multiferroics or multi-functional materials, are those that allow to combine


the ferro-electric and ferromagnetic properties in an only material. In this work is

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 151

looked for to produce a multi-functional composite starting from the mixture of a


material ferromagnetic (La0.67 Ca0.33 MnO3 ) with one ferroelectric (Ba0.9 La0.067 Ti0.91 -
Zr0.09 O3 ); verifying in the development of these, the chemical stability among the
two compounds that conform it and studying the one crystallographic couples of
the same ones, keeping in mind that both have structure type perovskite. For the
structural and chemical analysis of the material they were used the technique of
diffraction of X-rays powdered supplementing with the tools toasted by the Rietveld
refinement, to assure that in the alone final composite the precursors are, that is to
say that these they have not reacted among if, and the technique of scanning elec-
tronic microscopy (SEM), looking for to identify in the images the separation among
the phases dielectric (ferroelectric) and the driver (ferromagnetic). The study would
not be complete without the respective measures of the magnetoelectric answer that
it allows to verify the answers ferroelectric and simultaneous ferromagnetic in the
produced material.

0 17:30 P-Th-011

NONLOCAL ANDREEV REFLECTIONS IN


SUPERCONDUCTING JUNCTIONS
Shilrley Gomez1 , William J. Herrera1 , J. Virgilio N1 , D . A. Manjárres1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia.

When an electron is injected from a normal region to an interface where the pair
potential is inhomogeneous, it can be reflected as a hole (Andreev reflection -AR)
and a Cooper Pair is induced in the superconducting region. If we have a system with
two contacts (a and b) on a superconducting region, an electron that arrives at the
a contact can be reflected as a hole in the b contact (nonlocal Andreev reflection).
The nonlocal AR process competes with the process in the which the electron in a
contact is reflected as an electron in the b contact (elastic cotunneling- EC-). In this
work, nonlocal AR and EC are studied for junctions (N1 ISIN2 ), where N1 and N2 are
normal metals and S is a high Tc superconductor. The above processes are studied
by solving the Bogoliubov de Gennes equations for anisotropic superconductors.
The influence of different pair potential symmetries on nonlocal AR and nonlocal
conductance are analyzed, as well as the dependence of nonlocal AR with the width
of superconducting region.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-012

Novel spin orbit interaction and quantum Hall


ferromagnetism in 2DEGs
J. Carlos Egues1
1
University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos.

The investigation of physical phenomena in confined electron systems is a fas-


cinating subject. Here I briefly review two of our recent works in this theme in-
volving (i) a new spin-orbit interaction operative in two dimensional electron gases
(2DEGs) formed in wells with two subbands [1] and (ii) an alternate description for
the hysteretic resistance spikes in the magnetotransport of 2DEGs in the quantum
Hall regime [2]. I would like to thank my collaborators E. Bernardes (Sao Carlos),
H.J.P. Freire (Sao Carlos), J. Schliemann (Regensburg), M. Lee (Basel), and D. Loss
(Basel).
[1] E. Bernardes, J. Schliemann, M. Lee, J. C. Egues, and D. Loss, Phys. Rev. Lett.
(2007), to appear.
[2] H. J. P. Freire and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007).

0 17:30 P-Th-013

Optical characterization of InAs delta-layers grown by MBE


at different temperatures
J. Hernández-Rosas1 , H. Ponce-Flores2 , J. G. Mendoza-Álvarez1 , S.
Gallardo-Hernández3 , J.S. Rojas-Ramı́rez1 , E. Cruz-Hernández1 , M. López-López1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del
IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, México D.F. 07000, México.
2
Facultad de Fı́sica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, Sebastián
Camacho 5, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, México.
3
Departamento de Ingenierı́a Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios
Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, México D.F. 07000, México

In this work we studied the optical properties of InAs monolayers (δ-layers)


embedded in GaAs barriers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Photolu-
minescence (PL), reflectance (RS), and photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy were
employed to study the electronic transitions in the δ-layers. By secondary-ion mass
spectroscopy (SIMS) we checked out the possible segregation of In. The samples
consist of five InAs δ-layers embedded in between 60 nm-thick GaAs barriers, such
that the electron wave functions do not overlap each other, as we verified with a
model of a square quantum well. The E0 and E1 transitions of the InAs δ-layers

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 153

suffered a large shift due to the effects of confinement and stress. The position of
the photoluminescence peak shifts to higher energies as the substrate temperature
increases. This behavior is explained in terms of an enhancement of In evaporation,
such as the InAs δ-layers become narrower, as the growth temperature increases.

0 17:30 P-Th-014

Optical Process in Micropillars


Carlos A. Parra M.1 , Herbert Vinck-Posada1 , Boris A. Rodriguez1
1
Universidad de Antioquia, A. A. 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.

In this work, we present a theoretical method for the study and characterization
of semiconductor micropillar cavities based on a perturbation over the refractive
index with the purpose to compute the quality factor, the Purcell factor and the
modal volume as a function of the geometric properties of the micropillar. The
method uses the band theory, meanly the Bloch-Floquet theorem, to describe the
propagation of the electromagnetic fields inside the multilayered media as itś done
for example in an one-dimensional photonic crystal. For small micropillar radii the
oscillatory behavior of the quality factor and its physical origin are shown. The
numerical and experimental results are compared using CAMFR.

0 17:30 P-Th-015

Path integral study of phase transitions for thermons in


macroscopic quantum tunneling
J.M.Florez1 , P. Vargas1
1
Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria.

A study of the escape rate for several potentials by means of a path integral
approach is presented. The period of the thermons and the exponent of the escape
rate have been characterized for different cases. As the temperature is lowered, the
classical to quantum regime transition shows interesting dependence on the shape
of the potential barrier, especially near their minimum or maximum values. These
features occur between the infinite period of the instanton solution and the value
determined by the frequency of small oscillations near the bottom of the potential. As
the temperature diminish, the crossing from purely thermal activation to thermally
assisted tunneling is characterized by phase transitions of the escape rate exponent,
which can be of first or second order. First order transitions between two different
quantum regimes are also found. The escape temperature in presence of quantum
tunneling and its relationship with experiments is discussed.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-016

Polaritons in a quantum dot - microcavity system: Zero and


Finite temperature cases
Herbert Vinck Posada1 , Boris A. Rodriguez2 , Augusto Gonzalez3
1
Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica,Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellin, Colombia.
3
Instituto de Matematica, cibernetica y fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana,Cuba.

In this work we present a theoretical study of the polariton system which includes
a constant magnetic field in the growth direction of the micropillar. First, we study
the zero temperature case by means of a Hartree Fock - Bogolubov selfconsistent
procedure with a trial function composed by a coherent photon field and a BCS
function for the electron-hole pairs. The ground state dependence on the magnetic
field and the number of polaritons is found. We show that the magnetic field can be
used as a control parameter of the photon number, and we make explicit the scaling
of the total energy with the number of polaritons. Next, we study this problem
at finite temperatures and obtain the scaling of the critical temperature with the
number of polaritons.

0 17:30 P-Th-017

Polarizability of hydrodesulfurization molecular models:


spectroscopical and theoretical study
1
, Ysaı́as J. Alvarado1 , José Peña Suárez1 , Arquı́medes Karam2
1
Laboratorio de Electrónica Molecular, La Universidad del Zulia, Mareacaibo -
Venezuela.
2
Laboratorio de Polimeros, Centro de Quimica -. IVIC. Venezuela.

Hidrodesulfurization process(HDS) is the attention center of researcher in ho-


mogeneous and heterogeneus catalysis, because its technological and environmental
importance. Actually, there is research works with the tendence of searching new
catalyst for the process, however the nature of electronic process involving this
has no been studied. Adittionally, studies in optical properties of inorganic and
organometallic complexes are interesting due to its importance in designing new
materials for molecular electronics and optoelectronics. In these senses, this work
presents a study of molecular polarizability of HDS-related molecules. Currently,
the determination of dynamic polarizability of molecules with a low electronic ab-
sorption in Visible regime can achieved through the refractometric-densitometric
method proposed by Singer-Garito, which is based on dielectric polarization theory.

CLACSA XIII
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This equation is valid in low electronic absorption regions avoiding resonant and
preresonant effects. In this work a strategy based on determination of optical con-
stants of molecules catalogued as molecular analogues of absorbed species during
HDS process through substractive Kramers-Kr

0 17:30 P-Th-018

Rabi Oscillations in Quantum Dots Chains


Hanz Y. Ramirez1 , Angela S. Camacho1
1
Universidad de Los Andes.

Tunneling is a typical quantum phenomenon just observable in nanometric or


smaller scales, and because of it the coupling effect must be considered in systems
with distance between components less than the penetration deep.

Focusing in one electron, its delocalization along the coupled components favors
the durations of coherent states as quantum superpositions [1]. An example of co-
herent phenomenon are Rabi oscillations, which are driven by external electric fields
in two or morelevels systems. Such oscillations have been predicted for superlattices
and modulated nanowires [2]. Now we explore this subject in 0D systems.

In this work we find the eigenenergies and wave functions of states of the first
two minibands for arrays of ten cylindrical quantum dots both, vertically and later-
ally coupled, which exhibit notable difference in their symmetry levels and coupling
magnitudes. We also calculate the temporal evolution of electron states under AC
electric fields finding the influence of the coupling between dots on the Rabi fre-
quency, which lies at the Terahertz range.
[1] H. Ramirez, A. Camacho and L. Lew Yan Voon, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 1286.
[2] Aizhen Zhang, L. C. Lew Yan Voon and M. Willatzen, Phys. Rev. B 73, (2006)
045316.

0 17:30 P-Th-019

Scaling of Magnetic phases as function of length in 1D


linear Chain
Omar Suárez1 , Patricio Vargas1 , David Laroze2
1
Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marı́a.
2
Universidad de Chile.

Scaling in magnetic phases as a function of geometry in nanostructures have re-


cently discovered in 3D systems [1]. In this work, we performed a detailed study on

CLACSA XIII
156 Thursday

a linear chain of atoms in which we calculate the energy of two competing magnet-
ic phases, in which, in addition to the dipole dipole interaction, antiferromagnetic
exchange coupling between nearest neighbor atoms was considered. Monte Carlo
simulations were first performed to find these magnetic phases. We found analyt-
ical expressions for the total magnetic energy per unit length. Closed analytical
expressions for the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant as a function of
the chain length were also found, for which the two competing magnetic phases have
the same energy. We find no scaling in 1D, however if we assume that the dipole
dipole interaction decays as 1/distance, then a scaling law is found. Similar results
are found in 2D systems, if one assume that the dipole dipole interaction decays as
1 /(distance)2 .

[1] J. dÁlbuquerque e Castro, D. Altbir, J.C. Retamal and P. Vargas, Phys Rev.
Lett.

0 17:30 P-Th-020

Spin transport properties in double-barrier systems with


diluted magnetic semiconductor doped layers
S. T. Pérez-Merchancano1 , H. Paredes Gutiérrez2 , G. E. Marques3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, Colombia.
2
Escuela de Fı́sica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga,
Colombia.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São
Carlos, SP, Brazil.

We have studied the spin-polarized current components in diluted magnetic semi-


conductor tunneling diodes with different sample geometries. The charge buildup
and its fluctuation on the resonant levels at given geometry can help to project effi-
cient low-voltage spin-filter devices working with small barrier offset and magnetic
field The developments of microelectronics and, in particular the desire to implement
faster devices with a large number of components on a single chip, have created a
demand for even smaller electronic components. This fact has posed different chal-
lenges to the field beyond the technological problem of creating small component
devices. New aspects of theories seeking to describe better these reduced dimen-
sion structures, the improved experimental growth and high resolution detection
techniques have allowed the researchers to observe and explore new features. This
progress made the physics of low dimensional systems an interesting research area
in recent years. The idea of exploring the spin degree of freedom property of carriers
in semiconductor devices a field named as spintronics has shown promising trends as
well as new challenges. The use of spin-related phenomena in information processing
may extend the functionality of conventional devices with new operating principles.
There are successful reports of metallic spintronic devices, such as ferromagnetic

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 157

metal-based reading heads for hard disc drives and magnetic random access mem-
ory, magnetic sensing and nonvolatile magnetic memory. The use of semiconductor
structures promises more versatile designs due to the ability to adjust the spin-
polarization of energy levels by external electric (bias) and magnetic fields for given
doping profile. In this paper we have concentrated our study on a variety resonant
tunneling double-barrier heterostructures in the presence of magnetic impurities.
The spin effects are studied within the Green-function formalism following the di-
agram technique for no equilibrium processes as proposed by Keldysh, using the
one-band tight-binding. The magnetic doping can be localized in the well region or
in the barrier layers. The resonant I vs. V curves are analyzed as a function voltage
applied and magnetic potential induced by the magnetic ions.

0 17:30 P-Th-021

STOCHASTIC DYNAMICS OF SPINS IN


NITROGEN-VACANCY (NV) DEFECT CENTERS IN
DIAMOND
E. Echeverria1 , L. Quiroga1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

Currently a great amount of research is been done worldwide aiming to design


devices that will allow the creation of a quantum computer. Research groups seek
the creation of controllable nanosystems able to generate strong coherent couplings
with minimum quantum coherence losses. NV centers (NVC) in diamond, formed by
a substitutional nitrogen impurity adjacent to a vacancy, have proved to be excellent
candidates for such objective, allowing even optical control of quantum coherences of
few spins systems at room temperature. Here a detailed study is presented, based on
stochastic methods, analysing the NVC coupling with two different environments,
the first one consisting of electronic spins of isolated nitrogen impurities (14 N and
15
N ), and the second one consisting of nuclear carbon spins (13 C). The results are
compared with the exact solutions showing good agreement at short times. The NVC
response to a sequence of echo-type Hahn pulses is calculated out of which main pa-
rameters are obtained which characterize the two immediate possible environments
of the defect spin.

CLACSA XIII
158 Thursday

0 17:30 P-Th-022

Stochastic spin dynamics of two magnetic particles


O. Suarez1 , D. Laroze2 , E. Tirapegui2 , P. Vargas1
1
Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria.
2
Universidad de Chile.

We study the spin dynamic of two interacting magnetic particles with dipolar
interaction in the presence of an applied magnetic field at fixed temperature, by
means of the stochastic LandauLifshitz equation. We find that the total magnetiza-
tion is not conserved and it strongly depends of the control parameters. Finally, we
show that the thermal noise induces disorder and that it produces a switching on
the total magnetization.

0 17:30 P-Th-023

Temperature-dependence of the photoluminescence emission


from InGaAs quantum wells on GaAs(311) substrates
J. S. Rojas-Ramirez1 , R. Goldhahn2 , P. Moser2 , E. Cruz-Hernández3 , J.
Hernández-Rosas3 , M. López-López3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Cinvestav-IPN, Apartado Postal 20-364, D.F. 01000,
México.
2
Technical Universiy Ilmenau, Institut of Physics, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau,
Germany.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del
IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, México D.F. 07000, México.

With the advent of heteroepitaxy, the use of built-in strain to modify electronic
properties of semiconductors has become widespread. The use of strain has been
particularly exploited in the InGaAs/GaAs system. Recently, the use of crystallo-
graphic directions of the type [n11], with n = 1, 2, 3, . . . has been studied for the
growth of InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with a variety of device applications. In
this work, we study the photoluminescence (PL) properties of InGaAs/GaAs(311)
QWs. We report the temperature dependence of the PL emission from the QWs over
a wide range of temperature. Samples with three Inx Ga1−x As/GaAs quantum wells
(QWs) of 100, 50, and 25 of nominal thickness were grown by molecular beam epi-
taxy (MBE). The nominal concentration of In was kept at x = 0.2. The structures
were grown over semi-insulating (311)A-oriented GaAs substrates. Photolumines-
cence spectroscopy measurements were carried out from 5 to 250 K employing a
Ti:Sapphire laser of 1.6 eV. At 5 K the PL spectrum shows three peaks localized

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 159

at 1.363, 1.408, and 1.454 eV, which correspond to the emission of the 100, 50, and
25 QWs, respectively. The PL peaks shift to smaller energies as the temperature is
increased. The following models were used in order to fit the temperature depen-
dence of the PL peaks energy: the empirical relation proposed by Varshni [1], the
semi-empirical relation proposed by Viña et al.[2], and the P ässler model [3]. The
best fitting was obtained by the P ässler model, which allowed us to determine the
limiting (T → ∞) shrinkage coefficient, and the associated average phonon temper-
ature.
References:
[1] Y. P. Varshni, Physica (Utrecht) 34, 194 (1967)
[2] L. Viña, S. Logothetidis and M. Cardona, (1999) Phys. Rev. B 30, 1979 (1984)
[3] R. P ässler and G. Oelgart J. Appl. Phys 82 2611 (1997)

0 17:30 P-Th-024

The role of Dresselhaus, Rashba and Zeeman effects on the


magnetoplasma oscillations of two-dimensional electron
systems in a transversal magnetic field.
J. A. Franco1 , J. C. Granada1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali- Colombia.

Spin-orbit effects have been recently considered in order to study collective prop-
erties of quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) such as plasmons [1], magne-
toplasmons [2, 3] and screening effects [4]. In particular [2], it was shown that the
Rashba spin-orbit effect modifies some characteristics of magnetoplasmons in the
long and short wavelength regions of spectrum. In this work we use the model
hamiltonian proposed by Val-Rodruez and Nazmitdinov [5] in order to consider the
role of the Dresselhaus, Rashba and Zeeman effects for a 2DEG in the presence of an
applied perpendicular DC magnetic field. In the frame of the random phase approx-
imation or self-consistent-field treatment we obtained the general expressions for
the magnetopolarizability tensor. We determined for the zero temperature limit the
magnetoplasma oscillation dispersion relation in both the long and short wavelength
limits. It is shown that in long wavelength limit the effects spin-orbit and Zeeman
do not affect the dispersion curve. On the other hand, in the short wavelength limit
the characteristic oscillations of the dispersion curve show a strong dependence on
the Zeeman effect and a weak dependence on the relation between the strengths of
the Rashba and Dresselhauss terms.
[1] Wang X. F., Phys. Rev. B 72, 085317 (2005).
[2] Kushwaha M. S., Phys. Rev. B 74, 045304 (2006).
[3] Xu L. J. and X. G. Wu, Rev. B 74, 165315 (2006).
[4] Pletyukhov M. and V. Gritsev, Phys. Rev. B 74, 045307 (2006).
[5] Val-Rodruez M. and R.G. Nazmitdinov, Phys. Rev. B 73, 235306 (2006).

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-025

The spectral properties of two-electron vertically coupled


quantum dots without tunnelling
Ilia D. Mikhailov1 , Francisco Javier Betancur1 , Jairo Humberto Marin Cadavid2
1
Universidad Industrial de Santander.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Medellin.

The spectrum of an exactly solvable model, consisting of two vertically coupled


quantum dots with a single electron locked up within every one of them, is analyzed
in order to study the effect of the competition between the Coulomb interaction
and the binding forces due to the confinement and the magnetic field. A simplified
two-dimensional model with parabolic confinement allows us to analyze the spectral
properties of the two-electron structure for any ratio of the coulomb strength to the
confinement by varying the distance between dots. It is shown that for small sepa-
rations between dots when this ratio is sufficiently large the motion of the electrons
is strongly correlated and the Coulomb interaction may induce transitions of the
ground state. These transitions occur between states with differently strong correla-
tions between the electrons. As the separation between dots increases the Coulomb
interaction decreases and these transitions vanish. The wave equation for this model
is decoupled in center-of-mass and relative coordinates. The solution of the first of
them is found analytically in terms of the Laguerre polynomial, while the relative
motion is analyzed numerically by using the trigonometric sweep method [1]. Numer-
ical results in the limit of a small separation between dots are in a good agreement
with those obtained previously for a single two-electron parabolic quantum dot by
using the ”exact”diagonalization [2], shifted 1/N [3], and series [4] methods. The
quantum-size effects on the spectra are clearly shown.
References:
[1] F. J. Betancur, I. D. Mikhailov and L. E. Oliveira, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31,
3391 (1998).
[2] D. Plankuche, R. R. Gerhardts, P. A. Maksym, and V. Gudmunsson, Physica B
189, 6 (1993).
[3] M. El-Said, Physica E 14, 323 (2002).
[4] J.-L. Zhu, Z.-Q. Li, J.-Z. Yu, K. Ohno, and Y. Kawazoe, Phys. Rew. B 55, 15819
(1997).

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 161

0 17:30 P-Th-026

Thermoelectric figure of merit of LSCoO-Mn perovskites


J.E. Rodriguez1 , D. Cadavid1 , L.C. Moreno2
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
2
Departamento de Quı́mica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Oxide ceramics with nominal composition of La0.8 Sr0.2 Co1−x M nx O3 (0 ≤ x ≤


0.05) were grown by using the citrate complex method. The thermoelectric proper-
ties were studied in the temperature range between 100 and 290K. The structural
and morphological properties of the samples were studied by powder x-ray diffrac-
tion analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the effects of the
grain structure on the transport properties were studied. The magnitude of Seebeck
coefficient S(T ) and electrical resistivity ρ(T ) increases with the manganese dop-
ing level, reaching maximum values close to 180µV /K and 4mΩ − cm respectively,
while the total thermal conductivity κ(T ) decreases with the manganese content.
The behavior of S(T ) and ρ(T ) was interpreted in terms of small-polaron hopping
mechanism. From S(T ), ρ(T ) and κ(T ) data it was possible to calculate the dimen-
sionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT , which reaches maximum values close to
0.15.

0 17:30 P-Th-027

Transport through quantum dot molecules embedded in a


Aharonov-Bohm interferometer.
Gustavo Lara1 , Pedro Orellana2 , Marı́a L. Ladrón de Guevara2
1
Universidad de Antofagasta.
2
Universidad Católica del Norte.

We study transport through two quantum dot molecules embedded in a Aharonov-


Bohm interferometer. We obtain analytical expressions for the conductance, density
of states and persistent current in equilibrium at zero temperature. We examine dif-
ferent regimes for transmission and we discuss about the formation of bound states
in the continuum (BIC), understood as resonances of zero linewidth. As result of
quantum interference, this system exhibit up to two BICs simultaneously, and situ-
ations of maximum conductance can occur even if the intradot couplings are much
smaller than the couplings between the molecules and the leads.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-028

Valley polarization effects on the localization in graphene


Landau levels
Ana L. C. Pereira1 , Peter A. Schulz1
1
Instituto de Fisica - Unicamp - Campinas - Brazil.

Graphene, a condensed matter stage for quantum electrodynamics, has attracted


an increasing amount of interest and now monolayer graphite has turned into the
most versatile electronic system under study.

We investigate effects of disorder and valley polarization in graphene in the quan-


tum Hall regime. Density of states (DOS), localization properties (Participation Ra-
tio) and wave function amplitudes around Dirac point are calculated in the presence
of a perpendicular magnetic field, within a tight-binding model description. We find
anomalous localization properties for the lowest Landau level (LL), where disorder
can induce wavefunction delocalization (instead of localization), both for white-noise
and gaussian-correlated disorder. We quantitatively identify the contribution of each
sublattice to wavefunction amplitudes. Following the valley (sublattice) polarization
of states within LLs for increasing disorder we show(*): (i) valley mixing is strongly
disorder dependent, (ii) this valley mixing in the lowest LL is the main effect behind
the observed anomalous localization properties, while, (iii) the disorder induces a
partial polarization in the higher Landau levels.

Our main conclusion is: as disorder introduces valley mixing to the graphene
system, sublattice-polarized wavefunctions from the n=0 LL increasingly spread to
the other sublattice, allowing more sites to participate in the wavefunction. This
increases, by definition, the participation ratio of the state with increasing disorder,
producing a less localized wavefunction. We show strong evidence of connection
between the anomalous localization properties observed for the n=0 LL and the
valley degree of freedom of wavefunctions from this Landau level. The expected and
well known localization with increasing disorder only comes back in this scenario
when disorder has significantly mixed valleys.

(*)arXiv:0706.2856

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-029

Wigner function and Quantum Decoherence in a


Microcavity-Qdot system.
Juan P. Restrepo1 , Herbert Vinck-Posada1 , Boris A. Rodrı́guez1
1
Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellı́n, Colombia.

The relation between the master equation and the Wigner function in the char-
acterization of the dissipative dynamics (evolution, mixedness, entanglement and
decoherence) of the system of two exciton coupled with a semiconductor cavity is
analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the Wigner function offers an insight into
the decoherence phenomena of non-classical light (squeezed, star and cat states).

0 17:30 P-Th-030

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD


EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRON-HOLE TRANSITION
ENERGIES IN A GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs QUANTUMWELLS,
QUANTUM WELL-WIRES AND QUANTUM DOTS
INMERSED IN HOSTS OF Ga1-yAlyAs
S.M. Ramos-Arteaga1 , N. Porras-Montenegro1 , G. J. Vázquez2 , M. del
Castillo-Mussot3
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia.
2
Departamento de Estado Sólido,Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional
Autónoma de México, Apartado postal 20-364, 01000 México, D.F., M.́
3
Institute Carlos I for Theoretical and Computational Physics and Departamento
de Electromagnetismo y Fı́sica de la Materia, University of Granada, S.

In this work we study the behaviour of the energy level of the electron , light, and
heavy hole ground state in GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells, quantum-well wires
and quantum dots, immersed in a host of Ga1-yAlyAs as a function of the geometry
of the systems and the x and y concentrations. We compare the behaviour of the
electron- light and electron-heavy hole transition energies between these structures
in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Also, we study the behaviour of the
electron energy when the interaction of the electron spin with the applied magnetic
field is taken into account. Our results for quantum wells present an excellent agree-
ment with experimental [1,2] and previous theoretical reports [3].
References:
1. P. Le June et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 380 (1997).
2. A. Malinowsky and R. T. Harley, Phys. Rev. B 62, 2051 (200).

CLACSA XIII
164 Thursday

3. M. de Dios-Leyva et al., J. Appl. Phys 99, 104303 (2006).


Key Words: Pillbox, magnetic field, spin

0 17:30 P-Th-031

Hall Coefficient of High-Tc Superconductors in the Van


Hove Singularity Model
Pedro Nel Sánchez1 , Héctor Castro1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

We present theoretical calculations of Hall coefficient for High-Tc superconduc-


tors in the normal state. The geometry of the Fermi surface generated by the copper
planes was calculated by the tight-binding method, taking into account the effect of
the Van Hove singularity. We have assumed the existence of two bands (electrons and
holes), each one giving contributions of opposite sign to the Hall coefficient, which
explains the sign reversal observed in certain high-Tc systems. Our theoretical re-
sults fit experimental data for a wide range of hole doping and temperature for some
superconducting materials. We finally explore the behavior of the Hall coefficient in
the overdoped region

0 17:30 P-Th-032

NiZn Ferrite/SiO2 nanocomposites synthesized by


mechanical alloying
G. Pozo López1 , S. P. Silvetti2 , S. E. Urreta2
1
Facultad de Matemática Astronomı́ a y Fı́ sica. Universidad Nacional de
Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina. Conicet.
2
Facultad de Matemática Astronomı́ a y Fı́ sica. Universidad Nacional de
Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina.

Magnetic Ni0.5 Zn0.5 Fe2 O4 /SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical al-
loying γ-Fe2 O3 (hematite), ZnO, NiO and SiO2 powders, for milling times between
1h and 260 h, at room temperature. The as milled powders were then isothermal-
ly annealed for 1 h. at temperatures between 673 K and 1273 K, under quite air
and argon flux atmospheres, respectively. At each process stage, the resulting het-
erostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction techniques and their magnetic
properties evaluated by measuring the magnetization as a function of temperature
M(T) and the M-H loops at different temperatures. The magnetization mechanism
and the magnetic relaxation properties were also explored, by measuring the appar-
ent fluctuations field and the apparent activation moment for thermal relaxation.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 165

After 200 h grinding, a complex microstructure develops with small hematite crys-
tals mixed with SiO2 and remanent NiO and ZnO particles, and very small NiZn
ferrite clusters, reaching a mean size of ∼ 9 nm. Before the heat treatment, the M-
H curves exhibit a relatively large superparamagnetic contribution; after annealing
at 1273 K a predominant ferromagnetic contribution may be detected in the M-H
loop. The high temperature treatments remove the hematite grains from the powder
and promote the growth of NiZn ferrite grains to reach mean sizes near ∼ 20 nm.
For treatments in oxidizing atmospheres, the major phases are SiO2 and NiZn fer-
rite, while for annealing in Ar a new phase appears, fayalite, which is paramagnetic
at room temperature.The granular magnetization inversion mechanism operating in
these complex nanostructures was then characterized on the basis of the temperature
dependence of both, the coercive field and the remanent magnetization.

0 17:30 P-Th-033

Nonlinear Friction of a Dimer Sliding on a Bidimensional


Periodic Potencial
Italo G. Neide1 , Sebastián Gonlves1 , Sı́lvio R. Dahmen1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica - UFRGS.

The pioneering work of Krim and Widom [Phys. Rev B 38, 12184 (1988)] unveiled
the origin of the viscous nature of friction at the atomic scale generating extensive
experimental and theoretical activity in the area of tribology. Struntz and Elmer
[Phys. Rev. E 58, 1601 (1998)] studied the friction of the Frenkel-Kontorova model
and identified non linearities due to the resonance of the sliding velocity with the
internal vibration modes of the chain, and the formation of kinks. More recently,
Fusco and Fasolino [Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 95 (2003); Thin Solid Films 428, 34( 2003)]
have identified numerically the same resonance phenomenon in the friction of a
dimer sliding over a unidimensional periodic substrate. Gonlves et al. [Phys. Rev B
72, 195418(2005)] extended this model and discovered the effects of hysteresis in the
system. In the present work we make an important step forward, setting the dimer
over a two dimensional substrate, allowing then to rotate. This makes the model
significatively more realistic than previous ones. We first show the validity of the
bidimensional model by reproducing the results of the unidimensional model, i.e,
the resonance between center of mass movement and internal vibration. We then
studied how commensurability affects the dynamic for different configurations, and
as a result it was verified that the friction is stronger at commensurated states.
The most remarkable result is that, apart from the resonance mentioned above, we
find a new one, at lower velocities, due to the coupling between translation and
rotation movements, mediated by the substrate. Our results describe a wide range
of dynamics of a dimer sliding in a periodic bidimensional substrate and can be
considered as an starting point to explain the main factors related to the origin of
friction of nanoscopic objects, like molecules and chains.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-034

Photoluminescence emission in SiOx/CdTe/SiOx


heteroestructures grown by RF sputtering
E. Mota-Pineda1
1
CINVESTAV, Depto. Fı́sica, Apdo. 17-740 México D.F., México 07000.

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has become one of the most well established photonic
materials, largely due to its use in infrared imaging applications. It has also attracted
attention as a solar cell material and has become a candidate for nonlinear optical
applications that would utilize its high Kerr coefficient to produce logical devices
suitable for the telecom industry. The vast majority of potential applications rely
on the production of CdTe thin films. The growth of CdTe on SiOx would allow
the possibility of monolithic integration of silicon logical devices with optoelectronic
CdTe based applications. We prepared a series of SiOx/CdTe/SiOx heteroestruc-
tures by RF-Sputtering. The CdTe layer were grew by sputter of a polycrystalline
CdTe target in a Ar plasma. The oxide layers were grew by reactive sputter of a
silicon target in a O2 and Ar mixture plasma. We change the oxygen partial pres-
sure (OPP) to modify the SiOx characteristics. We found that electronic properties
of the heteroestructures are affected by SiOx stoichiometry. The Raman and pho-
toreflectance spectroscopies shown the presence of best quality CdTe interlayer for
the samples grew with the lower OPP. X-ray diffractograms confirm the presence
of cubic phases of CdTe only for lower OPP. We obtain room temperature photolu-
minescence of the samples using a 473 nm laser line as excitation source. Two PL
bands are present in the samples with the lower PPO, the first, centred around of
723 nm is related with quantum confinement of CdTe in the oxide matrix and the
second around 870 nm is related whit surface states.

0 17:30 P-Th-035

Preparation and study the magnetic properties of iron


nanoclusters in silver
W. T. Herrera1 , F.J. Litterst2 , H. Micklitz3
1
CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
2
TU Braunschweig, Germany.
3
University Cologne, Germany.

Small iron clusters (impurities) in silver host were prepared by co-depositing atomic
beams of the elements on Kapton substrates, thin films F ex Ag1−x were prepared for
0.003 < x < 0.3, at various temperatures under ultra-high vacuum conditions. by
features substrate, growth will be graininess. Measures in-situ with the technique M

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 167

0 17:30 P-Th-036

Reactivity function of carbon nanopores doped with boron.


Henry M. Ortiz S.1 , Felipe Valencia H.2
1
Universidad Libre de Colombia.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Several forms of nanoporous carbons (NPC) are believed to consist of sp2 (graphene-
like) shells. However, their electronic and chemical properties may be rather differ-
ent from those of graphite and graphene. The origin of the observed differences
might be a relatively large concentration of defects in the form of non-hexagonal
rings[1,2], leading to a change in the π-π electron coupling. Boron substitution in
other graphitic structures (carbon nanotubes, for instance) has been shown to pro-
vide a mean for the creation of sites with localized electron densities.[3,4] These
substitutions bring about slight modifications the original geometry, but change the
number of valence electrons of the system. In this contribution we study the inter-
play between these two mechanism for the modification of the electronic properties.
In particular, we use the electronic density of states and the reactivity function as
defined by Wilke et al[5], in order to compare the properties of pure-carbon and
boron-doped models of NPCs. As representatives of the structural motives appear-
ing in NPCs, we consider a graphene slab with two vacancies,[2] and triply periodic
minimal surface.[1]
References:
[1] F Valencia et. al New Journal of Physics 5, 123 (2003)
[2] J M Carlson et. al Phy. Rev. Lett. 96, 046006 (2006)
[3] I Suarez-Martinez et. al Phy. Rev. Lett. 98, 015501 (2007)
[4] C. Y. Zhi et. al Journal Nanosci Nanotehnol. 98, 015501 (2007)
[5] S Wilke et. al Phy. Rev. Lett. 77, 1560 (1996)

0 17:30 P-Th-037

Structural and electronic properties of Pt-Pd nanoalloys


Alejandro Radillo-Dı́az1 , Luis A. Pérez1 , Ignacio L. Garzón1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

In this work, we performed a first-principles systematic study of the stuctural and


electronic properties of bimetallic (PtPd)n nanoclusters, with n=2-28. A set of low-
est energy structures were obtained by using a genetic-symbiotic algorithm and the
many-body Gupta potential, where the parameters used for the Pt-Pd interaction
are obtained by averaging the Pt-Pt and Pd-Pd ones. These structures were further

CLACSA XIII
168 Thursday

relaxed with DFT-GGA in order to obtain the lowest-energy one. In agreement with
previous theoretical results, segregation is observed in these clusters, where where
the Pt atoms are mainly found in the cluster core and the Pd atoms on the cluster
surface. Moreover the relatively most stable structures, within the size range stud-
ied, were obtained. Finally, the cluster sites with probable high catalytic activity
were found.
Acknowledgments: This work was supported by UNAM-DGAPA IN116605 and
CONACyT 43414-F.

0 17:30 P-Th-038

Structural characterization of FeCoNbBSicu amorphous


alloys
Zulia Caamaño1 , Andrés Rosales Rivera2
1
Universidad del Atlántico.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Manizales.

Amorphous alloys composition of Fe72−x Cox NbBSiCu (x = 35, 30 y 40 at. % of


Co), prepared by melt-spinning technique, were characterized using XRD analysis,
SEM, AFM and MFM techniques. X-Ray diffraction pattern showed that these
alloys were completely amorphous in scan range 20 ; of 30 - 80. Images obtained by
SEM, showed the surface morphological of the samples, evidencing the structural
amorphous of the material. AFM and MFM techniques were used to observe the
superficial topography and the micromagnetic domains present in the as-quenched
ribbons and in the master alloy.

0 17:30 P-Th-039

Study of the chemical composition and preparation method


of Degussa P25 suspensions.
Angelica Anzola1 , Carolina Barrero1 , Jeimmy Ayala1 , Jose Rafael Narvaez
Altamiranda2 , Gerardo Gordillo2 , Cesar Quiñones1
1
Universidad de America.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

in this work studied the chemical composition and preparation method of Degus-
sa P25 suspensions used in the fabrication of nanoparticulated TiO2 thin films with
photocatalytic applications. The studied solvents were methanol, isopropanol, water
and like dispersant agent PEG 8000, 6000 and 500. films were obtained by Doctor
Blade technique followed for annealing at 450C and tested by scoth tape method.
The structural properties of the nanoparticulated thin films were determinate by
the XRD technique.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 169

0 17:30 P-Th-040

Study of the electronic properties of GaAs-based atomic


layer doped field effect transistors (ALD-FET) under the
influence of hydrostatic pressure
J. C. Martı́nez-Orozco1 , I. Rodrı́guez-Vargas2 , C. A. Duque3 , M. E. Mora-Ramos1
1
Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. Av.
Universidad 1001. CP 62209. Cuernavaca. Morelos. México.
2
Unidad Académica de Fı́sica. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. CP. 98060.
Zacatecas. ZAC. México.
3
Instituto de Fı́sica. Universidad de Antioquia. AA 1226. Medellı́n. Colombia.

A Thomas-Fermi based scheme of calculation of the electronic structure of GaAs


atomic layer doped field effect transistors is presented. It is performed within the
envelope function approximation, and the effects of hydrostatic pressure are tak-
en into account in order to investigate the formation of high conductivity electron
channels in such as devices. We particularly consider the pressure-induced Γ − X
crossover within the conduction band of the system as a possible effect causing both
the enhancement of the associated two-dimensional carrier densities and the increas-
ing in their mobility. We report the calculation of the relative mobility, comparing
its values with and without applied hydrostatic pressure.

0 17:30 P-Th-041

Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes


Arrays, Grown using Bilayer Metal Catalysts
S. Hevia1 , R. A. Segura1 , J.-G. Ramı́rez2 , J. E. Villegas2 , Ivan K. Schuller2 , P.
Haberle1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Federico Santa, Casilla 110-V, Valparaı́so,
Chile.
2
Physics Department, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California
92093, USA.

The synthesis of large area arrays of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have been pref-
erentially explored on insulating substrates such as silicon oxide and alumina. On
the other hand, uniform and well-aligned CNTs grown on metallic layers have not
been widely explored. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has major advantages over
other processes because it allows lowering preparation temperatures. This is a sub-
stantial advantage which facilitates the integration of CNTs into electronic devices.
We have synthesized aligned CNTs arrays on metallic substrates, by a combination

CLACSA XIII
170 Thursday

of photolithography and CVD techniques. We used a sputtered Fe catalyst over a


buffer Al9 B1 layer, on top of native silicon oxide. The Al9 B1 layer prevents the diffu-
sion of iron into the substrate and at the same time provide an electric back contact
for the CNTs. We have explored synthesis temperatures in the 500◦ C - 900◦ C range
using different carbon sources like Methane, Acetylene and Ethanol. Our prelimi-
nary results show well-aligned CNTs arrays at temperatures close to 700◦ C with an
Acetylene source. The samples were characterized using different techniques such as
Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron
Microscopy (TEM) and Inverse Photoemission.

Acknowledgment: This research is supported by the PBCT grant ACT027, PSD031


and MeceSup USA0108, Chile. The work at UCSD is supported by the US DOE.

0 17:30 P-Th-042

Synthesis of Fe containing nanostructures in a silica


molecular sieve
M.I. Oliva1 , V. R. Elı́ as2 , G. A. Eimer2 , S. G. Casuscelli2 , S. P. Silvetti1 , S. E.
Urreta1
1
Facultad de Matemática Astronomı́ a y Fı́ sica. Universidad Nacional de
Córdoba. Córdoba, Argentina..
2
CITeQ - Facultad Regional Córdoba.

Mesoporous materials containing Fe and Fe oxides particles were synthesized


by inserting Fe atoms in a Si-MCM-41 molecular sieve host. Two materials were
prepared: in the first one, Fe atoms and clusters are inserted in the matrix by di-
rect hydrothermal synthesis, using an aqueous solution of iron (III) nitrate as iron
source and applying 0 days (S0), 2 days (S2) and 7 days (S7) of synthesis times.
In the other material Fe and Fe oxides crystals are formed inside the porous of the
molecular sieve by wet impregnation techniques up to a Fe concentration of 5 % in
weight. Both mesostructures were characterized using UV reflectance (DR-UVvis),
X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared transmission (FT-IR) and BET. Magnetization
vs. temperature M(T) curves and hysteresis loops M(H) at temperatures between
5 K and 290 K were measured. XRD patterns indicated that all the samples have
mesoporous structure and that as the synthesis time increases, the structural order-
ing diminishes. The UV-DR spectra showed an absorption band in the 300-400 nm
range, indicating that little clusters could have formed in the matrix. The M(T) as
well as the M(H) curves are consistent with two magnetic contributions, a param-
agnetic and a superparamagnetic one. As the synthesis time increased, hysteresis
loops with a relatively high apparent coercivity were observed, indicating that the
magnetic clusters and particles were no more independent. In the case of the sam-
ples heavily impregned, the magnetic behavior at room temperature was found to
be predominantly superparamagnetic.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 171

0 17:30 P-Th-043

The role of boundary conditions on the phase transitions in


thin mesoscopic superconducting rings
F. A. SEGOVIA-CHAVES1 , J. M. CALERO1 , J. C GRANADA E.1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali-Colombia.

In the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the linear approach, we


study phase transitions between different superconducting states and between the
superconducting-normal states of a mesoscopic ring with negligible thickness, in
the presence of an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ring.
We limit ourselves to superconducting states with a fixed angular momentum for
ring thinner than the coherence length. It is assumed that the inner ring edge is in
contact with a material whose properties are accounted in the de Gennes boundary
condition with a parameter (de Gennes extrapolation length), while the outer edge
is in contact with a material of de Gennes extrapolation length . Using an expansion
over the eigenfunction of the linearized first GL equation, we develop an analytical
approach that allows us to predict the type of phase transition and find the system
characteristics near the phase transition point.

Key words: mesoscopic superconducting ring, Ginzburg Landau theory.

0 17:30 P-Th-044

Thermal Stability of AuNPs-MWCNTs hybrids prepared


by SMAD
Rodrigo A. Segura1 , Alejandra Tello2 , Galo Cárdenas1 , Patricio H1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Federico Santa Marı́a, Valparaı́so, Chile.
2
Facultad de Ciencias Quı́micas, Universidad de Concepción, Chile.

The hybrid nanostructures, formed by combining two kinds of materials, such as


nanotubes and nanoparticles, might improve the performance or extend the appli-
cations of these new materials. One important aspect which must be considered for
practical applications is their stability as a function of temperature. In this contribu-
tion we present a study on the thermal stability of Au nanoparticles and multiwall
carbon nanotube hybrids (AuNPs@MWCNTs).

The AuNPs@MWCNTs nanohybrids were prepared by the so called Solvated


Metal Atom Dispersion technique (SMAD). In the SMAD procedure, bulk gold and
organic solvents like 2-propanol or acetone are evaporated and later condensated

CLACSA XIII
172 Thursday

into a frozen matrix at liquid nitrogen temperature. After warming up this matrix
to room temperature, a colloid, with very small and highly reactive gold clusters, is
obtained. These clusters react, in the same vessel, with carbon nanotubes, forming
metallic Au nucleus anchored on the CNTs walls. The as prepared hybrids were
purified by microfiltration then washed and dried. After purification the hybrids
were annealed at different temperatures (200, 400, 600 and 800◦ C) in an argon at-
mosphere, and later sonicated in 2-propanol. Transmission Electron Microscopy and
Thermogravimetry were used in the characterization of these nano-hybrid structures.

Partial funding for this work has been provided by the following PBCT grants:
PSD031 and ACT027, Chile.

0 17:30 P-Th-045

Γ − X conduction band mixing in GaAs quantum wires in


presence of hydrostatic pressure
Arezky H. Rodrı́guez1 , M. E. Mora-Ramos2 , C. A. Duque3
1
Instituto de Fı́sica. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. CP 04510.
México DF. México.
2
Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. Av.
Universidad 1001. CP 62209. Cuernavaca. Morelos. México.
3
Inst. de Fı́sica. Univ. de Antioquia. AA 1226. Medellı́n. Colombia.

We present a model calculation for the effects of the Γ − X conduction band


mixing onto the electronic and impurity states in GaAs-based quantum wires of
cylindrical geometry. The mixing between electron states belonging to these two
conduction band valleys is introduced via a recently proposed variational approach
within the envelope function approximation. Band structure parameters are consid-
ered to be affected by the presence of applied hydrostatic pressure, and particular
interest is paid to the crossover region where the hydrostatic pressure induces a tran-
sition to a type II heterostructure. Excitonic transitions are calculated as functions
of the values of the pressure and of the wire radius.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 173

0 17:30 P-Th-046

Magnetic Properties of Barium ferrite thin films grow by


PLD at room Temperature
Oliva M. I.1 , Zandalazini C. I.2 , Ferrero J. C.3 , Bertorello H. R.4 , C. A. Rinaldi5
1
Investigador CONICET- FaMAF UNC.
2
Becario FoNCyT.
3
Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares - Investigador CONICET INFIQC - Fac.
de Cs Qs UNC.
4
Investigador CONICET - FaMAF UNC.
5
CONICET - CNEA.

Barium ferrite thin films has been grown at room temperature using a Nd:YAG
laser. The targets was made by mechanical alloying and the structural composition
of the targets was determined by XR diffraction. The plasma generated by means
of the pulsed laser Nd YAG to 1064 nm was analyzed in the range from 200 to 600
nm. by means of optic spectroscopy of emission (OES). The influence of the fluence
of ler and thermal over magnetic and structural properties of the thin films has been
investigated.

0 17:30 P-Th-047

MAGNETOIMPURITY MODES IN CONDUCTING


BILAYERS
Ricardo Vega Monroy1 , Carlos Montoya Morrón1
1
Universidad del Atlántico.

Impurities in conductors create bound states which change the electronic spec-
trum. This effect is stronger when on the conductor a high magnetic field is applied,
which decreases the dimensionality of the electronic system. Evidently, this fact hits
in a radical way the conductivity of the sample and consequently the spectrum of
electromagnetic waves. In the present work we study the propagation of magne-
toimpurity modes caused by resonant transitions between magnetoimpurity levels
in conducting bilayers. Concrete analytical relations for the dispersion law of weakly
damped collective magnetoimpurity modes are obtained. In addition, some condi-
tions for structural parameters are analyzed, under which these collective modes
experimentally can be observed.

Keywords: Conducting bilayers, magnetoimpurity levels, collective electromag-


netic modes.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-048

Magnetoresistance in vanadium oxides thin films deposited


Alejandra Guerrero1 , Gilberto Bolaños P1 , Sonia Gaona1 , Jesus Heiras2
1
Universidad del Cauca.
2
Centro de Ciencia de la materia condensada UNAM.

We observed a positive magnetoresistance (PMR) in vanadium oxides thin films


deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering R.F. The MR effect depends
on temperature and oxygen content and it reaches a value of 16 % in the film with
lower oxygen content in a longitudinal magnetic field of 1,2T measured at 50K.
A dependence of the magnetoresistance was found at low temperatures. The XRD
results show that with decreasing oxygen content the phases of vanadium oxide thin
films undergo the following transformation: V O2 , V O2 +V2 O3 , V2 O3 .
Keywords: magnetoresistance, thin films, vanadium oxides

0 17:30 P-Th-049

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN METALLIC


FILMS BY ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS
E. Chan y Diaz1 , A.I. Oliva1 , J.E. Corona1 , F. Avilés2
1
Cinvestav IPN-Unidad Mérida, Depto. de Fı́sica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex,
97310 Mérida Yucatán México.
2
Centro de Investigación Cientı́fica de Yucatán, Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 #
130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, CP 97200, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

The physical properties of very thin films are amazing concepts into the nan-
otechnology area. New developments and techniques are required to characterize the
different properties of materials as a function of their small thickness. Some efforts
have been conducted in order to determine mechanical properties of thin metallic
films, but much research is still needed in order to fully understand the behavior
of such structures. Metallic thin films are the ideal geometry of material to study
new methods to characterize the mechanical properties. In this work we proposed a
novel method to obtain the stress, strain and elastic modulus of metallic thin films
by means of in-situ changes in the film resistivity while the beam is loaded. The
method uses the four-point technique applied on the metallic film deposited on a
rigid substrate to measure the changes of electrical resistivity when a load is applied
on the center of a beam. Changes on the electrical resistivity are associated to the
beam deflexion and curvature of the metallic film which is assumed to be the same
as that of the substrate. Polymeric substrates are used given their relatively large

CLACSA XIII
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mechanical compliance. Gold, copper and ITO (indium tin oxide) conductive oxide
thin films on different substrates were measured and the stress, strain and elastic
modulus are reported. Good agreement with the scarce values reported in the liter-
ature about these mechanical properties on thin films demonstrate the simple and
easy method developed.

* Master thesist at ITM, Mico. Work supported by Conacyt-Mico through project


F1-54173.

0 17:30 P-Th-050

Microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties


of CrN coatings deposited by reactive unbalanced
magnetron sputtering UMS
Piratoba M. Ulises1 , Mariño C Álvaro2 , Olaya F John Jairo2 , Rojas Daniel3 ,
Anderson Sandoval3
1
Universidades: Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia - Nacional de Colombia.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
3
Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.

Chromium nitride CrN is a hard coating for applications where severe corro-
sion and friction conditions are present. In this work, we report on the conditions
for CrN reactive UMS deposition on AISI 4140 steel. The coatings microstructure,
mechanical and electrochemical properties for different nitrogen/argon flow rate ra-
tio were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro hardness and electrochemical
impedance spectroscopy EIS. Hard coatings with Cr(N) solid solution, Cr2N and
CrN ceramic phases with (111) and (200) preferential orientation and low corrosion
rate in NaCl solution were obtained

0 17:30 P-Th-051

Milling time effects on the magnetic and structural


properties of the F e0,70 Si0,30 system
R. R. Rodriguez1 , J. M. Greneche2
1
Universidad del Valle, Colombia.
2
Université du Maine, France.

The magnetic and structural properties of the F e0,70 Si0,30 alloy are analyzed by
using X-Ray diffraction and Msbauer spectrometry. The samples were prepared by
mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill pulverisette 5 during 1, 5, 9, 15, 75

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and 100 hours milling, with a ball mass to powder mass relation of 10:1. The X-ray
diffraction patterns showed a coexistence of BCC, DO3 and FeSi structural phases,
however, for 1 to 5 h process, we observed additional peaks which correspond to
iron and silicon elements. These results indicate us that the alloy is still a non-fully
consolidated sample. The grain size decreases drastically from 1 to 5 hours, then
slowly up to 15 hours, and finally it remains nearly constant. The lattice parameter
for each phase remains nearly constant (2,838 A for the bcc structure). The shape
of hyperfine field distributions used to describe the Msbauer spectra is discussed.
PACS numbers: 61.10.Nz; 61.66.Dk; 75.50.Ec; 76.80.+y; 81.20.Ev

0 17:30 P-Th-052

Ocurrence of ferroelectricity in epitaxial thin films of


BiMnO3
M. Grisales1 , J.C.Caicedo2 , E. Martinez3 , J. Heiras3 , P. Prieto4
1
Universidad de la Amazonia, Florencia Caquetá, Colombia.
2
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas Universidad del Valle.
3
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ensenada, B:C, México.
4
Excellence Center for Novel Materials, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

Multiferroic compounds in which two or all three ferroic order parameters, spon-
taneous polarization, spontaneous strain and spontaneous magnetization coexist in
the same phase, are currently gaining more and more attention. In particular, those
wherein magnetic and ferroelectric order occur simultaneously, termed ferroelectro-
magnets [1]. They are an interesting group of compounds that complement purely
(anti-) ferroelectric or (anti-) ferromagnetic materials. In addition to their fundamen-
tal importance, the mutual control of electric and magnetic properties (the magneto-
electric effect) is of great interest for applications and they are promising materials
for the design of multifunctional devices. The remarkable magnetoelectric proper-
ties of BiM nO3 have attracted considerable attention during the last three years.
This simple perovskite with only a simple B-site cation has been suspected to be a
biferroic and recent theoretical calculations suggest that it is likely to be both fer-
romagnetic and ferroelectric because of the covalent bonding between bismuth and
oxygen atoms [2], [3]. In this paper we report evidence for ferroelectricity in per-
ovskite manganite (BiM nO3 ) thin films synthesized by a r.f magnetron sputtering
method on a single crystal (100)-oriented SrT iO3 : Nb 0.1 % and P t/T iO2 /SiO2 /Si
substrates and their ferroelectric properties were investigated. X- ray diffraction
measurements were used to analyze the crystal structure of the thin films and they
revealed epitaxial growth for BiM nO3 films with its (111) and (222) planes parallel
to the (001) and (002) planes of the SrT iO3 substrate [4]. AFM measurements were
performed to investigate surface morphology, quantitative values of the roughness
and grain size of about 250 and 0.5 nm, respectively. Ferroelectric characteriza-
tion was carried out at low temperatures and at 300K by using a cooling system,

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a temperature controller cryodine model 22 C of the LTS cryosystems series and


the VISION software of Radiant Technologies inc. Hysteresis loops (Polarization v-s
Voltage) were obtained and they show saturation polarizations of 15 nC/cm2, 12
nC/cm2, and 7 nC/cm2 at 105 K, 122 K and 300K respectively.
References
[1] G.A Smolenskii and I.E. Chupis, Sov. Phys. Usp. 25, 475 (1982)
[2] N.A.Hill, K.A. Rabe, Phys. Rev. B59, 8759 (2000
[3] Miguel Grisales, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez, Jess Heiras, Pedro Prieto P.

0 17:30 P-Th-053

ON THE REACTION MECHANISMS OF IRON OXIDES


AND OXYHYDROXIDES NANOPARTICLES WITH
TANNIC AND PHOSPHORIC ACIDS
J.J. BELTRÁN1,2 , F.J. NOVEGIL1 , K. E. GARCÍA1,2 , C. A. BARRERO1
1
Grupo de Estado Sólido, Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia. 2
Instituto de Quimica, Universidad de Antioquia.

The maintenance of structures and surfaces made of steel is an important field


of research which requires the interplay of scientists from different areas. One of the
alternatives for surface conservation has been the use of rust converters [1]. Rust
converters are chemical substances made of mixtures of normally tannic and phos-
phoric acids that reacts with the corrosion products of the steel surfaces making
them more protective to aggressive atmospheres. Although, they have been used
with some success for several decades, controversy exists about their effectiveness
and there is search for a better product that can be used in different environments
[1-3]. One of the reasons for these controversies is that it is not well understood
how each acid of the rust converter reacts with each one the corrosion products. In
natural systems this is a difficult task, because the corrosion products are a com-
plex mixture of different iron oxides and oxyhydroxides nanoparticles among other
compounds. One alternative to investigate this problem is to prepare each iron com-
pound separately and to react it with each acid. This is the motivation for the
present work. For that purpose, we have studied the action of three different rust
converters on synthetic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides nanoparticles, such as lepi-
docrocite, goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, akaganeite, magnetite, maghemite,
and hematite. The iron oxides, before and after the reaction with the converters,
were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ms-
bauer spectrometry (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and BET surface area measurements.
We have found that after three month of reaction, lepidocrocite and magnetite are
the iron phases more easily transformed into iron tannates and iron phosphates. On
the contrary, hematite is the most resistive phase to transformation by the action
of the acids. Our results suggest that in order to understand properly the action

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of these acids on different iron phases, we have to take into consideration the stoi-
chiometry, structure, morphology, surface area and degree of crystallinity of the iron
compounds.
References
1. C.A. Barrero, L.M. Ocampo and C.E. Arroyave, Corrosion Science, 43 (2001)
1003-1018.
2. D.D.N. Singh, S. Yadav, Surface & Coatings Technology (2007) article in press.
3. L.M. Ocampo, I.C.P. Margarit, O.R. Mattos, S.I. Cdoba-de-Torresi and F.L. Fra-
gata, Corrosion Science, 46 (2004) 1515-1525.

0 17:30 P-Th-054

Optimization of a plasmatron-type ion source for the


production of negative hydrogen ions
M. Segura1 , G. Martinez-Tamayo1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

The electron impact ion sources represent the most practical way to obtain ion-
ic beams of utility in diverse applications. However, the nature of the generating
process normally produce an abundance of positive ions. In areas like astrophysics,
plasma physics, atomic physics and chemistry, there exists interest in negative ion
study. In particular, present investigations related to the generation of negative ions
is important due to the application in high energy accelerators, nuclear fusion plas-
mas, ion implantation and commercial antistress devices.
The implantation with hydrogen ions is used for the surface hydrogenation of porous
silicon, modifying properties of interest for applications in optoelectronics [1]. The
common treatment with positive ions requires a mass filter to separate ionic species
of interest out of an ion beam, usually a mixture of H+ , H+ +
2 and H3 , what increases
the cost of the laboratory equipment. The hydrogen negative ion generation sur-
passes this disadvantage, being the only stable negative ion form of this element in
plasmas.
The ion implantation laboratory of the physics department in the Universidad Na-
cional de Colombia at Bogota, has two positive ion sources that operate in the
ion-atom collisions spectrometer and in the implantator machine.
In this work, the usual conditions of the plasma in one of these positive ion sources
have been modified to facilitate the generation of negative ones. Specifically, based
on the ionization yield as a function of pressure, discharge current and voltage, the
optimal new conditions of the plasmatron-type ion source were determined.
The application of a magnetic field in neighborhoods of the ions exit aperture im-
proved the extraction conditions as far as the amount of electrons in the ion beam
was reduced, simultaneously it dosed the amount of slow electrons in the plasma
region by the extraction surface. In addition, the main collision channels responsi-
ble for the generation of the H− were identified, being the dissociative attachment

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(e + H2 ⇒ H− + H0 ) the most important.


For the optimal conditions: gas pressure, 8×10−3 Torr; discharge voltage, 45 V; and
discharge current, 100 mA, a few nanoamperes of negative ion current was obtained,
but this intensity is insufficient for implantation applications. The current can in-
crease by approaching the filament to the anode, increasing the extraction voltage,
optimizing the magnetic field intensity provided by the filter or the mixture of gases
hydrogen-argon or hydrogen-cesium.
[1] E. Galeazzo, et al, Sensors and Actuators B. 76 (2001) 343-346.

0 17:30 P-Th-055

Optimized trial function for hydrogenic donor in


semiconductor heterostructure.
William Gutiérrez Niño1 , Luis Francisco Garcı́a Russi1 , Ilia D. Mikhailov1
1
Universidad Industrial de Santander.

An optimized trial function for calculating the energies of the donor states in a
semiconductor heterostructures with axial symmetry in the presence of the external
electric and magnetic fields is proposed. It is taken as a product of the free elec-
tron ground state wave function, corresponding to two-dimensional electron motion
in X − Y plane with the linear combination of the hydrogen atom orbitals with
unknown coefficients that depend on Z coordinate. It is demonstrated that the vari-
ational principle for such trial function reduces to a system of one-dimensional wave
equations which together with initial condition resulting from “cusp” at the point
of the potential singularity can be solved by using trigonometric sweep method [1].
Our results for the ground state donor energies in quantum well are in excellent con-
cordance with those obtained previously by using Monte Carlo method [2], while the
ground state energies for donors in quantum well-wire and multiple quantum well
calculated by using our trial function always are lower than those found previously
by using other types trial functions [3,4]. The effect of the electric field applied along
the growth axis on the donor ground state in nanowire superlattice is analyzed. It
is shown that in such type of heterostructure a strong lateral confinement and the
presence of the multiple wells allows us to easily shift the free electron density dis-
tribution decreasing or increasing the average separation between electron and ion
depending on the donor location.

References
[1] J. H. Mar, F. J. Betancur, and I. D. Mikhailov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18,
1005 (2006).
[2] T. Pang and S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1635 (1990).
[3] S. V. Branis, G. Li and K. K. Bajaj, Phys. Rev. B 47, 1316 (1993).

CLACSA XIII
180 Thursday

[4] M. Pacheco, Z. Barticevic, A. Latg Physica B 302, 77 (2001).

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-056

ORGANIC COFFEE CERTIFICATION CRITERION


USING THE PHOTOACOUSTIC TECHNIQUE
F. Gordillo Delgado1 , F. Zarate Rincón1 , J. A. Ortega Vela1
1
Laboratorio de optoelectrónica. Universidad del Quindı́o.

The photoacoustic (PA) technique allows a spectroscopic analysis to organic


opaque samples and its thermal characterization, so this technique gives informa-
tion about the pigmentation and the roasting modeling parameters, important for
industry and commercialization process, when it is applied to green and powdered
coffee samples, respectively. A spectrum is own of each sample, so is possible to iden-
tify different characteristics in coffee powder, for example: purity, caffeine content,
roasting level, origin conditions, etc. Powdered coffee PA spectroscopic measure-
ments and correlation analysis that allow proposing a discrimination criterion are
reported in this work. Also, the thermal diffusivity of green coffee samples was mea-
sured by open cell PA technique, in order to study the relation of this parameter with
the bean cellular structure, which was looked through of an optical microscopy. The
results presented will allow a possible method for certifying organic coffee, which is
cultivated without chemicals and has greater price in the international market and
positive impact in the environment.

keywords: photoacoustic, diffusivity, coffee, spectroscopy.

0 17:30 P-Th-057

PHASE IDENTIFICATION AND XPS STUDIES OF


Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN FILMS
C. Calderón1 , P. Bartolo-Pérez2 , O. Rodrı́guez3 , G. Gordillo1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica Aplicada, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios
Avanzados del IPN, Mérida, Yuc., México.
3
Departamento de Quı́mica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá,
Colombia.

In this paper we present results concerning the effect of preparation conditions on


the surface chemistry and crystalline phase of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films grown
by a chemical reaction of the precursor species in two and three stage processes. The
CIGS samples were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray
diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was found that the bulk of the samples grown in a

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three stage process contain mainly the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 phase; however the secondary
In2 Se3 and Cu2 S phases were additionally identified at the surface of CIGS samples
grown in two stages. The XRD studies revealed that the phase and crystallographic
parameters of the CIGS films are not affected by the preparation conditions.

0 17:30 P-Th-058

PHASE TRANSITIONS IN THIN MESOSCOPIC


SUPERCONDUCTING RING
F.A SEGOVIA-CHAVES1 , J.C. GRANADA1 , J.M. CALERO1
1
UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE.

In the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory, we study phase transitions


between different superconducting states and between the superconducting-normal
states of mesoscopic ring. We limit ourselves to superconducting states with a fixed
angular momentum for ring thinner than the coherence length. Using an expansion
over the eigenfunction of the linearized first GL equation, we develop an analytical
approach that allows us to predicted the type of phase transition and find the system
characteristics near the phase transition point.

Key words: mesoscopic superconducting, Ginzburg Landau theory.

0 17:30 P-Th-059

PHOTOCATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF Fe-TiO2


MULTILAYERS PREPARED BY THE SOL-GEL
METHOD
Enrique Sánchez-Mora1 , Estela Gómez-Barojas2 , Rutilo Silva-González1
1
INSTITUTO DE FISICA, BUAP, MEXICO.
2
CIDS-IC, BUAP, MEXICO.

In this work it was study the effect of multilayers in the photocatalytic properties
of Fe-TiO2 deposited on glass substrate by the sol-gel method. The synthesis of the
thin films was carried out by using a solution formed by titanium tetrabutoxyde,
buthanol, acetylacetone and Iron nitrate. The glass substrate was dipped into the
solution for 5 min then, it was slowly lifted and let dried for 15 min. Later on, a
thermal treatment at 400 C for 12 hrs in air was carried out. The whole procedure
was repeated such as the samples were formed by 1, 3, 5 and 10 thin films. The
samples were characterized by the SEM, FTIR and UV-Vis techniques, and the

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photocatalytic activity of the different films was determined by means of the pho-
todecomposition of methylene blue under visible light. The SEM micrographs show
that the surface morphology of the Fe-TiO2 systems presents clusters that contain
iron. The FTIR results indicate that the multilayers present surface OH that are
bound to the Ti and Fe elements, respectively. The UV-Vis spectra show that the
fundamental absorption band of the Fe-TiO2 is shifted to longer wavelengths as the
number of layers is increased. The photocatalytic activity results of the Fe-TiO2
multilayer show that the photodecomposition of the methylene blue is about 70 %
in 10 hrs, and as the number of constituent layers is increased the photoactivity is
increases up to 90 % in the same reaction time.
This work was supported by VIEP-BUAP through project No. 39/G/EXC/06-G.

0 17:30 P-Th-060

Photocurrent Chemical Image Gas Sensor as a nose system


Mauro Sergio Braga1 , uliano dos Santos Gonschorowski1 , Walter Jaimes Salcedo1
1
Universidade de São Paulo.

The chemical image generation is an important issue for modern sensing tech-
nologies as electronic noses or tongues1. In a semiconductor-insulator system, the
depletion layer formed in the semiconductors can be used for measuring the surface
potential of insulator and the property of the interface between the semiconductor
and the insulator. A number of sensors or measurement systems are based on the
variation of the depletion layer2. One method to measure the width of the deple-
tion layer is to use ac photocurrent induced by illumination of the modulated light,
this method is used for sensor application as for example light-addressable poten-
tiometric sensor3, artificial olfactory sensor4. The basic device used for the chemical
images sensing was a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure using different
metals (Au, Pt, Al, Pd, etc) as a gate of the device1. The present work reports
the sensibility of MOS sensor device to hydrogen gas moiety by using photocurrent
response. The MOS structure had the Au and Pd metals both in contact as a device
gate (Figure 1). The MOS structures were obtained by growing the thermal oxide
(SiO2) of the 120 nm thickness on the P type silicon substrate, after that the Au
and Pd metal were deposited by electron beam technique using the two level mask.
The two metals, which act as a gate, are in contact only in the one localized region
(Figure 1). The gas sensor response measurements were obtained after setting up the
device into the chamber with inlet and outlet pipes for gas injection and gas ejection
respectively. The sensor was photo excited locally by laser pulse source throughout
a glass window and the photocurrents were measured before and after gas injection.
The spot of laser light was scanned throughout the surface of the sensor (metals and
SiO2 regions) building photocurrent images. The images were analyzed by using
the fractal geometry theory that showed to be an excellent tool for images pattern
recognition process for gas sensors used in the present work, resulting in a good

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classification response of the H2 and NH3 gases.


References
[1] J. Mizsei, Thin Solid Films 436, 25-33 (2003).
[2] M. Nakao, S. Inoue, T. Yoshinobu, H. Iwasaki, Sensor and Actuators B34, 234-
239 (1996).
[3] T. Yoshinobu, H. Iwasaki, Y. Ui, K. Furuichi, Y. Ermolenko, Y. Mourzina, T.
Wagner, N. Nather, M. J. Shoning, Methods 37, 94-102 (2005).
[4] D. Filippini, I. Lundstrom, Sensors and Actuators B-95, 116-122 (2003).

0 17:30 P-Th-061

Photoluminiscence of metal-doped porous silicon.


G. Garcı́a-Salgado1 , E. Linares1 , J. Conrado1 , T. Diaz1 , E. Rosendo1 , H. Juarez1 ,
J. Carrillo1
1
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, CIDS-ICUAP, Puebla, México.

The effect on the photoluminiscence of metal-doped porous silicon is reported in


this work. Tin, tin-paladium and tin-paladium-nickel were deposited for electroless
on a arsenic-doped n-type silicon (100) wafer before the porous silicon etching. The
porous silicon obtained shows an interesting behaviour; the three months photolu-
miniscence presents good time stabilization for the sample tin-paladium doped. The
other tin and tin-paladium-nickel doped samples show a minor photoluminiscence
stabilization but in all cases with a quenching and blue-shifting of the peak energy.
The samples were characterized with FTIR to detect the presence of metal bonds
in the porous silicon layer.

Keywords: porous silicon, photoluminscence.

0 17:30 P-Th-062

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN THIN FILMS OF IRON


OXIDES
Juan David Uribe Vélez1
1
Universidad de Antioquia.

We have grown hematite (α − F e2 O3 ) thin films on stainless steel substrates and


magnetite (F e3 O4 ) thin films on (001)-Si single crystal substrates by RF magnetron
sputtering process. α − F e2 O3 thin films were grown in Ar atmosphere at substrate
temperature around 400C, and F e3 O4 thin films in Ar/O2 reactive atmosphere at
substrate temperature around 500C. Conversion Electron Mössbauer (CEM) spectra

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of α − F e2 O3 thin films exhibit values for hyperfine parameter characteristic of


hematite stoichiometric phase in the weak ferromagnetic state. Also, the relative
line intensity ratio suggests that the magnetization vector of the polycrystalline film
is aligned preferentially parallel to the surface. The CEM spectra of F e3 O4 thin
films show the presence only of the stoichiometric phase, the values for the hyperfine
fields and isomer shifts of the A and B sites are consistent with bulk F e3 O4 . The X-
Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern of the polycrystalline thin films also corresponds to
α − F e2 O3 and F e3 O4 . The samples were also analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy
(AFM) and they reveal a grain morphology commonly in polycrystalline films. We
found an average grain size of 211 nm and surface roughness of 45 nm in α − F e2 O3
films and an average grain size of 148 nm and surface roughness of 1.2 nm in F e3 O4
films.

0 17:30 P-Th-063

Plasmon excitations in Carbon Nanotubes


Mario Zapata H1 , Juana L. Gervasoni2
1
Instituto Balseiro.
2
Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atómico Bariloche.

The growing development in the study of nanomaterials has given place in the
last years to an enormous activity experimental and theoretical, through which new
investigation topics have arisen, including studies of structural and electronic prop-
erties of such systems, and being constituted at the present time in one of the areas of
more activity. One of the most important nanostructures are the Carbon Nanotubes,
which are of great interest for their high conductivity, also, their specific properties
are very sensitive to their geometric structure. Some theoretical studies predict that
these materials exhibit properties of metals and semiconductors, depending on their
geometric configuration.

In this work we study the structure and characterization of these nanostructures.


Then, we analyze the free electron gas collective excitations of Single Walled Carbon
Nanotubes and the properties of the surface modes and electronic excitations in
cylindrical nanostructures, in particular their interaction with charged particles. We
analyze the surface and bulk plasmon excitations in nanowires and carbon nanotubes
within the Dielectric formalism and the so-called Hydrodynamic model, which allows
us, obtain different dispersion relations in both formalisms. We compare these models
with other theoretical and experimental results in particular with Energy Electron
Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) spectra for plasmon excitations.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-064

Porous Silicon Thin Films as CO Sensor


Hector Mauricio Martinez Camargo1 , Nelson Elias Rincon1 , Jaime Torres1 ,
José Edgar Alfonso1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

An electrical behavior of porous silicon thin films in presence of CO is presented


in this work. Porous Silicon thin films were produced by the electrochemical an-
odizing method at different anodizing times. The films surfaces were characterized
by SEM and porosity was determined by gravimetric methods. Two comb-shaped
Al electrodes were deposited on top of the porous silicon; in such way that it was
reduced the distance between electrodes without diminish the CO exposition area.
Initially the sample is maintained at 2x10 -2 Torr during 40 min. and then is in-
jected the CO at the cryostat. Resistance vs. time variations was measured at room
temperature. It was observed a decrease in the samples resistance of about 3 MΩ as
the CO reach the sample surface. The response time of the device is large and the
behavior as sensor does not depend on samples porosity.

0 17:30 P-Th-065

Preparation and characterization of monolayers of Ti-Si and


Nb-Si for the hydrogenation of various a,b-unsaturated
aldehydes.
José J. Martı́nez Z.1 , Hugo A. Rojas2 , Gloria Borda2 , Patricio Reyes3
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
2
Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.
3
Universidad de Concepción, Chile.

The deposition of monolayer(s) of an active phase on a carrier is an attractive


technique for the tailoring of catalytic properties. Important properties of titania
and niobia such as recognized SMSI effect can be increased with the formation of
monolayers of Ti and Nb over SiO2. In this work the results of hydrogenation of var-
ious a,b-unsaturated aldehydes over Ir catalysts supported on monolayers of mixed
oxides (Ti/Si, Nb/Si) are presented. For monolayer preparation (Ti/Si and Nb/Si)
a commercial alcoxide of Ti or Nb impregnated over silica in an organic solvent was
used. The monolayers obtained were impregnated with 1 % of metallic component
using H2IrCl6 aqueous solution. The catalysts were reduced at high (773 K) and
low (473 K) temperature. Catalyst characterization was carried out by hydrogen
chemisorption at ambient temperature, nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, FTIR, XPS,

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 187

XRD, TEM, TPR and TPD techniques. The solids obtained present a high sur-
face area (SBET ¿280 m2g-1). DRX revealed an amorphous structure with a strong
surface interaction of silica with TiO2 or Nb2O5 in form of Ti-O-Si and Nb-O-Si
bonding, observed for FTIR and XPS analysis, which are responsible of Lewis acid
sites. TEM results revealed that monolayers of Ti/Si and Nb/Si allow a high metal
distribution with a small size crystallite of Ir. XPS spectra of Ir 4f7/2 core level
showed a slight increases in the BE suggesting the presence of Ird+ species. On the
other hand, H2 chemisorption results show low H/Ir ratios for the HT series as re-
sult of a surface decoration of Ir crystals by partially reduced of TiO2-x or Nb2O5-x
species. The employed &#945;,&#946;-unsaturated aldehydes were citral, furfural
and cinnamaldehyde. Reactions were carried out at 0.62 MPa at temperatures from
423 to 573 K. The role of SMSI effect in the catalysts studied has a high effect
over the activity and selectivity, therefore the molecule structure can influence the
activity and selectivity obtained principally for molecules with a ring plane such as
furfural and cinnamaldehyde. LT series produces principally lateral reactions prin-
cipally associated with Lewis acid sites (TPD results), more pronounced in Nb/Si
than Ti/Si. Isomerization reactions mainly occurs on the surface support, where-
as the hydrogenation of C=C and C=O occurs on the noble metal surface. The
materials prepared had a surface and morphological characteristics with interesting
properties for be used as supports in hydrogenation reactions.

0 17:30 P-Th-066

Pressure devices using metal-substituted phthalocyanine


thin films
T. Diaz1 , H. Juárez1 , E. Rosendo1 , G. Garcı́a-Salgado1 , A. Garcı́a2 , M. Rubı́n3 , J.
Martı́nez1
1
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, CIDS-ICUAP, Puebla México..
2
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados de IPN, Ing. Electrica SEES.
3
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Fac. Ciencias de la Computación,
Puebla, México.

During the previous three decades, there has been an increasing attention in
studying the properties of metal-substituted phthalocyanines (MPc0 s) thin films,
due principally to their potential use in applications as gas sensors, solar cells and
optoelectronic devices. Electrical and optical properties of the MPcs have been ob-
served to change when they are exposed to different external factors; environment,
incident radiation, pressure are some of them. The pressure is a parameter that in-
fluences on the conductivity in the (MPc0 s) and the applications of these materials
as pressure sensor may be possible.
In this work FePc, CuPc and PbPc films were investigated as active material in
pressure sensor devices. Au-FePc-Si(p), Au-CuPc-Si(p) and Au-PbPc-Si(p) struc-
tures were fabricated and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics at different ap-

CLACSA XIII
188 Thursday

plied pressures (101, 214, 383 y 663 kPa) on the top electrode (Au) were drawn at
room temperature. It was found a change in the current level flowing through the
device with the pressure. Taking a constant voltage of 8 V from those J-V curves,
the current-pressure (I-P) characteristics were plotted and it was found to have a
linear relationship.The slope value, S (∆I/∆P), of that plot was higher on forward
polarization (Au +) than on reverse (Au -) for the measured structures. The effect
on the device response of the Au-MPc and MPc-Si(p) interfaces are considered.

0 17:30 P-Th-067

Quantum confinement effects on electronic properties of


hydrogenated β-SiC nanostructures
A. Miranda1 , M. Cruz-Irisson1 , L. A. Pérez2
1
Instituto Politécnico Nacional de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación,
ESIME-Culhuacan Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430 D.F. México.
2
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México A.P. 20-364,
01000, D.F., México.

The applications of SiC for microelectronic and optoelectronic devices require


the knowledge of the electronic band structure and the optical properties caused by
electronic transitions between the interband states. On the other hand, nanoscale
materials are expected to possess different electronic properties compared to their
corresponding bulk crystals; in particular, one-dimensional nanostructures deserve
special attention, as they are expected to play a crucial function as building blocks of
molecular electronic devices. In this work, the effects of the diameter and morphology
on the electronic band structure of hydrogenated SiC nanowires is studied by using
a semiempirical sp3 s∗ tight-binding approach applied to the supercell model, where
the Si- and C-dangling bonds are passivated by hydrogen atoms. Moreover, the
tight-binding results are compared with density functional calculations in the local
density approximation. The results show that though surface morphology modifies
the band gap, the change is more systematic with the thickness variation.

0 17:30 P-Th-068

Quasi-analytical study of the energy levels in double


quantum wells
M. Camargo1 , R. M. Gutiérrez1 , A. Santana1
1
Universidad Antonio Nariño.

In order to study coupling properties of quantum systems, in this work we extend


the analytical and graphical solutions of one finite quantum well to general Dou-
ble Quantum Wells (DQW), constituted by two quantum wells and one potential

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 189

barrier between them; both symmetric and antisymmetric. Based on an analytical


and graphical solution of a finite quantum well, in this work we study the analytical
and graphical solution of the eigenvalue equation for general DQW. This method
allows us to study resonant tunneling, delocalization of charge carriers and anti-
crossing present in aDQW. We also compare the traditional approximation of the
carriers wave function with the exact solutions for general DQW, observing impor-
tant changes in the results of the mentioned phenomena. From the general solution
we recover the two limit cases of zero width barrier and infinite width barrier be-
tween the two quantum wells: one wide single quantum well and two independent
quantum wells respectively, describing the process between them.

0 17:30 P-Th-069

Raman scattering of study of


In0.14Ga0.86As0.13Sb0.87/GaSb heterostructures doped
with tellurium
Joel Dı́az-Reyes1 , Elias López-Cruz2 , Julio Mendoza-Alvarez3
1
CIBA-IPN.
2
IFBUAP.
3
CINVESTAV-IPN.

The quaternary alloy InxGa1-xAsySb1-y highly doped with tellurium was grown
on substrates of p- and n-type GaSb in the direction (100) by liquid phase epi-
taxy (LPE). The doping is carried out by mean of to add little amounts of Sb2Te3
in the growth solution in the range of 6.48x10-6 to 4.31x10-4 of molar fraction.
The grown samples were characterized using Raman dispersion at room tempera-
ture. The Raman spectra present two mainly bands, that are strongly dependent
of S2Te3 concentration, which were deconvolutioned by four Lorentzian lines with
the purpose of assigning resulting peaks using the modified random-element iso-
displacement model (MREI model), for y=0.81x and y=0.7x/(1-x). The comparison
of the experimental results with obtained by the MREI model allows to confirm that
the bands correspond to the vibrational modes associated LO and TO of the binary
compounds GaAs and (GaSb + InAs). Also, presented the displaced undergoes these
emission bands with respect to the Te incorporated concentration to the different
samples. We observed that the vibrational bands present in the Raman spectra shift
towards higher energies in grown samples on n-type GaSb substrates and at lower
for p-type one.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-070

Semi-empirical calculations of the optical matrix elements:


An application to Ge nanowires
A. Miranda1 , M. Cruz-Irisson1
1
Instituto Politécnico Nacional Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación,
ESIME-Culhuacan Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430 D.F. México.

The application of one-dimensional nanostructures such as silicon and germani-


um nanowires into integrated optoelectronic devices has triggered immense research
pursuits with the expectations of transition from indirect to direct band gap in these
materials. On the other hand, the calculations of the optical properties of solids
require knowledge of momentum matrix elements. Within the semiempirical tight-
binding (TB) approximation, these are not readily available since wave functions
are expanded in an unknown basis. A popular solution to this problem is based on
taking the k-space gradient of the TB Hamiltonian. This technique is only approxi-
mate since intra-atomic contributions are emitted. Here, we present the dependence
of the imaginary part of the dielectric function on the quantum confinement with-
in two different frameworks: intra-atomic and interatomic optical matrix elements,
which are applied and compared. The electronic band structure and optical spectra
of Ge nanowires are studied by means of a sp3 s∗ TB supercell model. The surface
dangling bonds are passivated by hydrogen atoms. Our TB results, obtained without
any adjustable parameters, are compared with ab-initio calculations performed in
small supercell system.

0 17:30 P-Th-071

SINTESIS DE NANOTUBOS DE CARBONO Y


CARACTERIZACION POR ESPECTROSCOPIA
RAMAN
W. Hernandez1
1
Grupo de Instrumentación Cientı́fica y Microelectrónica, Universidad de
Antioquia.

Usando el sistema de arco de Voltaje, se sintetizan muestras de nanotubos de


carbono en varios sustratos, luego se purifican y se caracterizan con un espectretro de
efecto Raman disedo en nuestro laborato-rio, con el fin de hacer una caracterización
estructural, además se hace caracterización con microscopia electrónica de barrido,
y se estudia el comportamiento estructural sometido a campos magnetı́cos en un
magnetetro de muestra vibrante

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 191

0 17:30 P-Th-072

Stability of the Arc Current in a Plasma System


D.F. Devia1 , F. Bermeo2 , E. Cano1 , A. Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.
2
Universidad Santiagp de Cali.

An stability analysis of the arc current is presented, in a System of Plasma


Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition. The tests were carried out with different gas
compositions varying the interelectrodic distance, to look the influence of this in the
harmonic distortion of the arc current. The atomic emission lines are obtained by
means of The HR4000 High-Resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. The
study of harmonic leans on in the software Fluke 3.0. These measures will be used in
later studies in those that is required to simulate the behavior of the arc, as much in
transitory regime as in stationary state, and to develop some solution among those
that the Active Filters, or Dynamic Correctors of the factor of power can be. To
improve the harmonic distortion of the arc current. An analysis of the influence of
stability of the arc current on the morphologic and chemical characteristics of the
film of (TiAl)N was realized. The samples were characterized by means of the X-
ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive
X-Ray (EDX) techniques.

0 17:30 P-Th-073

Colossal Magnetoresistance in Manganites La1−x Ax M nO3


Juliana González1 , Hector Castro1 , Carlos Hernández1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

The phenomenon of colossal magnetoresistance was discovered in 1993. It is char-


acterized by a sharp drop in the resistivity in the presence of an external magnetic
field. This reduction in the resistivity is related with the metal-insulating phase
transition, which in turn is correlated with a ferromagnetic- paramagnetic phase
transition. The understanding of the relation between the magnetic and electrical
phase transitionns makes this phenomena very interesting to analyse, in view of new
technological developments for several areas such as magnetic data storage. Another
interest resides in the possibility for condensed matter physics to study phenomena
due to the interaction between electrons and lattice vibrations, and the interplay be-
tween structural deformations and global properties. We present and experimental
study of magnetization and resistivity (as a function of the temperature), in ceramic
samples of La1-xAxMnO3 with A= Ca and Ba, made it by solid state reaction with
x = 0.33 (concentration of calcium and barium).

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-074

Structural and Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots


Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy*
A. Pulzara-Mora1 , E. Cruz-Hernández2 , J. S. Rojas-Ramı́rez2 , V.H.
Méndez-Garcı́a3 , M. López-López2
1
Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados. Universidad Nacional de
Colombia sede Manizales. A.A. 127.
2
Physics Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN,
Apartado Postal 14-740, México D.F, México 07000.
3
Instituto de Investigación en Comunicación Óptica, UASLP, Obregón 64, San
Luis Potosı́, SLP, 78000, México.

In this work, we have studied the dependence of the size and luminescence of self-
assembled InAs quantum Dots (SAQDs) on the growth conditions. The SAQDs were
grown on GaAs (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Their struc-
tural and optical properties were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), high
resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), and photoluminescence spec-
troscopy (PL). The growth of the InAs SAQDs was in-situ monitored by reflection
high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), along the [011] and [01-1] directions. The
thickness of the wetting layer and the shape of the InAs SAQDs were significantly
affected by the growth temperature and the arsenic residual over-pressure. Plane
view and cross sectional HRSEM images show the formation of SAQDs of heights
between 10 and 20 nm, distributed in preferential sites on the wetting layer. The
SAQDS density determined from AFM is between 109 and 1010 cm2 . We observe
a decrease of the SAQDS density and an increase in their height by increasing the
growth temperature, and/or decreasing the arsenic over-pressure. This is accompa-
nied by a remarkable red-shift of the PL emission energy from 1.3 to 1.5 m. The
decrease in the SAQDS density and the increase in the height are probably due to an
increase of the surface mobility of Indium adatoms when increasing the temperature
and/or decreasing the arsenide pressure.

* This work was partially supported by Conacyt-Mexico.

Keywords: InAs, quantum dots, GaAs(100), AFM, SEM, PL.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 193

0 17:30 P-Th-075

Structural, electrical and optical analysis of ITO thin films


prepared by sol-gel
H.Y. Valencia1 , A.M. Ardila1 , L.C. Moreno2
1
Grupo de Fı́sica Aplicada, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de
Colombia.
2
Departamento de Quı́mica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

We present the results of the preparation and characterization of ITO trans-


parent conducting layers (In2 O3 :Sn) on glass substrates by the sol-gel process. The
chemical and physical parameters in the preparation of the solution and during the
deposition of the films were changed, in order to analyze the structural, optical and
electrical results having in mind the great technological applications of this mate-
rial. The crystallographic properties and the average grain size were studied by X
Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The optical pa-
rameters (band gap, refraction index and absortion coefficient), were determined by
spectral transmittance and using a simulation software. The electrical characteriza-
tion was done by the four-point probe method to determine the sheet resistance and
resistivity. There were obtained films with a sheet resistance of 167.3 Ω, and 92.7 %
transmittance, average grain size of 32.7 nm and cubic structure with a lattice pa-
rameter of 10.12 Å. With the obtained appropiate parameters, low resistivity and
highly transparent films, ideal for applications as contact in optical windows in solar
cells, smart windows, and others, can prepared.

0 17:30 P-Th-076

Studies on the PVOH-LiH2PO4-Al2O3 polymer system


V. H. Zapata1 , R. A. Vargas2 , B.-E. Mellander3
1
Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia.
2
Universidad del Valle.
3
Chalmers University of Technology.

We report on ion transport studies in polymer films based on poly(vinyl alcohol)


(PVOH) and lithium dihydrogen-phosphate (LiH2 PO4 ), in which nanoporous Al2 O3
particles with average pore diameter of 58A were dispersed. A power law frequency
dependence of the real part of the electrical conductivity is observed. This behaviour
is typical of systems in which correlated ionic motions in the bulk material are re-
sponsible for ionic conductivity. This variation is well fitted to a Jonscher expression

CLACSA XIII
194 Thursday

G(f ) = G o [1 + (f / f p )n ] where G o is the dc-conductance, f p the characteristic re-


laxation frequency and n is a fractional exponent between 0 and 1. For hydrated
samples, results reveal that the temperature dependence of the dc-conductance, G o
and the characteristic frequency, f p , shows Arrhenius-type behavior with the same
energy, E σ and E f . Moreover, G o showed an improvement more than two orders of
magnitude with the addition of alumina. On the other hand, for anhydrous samples,
a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior is shown for both G o (T) and f p (T), with
the same pseudo activation energy, B σ and B f , respectively, thus indicating that
they are correlated with chain mobility. For dried membranes, G o does not change
much with alumina content. The observed changes of the ceramics addition on the
ionic transport the composite are discussed from the view points of changes in the
polymer chain dynamics due to an approximation effect on the ion mobility.

0 17:30 P-Th-077

Study of calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy by


laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling
Enrique Mejı́a-Ospino1 , Rafael Cabanzo1 , Dario Yesid Peña1 , Hugo Estupiñán1
1
Universidad Industrial de Santander.

Modern investigation areas as material science and biological processes demand


the development of high resolution and sensibility spectroscopic techniques. Laser
induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) [1-2] have become frontier spectroscopic
techniques with very intensive research and development activity. The LIBS tech-
nique has been generally applied for solid sample analysis for their application in
environmental and industrial process, monitoring heavy metals or on-line process
control. Depth profile analysis by means of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
(LIBS) was investigated with respect to its potential to measure the thickness of
different types of thin calcium phosphate used as biomimetic coatings on Ti6Al4V
alloy. The coating thickness is determined from the ratio of the intensities of a cal-
cium line and a titanium line measured at burst energy high enough to penetrate
the coating with a single burst. To achieve an ablation depth in the range of the
coating thickness of about 10 µm a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm in single shot mode was
used. The achieved thickness resolution is estimated to about 500 nm for coating
thicknesses of electrolytically deposited calcium phosphate in the range of 1.0 to
10.0 µm.
[1]. A. G. Coedo, T. Dorado, I. Padilla and J. C. Farin, J. Anal, At. Spectrom., 20
(2005) 612-620
[2]. J. Wang, P. Layrolle, M. Stigter, K. de Groot, Biomaterials 25 (2004) 583592

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 195

0 17:30 P-Th-078

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIGS THIN


FILMS PREPARED BY MULTISTAGE PROCESSES
F. Mesa1 , G. Gordillo1 , C. Calderón1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

In this work are analyzed the dispersion mechanisms affecting the electric trans-
port on CuIn1−X GaX Se2 (CIGS) thin films which are generally used as absorber
layers in solar cells. The films were grown on a soda-lime glass substrate by a chem-
ical reaction of the precursor species, which are evaporated sequentially in two and
three stage processes. In order to achieve this purpose, electric conductivity and Hall
coefficient measurements were carried out as a function of temperature in a range
of 90 to 550 K. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the CuIn1−X GaX Se2
films is affected by transport of free carriers in extended states of the conduction
band as well as for variable range hopping transport mechanisms, each one predom-
inating in a different temperature range.

0 17:30 P-Th-079

Magnetic irreversibility in oxygen deficient YBCO films


Rafael Cogollo1 , Rosbel Jiménez1 , Alvaro Mariño2
1
Universidad de Córdoba.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Superconducting YBCO thin films with different oxygen content (0.25 ¡d ¡0.35
) were produced by r.f. magnetron sputtering on MgO (100) single crystals. The
samples displayed an irreversible behavior in electric measurements using the ZFC
FC method for applied magnetic fields ( H // c) up to 0.08 T. However the different
granularity of the films associated with the oxygen content did not affect the flux
dynamic which, is mainly dominated by Josephson fluxons. The Tirr(H) data fitted
well to a Almeida Thoules power law and the irreversibility lines ( H(T) vs. T ) were
shifted to higher or lower temperatures as a function of oxygen content.

Keywords: Magnetic Irreversibility, YBCO superconducting films, Flux dynamic

CLACSA XIII
196 Thursday

0 17:30 P-Th-080

Study of the fluctuation conductivity in YBCO thin films


with low transition temperatures
Lucero Alvarez Miño1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

An insulating Y Ba2 Cu3 O7−δ thin film was grown by inverted cylindrical mag-
netron sputtering (ICM) and under nitrogen cooling instead of oxygen in situ an-
nealing. This insulating film went through different annealing processes in flowing
oxygen, each time with increasing annealing temperature. The resistivity as a func-
tion of temperature was measured after each annealing. The fluctuation conductivity
σ 0 (T ) is determined from the resistivity data and an analysis of the possible mech-
anism for scattering of the fluctuating pairs is presented in this work. Besides, the
results of short annealing processes in air also are presented. The crystal structure
of the film through these different steps is also reported.

0 17:30 P-Th-081

Study of the structural and magnetoelectrical properties of


exchange-biased ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic
multilayers grown on different lattice matched substrates
O. Morán1 , G. Campillo2 , M. E. Gómez3 , T. Schwarz4 , D. Fuchs4
1
Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos y Vı́treos, Departamento de Fı́sica,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellı́n, A.A. 568, Medellı́n,.
2
Grupo de Estado Sólido, Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellı́n,
Colombia..
3
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle,
A.A. 25360 Cali, Colombia.
4
Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 4621
Karlsruhe Germany.

Strain in the [La2/3 Ca1/3 M nO3 (F M )/La1/3 Ca2/3 M nO3 (AF )]x multilayers has
been tuned by varying substrate and film thickness, and its effect on the structural
and magnetoelectrical properties carefully studied. Superlattices were grown both
by dc sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques. (001)-oriented single
crystal of SrT iO3 , and (LaAlO3 )0.3 (Sr2 AlT aO6 )0.7 were chosen as substrate materi-
al. Asymmetric intensity of the satellite peaks and of Laue oscillations were observed
in multilayers grown on SrT iO3 substrates, which might be ascribed to chemical
and/or strained interfacial profiles along the growth direction. This asymmetry of

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 197

peak intensities among the positively and negatively signed satellites was removed
when similar multilayers were grown on lattice matched substrates [(LaAlO3 )0.3 (Sr2 -
AlT aO6 )0.7 ]. Even though these multilayers exhibited a moderated exchange bias
effect, they showed from magnetothermal measurements a magnetic blocking tem-
perature TBM slightly different. In this way, it seems that epitaxial strain, induced
by the lattice mismatched substrates, plays a predominant role into the anisotropy
of lattice distortions within the multilayer structure. Additionally, the effect of the
epitaxial strain on the isothermal magnetoresistance (MR) of the multilayers was
also quantified. Keywords: Manganites, superlattices, exchange coupling.

[1] J. Nogu and I. K. Schuller, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 192, 203 (1999).
[2] Y. Ijiri, J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14, R947 (2002).

0 17:30 P-Th-082

Study of vibrational properties and surface morphology of


microcrystalline silicon obtained from isothermal annealing
of hydrogenated amorphous silicon
M. Rojas-Lopez1 , A. Orduña-Diaz1 , M. Bibbins-Martı́nez1 , R. Delgado-Macuil1 , A.
Torres-Jacome.2
1
CIBA-Instituto Politecnico Nacional.
2
Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica.

It is analyzed the surface morphology of microcrystalline silicon layers (c-Si:H)


obtained from isothermal annealing of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers (a-
Si:H). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and optical microscopy (OM) images
show formation of grains with micrometric dimensions, constituted mainly from
microcrystalline silicon (c-Si), immersed into an amorphous matrix, according to
Raman scattering measurements. The morphology observed is a result of the crys-
tallization of amorphous silicon when is deposited a metallic layer on the surface, in
addition to an isothermal annealing process applied during several hours. By using
bi-dimensional AFM and OM images was determined the relative crystallized frac-
tion from comparison of integrated areas associated to crystalline and amorphous
phases. Temporal dependence of relative crystallized fraction was fitted by using
the Avrami equation. A least-squares fit of the experimental data with this equa-
tion and the use of the t2 dependence of the average grain area results in n=2, and
k=3.2E-6 min-2. The use of n and k parameters in the Avrami equation describes
a suitable form for the annealing time dependence of the crystallized fraction of
c-Si:H layers. In addition to that, the low growth velocity measured Vg=7.2x10-3
microns/min is a direct consequence of the low annealing temperature applied (250
oC), which reduces the silicon diffusion across the interface Al/a-Si:H. The results
obtained from AFM are in a good agreement with the OM results. Infrared re-
flectance measurements show a shift of the Si-Si wagging mode to higher frequencies

CLACSA XIII
198 Thursday

with the annealing time and therefore with the lattice ordering. Also was observed a
relative diminishing of the intensity of the Si-H wagging mode with annealing time,
suggesting hydrogen effusion to the surface of the c-Si:H films.

Keywords: microcrystalline silicon, surface morphology, Raman spectroscopy, In-


frared spectroscopy

0 17:30 P-Th-083

SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN


PRODUCTION OF TIN/TIC BILAYERS GROWN BY
PULSED ARC PAPVD
D. M. Devia1 , J. M. Gonzalez1 , A. Ruden1 , A. Devia1 , P.J. Arango1 , V. J.
Benavides1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

TiN/TiC films were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates using PAPVD
deposition technique. The TiN and TiC coatings were produced using titanium
target with nitrogen and methane gas, respectively, at 115◦ C temperature. The
coatings were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to identify crystalline structure,
phases and lattice parameters. Chemical compositions and depth profile were also
analyzed using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). To observe macroparticle
density Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used. Scanning Probe Microscopy
(SPM) analysis was performed to observe morphology and grain size.

0 17:30 P-Th-084

Surface relaxation in magnetite fine particles


J. Mazo-Zuluga1 , J. Restrepo1 , Y. Labaye2
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia.
2
LPEC- Universite du Maine.

Materials at nanometric scale can exhibit several physical properties, different


to those expected from bulk conditions, depending on the size of the sample un-
der study. Finite size effects include changes in the coordination number, structural
disorder, deviations from ideal stoichiometry and uncompensated spins due to the
breaking of symetry at the boundaries. This study is focused on the relaxation pro-
cess of the iron and oxygen ions at the surface in magnetite nanoparticles of different
sizes. The main aim is to evaluate the effect of structural disorder as consequence

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 199

of the relaxation process on the magnetic properties. To do that, we simulate mag-


netite nanoparticles and register the temperature dependence of the energy by using
a simulated annealing procedure. The relaxation process is carried out by using the
Monte Carlo method considering Buckingham and Coulombian potentials.

0 17:30 P-Th-085

Susceptibility and EPR Studies of LaMn1xCoxO3


Synthesized by Citrate Precursor Method
J. A. Olarte1 , L.C. Moreno2 , A. Mariño3
1
Facultad Tecnológica. Universidad Distrital FJDC.
2
Departamento de Quimica. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

X-band electron spin resonance (EPR) spectra were recorded in the temperature
range between 150K and 350 K on powdered samples of polycrystalline LaMn1xCoxO3
(0, 1 ¡x ¡0, 5) synthesized by citrate precursor method. The temperature depen-
dence of the EPR spectra parameters like, the resonance field Hres, the peak-to-peak
linewidth ( Hpp) and the EPR intensity were analyzed. Both the EPR line intensity
and the linewidth decreased by increasing the temperature. On the other hand a
change from an asymmetric regime below 260 K to one more symmetric at temper-
atures ¿260K was observed which, correlates well with the transition temperature
determined by a.c. susceptibility measurements.

0 17:30 P-Th-086

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SnO2 :F


THIN FILMS
E. Veázquez-Cruz1 , E. Sánchez-Mora1 , E. Gómez-Barojas2 , E. Rosendo-Andrés2
1
INSTITUTO DE FISICA, BUAP, MEXICO.
2
CIDS-IC, BUAP, MEXICO.

In this work we report the effect of the resistance vs the F/Sn molar ratio and the
methanol concentration on the synthesis of SnO2 :F thin films prepared by means of
the spray pyrolysis method. The thin films were prepared starting from a solution
that contains SnCl2 , NH4 F:HF, CH3 OH, HCl and H2 O. The solution was sprayed
on the glass substrate at 500 ◦ C. The characterization results show that at 0.8 of
F/Sn molar ratio, the resistance decreases. When the methanol volume is varied
from 4 to 18 ml the resistance decreases furthermore. The UV-Vis spectra show
that the absorption edge is shifted to longer wavelengths as the F/Sn ratio reaches

CLACSA XIII
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the 0.8 value. The X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of SnO2 and Sn3 O4
compounds.

0 17:30 P-Th-087

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZnS,


ZnS:Mn AND ZnS:Sm MULTILAYERS DEPOSITED BY
THE SOL-GEL METHOD
E. Gómez Barojas1 , E. Sánchez Mora2 , R. Silva González3 , L. Pérez-Hernández3 ,
V. Lozada Dircio3 , C. López-Garcı́a3
1
CIDS-IC,BUAP, MEXICO..
2
INSTITUTO DE FISICA, UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE PUEBLA, APDO.
POSTAL J-48, PUEBLA, PUE. 72570, MEXICO.
3
INSTITUTO DE FISICA, BUAP, MEXICO.

The zinc sulfite (ZnS) is a II-VI semiconductor with a wide direct band gap in the
near UV-region. It is polymorphic, its energy band gap is smaller in cubic ZnS (3.68
eV) than in hexagonal ZnS (3.7 eV). ZnS thin films have been used in the solar cells
technology for electroluminescent devices, and as host matrix for quantum dots com-
posites. The object of this work was to deposit by the sol-gel method/deep coating
samples with 3 and 5 coatings of ZnS, ZnS:Mn, and ZnS:Sm on glass substrate.
The samples were characterized to study the surface morphology, composition and
some optical properties. The synthesis of the ZnS/glass multilayer was carried out
by using a base solution containing zinc acetate, monoethanolamine, thiourea, and
2-methoxy ethanol. After each deposited coating the sample was annealed at 400◦ C
for 12 hrs in a N2 flux. To deposit ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Sm thin films, Manganese Chlo-
ride Tetrahydrate and Samarium Nitrate hexahydrate were added, respectively to
the base solution as source of Mn and Sm ions. The concentration of the Mn and
Sm ion source was varied to 20 W %, and 40 W %. The deposition procedure was
repeated to obtain samples with 5 coatings. The set of samples was characterized
by the SEM, EDS, and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The morphology of the
ZnS is homogeneous and compact. EDS results indicate the presence of Zn and S
elements, besides some small concentrations of C and O. The UV-Vis spectra show
a shift of the absorption border as the number of coatings is increased. Also it shows
an activity in the amplitude of the absorption border that is related with the age
(in days) of growth the solution. The variation of the impurity concentration has a
direct effect on the surface morphology of the ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Sm thin films. The
UV-Vis spectra also show an effect on the absorption borders related to the age of
the deposition solution as well.
This work was partially supported by VIEP, BUAP through projects Nos. 19/I/EXE/05
and 11/EXC/06/G.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 201

0 17:30 P-Th-088

SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF OPTICAL AND


STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF THIN FILMS BASED
ON NEW PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS
G. Gordillo1 , M. Botero1 , J. S. Oyola1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

The development of devices which incorporates cost effective, abundant, and


non-toxic photovoltaic materials is required for widespread deployment of thin film
photovoltaic devices. Among the materials which fulfill these characteristics, SnS
have been previously reported to be a suitable solar absorber for use in thin film
photovoltaic devices.

We have synthesized SnS:Bi thin films using a novel method based on sulphuriza-
tion of the precursors species. The SnS:Bi films were characterized through spectral
transmittance and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements to determine both, the
optical constants (refractive index n, absorption coefficient and optical gap Eg) and
structural properties (phase, structure and lattice parameters). The studies revealed
that the SnS:Bi films tend to grow with a mixture of the SnS and Bi2 S3 phase; how-
ever the Sn2 S3 phase was also identified in some samples. It was also found that the
SnS:Bi films present a high absorption coefficient (greater than 104 cm−1 ) and an
energy band gap of about 1.3 eV, indicating that this compound has good properties
to perform as absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

0 17:30 P-Th-089

Synthesis CuO Microspheres


Nanomaterials and related topics
R.A. Zarate1 , F. Hevia2 , S. Fuentes1 , V.M. Fuenzalida3 , A. Zuñiga4
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenida Angamos
0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile.
2
Departamento de Quı́mica, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenida Angamos
0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile.
3
Departamento de Fı́sica, Facultad de Ciencias Fı́sicas y Matemáticas,
Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago, Chile..
4
Departamento de Ingenierı́a Mecánica , Facultad de Ciencias Fı́sicas y
Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago, Chile.

Cupric oxide was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process from the re-
action of CuxS and N H3 solution in an oxygen atmosphere at 200o C, and at two

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different reaction time of 3 and 12h. The morphology of the products synthesized
were platelets and microspheres, respectively depending on the reaction time. XRD
patterns indicated that the samples are composed of one phase and correspond clear-
ly to cupric oxide, the high cristallinity was found in the platelet-like structures. XPS
analysis proved the high pureness of the samples, the spectra indicated copper and
oxygen on the surface of the samples. FEG-SEM studies indicated that the samples
treated at 3h consisted of microparticles formed by platelets. For 12h of reaction,
the morphology changed to microspheres which were composed of concentric prick-
es. HRTEM and electron diffraction indicated that the samples obtained at 3h were
composed mainly of monocrystalline platelets, which corresponded to cupric oxide.
On the other hand, HRTEM and electron diffraction analysis of samples synthesized
at 12h of reaction indicated that concentric prickes presented crystalline structure
of cupric oxide, but with lower crystalinity than platelets.

0 17:30 P-Th-090

SYNTHESIS FOR THE PECHINI METHOD OF


COATING OF ZrO2 -SiO2 FOR ITS USE IN CORROSION
A.Mejı́a1 , J. Bautista1
1
Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.

Coatings of ZrO2 -SiO2 in a concentration of the precursors 90/10 were prepared


by polymeric precursor method at PH of 7. The resin was applied over steel sub-
strata AISI/SAE 304 by means of the dip-coating technique and with speed of 2.73
cm/min. The coatings were characterized by means of techniques of x-ray diffrac-
tion (DRX), sweeping electronic microscopy (SEM), and Electrochemical Impedance
Spectroscopy (EIS). These techniques allowed evaluating topography, structure and
anticorrosive properties of coating.
Key words: polymeric precursor method, dip-coating technique, Electrochemical
Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS).
Autor correspondiente: augmejia@hotmail.com
Sección: Surfaces and interfaces coating and thin films

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-091

SYNTHESIS OF MOLYBDENUM PHOSPHIDE AND


OPTICAL PROPERTIES FROM ELECTRON ENERGY
LOSS SPECTRA
L.D. López-Carreño1 , A.M. Campos2
1
Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT. Physics
Department. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
2
Universidad El Bosque, Facultad de Ingenierı́a de Sistemas, Bogotá, D.C., Centro
de Investigación Cientı́fica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, México.

Transition-metal phosphides are commonly used in the development of novel


catalyst for hydroprocessing. Recent research has identified MoP as a highly active
and stable hydroprocessing catalyst. In this work the adequate conditions for the
synthesis of MoP via precursor method were studied. This phosphide was synthetized
by reducing metal oxide phosphate precursor in a flow of H2 . The precursor was
obtained from a solution of ammonium heptamolybdate (NH4 )6 Mo7 O24 ·4H2 O and
di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4 )2HPO4 . The MoP stoichiometry for the
initial rate Mo/P = 1.2, 1.5, 1.7 and 3.0 was found. Using X-ray difraction (XRD)
and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the phase obtained
was corroborated. EELS results show the M2 , M3 , M4 , M5 edges corresponding to Mo
transitions, and L1 , L2 , L3 edges for P. The MoP complex dielectric function ε(ω),
∼ 3-100 eV energy range, was evaluated from EELS. Low-loss spectra were acquired
by Gatan 666 spectrometer in a JEOL 2010 TEM operated at 200 KeV in image
mode. The inelastic-electron-scattering cross section K(Eo , h̄ω) was calculated using
a model proposed by S. Tougaard and I. Chorkendorff. A computational procedure
has been used to evaluate the dielectric loss function, i.e. Im(−1/ω) which ended
when a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the experimental and calculated
cross-sections was reached. In order to evaluate the real part of the negative inverse
of the dielectric function, the causality principle via the Kramers-Kronig integrals
was used. From these functions, the corresponding refractive index η(ω) and the
extinction coefficient κ(ω) were directly estimated.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-092

SYNTHESIS OF Ti/TiN/TiCN COATINGS GROWN IN


GRADED FORM BY SPUTTERING DC.
Lilian Cristina Agudelo1 , Harvy Alirio Cuero1 , Alejandra Baena1 , Alfonso Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

In this work some properties of coatings grown graded are presented. The ma-
terials were produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to
control the deposition parameters and generate a homogeneous growing. The target
is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working
gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material
to be produced, i.e. Titanium (Ti) layer is grown with argon, the Titanium Nitride
(TiN) film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the Titanium
Nitride Carbon (TiCN) material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane.
These materials are characterized with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to
determine grain size and with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studying
the chemical composition and performing depth profiles.

0 17:30 P-Th-093

TEM, magnetic properties and hyperfine structure of iron


ore under mechanical alloying process
W. A. Pacheco Serrano1
1
Escuela de Fı́sica, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Tunja,
Boyacá, Colombia.

One iron ore sample from Ubalá - Cundinamarca - Colombia was selected.The
magnetic properties, hyperfine structure parameters and size particle of iron oxides
submited to milling ball process at 0,5, 1,3, 6,12 hours with balls - powder ratio of
10:1 were studied. Mossbauer spectrometry, sample vibrating magnetometry, DRX,
TEM studies were carried out. During ball milling process evolution a color material
change was observed.The hematite and goethite presence by Mossbauer spectroscopy
was determined.DRX difrectograms by Rietveld method were softed and then Sher-
rer formula was applied. A size particle distribution from TEM results with DRX
data is contrasted.The nanoparticle existense at 12 h of milling process was probed.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 205

0 17:30 P-Th-094

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE MAGNETIC


BEHAVIOR OF Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 THIN FILM
J. Prado1 , M. E. Gómez1 , W. Lopera1 , P. Prieto1
1
Universidad del Valle.

Thin films of N i0.5 Zn0.5 F e2 O4 were grown on (100) MgO substrates at different
deposition temperatures. The films were deposited by the RF sputtering technique at
2.1×10−1 mbar oxygen pressure. The structure of the sintered NiZn ferrite films was
evaluated using XRD, showing variations in the intensity of some peaks, probably
because the deposition temperature influences the evaporation of Zn. The magnetic
properties of the NiZn ferrite films were probed using a superconducting quantum
interference device (SQUID). It was used to measure magnetization hysteretic loops
and M(T) curve of the films. The influence of the deposition temperature on the
grain size of NiZn ferrite films was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. An incre-
ment in the coercive field and a reduction in the saturation magnetization with the
deposition temperature were observed. Behavior can be correlated with magnetic
force microscope images.
Key words: Ferrimagnetics, ferrite thin films, atomic and magnetic force micro-
scope.

Acknowledgments This work is supported in part by COLCIENCIAS, the


through project of investigation 1106-05-17612, CT-239-2005, and the Excellence
Center for Novel Materials, ECNM. We thank Dr. Julio Guimpel of the Balseiro
institute, Nuclear Center of Bariloche, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina.

0 17:30 P-Th-095

TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN (TiAl),N THIN FILMS


STUDIED BY XRD, SPM AND SEM TECHNIQUES
D.M. Devia1 , J.H. Quintero1 , V. J. Benavides1 , A. Devia1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

(TiAl),N thin film were deposited on 304 stainless steel and anviloy (Comprimed
Tungsten) substrates by means of PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physic Vapor Deposi-
tion). TiAl target was used as cathode with a nitrogen work atmosphere, in a mono-
evaporated system composed by a reaction chamber with two electrodes placed face
to face and pulsed power supply which generated the discharges. Films were ana-
lyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) in order to observe the present phases in the film,

CLACSA XIII
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morphological analysis were made by means of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)


and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis is made for chemical analysis.
The thermal behavior was observed in a temperature room, taking diffraction pat-
terns from 100 ◦ C to 1000 ◦ C. In this paper a comparison of these two substrates is
made to observe the coatings behaviour.
Key-Words: Temperature, (TiAl)N, Anviloy.

0 17:30 P-Th-096

The Aharonov-Bohm effect in two-electron vertically


coupled quantum rings
Jairo Humberto Marin Cadavid1 , Francisco Javier Betancur2 , Juan Carlos Piña
Velásquez2
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Medellı́n.
2
Universidad Industrial de Santander.

We analyze the effect of the magnetic field applied along the common symme-
try axis of two vertically coupled identical narrow nanorings on the low-lying states
of two spatially separated electrons located within them. Following the well-known
adiabatic procedure [1] and using the functional derivative method, we reduce the
problem for the two-electron low-lying energy levels in rings with a finite thick-
nesses and a finite separation between them to an exactly solvable wave equation
that describes the rotation of two particles in a single one-dimensional ring. The
renormalized masses of the particles and the interaction potential between them in
effective one-dimensional model depend strongly on the actual structure dimensions.
Exact solution of this wave equation has been obtained by using the trigonometric
sweep method [2].
Similarly to the model of a single nanoring, the total energies of a two-electron sys-
tem in vertically coupled nanorings depend on two quantum numbers corresponding
to the values of the center-of-mass and the relative angular momenta. Our calcula-
tion of the energies shows the levels reordering; their crossovers, and transitions of
the ground state as structure dimensions or the intensity of the magnetic field are
changed. We ascribe these effects to the competition between terms of the kinetic
and the potential energy induced by the variation the dimensions of the structure or
to the competition between the diamagnetic and paramagnetic terms in the Hamil-
tonian induced by the variation of the magnetic field strength. In the first case the
transitions are related to the Wigner-type crystallization and in the second case to
the effect of the Aharonov-Bohm. We show that the oscillations of the ground state
energy related to this effect become more pronounced with the decrease of the rings
thickness and with the increase of the separation between them.
References:
[1] M. Korkusinski and P. Hawrylak, Phys. Rev. B 63, 195311 (2001); K. L. Janssen,
F. M. Peeters, and V. A. Schweigert, Phys. Rev. B 63, 205311 (2001).

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 207

[2] F. J. Betancur, I. D. Mikhailov and L. E. Oliveira, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31,


391 (1998).

0 17:30 P-Th-097

The investigation of disordered phases in nanocomposites


ionic conductors
Rubén A. Vargas1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia.

In this paper, the dynamics of mobile ions in materials with disordered structure
are investigated. A series of new composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cell
applications based either on acid salts (i.e., CsH2 PO4 , CsHSO4 ) or polymer/acid
blends (i.e., PVOH/H3 PO2 ) with dispersed ceramic nanoparticles (i.e., Al2 O3 , SiO2 ,
ZrO2 ) have been prepared. The addition of ceramic nanoparticles to the starting
materials causes a considerable reduction in their crystalline phase content with a
consequent increase of proton conductivity, as well as different phase boundaries at
low temperatures. Electrical conductivity relaxation measurements in a broad band
frequency range (100 -109 Hz) show universal behavior that is typical of system with
structural disorder such as ion-conducting glasses, melts and polymers. For example,
in the frequency domain, the non-Debye relaxation (NDR) behavior of the real part
of the ionic conductivity shows dispersion as σ 0 (ω) ∝ ω n above a characteristic
angular frequency relaxation, ωP , and are termed as Jonscher universal power law
or Jonscher universal dynamic response. In the present article, the conductivity data
is well described using σ 0 (ω) = ω0 [1 + (ω/ωP )n , where ω0 is the DC conductivity and
n is a fractional exponent between 0 and 1 that characterizes the degree of NDR
behavior. Variations in n when varying the oxide filler content in the corresponding
composite are found, thus indicating that the fillers modify the dynamics of mobile
ions.
PACS numbers: 72.82.Ng, 82.60.Qr
Key words: Composites, phase equilibria

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-098

The Raman intensification of methylene blue molecules


adsorbed on to the macro porous silicon surface
Walter Jaimes Salcedo1 , Daniel Scodeler Raimundo1
1
Universidade de São Paulo.

It is well known that surface enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) effect must
be happened for some metallic surface as Au, Cu and Ag because the surface plamon-
vibrational mode interaction [1,2]. However, no semiconductor substrate was report-
ed for these phenomena, as far we know. The present work reports the existence of
surface enhancement Raman scattering and photoluminescence intensification of the
probe molecules adsorbed on the macro porous silicon surface. The macro-porous
silicon was obtained by electrochemical process in HF: DMF using different volume
fraction of DMF (4, 8, 12, 16 %) and anodization current of 8 mA/cm2 for 10 min-
utes. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the samples
obtained with low fraction of DMF (4 %) showed only superficial pores. On the oth-
er hand, the sample obtained with high DMF fraction (16 %) showed a collapse of
the walls between neighborhood pores, i.e., the film started to crack and destroy its
structure. The best macro-porous film was obtained when DMF fraction is between
8 to 12 %. The methylene blue molecules were adsorbed on the macro-porous sam-
ples as a probe moiety by immersed the films in 10-3 M/l of methylene blue solution
in ethanol for 5 hours. After, all the samples were rinsed in deionized water for 10
minute in order to remove any cluster structures. The Raman and Photolumines-
cence spectra were obtained in the Renishaw Raman system by confocal techniques
using laser sources of the 632.8 nm, 514 nm and 488 nm respectively. The Raman
spectra of the probe moieties adsorbed on the macro-porous film showed high in-
tensity bands. However, the non-Raman band was observed from methylene blue
adsorbed on the flat silicon surface. Additionally to the Raman band intensifica-
tion, a high photoluminescence emission also was observed. These results can be
tentatively explained in the sense of surface enhancement phenomena due to sur-
face plasmon in the macro-porous structure although its not possible to discard the
phonon-phonon and phonon-exciton interactions as responsible for intensification
phenomena. As far we know that the Raman and photoluminescence enhancement
of adsorbed probe in the silicon surface is reported at the first time in the present
work.

References
[1] R.F. Aroca , R.A. Alvarez-Puebla , N. Pieczonka , S. Sanchez-Cortez, J.V. Garcia-
Ramos, Adv. Coll. And Interf. Sci. 116, 45 (2005).
[2] T. Lana-Villarreal, J. M. Péres, R. Gomes, Surf. Sci. 572, 329 (2004).

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 209

0 17:30 P-Th-099

The structural, magnetic and magneto-electric properties of


La1-xSrxMnO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser
deposition
S. Calderón V.1 , L. Escobar-Alarcón2 , Enrique Camps2 , S. Muhl3 , M. Rivera4 , I.
Bentacourt3 , J.J. Olaya1 , A. Mariño5
1
Unidad de Materiales, Departamento de Ingenierı́a Mecánica y Mecatrónica,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, México,
D. F. 11801, México, (Apdo. Postal 18-1027).
3
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, México D.F. 04510, México.
4
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad
Universitaria, 04510, México D.F., México.
5
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 45-03,
Bogotá, Colombia.

Precursor Lanthanum Strontium Manganate (La1-xSrxMnO3) powders were syn-


thesized by solid state reaction with x= 0.1, 0.33 and 0.6. This material was annealed
at temperatures between 900 and 1300 C to produce the crystalline powder which
was then compressed to form 1 cm diameter targets for the pulsed laser deposi-
tion. Thin films were deposited from these targets on amorphous quartz and silicon
substrates at room temperature using a Nd:YAG laser at a fluence of 8.5 J/cm2
in 80/20 Ar/O2 atmosphere at 7.5 x 10-2 Torr. The thin films were annealed at
temperature about 900C in air. The structural characterization of both the bulk
material and the thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction which indicated that
they were polycrystalline but for the films the degree of crystallinity was strongly
influenced by the annealing temperature. SEM studies showed that the particle size
of the bulk material depended on the composition and that the films were covered
with spherical droplets of 0.8 µm diameter. Atomic force microscope measurement
indicated that the size and shape of the droplets changed after annealing. Magnetic
force microscopy revealed that the size of the magnetic domains in the films was sig-
nificantly different from that of the bulk. The magnetization measurement showed
that the coercive field of films at room temperature was twice that of the bulk ma-
terial and that the saturation magnetization was stable up to an applied field of
1.2T for x=0.33. The thin film samples exhibit a semiconductor behavior and high
magnetoresistance (0.7 to 42 %) at room temperature with a magnetic field of 1.7
T. The influence of both the thin film composition and substrate material on the
magnetoresistance characteristics are discussed.
Keywords: Resistivity, Manganites, PLD, Magnetoresistance, Magnetic property

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-100

Theoretical and experimental study of Si-SiO2 interface


using MOS structures.
H. Juarez1 , E. Rosendo1 , T. Diaz1 , M. Pacio2 , G. Garcı́a-Salgado1 , M. Rubı́n3 , J.
Martı́nez1 , A. Garcı́a2
1
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, CIDS-ICUAP, Puebla México..
2
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados de IPN, Ing. Electrica SEES.
3
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Fac. Ciencias de la Computación,
Puebla, México.

Having as theoretical frame the theory of generation and recombination process-


es of Shokley-Read-Hall, a mathematical model of superficial generation of minority
carriers in Si − SiO2 interface was obtained. This model shows an exponential de-
pendency on the superficial generation with the time unlike the reported by other
authors, in where they indicate that the superficial generation decreases, but with-
out explaining how it happens. Within this context, it is demonstrated that the
superficial generation has a maximum at t = 0. After that it decreases to its mini-
mum value in four time constants .
The experimental generation Zerbst plots from MOS structures were obtained using
the voltage pulse method for different initial polarization conditions, which cor-
respond to the conditions of inversion, depletion and accumulation. These curves
shown an increase in the generation rate for t = 0, this grade of increase depended
on the initial polarization conditions. From the proposed model and experimental
curves of generation, the parameters that characterize the traps in the interface as,
the density of traps, the emission coefficient and its activation energy were calculat-
ed. These results can be obtained if the generation curves exhibit an increase that
depends on the initial conditions of polarization.

0 17:30 P-Th-101

Thermal and magnetoelectrical properties of bulk


La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3 perovskite manganite
Carlos Córdoba1 , Omar Paredes1 , Javier Benavidez1 , Oswaldo Morán2 , Eval Baca3
1
Universidad de Nariño.
2
Universidad Nacionalde Colombia, Sede Medellı́n.
3
Universidad del Valle.

Manganites pellets of system La0.65 Ca0.35 MnO3 were prepared by the solid-state
reaction method and finally sintered at 1150C during 20, 44 and 64 hours. The

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 211

analysis of x-ray showed a tetragonal phase and a grain size of 17 nm. The heat
capacity measurements realized between 2 K and 300 K shown an onset phase tran-
sition at 263 K and a peak at 250 K associated with Curie temperature TC of the
sample, whereas at low temperatures and using the electron free and Debye models
were calculated the state density per manganese atom at Fermi level N(EF )=3.76
(eV)−1 (Mn)−1 , the coefficient diffusion D(EF ), and the Debye temperature TD =361
K. The electrical characterization showed a type-insulator phase, between 300 K
and the insulator-metal transition TIM =253.8 K, independent of sintered time, but
the metallic phase is clearly consolidated with the increase of sintered time. The
temperature dependence of the magnetization showed an onset phase transition and
TC in according with the specific heat measurements.

0 17:30 P-Th-102

THERMOELECTRIC POWER OF SnO2 ANISOTROPIC


THIN FILMS
J.C. Giraldo1
1
Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas.

A calculation of thermoelectric power in fluorine doped SnO2 thin films is carried


out using the Boltzmann transport theory and including anisotropic effects over ma-
terial as well as the degeneracy grade of the samples. Curves of thermoelectric power,
in dependence of the temperature and concentration of F-impurities, are reported.
Finally, the computed values are compared with those ones obtained experimentally.

0 17:30 P-Th-103

Threshold effect in the energy loss of hydrogen an helium


ions transmitted in channeling conditions in gold single
crystal
C. Celedón1 , P. Vargas1 , N. R. Arista2 , J. E. Valdés1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Federico Santa.
2
Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro.

The energy loss of hydrogen and helium ions in the low energy range (< 10
keV/u) in single crystal gold targets is investigated experimentally and theoretically.
We experimentally found that the stopping power for helium ions shows a deviation
from the proportionality with ion velocity as predicted theoretically. This behavior
has been also observed for protons in previous experiments [1-6]. Additionally, we
observed that for a small range of velocities the energy loss for helium ions has

CLACSA XIII
212 Thursday

the same magnitude as for protons for the same velocity. This last finding is in
agreement with early theoretical prediction for the ion energy loss interacting with
low electron densities, beyond of metallic densities, within the framework of the free
electron gas model and the density functional theory. Both effects are explained
due to two particular phenomena: particle channeling in crystalline targets, where
the spatial inhomogeneity of the electron density plays a fundamental role and the
well known threshold effect in the stopping power which is explained by considering
the electronic band structure properties of metallic targets. We present here precise
experiments and a consistent theoretical description of these behaviors that agree
very well with the experimental data.
[1] J. E. Valdés, G. Martinez Tamayo, C.H. Lantschner, J. C. Eckardt and N. R.
Arista, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 73, 313 (1993).
[2] R. Blume, W. Eckstein, H. Verbeek, and K. Reichelt, Nucl. Instrum. Methods
Phys. Res. 194, 67 (1982).
[3] J. E. Valdés, J. C. Eckardt, G. H. Lantschner, and N. R. Arista, Phys. Rev. A
49, 1083 (1994).
[4] J. E. Valdés, P. Vargas, and N. R. Arista, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4781 (1997).
[5] J. E. Valdés, C. Parra, J. Dı́az-Valdés, C. D. Denton, C. Agurto, F. Ortega, N.
R. Arista and P. Vargas, Phys. Rev. A 68, 064901 (2003).
[6] S. P. Chenakin, S. N. Markin, E. Steinbauer, M. Draxler, and P.Bauer, Nucl.
Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 249, 58 (2006).

0 17:30 P-Th-104

TiN/TiC films were deposited on 304 stainless steel


substrates
F. Bermeo1 , D. F. Devia2 , A. Devia2 , C. Salazar2 , D. Agudelo2
1
Universidad de Valle.
2
Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales.

A new method has been used to calculate the off-axis electric field of a ring of
charge, with a theoretical model that allow predict, where is maximum and approx-
imately uniform and where the edge effect increase and decrease. The distribution
of thickness throughout the radial axis on one sample has been compared with the
slope standard of this model and they agree in first approach. The method numerical
used to calculate the off-axis electric field of a ring of charge, consists of replacing
the ring of uniform charge with a line of variable charge that it allows to obtain, in
any point of the space, the characteristics of the field. The results of this method
were compared with the calculated one by direct integration; both methods agree
in first approach Experimental thickness results are presented for coatings of TiN
obtained on stainless steel 304 for different annular anode-sample distances, using a
Pulsed Arc Physical Vapor Deposition (PA-PAPVD) system.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-105

TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOCRYSTALLINE


BACTERICIDE THIN FILMS GROWN BY SOL-GEL
TECHNIQUE
F. Gordillo Delgado1 , K. Villa Gómez1 , C. Mejı́a Morales1
1
Laboratorio de optoelectrónica. Universidad del Quindı́o.

Titanium dioxide thin films were grown by sol-gel technique, in order to obtain
films to be used in photocatalytic reactions. We present results on the structural and
optical characterization measured for series of films in which number of layers and
sintering temperature were changed. Using X-ray diffraction we have characterized
the crystalline phase present in the films depending on the growth conditions and by
using the spectrophotometer we characterized the resulting band-gap energy. The
results on the photocatalytic activity were obtained by immersing these films in
a methylene blue solution with presence of ultraviolet light, which is a standard
used to characterize the efficiency of the reaction. It was observed, subtracting the
action of used ultraviolet light, a high bactericide activity in waste water samples
through: the counting of total and fecal coliformes, the pH measurements and the
oxygen chemical demand, before and after of photocatalytic process. The absence
of coliformes in the water indicates that it is sure for human consume.

Keywords: Titanium dioxide, sputtering, sol-gel, photocatalysis.

0 17:30 P-Th-106

Transport properties of a one-dimensional Kronig-Penney


model with positional disorder.
G. A. Luna-Acosta1 , N.M. Makarov2 , F.M. Izrailev1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebl, Mexico,.
2
Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.

We study the effects of transmisi through a finite one-dimensional periodic on


average, Kronig-Penney model with positional disorder. The model consists of an
alternating sequence of potential barriers and wells, or two materials with different
values of their dielectric constant. We consider the case where the widths of the
wells ( or the thickness of one of the dielectric materials) is given by dwn=dw+xn,
where dw is the average value of dwn and xn are small ( correlated or white-noise)
displacements. We show A good agreement between transfer matrix calculations
and the expression derived in Ref. [1] for the average transmission. This formula

CLACSA XIII
214 Thursday

depends solely on the ratio of the inverse localization length and size of the sample.
We compare our theoretical results with those for a microwave experiment onsisting
of alternating Teflon pieces of constant width and air spacings randomly perturbed.
[1] F.M. Izrailev and N.M. Makarov,

0 17:30 P-Th-107

Transverse localization in quasi-one-dimensional


surface-corrugated waveguides
J. A. Mendez-Bermudez1 , F. M. Izrailev1
1
Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla.

We study analytically and numerically the structure of eigenstates in periodic


quasi-one-dimensional surface-corrugated waveguides. We focus on a set of states,
appearing at any high energy, that show exponential localization in channel space.
For such states the square-gradient of the boundary roughness produces a repulsion
effect that shifts the maximum of the eigenstate intensity away from the bound-
aries (transverse localization). By analyzing the structure in channel space of these
states we are able to obtain analytical expressions for their shapes in real space. We
also show that the effect of transverse localization can be tailored by choosing the
appropriate type of boundary roughness.

0 17:30 P-Th-108

TRIBOLOGICAL PROPIERTIES OF (Ti,Al)N THIN


FILMS GROWN ON M1 STEEL SUBSTRATES
VARYING WORK PRESSURE
P.F. Lombana1 , M. E. Espitia1 , D.M Devia1 , F. Bermeo2 , A. Devia1 , G. Galeano1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia sedde Manizales.
2
Universidad Santiago de Cali.

Pressure influence is studied on (Ti,Al)N thin films grown by Pulsed Arc Plas-
ma Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition (PAPVD) on M1 steel substrates. X Ray
Diffraction (XRD) analysis were performed to determinate the crystalline structure,
present phases, crystallite size, lattice parameter and microstrain. Scanning Elec-
tron Microscopy (SEM) analysis was carried out to observe pressure influence in the
coating growing. The thickness of the films was observed by perfilometer tests. Pin
on Disk tests were performed to wear determination in the coatings.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 215

0 17:30 P-Th-109

TRIBOMATERIALS: A MODERN APPLICATION OF


NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS
Jorge Ramos1
1
Universidad Autónoma de Occidente.

In this work a review of the concepts on friction is made, starting from earlier
works carried out at Newton and Euler times until their current applications in new
materials. These have been created to perform specific mechanical work where a
characteristic frictional behavior between the objects in contact appears at nano-
metric scale.
Based on profilometric parameters that describe the superficial topography, it is
possible to see how the generalized model for friction, which unifies the Coulomb
and Tomlinson-Bowden theories, is still valid. The use of this model gives rise to new
options for predicting the friction behavior and its application in different materials,
improving in this way the mechanical design process of technical pieces, prolonging
their lifecycle and avoiding the waste of energy in the relative movement of the ob-
jects.
Keywords: Tribomaterials, friction behavior, surface contact, profilometry, friction
coefficient.

0 17:30 P-Th-110

VANADIUM NITRIDE FILMS GROWN BY REACTIVE


R.F. MAGNETRON SPUTERING
C. Rincón1 , A. Urrutia1 , G. Bolaños1 , W. De La Cruz2 1 Departamento de Fı́sica,
Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, Colombia.
2
Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada de la Universidad Nacional
Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California, México.

We report on the deposition of vanadium nitride thin films by reactive R.F.


magnetron sputtering using different Ar/N2 mixtures and on their characterization.
The thin films were deposited on silicon (100) and glass substrates using a metallic
vanadium target (purity 99.99 %). Substrate temperature at 450C, power target
at 55W and target-to-substrate distance at 3 cm were established for thin films
deposition. Physical properties of the films were studied as a function of N2 pressure.
The composition of the films deposited was analyzed by Auger spectroscopy. It was
revealed the presence of vanadium, nitrogen and impurities of oxygen and carbon
in the films. In addition, It was observed that the increase in the partial pressure

CLACSA XIII
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of nitrogen system enhance the concentration of nitrogen in the films. The chemical
analysis was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, these results showed the
presence vanadium nitride and vanadium oxide in thin films. Measurements of the
resistivity by Van der Pawś method showed that all films are conductors in the
temperature range of 30-300K. Reflectivity and absorbance measurements in the
infrarred, ultraviolet and visible range are correlated with the partial pressure of
nitrogen to the system.

Keywords: vanadium nitride; magnetron sputtering; Van de Paw‘s method; re-


flectivity; absorbance.

0 17:30 P-Th-111

XRD and Raman investigations of La0 .7K0 .3Mn prepared by


citrate route method
J. F. Jurado1 , N. Cano Murillo1 , C. Serna Plata1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Dpto de Fı́sica y Quimica, Manizales.

Studies on perovskite-like manganese oxides ABMnO3 (A= rare earth, B=divalent


ion) are numerous due to the diversity of their properties, one of them is the Colossal
Magneto Resistance (CMR) effect. The mixed-valence manganites La0 .7K0 .3MnO3
have been synthesized using the citrate route method. The appropriate stoichio-
metric quantities were dissolved in an aqueous nitric acid solution. Subsequently,
the mixture was burned stepwise to a maximum temperature of 700C. Then, the
final composition was annealed at this temperature. The crystalline structure of
the samples was verified using X-ray diffraction, which showed that the polycrys-
talline compound has a rhombohedral structure. The single phase of the sample can
be indexed in rhombohedral system with R-3cH space group, the lattice parame-
ters were calculated resulting a=b=5.499and c=13.347 These values reflect how K+
doping induces rhombohedral distortion and are consistent with reports in litera-
ture. We have studied the -Raman spectroscopy, and the principal vibration modes
were determined around 653 and 693 cm−1 (B2g ), these changes may be explained
by the perovskite lattice distortion. Others peaks, around 479 and 251 cm−1 (Ag )
correspond to bending and rotational oxygen vibrations, respectively.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 217

0 17:30 P-Th-112

YBCO SUPERCONDUCTING TAPES BY MELT -


ANNEALING METHOD ON METALLIC Ni 5 % W
SUSBSTRATES
P. Garcés1 , A. Mariño1 , H. Sánchez1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Superconducting tapes of YBCO - 123 were produced by Melt - Annealing


method on metallic Ni 5 % w substrates. YBCO thick films of about 1µm thick
were deposited on Ni5 %W tapes previously CeO2 coated using different thermal
treatments. A final architecture of the tapes like Ni5 %W / CeO2 / YBCO / Au-Pd
was achieved.
Critical temperatures (Tc) of the superconducting tapes around 89K and critical
current densities (Jc) of 104 A/cm2 at 77K and B = 0T were determined by re-
sistive methods. All the samples displayed a granular character and the crystalline
structure of the superconducting YBCO-123 with a preferential orientation along
the c-axis as determined by SEM and XRD analysis respectively. Both grain sizes
and c-axis orientation are dependent of the thermal treatments.

0 17:30 P-Th-113

Energy transfer in polycrystalline Al2O3 pellets doped with


Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions.
R. Martı́nez-Martı́nez1 , M. Garcı́a-Hipólito1 , O. Álvarez-Fregoso1 , U. Caldiño2 , G.
Muñoz H2 , I. Camarillo2 , C. Falcony3
1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacán, 04510
México, D.F..
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.
3
Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de
Fı́sica.

The optical properties in polycrystalline Al2O3 pellets doubly doped with Ce3+
and Mn2+ ions have been analyzed. In this pellets, broad-band blue and red emis-
sions are observed under ultraviolet light excitation. The spectroscopy data obtained
clearly indicate that the energy transfer takes place from Ce3+ to Mn2+ ions. The
blue emission is due to the de-excitation of Ce3+ ions from their excited state 5d
to the split ground state 2F. The usually weak red emission attributed to 3d?3d de-
excitation of Mn2+ is enhanced through an efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to
Mn2+ ions. From spectroscopic data it can also be inferred that the energy transfer

CLACSA XIII
218 Thursday

is nonradiative in nature and it takes place between Ce3+-Mn2+ clusters formed in


the pellets through a short-range interaction mechanism. This ion clustering could
be useful for the design of efficient conversion phosphors of ultraviolet to blue and
green light. The structural, morphology and chemical composition characteristics of
the Al2O3:Ce3+:Mn2+ pellets are also presented.

0 17:30 P-Th-115

Non-Markovian thermalisation of a qubit system


P.D.Manrique1 , F.J.Rodriguez1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

A theroretical and numerical study is introduced to study non-Markovian effects


in a thermalization process of a two two-level interacting quantum dots system, in
contact with a bosonic bath[1]. We consider that one q-bit thermalize to a thermal
state, when it is interacting with the bath and we include only the interaction
with another q-bit. The master equation is solved for non-resonance case at zero
temperature and we shows the existence of memory effects. Using the Nakajima-
Zwanzing technique[2], we demostrate how to obtain a local time master equation
with time damping elemnts, which generate a complete positive map[3]. The time
evolution of the density matrix elements from different initial states, allows us to
calculate the concurrence and demonstrate that at short times the non-markovian
effects shows must to be included properly.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Salo, S. M. Barnett, and S. Stenholm, Opt. Commun. 259, 772 (2006).
[2] H. P. Breuer and F. Petruccione, The Theory of Open Quantum Systems (Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 2002)
[3] I. Glendinning, M. Jakob, and M. Nölle, quant-ph/060430 (2006)

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 219

0 17:30 P-Th-116

Optical Properties of GaNxAs1-x Thin Films Grown on Si


Substrates by r f. Sputtering
J.S. Ceron-Arias1 , O. Zelaya-Angel2 , A. Cruz-Orea2 , J.L. Herrera-Perez1 , J.A.
Cardona-Bedoya3 , J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez2
1
CICATA-IPN. Unidad Legaria. Av. Legaria 694. Mexico DF 11500. Mexico.
2
Dept. de Fisica. Cinvestav-IPN. Apdo. Postal 14-740. Mexico DF 07000, Mexico.
3
Depto. de Fı́sica. Universidad del Tolima.

Visible light emission devices have been developed and are commercially avail-
able, based on InGaN and AlGaN ternary semiconductor alloys, producing green-to-
violet visible emission. GaNxAs1-x ternary alloys in the GaN-rich side, are expected
theoretically to have band-gap energies in the full range of the visible spectrum for
just a small change in the nitrogen concentration in the range of about 70-85 %.
Using the r. f. sputtering and the laser ablation film deposition techniques, we have
reported the growth of ternary GaNAs layers with band-gap energies in the range
between 1.4 to 2.6 eV [1,2]. In this work we report the growth of GaNAs thin films
on Si substrates using the r. f. sputtering technique at high substrate temperatures;
the r. f. power used in the sputtering process was varied in order to control the nitro-
gen incorporation in the film. The low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and the
photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopies were used to characterize the optical properties
of the series of GaNxAs1-x As films grown with different stoichiometries. The PL
and PA spectra show that the films present the presence of three phases: a cubic
GaAs phase; the ternary GaNAs phase; and the GaN cubic and hexagonal phases.
We discuss the origin of the transitions observed in the PL spectra and the shoulders
around 2.5 eV observed in the PA spectra.

[1] Jairo A. Cardona-Bedoya, Fernando Gordillo-Delgado, Orlando Zelaya-Angel,


Alfredo Cruz-Orea, and Julio G. Mendoza-Alvarez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1900 (2002)
[2] Jairo A. Cardona-Bedoya, Alfredo Cruz-Orea, Julio G. Mendoza-Alvarez, M.L.
Gomez-Herrera, Mario H. Farias, Jesus A. Diaz, Appl. Surf. Sc. 238, 147 (2004)

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-117

Plasmon excitations in Carbon Nanotubes


Mario Zapata Herrera1 , Juana. L Gervasoni1
1
Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche,.

Semiconductor photonic crystals and other nanocavities have attracted much


attention since they provide a convenient system to control spontaneous emission
and to study cavity quantum electro- dynamics phenomena such as strong coupling
between photons and matter. They are also promising structures for the fabrication
of low threshold lasers, efficient light emitting diodes and other new devices, in spe-
cial for quantum information applications. Self-assembled quantum dots are nearly
ideal light emitters for this kind of structure due to their delta function-like emis-
sion spectra, high radiative efficiency and ease of fabrication and integration with
standard optoelectronic de- vices. However, the serious drawbacks of self-assembled
quantum dots are that there is no control over their positioning and it is not possi-
ble to determine a priori their exact emission wavelength. Therefore, the tuning of a
quantum dot emission with the nanocavity in which it is embedded relies basically
on luck. This is specially critical for photonic crystals, due to the very low photonic
mode volumes achieved in these nanocavities. Some solutions have been proposed
for this problem. For example, Hennessy et al. (Nature vol. 445, p. 896, 2007) use
atomic force microscopy to locate each quantum dot in a low density sample and
then micro-photoluminescence to determine the energy of its excitonic emission,
prior to fabrication of the photonic crystal nanocavity. This and other proposals
have the disadvantage that it is not possible to determine previously the operation
wavelength and position of the desired device, instead both are determined after
dot growth. In this work, we propose a method to precisely locate self-assembled
quantum dots before growth and, in addition, to better control the emission wave-
lengths of self-assembled quantum dots. We use the technique of anodic oxidation
nanolithography to pattern layers of InP and GaAs. The tip of an atomic force mi-
croscope is used to generate InP (GaAs) oxide nanodots at the sample surface. After
removal of the oxide nanodots the holes left in the surface act as nucleation centers
for self-assembled dot growth. The size, and consequently emission energy, of each
quantum dot can be controlled to some extent by the size of the nano-holes, which
depend on the oxidation parameters, and also by adjusting the growth parameters
of the quantum dots. We report the characterization of several samples produced in
this way, with dots of different sizes and morphologies. We also report on the optical
characterization of the self-assembled quantum dots thus fabricated.

CLACSA XIII
Thursday 221

0 17:30 P-Th-118

Surface changes induced by UV illumination on


nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase)
Julio Andrés Pedraza Avella1 , Próspero Acevedo Peña2 , Ricardo Gómez3 , Julio
Elı́as Pedraza Rosas4
1
Centro de Investigaciones en Catálisis - CICAT, Universidad Industrial de
Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguará, Km. 2 vı́a El Refugio, Piedecuesta, S.
2
Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente -
GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguará, Km. 2 v.́
3
Grupo ECOCATAL, Área de Catálisis, Departamento de Quı́mica, Universidad
Autónoma Metropolitanaa-Iztapalapa - UAM-I, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 1.
4
Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente -
GIMBA, Universidad Industrial.

It is well known that the isoelectric point (IEP) of a catalyst plays an important
role in heterogeneous catalysis. It is related to the strength of the electrostatic inter-
action between the solid surface and the substrate (i.e. adsorption of at least one of
the reactants). In heterogeneous photocatalysis, it is also important to keep in mind
that when a semiconductor photocatalysts is illuminated with photons whose energy
is equal to or greater than their band-gap energy additional charges are generated
(i.e. creation of electron-hole pairs: free electrons in the conduction band and pho-
toholes in the valence band). In this work, different samples of TiO2 were prepared
by a sol-gel method using titanium n-butoxide as alkoxide precursor in aqueous
acid medium (pH = 2, HNO3) and n-butanol as solvent. Molar ratio water/alkoxide
was varied from 4 to 16 to obtain particles with different surface properties. X-ray
powder diffraction patterns showed that only the anatase phase is present in all
samples. The particle size of the samples obtained by dynamic light scattering was
at the nanometer scale. The IEP of materials was estimated by electrophoretic mea-
surements of zeta potential at different pH values, in the absence and presence of
UV light. The results show that in the absence of UV light, IEP depends on the
molar ratio water/alkoxide. However, in the presence of UV-light, IEP was the same
for all materials. This result shows clearly that TiO2 surface speciation is strongly
affected by the generation of electron-hole pairs.

We acknowledge the partial financial supports of UIS (DIEF Ciencias, Project


5125), COLCIENCIAS, UAM-I and CONACYT, as well as the doctoral scholarship
given by COLCIENCIAS to J.A. Pedraza-Avella in 2003.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-119

Surface modifcation of alkanethiol SAM by highly charged


ions irradiation.
M. Flores1 , B.E. O’Rourke1 , Y. Yamazaki1 , V. Esaulov2
1
Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
2
Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, Universite Paris-Sud,
Orsay Cedex, France.

There has been considerable interest in the fabrication of consistent patterned


materials based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and consequently much eort
has been directed towards the development of techniques for the spatial control of
SAM structure. On micron length scales, photolithography techniques have proved
to be an eective and convenient means by which patterned SAM structures may be
fabricated [1]. Microcontact printing has also demonstrated eciency at the micron
scale, and more recently sub-micron patterning using this approach [2]. However,
the fabrication of structures on scales near or less than 100nm presents consid-
erable technical diculties, and some workers have turned to electron [3] and ion
beams. The ion beam, especially highly charged ion (HCI) beam, give us the pos-
sibility to modify the lms. Both ablation rates and single ion induced topography
changes mark promising eects for the development of novel material modication tech-
niques using slow highly charged ions. We use SAM of alkanethiols on gold samples,
CH3(CH2)11S=Au(111). These samples were exposed to low doses of HCI, typically
109ions=cm2, to evaluate the surface modication. The structural surface modication
is revealed from STM images in situ. These topographic images show distributions
of holes on the surface. Additionally, the emission of positive secondary ions are
analyzed (ToF measurements) in order to characterize wich molecular fragments are
emitted from the surface during the irradiation process. We observed several molec-
ular cluster CxHy and also full molecule desorption. HCI irradiation provides a way
to eciently modify SAM, with evidence from secondary ions mass spectroscopy and
STM images. If we develop a HCI nanobeam [4] it should be posible to create sub-
micron patterned surfaces.
[1] M. R. Shadnam, S. E. Kirkwood, R. Fedosejevs and A. Amirfazli, Langmuir 20
(2004) 2667.
[2] B. D. Gates, Q. Xu, M. stewart, d. Ryan, C.G. Willson and G.M. Whitesides,
Chemical Review 105 (2005) 1171.
[3] A. Golzhauser, W. Geyer, V. Stadler, W. Eck, M. Grunze, K. Edinger, T.
Weimann and P. Hinze, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 (2000) 3414.
[4] T. Ikeda, T. M. Kojima, Y. Iwai, Y. Kanai, T. Kambara, T. Nebiki, T. Narusawa
and Y Yamazaki, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 58 (2007) 68.

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-120

Temperature Dependence of the Photoluminescence


Emission of InAs Quantum Dot Layers Grown on Strained
InGaAs/InP
J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez1 , P.L. de Souza2 , M.P. Pires3 , S.M. Landi2 , J.M.
Villas-Boas4 , N. Studart5
1
CICATA-IPN. Unidad Legaria. Av. Legaria 694. Mexico DF 11500. Mexico.
2
LabSem, CETUC. PUC-Rio. Marques de Sao Vicente 223. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
3
Inst. de Fisica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970, Brasil.
4
Univ. of Munich, Germany.
5
Dept. de Fisica. Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP. 13565-905, Brasil.

InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on InP lattice-matched InGaAs layers are of
great interest for the development of medium infrared emission lasers and pho-
todetectors based on conduction band intraband transitions, in the range from 8
to 11 microns. InAs QDs properties are highly dependent on the characteristics of
the layer on top of which they are grown. In particular, we have investigated the
influence on the InAs QDs properties when they are grown on an InGaAs layer
slightly mismatched to the InP substrate. We have already reported the effect of
the mismatch-related strain on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the InAs
QDs layer [1]. In this work we present results on the temperature behavior of the
PL spectra of the series of InAs QD layers grown by MOVPE on top of positively
and negatively mismatched InGaAs layers with a multilayer structure of the type:
InP/InP/InGaAs/InAsQDs/InP (a dot-in-a-well, structure), and their relationship
to the involved radiative transitions between the quantized electron and hole levels
in the conduction and valence band, respectively. We analyze the PL spectra in
terms of the model that takes into account different mechanisms such as the band-
gap energy change due to the change in the In concentration, to the QD size, and
to the strain effects around the QDs.

[1] J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez, M.P. Pires, S.M. Landi, A.S. Lopes, P.L. Souza, J.M.
Villas-Boas, N. Studart, Physica E 32, 85 (2006)

CLACSA XIII
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0 17:30 P-Th-121

The activity of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces


Carola Hernandez1 , Hector Jackson Ocampo1 , Diego Ramirez1 , Laura Savino1 ,
Chad Leidy1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

Many water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces. Some of these


enzymes are involved in signaling and in modification and remodeling of the cell
surface. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory
phospholipase A2(sPLA2), are only activated at the interface between water and
membrane surfaces, where they lead to a break-down of the lipid molecules into
lysolipids and free fatty acids. The activation is critically dependent on the physical
properties of the lipid-membrane substrate. In this work we present an overview of
how different physical aspects of the membrane surface, such as lipid phase sepa-
ration, electrostatic interactions, and lipid packing, influence the activity of these
enzymes

CLACSA XIII
Friday 225

Plenary
1 08:30 Pl-Fr-8

Ultrafast optical studies of solvent dynamics at liquid-metal


oxide interfaces
A. Tortschanoff1
1
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne.

Due to the special importance of Titanium and TiO2 in applications ranging from
biocompatible materials in medicine to the use as active substrate in solar cells, there
is a great interest in the description of structure and dynamics of solvents, in par-
ticular water, close to Me(IV)-oxide surfaces. It is expected that at interfaces, water
exhibits a very different structure, because the bulk network of hydrogen bonds is
interrupted. The dynamic behavior of water, should also have profound implications
for chemical and biochemical processes at interfaces, which are very widespread
in heterogenous chemistry and in biological systems. In order to understand the
detailed behaviour of solvent dynamics, a combination of femtosecond spectroscop-
ic (absorption, emission) and optical (photon echo, Kerr effect) methods has been
implemented in our labs, aiming to study water at interfaces with biocompatible
materials such as titanium dioxide: Dyes attached to the surface of ZrO2 nanoparti-
cles in a colloidal solution can be used as probes for the ultrafast rearrangement of
the surrounding water. The results from a comparative study of solvation dynam-
ics of dyes in bulk and interfacial water, using ultrafast fluorescence up-conversion
and, more recently, transient absorption and photon echo techniques, reproduce the
typical time scales and non-exponential behavior of the solvation process in water
and show only subtle differences between bulk and interface dynamics. The results
are compared with molecular dynamics simulations, which show that the interface
region is limited to not more than one or two water layers, while the dye molecule
extends over 10 such that most of it is immersed bulk-like water. On the other hand,
contributions from intramolecular relaxation processes and possible changes of the
dielectric constant of water in the vicinity of the interface are observed and make
the interpretation less straightforward. Furthermore, we performed time resolved
Optical Kerr Effect (OKE) measurements to determine the orientational dynamics
of water in nanopores of the ZrO2 nanostructured films. This technique directly
measures water dynamics without the use of dyes and the use of nanopores was
meant to enhance the interfacial-to-bulk water ratio. ZrO2 was studied instead of
TiO2 because it is more tractable from an experimental point of view, while having
similar properties to the latter. These experiments were performed with a home-
built OKE microscope to exclusively probe the internal volume of the thin (¡10 m)
film. While the time constants obtained for the orientational dynamics of the bulk
liquid agree with literature, in the pores water exhibits slower dynamics, indicat-
ing a restricted motion of the molecules. Our data is manifestly incompatible with
the existence of a bulk-like population of water molecules in the core of the pores,

CLACSA XIII
226 Friday

suggesting that the interface induces a long range constraint on the orientational
dynamics of the molecules within the nanocavity. These experimental approaches
should also be applicable to the study of dynamics of biological water in proteins
and at membranes.

CLACSA XIII
Friday 227

Invited Talks
1 09:30 In-Fr-19

Demonstration of CdSe/ZnSe interface homogenization by


means of the layer-by-layer growth of CdSe ultra-thin
quantum wells finished with fractional monolayers
Adrián Alfaro-Martı́nez, Juan Carlos Banthi and Isaac Hernández-Calderón
Physics Department, CINVESTAV, Ave. IPN 2508, 07360 México, DF, México.

Strongly stimulated by a growing market, a considerable research effort towards the


production of efficient and long-lived light emitting devices in the full red UV range
has been developed in the last few years. Of particular interest is the fabrication of
true white light emitting diodes (LEDs). ZnSe and related II-VI alloys have been
recognized as candidates for those optoelectronic devices. Since the production of
the first blue-green lasers, based on Zn1-xCdxSe quantum wells, it was clear that
extended structural defects were the main limiting factor to reach an acceptable
lifetime of II-VI based devices. In order to minimize the formation of structural
defects, among other matters, it is necessary the optimization of the growth param-
eters and methods. Here it is presented a detailed study of the interface properties
of CdSe ultra-thin quantum wells (UTQWs) grown by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE)
that present intense excitonic luminescence and relatively narrow width [1].
Grown under adequate conditions only a single excitonic peak is exhibited in the
photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CdSe UTQWs, indicating the absence of thick-
ness fluctuations. When they are grown with the same nominal thickness a blue shift
is observed if grown at higher substrate temperatures. This has been explained in
terms of Cd substitution in the QW region by Zn atoms arriving to the surface
during the growth of the ZnSe barrier. In any case only a single excitonic peak is
observed. This is interpreted in terms of a homogeneous mixing of the Cd and Zn
atoms at the upper interface and to the absence of thickness fluctuations. In order to
verify this assertion, and taking advantage of the surface reconstruction properties
of (001) cationic terminated surfaces, we have grown CdSe UTQWs finished with
fractional monolayers: we produced UTQWs with 2.5, 3 and 3.5 CdSe monolayers
(ML). Depending on interface roughness several type of spectra may be expected;
the result is that all the samples present a single peak, red shifted with increasing
CdSe coverage and a monotonic increase in the full-width at half maximum (FWHM)
of the emission. This confirms the homogenization of the CdSe-ZnSe interface and
the absence of thickness fluctuations. The ZnCdSe/CdSe interface homogenization
is also evident in thin Zn1-xCdxSe quantum wells grown by submonolayer pulsed
beam epitaxy (SPBE) containing an insertion of 2 CdSe ML deposited by ALE.
The purpose of these insertions is to disturb in a controlled manner the carrier
wavefunctions. All these quantum wells present very interesting features for use in
optoelectronic devices.
[1] I. Hernández-Calderón, M. Garc-Rocha, P. Dı́az-Arencibia, Phys. Status Solidi
(b)24 558 (2004).

CLACSA XIII
228 Friday

2 09:30 In-Fr-20

Charge transport through organic and biological molecules


H. Chacham1
1
Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

In recent years, developments in experimental techniques have allowed the mea-


surement of electrical current through single molecules. In this talk we will present
theoretical investigations related to some of those experiments, emphasizing the re-
lation between structural and transport properties. We will focus on the following
systems:

1. Charge transport through DNA : Experiments performed in dry conditions [1]


indicate that charge transport in DNA is thermally activated. Motivated by these
experiments, we performed first principles calculations [2] for positively charged frag-
ments of dry poly(dC)-poly(dG) DNA. We found a strong hole-lattice coupling and
clear evidence for the formation of small polarons. 2. Connected Au nanoparticles:
Recently, Dadosh et al. [3] investigated the electrical conduction through pairs of
Au nanoparticles connected by BDMT and other molecules. Motivated by that, we
performed a first principles study [4] of the electronic properties of lattices of Au
nanoparticles capped by methylthiol molecules and possibly functionalized by the
conjugated molecules BDMT and BDCT. Distinct behaviors of the electron hop-
ping matrix elements between particles as a function of compression are predicted
for functionalized lattices. 3. Current rectification with symmetric molecules: In an
interesting experiment, Reichet et al. [5] measured the current through symmetric
organic molecules and obtained asymmetric IV curves when the Au contacts are
pulled apart. We show, by means of first-principles calculations of structural and
transport properties, that this effect can originate from the formation of small Au
chains between the molecule and the Au surfaces in an asymmetric way [6].

[1] K. H. Yoo et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 198102 (2001).


[2] S. S. Alexandre, E. Artacho,J. M. Soler, and H. Chacham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,
108105 (2003).
[3] T. Dadosh et al., Nature 436, 677 (2005).
[4] R. J. C. Batista, M. S. C. Mazzoni, I. L. Garzon, M. R.Beltran, and H. Chacham,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 116802 (2006).
[5] J. Reichet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 176804 (2002).
[6] R. J. C. Batista, P. Ordejon, H. Chacham, and E. Artacho, Phys. Rev. B 75,
041402 (2007).

CLACSA XIII
Friday 229

Oral reports
1 10:00 OR-Fr-24

The transition chaos-disorder in surface-corrugated


waveguides
J. A. Mendez-Bermudez1 , A. J. Martinez-Mendoza2 , R. Aguilar-Sanchez3
1
Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla,
Mexico.
2
Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Benito Juarez de Oaxaca, Oaxaca,
Mexico.
3
Institute of Surfaces and Interfaces, Research Center Juelich, Juelich, Germany.

We investigate the spectral properties of eigenstates depending on the degree of


complexity of the boundaries in periodic surface-corrugated waveguides. We focus on
waveguide geometries whose phase space is ergodic in the classical limit. It is shown
that the transition chaos-disorder is characterized by a transition in the spectral
statistics from Wigner-Dyson to semi-Poisson. We model and explain this transition
by the use of the Wigner-Lorentzian Random Matrix ensemble [1]. This result is
expected to be related to the new intermediate type of quantum chaos introduced
recently in [2].
[1] J. A. Mendez-Bermudez, Tsampikos Kottos, and Doron Cohen. Phys. Rev. E 73,
036204 (2006).
[2] M. Garcia-Garcia and J. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 73, 036210 (2006).

2 10:00 OR-Fr-24

Isolated magnetite clusters: an Ab-initio calculation


J. Restrepo1 , A. H. Romero2 , L. Sinhue2 , J. Mejı́a-López3 , J. Mazo-Zuluaga1
1
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia.
2
CINVESTAV, Mexico.
3
Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Chile.

Beyond nanometric scale, clusters formed by tens or some few hundred of atoms play
an important role in the study of the so-called F́inite Size Effects.́ In this study we
investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of isolated magnetite
clusters via ab-initio methods. Calculations were performed with the VASP and
ABINIT programs in the framework of the LDA+U approximation. Free boundary
conditions were implemented and clusters of different sizes were considered. Struc-
tural characterization is carried out by computing both the Radial and Angular
Distribution Functions in order to evaluate the relaxation process as well as the
differences on the basis of a core-shell model.

CLACSA XIII
230 Friday

1 10:20 OR-Fr-25

Berry’s Phase and Chern numbers in molecular magnets


Hugo A. Contreras P.1 , Andres Reyes-Lega1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

We study the topology associated to the space of states of a microscopic model


that describes the molecular magnet V15 . The model takes into account the effects
of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as well as the molecular anisotropy when
an external magnetic field is present. We compute the Berry phase and the Chern
number for this system and study their behavior as a function of the modelś param-
eters.

References: H. De Raedt, et al.,Phys. Rev. B 70, 064401(2004)


Geometric Phases in Physics editado por Shapere A. y Wilczek F., (World Scientific,
Singapore, 1989)

2 10:20 OR-Fr-25

Experimental and Theoretical Study of LINEAR


BIPHENYLETHYNYL DERIVATIVES IN GAS PHASE
by INTERACTION OF LOW-ENERGY ELECTRONS
A.V. Kukhta1 , I.N.Kukhta1 , S.M. Kazakov2 , O.V.Khristophorov2 , O. L. Neyra
Bueno3
1
Institute of Molecular and Atomic Physics of the National Academy of Sciences
of Belarus.
2
Chuvash State University, Cheboxary, Russia.
3
Universidad Popular del Cesar, Grupo de Espectroscpia y Laser.

Electron impact spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to study the relative efficien-
cy of excitation to into singlet and positions of triplet states in two electroactive
organic materials: anthracene and biphenyl containing biphenylethynyl derivatives
in the gas phase. The probability of the lowest singlet-triplet transition in single
bonded anthracene containing molecule was found to be much higher than in triple
bond anthracene that is connected with triple bonds. No noticeable contribution of
the Ttriple bonds are found to have a not significant contribution on the into singlet
spectra of the studied molecules is observed. There is a number of intense transitions
in the range above higher than 10 eV. The optical spectra spectrum calculated us-
ing density functional theory techniques is in rather good agreement correspondence
with electron energy loss and optical absorption spectra.

CLACSA XIII
Friday 231

In recent years, molecular electronics has experienced a rapid development1. Molec-


ular electronics is a quickly developed area nowadays1. It is Molecular electronics is
conceptually different from conventional solid state semiconductor electronics. Or-
dered Molecular ordered monolayers, wires and even single molecules are have been
proposed as active molecular devices (diodes, memory cells, etc.) resulting in the
reduction of the dimensions of active elements by several orders of magnitude, down
to about one nanometers.decreasing the dimensions of active elements some orders
of magnitude up to about one nm. The process of Ultradense circuits integration
manufacturing will be a chemical process rather than the conventional process of
integrating solid state devices into microchips represent a chemical processing. Many
molecular devices are made from thin films. The basis of all electronic devices is the
electron transport through molecules and molecular layers. It was shown2 that the
features of the transmission of the electric current and the electron beam are similar.
The electrical conductance was found to be very sensitive to details of the molecular
orientation4, the spectral and orbital properties of molecules and their wave func-
tions3 and to molecule orientation4. The usage of the electron impact spectroscopy
EIS methods used in this work allowing the measurements much more differential
characteristics than electric current transmission techniques.

1 11:10 OR-Fr-26

Transport on graphene nanoribbons with side-attached


organic molecules
L. Rosales1 , P. Orellana2 , A. Latgé3 , Z. Barticevic1 , M. Pacheco1
1
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Marı́a, Casilla
Postal 110 V, Valparaı́so, Chile.
2
Departamento de Fı́sica, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla Postal 1280,
Antofagasta, Chile.
3
Instituto de Fı́sica, Universidad Federal Fluminense, CP 24210-340, NIteroı́ RJ ,
Brasil.

The controlled fabrication of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has attracted a lot of


scientific interest in the last decade[1]. GNRs are single atomic layers which can be
understood as an infinite unrolled carbon nanotube (CNT). Two cases of maximum
symmetries can be obtained: zigzag nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and armchair nanorib-
bons (AGNRs)[2]. The special electronic behavior of GNRs, defined by their quasi
one dimensional electronic confinement and the shape of the ends of the ribbons,
suggest remarkable applications in graphene-based devices[3]. Moreover, due to the
flat structure, GNRs seem to be easier to manipulate experimentally than CNTs[4].
Transport properties of GNRs have been studied with special interest by several
scientific groups. For clean systems, Peres et al [5] predict that the conditions for the
electronic conductance quantization is different for ZGNRs and AGNRs. By apply-
ing a gate voltage to the GNRs, Shi et al [3] showed that an electronic switch very
useful to study the Klein paradox, can be obtained.

CLACSA XIII
232 Friday

In this work we show a theoretical study of the electronic and transport properties
of AGNRs and ZGNRs with quasi one-dimensional side-attached organic molecules
(linear polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules and poly(para-phenylene) molecules).
The conductance of the ZGNRs and AGNRs exhibit a particular behavior as a
function of the length of the attached organic molecules: the energy spectrum of the
quasi one-dimensional system is clearly reflected in the conductance curves, suggest-
ing that GNRs can be used as an spectrograph-sensor device. An even-odd parity
effect as a function of the length of the attached molecules, can be observed in
the conductance of these system[6]. The nanostructures are described using a single
π-band tight binding Hamiltonian. The electronic conductance and the density of
states of the systems are calculated within the Greenś function formalism calculated
using real-space renormalization techniques[7].
[1] T. Ohta et al,Science 313, 951 (2006); S. Stancovich et al, Nature 442, 282 (2006)
[2] K. Nakada et al, Phys. Rev B 54, 17954 (1996); K. Wakabayashi and H. Hiroshi-
ma, Phys. Rev B 64, 125428 (2001)
[3] Q. W. Shi et al, Cond-Mat/0611604 v1, (2006); A. Rycerz et al, cond-mat/06080533
v1, (2006)
[4] P. Jarillo-Herrero et al, cond-mat/0705.3044,(2007); Nature 446 (7131), March 1
(2007)
[5] N. Peres, A. Castro and F.Guinea Phys. Rev B 73, 195411 (2006)
[6] P.Orellana et al, Phys. Rev B 67, 085321 (2003)
[7] M. Nardelli, Phys. Rev B 60 (1999) 7828.

2 11:10 OR-Fr-26

STUDY OF THE PSEUDOGAP IN THIN


Y1−x Cax Ba2 Cu3 O7−d SUPERCONDUCTIVE FILMS
E. HERRERA1 , H. CASTRO1
1
Universidad de los Andes.

The generic phase diagram of doping vs. temperature for High Temperature Su-
perconductors (HTSC) presents in the underdoped region a zone called Pseudogap
(PG). The analysis of this region is very interesting since it is believed that it is
deeply related, and therefore can help us understanding better the superconductive
(SC) transition. Different theories exist up to now which try to explain the origin of
the PG and its influence on the SC transition. Some of them see the PG as a pre-
cursor of the superconducting gap, while others see it as a competing phenomenon
which retards the SC transition. In the present work we analyze resistivity measure-
ments in thin films of the high temperature superconductor Y1−x Cax Ba2 Cu3 O7−d ,
for different concentrations of Calcium (x) and Oxygen (d), and its influence on the
PG zone. We discuss our results on the light of some of these theories.

CLACSA XIII
Friday 233

1 11:30 OR-Fr-27

Evaluation of Anodic Thin Films Obtained Over a 2024-T3


Aluminum Alloy by DC Technique
Ariel Camargo lópez1 , Alejandra Rios Rojas1 , Cesar Aromando Ortı́z Otálora1 ,
Enrique Vera López1 , William Aperador Chaparro2
1
Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.
2
Universidad del Valle.

Direct current (DC) technique was employed in order to obtain Al2O3 thin films
over 2024-T3 aluminum under different current densities in a 15solution at 20oC.
For all the cases the anodization time was 30 minutes and applied potential was
monitored using a LabView constructed software. Thin films characterization was
carried out using: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray
diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ruggedness and
Vickers micro-hardness tests. Results show the marked influence of applied current
density in the oxide thin films formation. It was observed that at higher current
densities, thickness and micro-hardness of the films were increased as well. Thus,
thick, uniform and adherent films were obtained. EIS experiments were also used to
evaluate the corrosion process in NaCl as well as the morphology of the oxide film
by correlating obtained data with an appropriate equivalent circuit.In this way, pore
and barrier layer parameters were determined. Finally, it is clear that morphology
and corrosion resistance of anodic films is greatly affected by the applied current
density.

2 11:30 OR-Fr-27

Natural and artificial traps in Organic-Field Effect


Transistors (OFETs)
Beynor Páez1 , Viktoriia Kolotovska1 , Henry Méndez1 , Hernán Rodriguez1 , Luis
Camilo Jiménez1
1
Grupo de Pelı́culas Delgadas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Phenomena developed at the organic-bulk, organic/inorganic or organic1/organic2


interfaces have probed to be crucial for charge transport in organic-based devices.
In this report, natural and induced trap states in Organic Field Effect Transistors
(OFETs) are theoretically investigated. The model considers the natural electron-
and hole-related traps of the OFET device in combination with those promoted by
external fields. The latter trap source is described on the basis of dipole bound states.

CLACSA XIII
234 Friday

It is theoretically demonstrated that the field effect mobility can be quoted basi-
cally in three regimes, i.e. non-field dependent, field-dependent, and non-reversible
electrolite-like dynamics. The OFET equations describing the output characteristics
are solved in a self-consistent way, and no approximation of the Fermionic statistics
for the charge carriers or trap distributions is assumed. Therefore, more accurate
theoretical expressions are obtained, being useful to fit experimental measurements
of the OFET-output characteristics.

1 11:50 OR-Fr-28

CHARGE TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN A HYBRID


METAL / ORGANIC / INORGANIC DEVICE
Henry Méndez1 , Ilja Thurzo2 , Dietrich R. T. Zahn2
1
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
2
Technische Universitaet Chemnitz.

A Metal / organic semiconductor / inorganic semiconductor heterostructure was


built under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions (P ≤ 10 −10 mbar) and character-
ized in situ, in order to investigate the influence of organic thin films of a perylene
derivative (DiMe-PTCDI) on the electrical response of Ag / GaAs Schottky diodes.
The device was analyzed using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spec-
troscopy (UPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrical measurements. A
good fit of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics was obtained using the thermion-
ic emission theory and analytical expressions derived from a trapped charge limited
current (TCLC) model.

2 11:50 OR-Fr-28

XRD, µ-Raman and Optical Absorption investigations of


ZnO deposited by Silar method
C. Vargas-Hernández1 , J. F. Jurado1 , V. Henao1
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Dpto Fı́sica y Quı́mica, Manizales.

ZnO thin films hexagonal structure with preferred (002) orientation, were de-
posited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using a
ZnNO3 bath on glass substrates. They were given Heat Treatment (HT) at different
temperatures during 15 minutes in air. The crystallinity, microstructure and optical
properties were measured and analyzed for both as deposited and annealed films. Ef-
fects of experimental parameters such as number of cycles and HT on the structural,

CLACSA XIII
Friday 235

crystalline and optical properties were discussed. The films were characterized by X-
ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption (UV-Vis) and -Raman. Structural analysis
by XRD pattern showed as deposited ZnO film has highorientation along c-direction
(002), which remained the same with low-intensity while increasing HT temperature.
The HT promotes the orientation in others directions, so the crystallinity is better.
The crystallite size has a value between 25 to 35 nm and it increases with number
of cycles and HT temperature. The band gap energy is from 3.39 to 3.15 eV, the
decreases with HT temperature were observed, changes due to the number of cycles
are no strong. By -Raman spectroscopy, the principal vibration modes around 435
and 579 cm−1 were determined. While the HT temperature increased, the vibration
modes became more intensive and others three peaks appear around 272, 329 and
381 cm−1 , which are attributed to multi-phonon process. The HT around 200 0 C
produces films of more quality than those without HT.

CLACSA XIII
INDEX

A. Dussan, 13 A. Rizzi, 19
A. Cabral-Prieto,, 106 A. Rosales-Rivera, 35, 38
A. Cantarero, 19 A. Ruden, 79, 198
A. Cortes, 81 A. Santana, 31, 188
A. Cruz-Orea, 219 A. Torres-Jacome., 197
A. Devia, 33, 65, 70, 78, 89, 191, 198, 205, A. Tortschanoff, 225
212, 214 A. Urrutia, 215
A. Franco, 147 A. Villada, 101
A. G. de Oliveira, 8 A. Zuñiga, 201
A. Garcı́a, 187, 210 A.Devia, 114
A. Gil, 109 A.Galvis, 64
A. H. Romero, 229 A.I. Martı́nez, 68
A. Hight Walker, 136 A.I. Oliva, 66, 174
A. Hurtado Macias, 74 A.I. Oliva-Avilés, 66
A. J. Martinez-Mendoza, 229 A.L. Cabrera, 112
A. Juan, 74 A.L. Morales, 31
A. L. Cabrera, 25 A.M Muñoz, 79
A. López, 106 A.M. Ardila, 193
A. Latgé, 231 A.Mejı́a, 202
A. Latgé, 149 A.V. Kukhta, 230
A. León, 115 Aarón Pérez-Benı́tez, 70
A. M. Calle, 91, 92 Abel A. Recco, 98
A. M. Campos, 203 Achete, C. A, 112
A. M. Lobo, 134 Adrián Alfaro-Martez, 227
A. Malachias, 8 Adriana Diaz, 87
A. Mariño, 44, 199, 209, 217 Adriana Fontes, 135
A. Mariño., 105 Aldo Aparicio Acosta, 60
A. Miranda, 188, 190 Alejandra Baena, 204
A. Orduña-Diaz, 197 Alejandra Guerrero, 174
A. Pasaje, 86 Alejandra Rios Rojas, 233
A. Pulzara-Mora, 192 Alejandra Tello, 171
A. Ramı́rez-Porras, 94 Alejandro Duran, 105

236
237

Alejandro Pelaez Vargas, 133 C. A. Duque, 52, 58, 100, 169, 172
Alejandro Perez., 95 C. A. Medina-Torres, 53
Alejandro Radillo-Dı́az, 167 C. A. Ortiz, 101
Alexander Perez, 43 C. A. Rinaldi, 173
Alfonso Devia, 71, 128, 144, 204 C. Beltrán, 45
Alfredo Tlahuice, 75 C. Calderón, 181, 195
Alvaro Mariño, 195 C. Cancellieri, 17
Ana L. C. Pereira, 162 C. Celedón, 211
Anderson Sandoval, 175 C. Denker, 19
André P. Tschiptschin, 98 C. Falcony, 89, 217
Andrés Rosales Rivera, 168 C. Gallardo-Vega, 97
Andres Felipe Serna Morales, 81 C. Gutiérrez, 76, 94, 210
Andres Reyes-Lega, 230 C. López-Garcı́a, 200
ANDREY SIMAKOV, 138 C. Mejı́a Morales, 213
Angel Rodrı́guez, 37 C. Mejia, 64
Angela Camacho, 23 C. Morales, 94
Angela S. Camacho, 155 C. Ostos, 92
Angelica Anzola, 168 C. Parra, 150
Anne-Cécile ROGER, 9 C. Rincón, 215
Arezky H. Rodrı́guez, 172 C. Salazar, 212
Arezky H. Rodriguez, 141 C. Serna Plata, 216
Ariel Camargo lópez, 233 C. Vargas-Hernández, 73, 234
Arquı́medes Karam, 154 C.A. Barrero, 31, 50, 91
Arturo I. Martinez, 75 C.E. Jácome, 211
Augusto Gonzalez, 19, 44, 154 César Andrés Amaya, 88
Aurora Canul, 66 César Ortega López, 24
Candi Tzuc, 66
B. L. Rivera, 42
Carlos A. Parra M., 153
B. Lenis, 48
Carlos A. Rincón, 90
B. R. A. Neves, 25, 113
Carlos Achete, 21, 72
B. Santos, 77, 126
Carlos Alberto GUERRERO FAJARDO,
B.-E. Mellander, 131, 193
9
B.E. O’Rourke, 222
CARLOS ARNULFO GÓMEZ OLEJUA,
Beate S. Santos, 135
49
Bernhard Joachim Mokross, 79
Carlos Córdoba, 210
Bertorello H. R., 173
Beynor Páez, 233 Carlos Hernández, 191
Bolı́var-Marinez L.E., 34, 145 Carlos M. Garzón, 98
Boris A. Rodrı́guez, 163 Carlos Montoya Morrón, 173
Boris A. Rodriguez, 19, 44, 153, 154 Carola Hernández, 33
Brad R. Weiner, 5 Carola Hernandez, 224
Bulnes F., 62 Carolina Barrero, 168
Carolina Parra, 7
C. A. Achete, 103 Caros J. Páez, 34
C. A. BARRERO, 177 Cesar Aromando Ortı́z Otálora, 233
C. A. Barrero, 92, 136 Cesar Quiñones, 61, 87, 168

CLACSA XIII
238

Chad Leidy, 33, 224 Dr. Gino Picasso, 14


Claire COURSON, 9 Dr. Ma. del Rosario Sun, 14
Clara Goyes, 37, 108, 114, 128 Dr. Miguel Angel Vicente, 14
Claudia Arguello, 61 Dr. Raquel Trujillano, 14
Claudia Garcı́a Garcı́a, 133 Dr. Sophia A. Korili, 14
Claudilene R. Chaves, 135
Cristiano Legnani, 72 E. B. Saitovitch, 107
Custodio Vásquez Quintero, 131 E. Baca, 23
E. Baggio Saitovitch, 6
D . A. Manjárres, 151 E. Camps, 87
D. Agudelo, 212 E. Cano, 191
D. Ariosa, 17 E. Chan y Diaz, 174
D. Cadavid, 161 E. Chavira, 68
D. Cloetta, 17 E. Cruz-Hernández, 152, 158, 192
D. Damiani, 74 E. Delgado, 92
D. F. Devia, 212 E. Echeverria, 157
D. F. Zuluaga, 101 E. Gómez Barojas, 67, 102, 200
D. Fuchs, 196 E. Gómez-Barojas, 199
D. G. Espinosa, 101 E. HERRERA, 232
D. Hernández, 42 E. Linares, 184
D. Laroze, 38, 158 E. M. Baggio-Saitovitch, 166
D. Lederman, 92 E. Méndez, 106
D. M. Devia, 198 E. Martinez, 176
D. Muraca, 38 E. Mota-Pineda, 166
D. Pavuna, 17 E. Olaya, 55
D. Reyes, 48 E. Pérez, 11
D. S Galeano, 79 E. Ramı́rez, 68
D. Valencia, 35 E. Reyes-Gómez, 42
D.A. Landı́nez Téllez, 150 E. Rosendo, 42, 54, 76, 94, 184, 187, 210
D.F. Devia, 191 E. Rosendo-Andrés, 67, 199
D.J. Rodrı́guez, 85 E. Sánchez Mora, 200
D.J. Rodriguez, 84 E. Sánchez-Mora, 199
D.M Devia, 214 E. Solarte, 114
D.M. Devia, 205 E. Tirapegui, 158
Daniel Scodeler Raimundo, 208 E. Vallejo, 148
Dario Yesid Peña, 145, 194 E. Veázquez-Cruz, 199
Dario Yesid PeñaBallesteros, 131 E. Z. da Silva, 36, 86
David Cárdenas Peña, 81 Edgar Patiño, 124
David Laroze, 155 Edna C. Corredor, 98
Diego Alejandro Ramirez, 33 Eduardo Cisternas, 21
Diego Fernando Arias, 144 EDUARDO OROZCO OSPINO, 55
Diego Ramirez, 224 Efraı́n Solarte, 128
Dietrich R. T. Zahn, 234 Elias López-Cruz, 189
Donovan E. Diaz-Droguett, 8 Elisabeth Restrepo Parra, 81, 93
Dr. Antonio Gil, 14 Elsa Marı́a Materón, 83

CLACSA XIII
239

Enrique Camps, 15, 65, 209 Felipe Valencia H., 167


Enrique Mejı́a-Ospino, 145, 194 FERNANDO HUERTA, 138
Enrique Sánchez-Mora, 182 Fernando Stavale, 21
Enrique V. Anda, 29, 40 Ferney J. Rodriguez, 128
Enrique Vera López, 233 Ferney Javier Rodrı́guez, 132
Estela Gómez-Barojas, 182 Ferreira, N. S, 112
EUNICE VARGAS, 138 Ferrero J. C., 173
Eval Baca, 63, 210 Flavio Augusto Prieto Ortiz, 81
FRANCISCO GARCÍA RUSSI, 49
F. Gordillo Delgado, 213 Francisco J. Espinoza Beltran, 74
F. A. SEGOVIA-CHAVES, 171 Francisco Javier Betancur, 160, 206
F. Avilés, 174 Francisco SANCHEZ, 9
F. Bermeo, 191, 212, 214
F. E. López, 42 G. A. Eimer, 170
F. Espinoza-Beltrán, 53 G. A. Luna-Acosta, 213
F. F. Rico, 114 G. A. Luna-Acosta., 121
F. Flores, 42 G. A. Pérez Alcázar, 175
F. Fonseca, 35, 147 G. Becerra O., 104
F. Garcı́a-Santibáñez, 106 G. Bolaños, 215
F. Gordillo Delgado, 181 G. Brizuela, 74
F. Hevia, 201 G. Campillo, 196
F. J. Culchac, 149 G. Dı́az-Godı́nez, 103
F. J. Espinoza Beltran, 69 G. E. Marques, 156
F. Londoño, 136 G. Fonthal, 63
F. M. Izrailev, 214 G. Galeano, 214
F. Mesa, 195 G. Garcı́a-Salgado, 76, 94, 184, 187, 210
F. Mora, 94 G. Gonzalez de la Cruz, 41, 56
F. Posso, 87 G. Gordillo, 141, 181, 195, 201
F. R. Pérez, 136 G. J. Vázquez, 39, 163
F. Sequeda, 114 G. Juarez, 42, 45
F. Stavale, 103 G. Martinez-Tamayo, 178
F. Yubero, 122 G. Moreno, 117
F. Zarate Rincón, 181 G. Muñoz H, 89, 217
F.A SEGOVIA-CHAVES, 182 G. Pabon, 125
F.J. Litterst, 166 G. Picasso, 109
F.J. NOVEGIL, 177 G. Pozo López, 164
F.J.Rodriguez, 218 G. Ramı́rez G., 15, 65
F.M. Izrailev, 213 G. S. Vieira, 46, 116
F.Werner, 19 G. Soto, 89
Faber Correa, 90 G. Tellez, 130
Faruk Fonthal Rico, 37, 108, 128 G. Torres-Delgado, 95, 111
Fatima Perez, 105 G. Zambrano, 69, 87
Federico Sequeda O., 128 G.Juárez, 54
FELIPE CASTILLÓN, 138 Galo Cárdenas, 171
Felipe Caycedo Soler, 132 GERARDO FONTHAL, 20

CLACSA XIII
240

Gerardo Gordillo, 61, 87, 168 Herbert Vinck Posada, 154


Gerardo Morell, 5 Herbert Vinck Posada, 19, 44
Gilberto Bejarano, 90 Herbert Vinck-Posada, 153, 163
Gilberto Bolaños P, 78, 149, 174 Hernán Rodriguez, 233
Gilmar de Almeida Gomes, 79 Hernán Sánchez Machet, 52
Gloria Borda, 186 Horst Niehus, 21
Guillermo Chiappe, 40 Hugo A. Contreras P., 230
Guillermo Solorzano, 8 Hugo A. Rojas, 186
Gustavo Lara, 161 Hugo Armando Eestupiñan Duran, 131
Gustavo Zambrano, 74, 88 Hugo Estupiñán, 145, 194

H. Ariza-Calderón, 63, 101, 134 I. Bentacourt, 209


H. Carrillo-Nuñez, 121 I. Camarillo, 89, 217
H. CASTRO, 232 I. Hernández, 227
H. Castro, 110 I. N. Volovichev, 132
H. Chacham, 228 I. Oliva, 76
H. E. Caicedo-Ortiz, 47 I. Riech, 95, 111
H. Herrera, 41 I. Rodrı́guez-Vargas, 169
H. Juárez, 54, 76, 94, 187 I.N.Kukhta, 230
H. Juarez, 184, 210 Ignacio L. Garzón, 167
H. M. Pastawski, 1 Ilia D. Mikhailov, 57, 160, 179
Ilja Thurzo, 234
H. Martı́nez., 105
Italo G. Neide, 165
H. Micklitz, 166
Ivan K. Schuller, 169
H. Navarro Contreras, 67
H. Niehus, 103 J. A. Franco, 159
H. Paredes Gutiérrez, 156 J. A. Mendez-Bermudez, 214, 229
H. Ponce-Flores, 152 J. A. Olarte, 199
H. S. RUIZ, 36 J. A. Ortega Vela, 181
H. Sánchez, 217 J. A. Pedraza Avella, 11
H. Sánchez Sthepa, 175 J. Albino Aguiar, 12, 119
H. Sirkin, 38 J. Bautista, 202
H.A. Castillo, 89 J. Buitrago, 77, 126
H.Arzate, 15, 65 J. C GRANADA E., 171
H.Castro, 2, 64 J. C. Caicedo, 69, 87
H.Y. Valencia, 193 J. C. González, 8
Héctor Castro, 164 J. C. Granada, 86, 159
Hanz Y. Ramirez, 155 J. C. Martı́nez-Orozco, 169
Harvy Alirio Castillo, 71 J. Cardona, 150
Harvy Alirio Cuero, 204 J. Carlos Egues, 152
Hector Castro, 191 J. Carrillo, 184
Hector Jackson Ocampo, 33, 224 J. Conrado, 184
Hector Mauricio Martinez Camargo, 186 J. Cruz, 110
Henry Méndez, 233, 234 J. D. Correa, 150
Henry M. Ortiz S., 167 J. E. Alfonso, 77, 126
Henry Riascos Landázuri, 71 J. E. Diosa, 55, 101

CLACSA XIII
241

J. E. Rodrı́guez., 105 J. S. Oyola, 201


J. E. Valdés, 211 J. S. Rojas-Ramı́rez, 192
J. E. Velázquez-Pérez, 132 J. S. Rojas-Ramirez, 158
J. E. Villegas, 169 J. Segura, 19
J. F. Jurado, 73, 216, 234 J. Sierra-Ortega, 57
J. F. Marco, 77, 126 J. Tobón, 136
J. F. Reina, 35 J. Torres, 77, 126
J. Fernández P, 45 J. Virgilio N, 151
J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, 95 J.-G. Ramı́rez, 169
J. G. Mendoza-Álvarez, 152 J.A. Cardona-Bedoya, 219
J. G. Mendoza-Alvarez, 53 J.A. Dı́az, 89
J. Giraldo, 132 J.A. Méndez-Bermúdez., 121
J. Heiras, 22, 176 J.A. Peñafiel, 134
J. Hernández-Rosas, 152, 158 J.C Idrobo, 16
J. J. GIRALDO, 36 J.C. GRANADA, 182
J. Juárez-Hernández, 103 J.C. Giraldo, 211
J. L. Carrillo, 125 J.C. Granada E., 104
J. L. Galán, 110 J.C.Caicedo, 176
J. L. González-Arango, 8
J.D. Arboleda, 91, 92
J. L. Herrera-Perez, 95
J.E. Corona, 174
J. L. Jiménez Pérez, 80
J.E. Rodriguez, 161
J. M. Caicedo, 22, 48
J.F. Gómez, 134
J. M. CALERO, 171
J.G. Mendoza-Alvarez, 111, 219, 223
J. M. Calero, 36, 86
J.H. Quintero, 65, 205
J. M. Gonzalez, 198
J.H.Castillo, 83
J. M. Greneche, 175
J.J. BELTRÁN, 177
J. M. Meza, 110
J. Malindretos, 19 J.J. Olaya, 15, 65, 209
J. Martı́nez, 42, 54, 187, 210 J.L. Herrera-Perez, 111, 219
J. Mazo-Zuluaga, 229 J.L. Jiménez Pérez, 122
J. Mazo-Zuluga, 198 J.L. Jiménez-Pérez, 59
J. Mejı́a-López, 229 J.M Gonzales, 78, 79
J. Mendoza-Alvarez, 56 J.M., 31
J. Muñoz-Saldaña, 69 J.M. CALERO, 182
J. Narváez, 81 J.M. Gonzalez, 65
J. Niño, 33 J.M. Villas-Boas, 223
J. Osorio, 91, 92 J.M.Florez, 153
J. P. Londoño, 65 J.R. Suárez, 148
J. P. Wiff, 100 J.S. Ceron-Arias, 219
J. Prado, 205 J.S. Oyola, 141
J. Prado, M. E. Gómez, W. Lopera y P. J.S. Rojas-Ramı́rez, 152
Prieto, 5 Jaime Andres Pérez Taborda, 71
J. Restrepo, 198, 229 Jaime Arturo, 61
J. Reyes-Salgado., 121 Jaime Torres, 137, 186
J. Roa-Rojas, 12, 119, 150 Jairo Arbey Rodrı́guez Martı́nez, 24

CLACSA XIII
242

JAIRO HUMBERTO MARÍN CADAVID, K. E. Garcia, 136


49 K. Hallberg, 4
Jairo Humberto Marin Cadavid, 160, 206 K. Nomura, 50, 91, 92
Javier Avalos, 5 K. Villa Gómez, 213
Javier Benavidez, 210 K.E. Garcı́a, 31
Javier Nossa, 23
Jeimmy Ayala, 168 L. A. Pérez, 188
JESUS D. GONZALEZ ACOSTA, 55 L. C. Jiménez A., 97
Jesus D: Gonzáles, 51 L. E. Bolı́var Martı́nez, 147
Jesus Heiras, 105, 174 L. E. Oliveira, 3, 42, 58
Jesus Siqueiros, 105 L. Escobar Alarcón, 65
Joel Dı́az-Reyes, 70, 86, 189 L. Escobar Alarcon, 15
Jorge Orozco Velazco, 60 L. Escobar-Alarcón, 209
Jorge Ramos, 215 L. Escobar-Alarcon, 87
José E. Alfonso, 98 L. Huerta, 68
José E. Nocua, 5 L. Ipaz, 87
José Edgar Alfonso, 186 L. Jaimes Osorio, 45
José J. Barba, 51 L. Lewyanvoon, 30
José J. Martı́nez Z., 186 L. M. Fabietti, 45
JOSÉ JOAQUÍN VIVAS MORENO, 26 L. M. Pérez, 38
José Peña Suárez, 154 L. Mestres, 92
JOSE BARBA ORTEGA, 55 L. Pérez-Hernández, 200
Jose Rafael Narvaez Altamiranda, 168 L. Ping-Hui, 17
Josep Pallar, 37, 108 L. Prieto-López, 122
Juan Carlos Banthi, 227 L. Quiroga, 157
Juan Carlos Piña Velásquez, 206 L. Rosales, 231
Juan Carlos Riaño Rojas, 81 L. Sinhue, 229
Juan David Uribe Vélez, 184 L. Tirado-Mejı́a, 63, 101, 134
Juan Esteban Barreiro, 61 L. Ulloa, 96
Juan Jose Morales, 78 L. Yate, 69, 87
Juan Muñoz Saldaña, 74 L.C. Jiménez B., 97
Juan P. Restrepo, 163 L.C. Moreno, 161, 193, 199
Juana L. Gervasoni, 185 L.C. Sánchez, 91
Juana. L Gervasoni, 220 L.C. Sanchez, 92
Julián J. Rincón, 49 L.Cota, 97
Julian A. Zuñiga, 58 L.D. López-Carreño, 82, 84, 85, 99, 203
Juliana González, 191 L.T. Corredor, 12, 119
Juliana Rendón Vera, 133 Laura Savino, 33, 224
Juliana Restrepo, 44 Leandro Raniero, 72
Julio Andrés Pedraza Avella, 10, 221 Legnani, C, 112
Julio César Caicedo, 74, 88, 90 Leonardo Salazar A, 149
Julio Elı́as Pedraza Rosas, 10, 221 Lilia M. Montes, 141
Julio Mendoza-Alvarez, 189 Lilian Cristina Agudelo, 71, 204
LILIANA TIRADO, 20
K. E. GARCÍA, 177 Lina Maria Franco Arias, 71

CLACSA XIII
243

Lucero Alvarez Miño, 196 M. Quintana, 11


Luis A. Pérez, 167 M. Rivera, 15, 65, 209
Luis Angel Yate, 74 M. Rojas-López, 103
Luis Cajamarca, 39 M. Rojas-Lopez, 197
Luis Camilo Jiménez, 233 M. Rubı́n, 187, 210
Luis Francisco Garcı́a Russi, 179 M. Segura, 178
Luis Quiroga, 39, 128, 132 M. V. B. Moreira, 8
M. Villafuerte, 45
M. Rubı́n, 76 M.A. Vicente, 109
M. A. Vidal Borbolla, 67, 102 M.E. Gomez, 150
M. Abrecht, 17 M.E. Rodrı́guez-Garcı́a, 134
M. Avignon, 148 M.E. Zavala-Soto, 103
M. Becerril, 53 M.H. Farias, 96
M. Bibbins-Martı́nez, 103, 197 M.I. Oliva, 170
M. Botero, 141, 201 M.J. Iqbal, M.N. Ashiq, 41
M. C. M. Farias, 110 M.L. Gomez-Herrera, 111
M. Camargo, 188 M.P. Hernandez, 96
M. Cruz-Irisson, 188, 190 M.P. Pires, 223
M. D. Martins, 140 M.R. Sun Kou, 109
M. de los Rı́os, 63 Manuel José Andrade Romero, 131
M. del Castillo-Mussot, 39, 163 Marı́a E. Ramı́rez, 128
M. E. Gómez, 81 Marı́a L. Ladrón de Guevara, 161
M. E. Espitia, 214 Marcos Flores, 21
M. E. Fernández, 101 Margarita López Alzate, 52
M. E. Gómez, 196, 205 Mariño C Álvaro, 175
M. E. Gomez, 22 Maria A. Davidovich, 40
M. E. Mora-Ramos, 169, 172 Maribel Contreras Villegas, 60
M. E. Ramı́rez O., 97 Mario Zapata H, 185
M. Flores, 222 Mario Zapata Herrera, 220
M. Gómez, 38 Mauro Sergio Braga, 183
M. Garcı́a-Hipólito, 89, 217 Mayamarú Guerra, 146
M. Grisales, 22, 176 Miguel Angel Ramos, 146
M. Henini, 130 Miguel Galván-Arellano, 70, 86
M. J. M. Pires, 140 Miguel Tafur, 107
M. Knobel, 140
M. L Gomez-Herrera, 95 N. Cano Murillo, 216
M. L. Martı́nez-Sarrión, 92 N. Garro, 19
M. López-López, 152, 158, 192 N. Muñoz-Aguirre, 56
M. M. Falla Solórzano, 147 N. Porras-Montenegro, 39, 43, 47, 51, 149,
M. Melendez-Lira, 166 163
M. Ortega, 76 N. R. Arista, 211
M. P. Pires, 25, 113 N. Studart, 223
M. Pacheco, 58, 115, 150, 231 N. T. Nava-Entzana, 106
M. Pacio, 94, 210 N.M. Makarov, 213
M. Perez, 44 Néstor Cubillán, 146

CLACSA XIII
244

Nancy Gamez, 87 P. Rappl, 140


Natalia Montoya, 87 P. Rodrı́guez, 56
Nelson Elias Rincon, 186 P. Rodriguez-Fragoso, 95, 111
NELSON PORRAS MONTENEGRO, 20, P. S. S. Guimarães, 46
26 P. S. S. Guimaraes, 113, 116
Nilson Ferreira, 72 P. S. S. Guimar aes, 25
P. T. Valentim, 25, 113
O. Álvarez-Fregoso, 89, 217
P. Vargas, 153, 158, 211
O. Checa, 55
P. Venegas, 53
O. L. Neyra Bueno, 230
P.D.Manrique, 218
O. Morán, 23, 196
P.F. Lombana, 214
O. Navarro, 148
P.G. Reyes, 106
O. Portillo-Moreno, 42, 54
P.J. Arango, 33, 198
O. Rodrı́guez, 181
P.L. de Souza, 223
O. Suarez, 158
P.Prieto, 69, 87
O. Trujillo, 70
Pérez-Merchancano S.T., 34, 145
O. Zelaya-Angel, 54, 56, 219
Paola Lazcano, 137
O.L. Cortes-Bracho, 99
Patrı́cia Maria A. Farias, 135
O.V.Khristophorov, 230
Patricio H, 171
O.Zelaya-Angel, 53
Patricio Herle, 7, 137
Ober L. Hernández Rosero, 58
Patricio Reyes, 186
Olaya F John Jairo, 175
Patricio Vargas, 21, 155
Oliva M. I., 173
Paula Giraldo., 95
Omar Paredes, 210
Pedro A. Orellana, 24
Omar Suárez, 155
Oscar Rodriguez, 87 Pedro Nel Sánchez, 164
Oscar Alexander Trujillo, 71 Pedro Orellana, 161
Oswaldo Morán, 210 Pedro Prieto, 74, 88
Oswaldo Moran, 63 Perarnau M., 62
Peter A. B. Schulz, 129
P. A. Schulz, 143 Peter A. Schulz, 34, 121, 162
P. Aristizábal, 100 Piratoba M. Ulises, 175
P. Bartolo-Pérez, 181 Porfirio D. Rosendo Francisco, 60
P. Garcés, 217 Próspero Acevedo Peña, 10, 221
P. Häberle, 2
P. Haberle, 169 R-Ribeiro Andrade, 8
P. Hernández-Gómez, J.M Muñoz, 41 R. A Vargas, 101
P. J. Arango, 70 R. A. Escorcia, 57
P. L. Souza, 25, 113 R. A. Segura, 169
P. Leyton, 53 R. A. Vargas, 55, 131, 193
P. Medina, 110 R. A. Zárate, 100
P. Moser, 158 R. A.Vargas, 83
P. Motisuke, 140 R. Aguilar-Sanchez, 229
P. Orellana, 231 R. B. de Oliveira Jr, 140
P. Pineda-Gomez, 38 R. BAQUERO, 36
P. Prieto, 22, 48, 81, 92, 176, 205 R. Castillo, 42

CLACSA XIII
245

R. Delgado-Macuil, 103, 197 Rojas Daniel, 175


R. Espinosa, 53 Rosbel Jiménez, 195
R. Galeazzi, 42 Rubén A. Vargas, 207
R. Galeazzi-Isasmendi, 67 Rubén G. Barrera, 119
R. Goldhahn, 158 Rubén Vargas, 88
R. H. Buitrago, 13 Rutilo Silva-González, 182
R. Jiménez., 105
R. L. Restrepo, 100 S. A. Tomas, 56
R. Lozada-Morales, 54 S. B. Cavalcanti, 134
R. M. Gutiérrez, 31, 188 S. Calderón V., 209
S. E. Urreta, 45, 164, 170
R. M. Serrano Rojas, 102
S. Fuentes, 25, 53, 112, 201
R. M. Souza, 110
S. G. Casuscelli, 170
R. Machorro, 122
S. Gallardo-Hernández, 152
R. Martı́nez-Martı́nez, 89, 217
S. Heluani, 45
R. Mejia-Salazar, 51
S. Hevia, 2, 169
R. Ospina, 70, 78
S. J. Allen, 46, 116
R. Palomino-Merino, 54
S. Muhl, 15, 65, 209
R. Patiño, 66
S. Oros-Ruiz, 11
R. R. Koropecki, 13
S. P. Silvetti, 164, 170
R. R. Rey-González, 143
S. Simonetti, 74
R. R. Rodriguez, 175
S. T Pérez-Merchancano, 47
R. Ramı́rez-Bon, 53
S. T. Pérez Merchancano, 147
R. RANGEL, 138
S. T. Pérez-Merchancano, 156
R. Segura, 2
S. Tougaard, 97
R. Silva González, 67, 102, 200
S. Vargas, 79
R. Trujillano, 109
S. Y. López, 52
R.A. Zárate, 112
S.A. Korili, 109
R.A. Zarate, 25, 53, 201
S.E. Rodil, 15, 65
R.H Buitrago, 28
S.M. Delgadillo, 14, 109
Rafael Cabanzo, 145, 194
S.M. Kazakov, 230
Rafael Cogollo, 195
S.M. Landi, 223
Ramón Peña-Sierra, 86
S.M. Ramos-Arteaga, 39, 163
Ramirez-Pastor A.J., 62
Sı́lvio R. Dahmen, 165
Raniero, L, 112
Salazar-Valencia P.J., 34, 145
Regina Célia B. Q. Figueiro, 135
Sebastián Gonlves, 165
Reinaldo Atencio, 146 Sebastian Amaya Roncancio, 93
Renata Simão, 72 Sergio Ulloa, 141
Ricardo Ferreira, 135 Servio T. Perez Merchancano, 58
Ricardo Gómez, 10, 221 Shilrley Gomez, 151
Ricardo Vega Monroy, 173 Simão, R. A, 112
Robert Bartynski, 137 Sonia Gaona, 174
ROBERT SANCHEZ, 20 Sylvie Rangan, 137
Roberto Escudero, 105
Roberto Parı́s, 128 T. Dı́az, 54
Rodrigo A. Segura, 171 T. Diaz, 76, 94, 184, 187, 210

CLACSA XIII
246

T. Schwarz, 196 Walter Jaimes Salcedo, 60, 183, 208


Trifon Trifonov, 37 Weber da Silva Robazzi, 79
Trifon Trifonov, Angel Rodrı́guez, 108 William Aperador, 88
William Aperador Chaparro, 233
U. Caldiño, 89, 217 WILLIAM GUTIÉRREZ NIÑO, 49
uliano dos Santos Gonschorowski, 183 William Gutiérrez Niño, 179
William J. Herrera, 151
V. Esaulov, 222
William Rafael López Pérez, 24
V. Fuenzalida, 17
William Vallejo, 61
V. H. Zapata, 193
Wilmer Saldarriaga, 63
V. Henao, 73, 234
V. J. Benavides, 198, 205 X. Rodriguez, 33
V. Leyton, 36
V. Lozada Dircio, 200 Y. Matsumoto, 94
V. M Fuenzalida, 25 Y. C. Arango, 70
V. M. Fuenzalida, 100 Y. Labaye, 198
V. P. Nascimento, 107 Y. Yamazaki, 222
V. R. Elı́ as, 170 Yenni Farfán, 66
V.H. Méndez-Garcı́a, 192 Yesid Montoya Góez, 133
V.J. Benavides, 65 Ysaı́as J. Alvarado, 146, 154
V.J.Benavides, 33 Yu. G. Gurevich, 132
V.M. Fuenzalida, 112, 201 Yulieth Cristina Arango, 71
V.M. Fuenzalidad, 53
Z. Barticevic, 58, 115, 150, 231
Valentin Dorantes-Garcı́a, 70
Z. H. Zapata, 131
Valery Shchesnovich, 134
Zandalazini C. I., 173
Victor M. Apel, 24
Zgrablich G., 62
Victor M. Fuenzalida, 8
Zulia Caamaño, 168
Viktoriia Kolotovska, 233

W. Cauich, 76
W. A. A. Macedo, 140
W. A. Castro, 131
W. A. Pacheco Serrano, 204
W. Alayo, 107
W. Aperador, 87
W. C. Nunes, 140
W. D. Brewer, 107
W. De La Cruz, 89, 97, 122, 215
W. H. M. Feu, 46, 116
W. Hernandez, 190
W. Ibáñez, 2
W. Lopera, 48, 205
W. Ospina, 100
W. Saldarriaga, 23
W. T. Herrera, 166
Waldemar Macedo, 7

CLACSA XIII