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Lecture 9 Outline:

AM and FM Modulation
l Announcements:
l HW deadline changed to 5pm Fridays
l Grader position open; let us know if you are interested

l Review of Last Lecture

l Amplitude Modulation
l AM Radio
l Quadrature Modulation
l Frequency Modulation
Review of Last Lecture
Discrete-Time Downsampling:
l Digital Downsampling
l Removes samples of x(nTs) for n≠MTs
l Used under storage/comm. constraints
xd[n]=x(nTs) xc[n]
By M
0 1 23 … 0 1 2 3 4
l Repeats Xd(ejW) every 2p/M and scales W axis by M
l This results in a periodic signal Xc(ejW) every 2p
l Introduces aliasing if Xd(ejW) bandwidth exceeds p/M
l Can prefilter Xd(ejW) by LPF with bandwith p/M prior to
downsampling to avoid downsample aliasing
Xdd(ejjWW’’) Xc(ejW)

… ……
-p/M p/M W’ -2p -p p 2p W=MW’
0 0
Ts 𝑋𝑑 𝑒 $% = ∑@
A2,@ 𝑋 𝑗
Xs(jw) W=wTs Xd(ejW)

w w
-W 0 W -2p
0 2p
0 2p W

MTs '
𝑋𝐶 𝑒 $% = ∑@ 𝑋 𝑗 9:;<C
Xs(jw) (56 E2,@ D>?

X(jw) W=wMTs Xc(ejW)

w w
-W 0 W -2p
MT 0 2p
0 2p W
@ (,' @
𝑙 = 𝑘𝑀 + 𝑚: ) =) )
E2,@ /23 A2,@
@ (,' @ (,'
1 %,-.E 1 1 %,-.(A(J/) (9)
𝑋𝐶 𝑒 $% = ) 𝑋 𝑗 (56
= ) ) 𝑋 𝑗 (56
=( ) 𝑋𝑑 𝑒 $(%,-./)/(
𝑀𝑇𝑠 𝑀 𝑇𝑠
E2,@ /23 A2,@ /23

𝑋𝑐 𝑒 $% = ( ) 𝑋𝑑 𝑒 $(%,-./)/(

Xd(ejW) Xc(ejW)
xd[n] xc[n]=xd[nM]

0123… -p/M p/M W 0 1 2 3 4 -2p 2p W

0 2p 0
Communication System
Block Diagram
bits : b1b2 ...
analog signal : m(t ) Modulator
s(t ) sˆ(t )
Demodulator bˆ1bˆ2 ...
Channel mˆ ( t )
(Transmitter) (Receiver)

l Modulator (Transmitter) converts message signal or bits into

format appropriate for channel transmission (analog signal).
l Channel introduces distortion, noise, and interference.
l Demodulator (Receiver) decodes received signal back to
message signal or bits.
l Focus on modulators with s(t) at a carrier frequency wc. Allows
allocation of orthogonal frequency channels to different users
Amplitude Modulation
l Double sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC)
l Modulated signal is s(t)=m(t)cos(wct)
l Signal bandwidth (bandwidth occupied in positive frequencies) is 2W
s(t ) = m(t ) cos(wct ) Û .5[ M ( j (w - wc )) + M ( j (w + wc ))]
M ( jw ) W
USB S ( jw ) USB
w w
-W W -wc wc
l Redundant information: can either transmit upper sidebands
(USB) only or lower sidebands (LSB) only and recover m(t)
l Single sideband modulation (SSB); uses 50% less bandwidth (less $$$)
l Demodulator for DSBSC/SSB:
cos(wct) multiply by cos(wct) and LPF
-wc wc X
-2wc 0 2wc
AM Radio
M ( jw )
ka A 1 cos(wct) s(t)=[A+kam(t)]coswct
ka M ( jw )

-W W
-W W -wc wc
m(t) + X

l Broadcast AM has s(t)=[1+kam(t)]cos(wct) with [1+kam(t)]>0

l Constant carrier cos(wct) carriers no information; wasteful of power
l Can recover m(t) with envelope detector (diode, resistors, capacitor)
l Modulated signal has twice bandwidth W of m(t), same as DSBSC

Quadrature Modulation
Sends two info. signals on the cosine and sine carriers
DSBSC m1(t)
Demod LPF



DSBSC m2(t)
FM Modulation
(not covered in lecture)
l Message signal m(t) encoded in carrier frequency
l FM modulated signal:
l Instantaneous frequency: wi=wc+kfm(t)
l Signal robust to amplitude variations and reflections
l Frequency analysis nonlinear (hard, will skip)

l Frequency Deviation: Df=kf max|m(t)|

l Maximum deviation of wi from wc: wi=wc+kfm(t)
l Carson’s Rule for bandwidth of s(t):
Depends on max deviation from
Bs»2Df+2Bm wc and how fast wi changes
l FM Demod: Differentiator + Envelope Detector
Main Points
l Modulation is the process of encoding an analog message
signal (or bits) into a carrier signal
l DSBSC multiplies the message signal and the carrier together.
l Synchronous demodulation multiplies by the carrier and then uses a
LPF. Requires learning carrier phase at receiver (hard!)
l Broadcast AM uses extra carrier term to simplify reception

l SSB is a spectrally efficient AM technique with half the BW

requirements of standard AM and DSBSC.

l Quadrature modulation sends two different signals in the same

bandwidth using sin and cosine carriers (which are orthogonal)
l FM modulation encodes information in signal frequency. More
robust to amplitude errors and signal reflections than AM