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# 1. (n) Two shunt generators operating in parallel deliver a total current of 250 A.

## One of the generators is rated 50 kW and the other 100

kW. The voltage rating of both machines is 500 V and have regulations of 6 per cent (smaller one) and 4 percent. Assuming linear
characteristics, determine (»') the current delivered by each machine, and (nj terminal voltage. (10)
A 240 V series motor takes 40 A when giving its rated output at
1500 rpm. Its resistance is 0-3 ohm. Find what resistance must be added to obtain rated torque at starting. (5)
(b) Where is Swinburn's test applicable ? What are the advantages
and disadvantages of Swinburn's test ? (5)
Explain the simple switching sequence for on-load tap changing with neat diagrams. 0°)
(c) With neat connection diagram, explain the del szig-zagstar
connection.
(d) What are the advantages (any five) of using three-phase
transformer compared to single-phase transformer ?
Q. 3 (<i) Explain the EMF method of predetermining the voltage regulation of synchronous generator with phase diagram. (10)
(b, What is known as synchronizing ? Write three conditions for proper synchronization of three-phase synchronous generators. (5)
(c) Describe briefly how is synchronizing of synchronous generator obtained (any one method) ?
Explain how will you obtain:
(i)minimum torque (rr) starting torque, and
(in) maximum output from the circle diagram. Ii
(<•) Writ neat diagram, explain the variable frequency speed control of a 3-phase induction motor.
A 3phase ,400/200V,Y_Y connected would moto-roto induction motor has 0.6 rotor resistance and 3.-.3 standstill reactance per phase,
Reactance phase find the additional resistance required in the rotor circuit to make the staring
Starting torque equal to maximum torque of the motor.
Explain the Procedure for the construction of circle- diagram of 3-phase induction motor. < '
(6, Explain how will you obtain:
(i) maximum torque (rr) starting torque, and
(in) maximum output from the circle diagram. Ii
(<•) With neat diagram, explain the variable frequency speed control of a 3-phase induction motor.
Describe the capacitor start type of single-phase induction motor with neat diagram. ,S|
<t>) Explain the operation ot shaded pole single phase induction motor with diagrams. Q
(How the direction of rotation of a repulsion start Induction run motor is reversed.
motor is reversed ?
Solution, («) Fig 8 (<t) shows die diagram of a single phase<., ,,.k,, , start motor In this, die necessary
phase difference is produced betw ,Vt. , / and/wb> connoctingacupacitor Miseries with the starting wind,,,,. ,v |
Describe the control scheme for 2-phase servo-motor
drawing the torque-speed characteristics. expain the characteristics of a.c. servomotor. 'P^in
Id What are the advantages of a.c servomotor.
1)why are d.c shunt generators more suitable for parallel operation.2) Factors controlling the speed of
d.c shunt motor
3) any teo merits of Hopkinson`s test on dc shunt mototrs. 4) methods of starting 3-phase induction
motors
Define voltage regulation of an alternator.when is a synchronous motor called as a synchronous
capacitor.
What is known as crawling of an induction motor ’
What is a servomotor ?
For a separately ••%« »•••«! «d.c motor explain tin methods of npci-d control by (0 armature voltage
control, (u) field flux control, and (or) armature resistance control. Draw speed-torque curve* for these
methods of speed control, and discuss their merits and limitation*.
Why is the field-flux-speed control method tailed a constant power drive? (3)
A 220 V shunt motor with an armature resistance of 0.50 is excited to give constant main field. At full-
load the meter runs at 54M)rpm and takes an armature current of 30 A. If a resistance of IO is placed in
the armature circuit, find the speed at double full-load torque, and the stalling torque. (h|
What type of winding is used with three-phase core type transformer? How are they arranged? Why are
the joints between limbs and yokes interleaved? (7)
(e) Give the delta-wye arrangement of transformers so that line-to-linc voltages at the secondaries
lead by 30° from the line-to-linc voltages at the primaries. Explain the phase difference with relevant
phasor diagram. What are the specific advantages of delta-wye connection? (6)
(f) Each of a delta-delta bank of transformers is rated at 50 k.V A 11,000/400 V and the bank
supplies 100 k V A at 0.8 pf lagging. If one transformer is removed, calculate for the remaining
transformers percentage increase in load on each transformer, and the line currents on the 11 kV side.
Explain clearly the terms direct- and qudrature-axis synchronous reactances of a salient-pole machine.
How can they be experimentally determined?

## What condition are necessary for paralleling a synchronous

generator with an infinite bus? Justify them. Why must the oncoming generator on a power system be
paralleled at a higher frequency than that of the running system? (4+4)

A salient-pole synchronous generator, with negligible resistance, has the following per unit parameters
X ■ 0.6, xrf = 0.8
If the generator is supplying rated k V A at rated voltage and at 0.8 p.f lagging. Calculate the load angle
and excitation emf. (6)
A synchronous motor is said to have no net starting torque. Why? How can a synchronous motor be
started against high- torque loads? (5*2)

## Explain with phasor diagrams how the power-factor of a

synchronous motor working on a constant mechanical load depends on its excitation. (5)

## What are the differences in the constructional features of

synchronous condensers and synchronous motors? (3)
A synchronous motor is supplying a constant load. How will its efficiency be affected when its
operation is shifted from lag to lead condition having the same power factor.
What are the methods for speed control of squirrel cage induction motor’ Describe the methds and their
principles. (10)
What information are obtained from locked rotor and no-
load tests on an induction motor? Justify them. (5)
(g) Determine approximately the starting torque of an induction
motor in terms of full-load torque when started by means of an autotransformer with 50% tapping. The
short-circuit current of the motor at normal voltage is five times the full-load current and the fullload
slip is 5%. (5,
(a) Develop a simple circle diagram for a single-phase uncompensated series motor. (8)
(h) Why is the torque-speed characteristic of an a.c. uncompensated series motor different than the
torque-speed characteristic of the same motor on a d.c. source. Derive the following relation between
a.c. and d.c. speeds for the same current and voltage
* ,r cos>-
n
at ~ _____V.
V
How is the torque developed in a single-phase single winding induction motor according to double
revolving field theory?
(b) How is the starting torque produced in a shaded-pole motor? Explain with relevant phasor diagram.
(r) What are the high-impedance and low-impedance positions of repulsion motor? Sketch the stator
current variation from low impedance position to high impedance position. Hence, show the torque
variation of the motor on the same sketch.
A salient pole synchronous motor is running on no load from an infinite bus. If its field excitation is reduced to zero,
what would
happen to the motor?
(n) Why does the synchronous impendance method to determine the voltage regulation give pessimistic value at
(tri) Determination of synchronous reactance of an alternator from open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics
gives practically direct-axis synchronous reactance. Why is it so?
(rv) Why reduced voltage starting of induction motor is not always desirable?
(e) If the air gap flux is kept constant, will the reduction of supply frequency affect the pull out torque of an
induction motor ?

(vi) What would happen to the speed and the armature current of a d.c. shunt motor if the supply voltage is halved
but the load torque is kept constant?
(toi) In Hopkinson's method of test with two identical d.c. machines works with greater iron loss, and why?
(VIII) Secondary’s of a three-phase transformer bank are connected in delta, if the phase voltages are each equal to
V, what emf would act around the delta if one phase were reversed?
(uj What happens if the capacitor is left in the circuit of a capacitor-star single-phase induction when it comes to its
full speed?
(x) How many emfs act in a coil undergoing commutation in an
a.c. series motor, and what are their phase relations?
Describe the main features of windings for dc machines. Differentiate between lap and wave winding
and name their field of applications. (6)
(i) Describe the Hopkinson test for obtaining the efficiency (q) of two (preferably) identical dc
shunt motors. List merits of this test.
(6)

## (j) A dc shunt generator delivers 195 ampere at a terminal

potential difference of 250 V. The armature and shunt field resistance are 0.02 ohm and 50 ohm,
respectively. The iron and frictional losses equal to 950 W. Find (i) E.M.F. generated, (ii) Cu losses, (iii)
Output of the prime mover, (iv) commercial, mechanical and electrical efficiencies.
(a) State with the help of connections and vector diagrams, how 2-phase supply can be obtained from a
3-phase supply with t he help of two single-phase transformers.
List four possible ways of connecting a bank of three transformers (single phase) for three-phase
supply system. State the applications and advantages of each connection.
Explain. with the help of neat phase diagram, the loJd characteristics of an Alternator when it delivers load at unity,
lagging
(b) Discuss the physical significance attached to 'direct' and quadrature 'axes reactance’s related to a salient pole and
cylindrical, rotor synchronous machines. Also describe (briefly, an experimental method for their determination.
(7)
(c, A 3-phase star-connected alternator has the following data voltage required to be generated on open-circuit;
4000 V at power frequency, speed: 500 rpm, stator slots/pole/phase; 3 and conductor/ slot 12- Calculate (i) number
of poles and (ii) useful flux/pole. Assume all conductor/phase to be connected in series and coil to be full pitch

Draw and explain the phase diagrams of a 3-phase synchronous motor operating at (i) leadings pf, (ii) unity pf, and
(iii) lagging pf- (6)
(k) Develop the expression for power input and power developed of a synchronous motor having non-salient
poles. (6)
(l) A11 kV, 3-phase, star-connected synchronous motor draws
a current of 45 A. The effective resistance and reactance (synchronous) per phase are 0-9 ohms and 28 ohms,
respectively. Calculate the power supplied to the motor and induced emf for a power factor of: (i) 0-8 lagging and
Develop an equivalent circuit of a 3-phase induction motor (/) on no-lo.id, (fr) on normal running
condition, anil (»»/) on
standstill condition.
(/>) I xplain, how the performance of an 3-phase induction motoi is evaluated with the help of no-load
test and blocked rotor test performed on it. (6)
(c) A 3-3 k V, 20-pole, 50 Hz, 3-phase induction motor has rot,., resistance and standstill reactance of
0014 ohms and 0113 ohm respectively. Calculate ft) the speed at which the torque developed is
maximum, |/i) theratioof full-load torque toa maximum toique, if Un
load torque is delivered at 288 rpm. (g)
State, the different methods of speed-control of a 3-phase induction motor and discuss any method in detail. Also,
Explain the phenomenon of Cogging and Crawling in an 3-phase induction motor. (6)
(c) A 3-phase, squirrel-cage induction motor has a short-circuit current equal to4 times the full-load current. Find
the starting torque
as a percentage of full-loac'iff motor is started by :
(r) direct switching to the supply mains;
(«) a star-delta starter;
(MI) an auto-transformer;
(rt>) a resistance in the stator circuit;
The stator current in (in) and (w) is limited to 2 times the lull load current. Civen full-load slip is 3 percent. (8)
Discuss common problems of electrical machines when used in control system, and suggest their remedies. (
Describe field control scheme for a separately excited dc servomotor. Support your answer with the help of a
schematic diagram.
Explain the operation of dc techogenerators with the help of a neat diagram.
Using double revolving filed theory, explain the principle of operation of single phase induction motor
Explain why are small fractional horse power ac serial motors called universal motor
Explain the constructional details and working principle of repulsion start induction run (single phase)induction
motor
Discuss the following in brief: (2» 10)
(r) Why are equalizer rings used in lap wound dc machines ?
(") How is the polarity of an commutating pole assigned in a dc
generator ?
(m) Why is the presence of equalizer bar essential for parallel operation of compound generators and where should
it be connected?
(MI) A dc series motor should not be allowed fo run without load, why?
(m) What factor makes 'all day efficiency' different to 'conventional efficiency' in a transformer ?
(PI) In a double-cage 3-phasc induction motor, the inner cage has lower resistance but higher inductance value as
compared to the outer cage, why ?
(wi) Justify for provision of both radial and axial ducts in a cylindrical rotor alternator.
(MM) Why is amortiser winding is provided in a synchronous motor?
(»x) Which of the parameters of an series motor makes it ideally suited for traction system ?
(x) Why does the power factor of industrial installations tend to be (low) poor. Suggest how it can be improved.
A. d.c. series motor takes 50 A from 250 V supply and i runs at 1000 rpm. The armature and field
resistances total 0-6 Q. Th, load torque is proportional to square of speed. Find the external resistance in
series with the armature to reduce the speed to 641 rpm. (10
The Hopkinson's test on two shunt machines gave the follow in| results for full load. Line voltage 250 V
; Line current (excluding field currents) 50 A. Generator armature current 330 A, Field currents ar
5A »ni. . 2 A. Find the efficiency of the generator. Armature resistane of each machine - 0-02 O. 0®.
With a neat sketch explain the on load tap changer for a transformer

Two single phase furnaces 1 and 2 are supplied a 100 V by mean of scott connected transformer from a 3 phase
6000V supply furnace 1 is supplied from the teaser transformer .calculate the line

## What are the advantages of resoling field type of alternators?

(O
the open circuit characteristics of a J phase. 50 Hz ,x„kVA. 3-3 *V alternator is shown below :

## Field current 50 60 70 SO 90 100

lane soltace Kv 2 56 JO >3 36 38 3 96During thort circuit test a field current of 50 A circulates 4|.

armature current of 190 A.The armature resistance and leakage reactance drops arc 2% anJ I0**. Lsing mmf
method determine the soilage regulation uf the alternator at fuff load 0-8 pT leading. <12,

(6, Explain why synchronous motor is not self starting ? Explain any two methods of starting synchronous motor.
Explain the method of drawing V curv es from excitation circles and power circles. <5i
Derive the expression for the power output of a salient poll alternator. (6|
(c) An industrial load of 200 kW is supplied at 11 kV, the power factor being 0-8 lagging. A synchronous motor is
used to meet an additional load of 50 kW and at the same time to raise the overall pf to 0-9 lagging. Find the kVA
capacity of the synchronous motor and the pf at which it operates. pj
A
three phase induction motor has a starting torque 120% and minimum torque of 300% of full load
torque Neglecting the stator impedance determine the

## (/) Slip at maximum torque, (if) full loud slip.

An induction motor has a double cage rotor with equivalent standstill impedance of(1+jl) and (.2+J4)
Find the relative values of the torque developed by the two cages
An induction
30 kW, 50 HA 400 V, 3-phase induction motor has standstill rotor impedance of (0 04 + / 0-3) VV per phase.
motor has a double cage rotor with equivalent standstill impedance of(1+jl) and (.2+J4)
Find the relative values of the torque developed by the two cages Standstill rotor e.m.f. is 50 V per phase.

The rotor current is maintained constant at 50 A per phase. Kind the slip and rotor pf when (/) rotor is short circuited. (M) 10 V per
phase is injected in opposition to the rotor e.m.f. (12)
(ft) Etplain the speed control of an induction motor bs changin' supply frequency.
3-phase, delta connected 25 kW, 440 V, 6-pole, 50 11/
induction motor gave the following test data :
No load test : 440 V 10 A 1300 Q
Blocked rotor test 96 V 36 A 1600 Q Draw the circle diagram and find for full load condition (/) line
current, (if) pf. (Hi) slip, (fv) torque, (v) efficiency.
Also find the maximum torque and slip at maximum torque. Assume
at standstill stator copper loss - Rotor copper loss. (14) I
(6, Explain the construction and working of a shaded pole motor
.

The rotor current is maintained constant at 50 A per phase. Kind the slip and rotor pf when (/) rotor is short circuited. (M) 10 V per
phase is injected in opposition to the rotor e.m.f. (12)
(ft) Etplain the speed control of an induction motor bs changin' supply frequency.
A 2-polc scries motor has 864 armature conductors. When connected to 230 V, 50 ||z a.C- supply the motor runs at
3000 rpm taking a current of 1 2 A at a pf of 0-6 lag. Find the total resistance and reactance of the motor circuit so
that the speed of the motor with 220 V d.c. supply is 1-8 times the speed with a.c. operation and with the same
armature current. (10)
(6) A 2 5 kW. 3-phasc, 50 Hz induction motor has full load efficiency and pf of 0-83 and 0-8 respectively. The
short circuit current is 3-5 times the full load current. Find the line current at starting from a 500 V supply using
star-delta starter. C5)
Write a brief note on Servomotors.
Three d.c. shunt generators driven by a prime move ach having a Field winding resistance of 120 ohm
and an armatu winding resistance of 0.1 ohm are connected to common bus of 12( The d.c. generators
(three) have generated voltages of 125 V, I2t and 114 V, respectively. Calculate for each of the d.c.
generators
line current drawn from or delivered to the bus and the armature
current, (II) power drawn from or delivered to the bus, and the pow generated.
(A) A d.e. scries motor (drives a load), with unsaturated* magnetic circuit and with negligible
resistance, when running at certain speed on a given load, takes 50 amp at 500 V. If the los torque varies
as the cube of the speed, find the resistance whit
should he connected in scries with machine to reduce the speed by percent.
What is meant by three-phase transformer groups?
What is the significance of these groups ? What are the information available by Ydll and Dyll connections ?
Notation used have usual meanings.

(b) A 900kVA load is supplied by three transformers connected in delta-delta. The primaries ate connected to a
2300 V supply line, while the secondaries arc connected to a 230V load. One transformer is removed for repair and
the high and low voltage sides of the transformer windings when connected in open delta. (8)
(t) What are distinguishing features of Y-Y, V-A, A-Y, and A-A 3-phase connections ? Compare their advantages
and disadvantages. Notation used have usual meanings for 3-phase transformer.
Define the terms synchronous impedance and voltage regulation of an alternator. Explain the
synchronous impedance method of determining regulation of an alternator, and state the assumptions
(6) A straight line law connects terminal voltage and load of a 3-phase star-connected alternator
delivering current at 0. 8 power factor lagging. At no-load, this terminal voltage is 3500V and at full-
load of 2280k\V, it is 3300V. Calculate the terminal voltage when delivering a current to a 3-phase, star
connected load having a resistance of S ohm and a reactance of 6 ohm per phase. Assume constant
speed and field excitation. (12)
Explain hunting of a synchronous machine .what is purpose of damper windings in a synchronous machine.

Explain the principle of operation of a synchronous motor and some of its industrial application
Derive the equaction of torque developed in a 3-phase induction find the value for slip at maximum torque.

## Why cannot an induction motor run at synchronous speed.

The impedances at standstill of a inner and outer , of a doobk-c.gr rotors arc: (0.01 >>0.5) ohm and (0. 05 ♦ , „ ,
ohm. respectively. The stator impedances may be assumed , negligible. Calculate the ratio of the torque due to (/)
starting. (l(when running with a slip of 5 per cent. , (U|!
Explain why the rotor resistance at standstill smaller than the effective loaded resistances under running conditions.
Draw and explain the equivalent circuit of a 3 ph.,,, induction motor and find out the main parameters.
An eight-pole, 50Hz squirrel cage induction motor develops twice the full-load torque when started with its rotor
short circuited, and runs at a full-load speed of 850 rpm. If 0.7ohm/pliase
Explain the phenomena of cogging and crawling is induction motor.ehy are these (both) less prominent in slipring
induction machine
Define the terms induced torque and reluctance torque derive expression for electromagnetic torque in a.c. machine
with cylindrical air-gap .sate the assumptions made.
Describe the construction, working and uses of a split- phase induction motor. Draw and explain a typical torque-
speed characteristics of a split phase induction motor. (8)
(6) A 230V, 50Hz, 4-pole single-phase induction motor has the following equivalent circuit impedances:
explain why iron loss of a transformWhat is the primary reason for making the coil span of a
d.c. (machine) armature winding equal to a pole-pitch ?
(//) Which is the simplest way to shift load from one d.c. shunt
generator running in parallel with the other (d.c. shunt generator)? ('") Whal 's ’he speed range (approximately) for the
series-
parallel system of speed control of scries motors widely used in

What are main factors on which torque developed by a 3- phase induction motor depend ?
(viii) If the stator voltage and frequency of an induction motor are reduced proportionately what will be the effect
on locked rotor current and torque developed?
(Lx) W hich is the parameter of an alternator found out by zero power-factor method ?
(A) Why arc squirrel-cage bars placed in the pole faces of an alternator?
Why does scries motor used for traction purpose ? (2)
(h) A d.c. series motor runs at 1100 rptn taking 90 A fed from 110 V supply-" I1*1 distance would be connected in
parallel with the field circuit to obtain a speed of 1500 rpm for delivering the same load torque ? Armature
resistance is 0 08 Q and series field resistance is 0-06 Q. Assume magnetic circuit is unsaturated. (10)
(c) A 200 V d.c. shunt motor dev clops 17-2 kW. when taking 20-2 kW. The field resistance is 50 fl and armature
resistance is 0-06 Q. What is the efficiency and the power input when the output is 7-46 kW ? (8)
In star-star connected transformer, if a delta tertiary a provided, what is the major reason ♦
(6) A 1000 kVA, 11Z3J k V, 50 Hz, delta/ star connected tap chinp^ transformer has LV and H V impedance of <0-
5 ♦/6 67) and (|.\$ ♦yjgjJ respectively. What must be the tap settings on the LV side to naiatii, rated voltage at the
secondary at full-load 0-8 p.f. (lag) ?
(c) A-3 phase step-down transformer is connected to 6600 V raj in and lakes I0A. Calculate the secondary line
voltage, line current and outpa for the following connections: (1) delta/ delta. (//) star/ star, (r'/r) star/delta, and (/»’)
delta/star. The ratio of turns per phase is 12. Neglect losses. (If)
What is synchronous condenser ? Where and for what purpose is if used 7 What is the order of its p.f. (typically)
?(2 + 2 +1+ I)
(n) A synchronous generator has a synchronous reactance of 25%
and negligible armature resistance. Calculate its voltage regulation when working at full-load 0-8 p.f. lead and 0-8
p.f. lag. <•)
(o) What are the V-curves of a synchronous motor? (3)
W hat do you mean by synchronization of an alternator
Identify tke factors affecting the torque of a 5-pbasc induction motor.
Neath sketch the torque slip curve of a Vphase induction motor indicating the starting torque, maximum torque,
stable and unstable operating region.
Explain why in an induction motor a high value of rotor resistance is preferred at starting. (2)
(c) A balanced 5-phase induction motor has an efficiency of 85% when its output ts 45 ItW. At this, load, both the
stator copper loss and rotor copper loss ere equal to the core loss. The mechanical losses are one-fourth of the no-
load losses. Calculate the slip. (8)
A JkW, 440/220 V. delta/ star. 50 Hz. J-phase b-pole induction motor is found to draw a line current of 25 A at a
p.f. of 0-4. when a blocked rotor test is conducted at the rated voltage. Determine the stator and rotor resistances in
ohms per phase, if the torque developed by the motor under the above conditions is 25 N.m.
Why are doable-cage rotors provided in some induction motors.

Under what condition is the D.O.L starting of a squirrel cage induction motor preferred.
A
3-phase. 5® Hi induction motor has a starting torque which a 12? times the fall-load torque and a maximum
torqoe which a 2-5 times the full-load torque. Neglecting stator resistance and rotational losses and assuming
constant rotor resistance, find the (I) slip at full load. (tf) slip at maximum torque, and (<0) rotor current at starting
in pit- value of full-load rotor current (It)
Explain how the speed of a slip ring induction motor can be carried by varying its rotor circuit resistance. \\ hat are
the limitations of the method? (6)
why does a single-phase induction motor not posses any starting torque?
which motor is preferred for ceiling fan and why.
A 18\$ W, 110 V, SO Hz, 4-polc. single-phase induction motorhas a rotational loss of IS \\ at normal speeds. The
cquisalcnt circuit parameters are : r, = 1-3 Q. r, » 3-2 Q..v, - 2-5 G,.tj = 2-2 Q.x,," 48Q. Determine the line current,
line p.f., power output and efficiency of this motor, w lien it operates at a slip of 4%.
i) Why is differentially compound d.e. generator used for welding purpose .

## (tf)When ad.c motor produces maximum output power ?

Why is it that the V/F ratio kept constant while controlling the speed o a phase induction motor by varying the
supply frequency ?
(p) In a transformer short circuit test, all the losses are attributed only to copper loss. Why ?
(q) Same the phenomenon gistng rise to undesirable fluctuations in the synchronising power between an
alternator and the bus to which it
is connected.
(r) If the prime mover of an alternator supplying load to an infinite bus is suddenly shut down, then how will
it behaves ?
(s) What are the no-load losses in a d.c. machine ?
(v/i'O What are the components of iron loss in a d.c. machine and which part of the machine it occur?
(«) Single-phase motors are usually set on rubber spring mounts.
Why ?
1why are two reactances associated with salient pole synchronous machines? Develop the phasor diagram of a
synchronous generator. based on two-reaction theory, to determine the excitation tmf (coin the terminal conditions
and the machine parameters.
,6) W bat are the condition
W bat arc the conditions that are necessary for paralleling tw, syiuuonous generators? Why must the incoming
generator on a pone 5)stcm be para el at a frequency slightly higher than that of the running,
system ? ,«
(i) A 3-phase, star-connected, round rotor synchronous generation rated at 10 kVA and 230 V, has a synchronous
reactance of 1-2 Cl pe phase and an armature resistance of 0-50 per phase. Calculate the perccr soilage regulation at
Solution, (a) For two reactances Xd and V for salient pol Synchronous machine Refer Q 3 (o). Summer 2005
I he equivalent circuit of a salient pole synchronous machine
shown in Fig I (a) lhe component current ld and /(| provide componci
voltage drops / lj Xj and j 1^ Xy as shown in the phase diagram ,
Fig I </>) tor lagging load power factor
Why is a synchronous motor not self-starting ? What are the methods generally used to start synchronous motors ?

For how a synchronous motor can function as a synchronous condenser Refer Q 4 (c). Summer 2005

(c) Given input power » 1000 kW at rated soilage 1000 * IO3 - &VL lL cos \$
a) Three similar single-phae transformers are connected in Dy I. Draw a diagram of connections marking the
polarities. Justify the correctness of the connections by phasor diagram. (8)
(A) Explain. with the help of connections and phasor diagrams, how
Scott connections are used Io obtain two*phase supply from three-phase supply. Show that if the load is balanced
on the two-phase side, the load on the three-phase side will also be balanced. (7)
Two transformers, each rated 100 kVA. 11000/2300 V. 50 H/ are connected in open delta on primary and
secondary sides. A 120 kVA. 2300 V, 0-866- lagging power- factor, three- phase, delta-connected load is connected
to the transformer bank. What is the line current on the high- voltage side ?
(u) Show that the maximum torque developed by a three- phasi induction motor is independent of the rotor circuit
resistance.
(6) Sketch the typical torque-speed curse of a three-phase inductioi motor. How is the curve modified (f) if the
stator voltage and stato frequences are simultaneousls reduced to half, and (if) if the rotor eircui reactance is
reduced keeping the stator soilage and frequency unchanged

(c) A 6-pole. 50 Hr. 3-phase induction motor dcs elops a useful ful load torque of 160 \m at a slip frequency of 2
Hr. Calculate the k\ output. If the loss torque is 20 Nm and the stator loss is 750 W, find tt copper loss in the rotor
circuit and the input to the motor.
Q .6. Derive the current tocnv for the stator ofa poly-phase innduction
What are the v arsons starting .rthods for a three-phase squir cage induction motor-' Disenss their
relative merits and limitations.
The root eight-pole. 50 Hi. three-phase ladactma ■-> has a resistance of 0-2 ohm per phase and runs at
'20 rpm. If the le torque remains unchanged, calculate the additional rotor resistance tl •ill reduce its
speed by 10%. Seglect stator impedance.
How could the performance of a plain a.c. series motor bt
determined from its circle diagram ? Justify the procedure. Compare lht torque-speed curves of the same serie*
motor w hen run on the d.c. and a.c supply of the same voltage.
(A) Explain why commutation problem is more severe in a.c. scriej motor. Suggest some remedial measures.
(c) A series motor without compensating winding has a reactance of 4 ohms at 50 11/ and a resistance of O S ohm.
When operating on d.c. at 500 V. it takes 90 A at 780 rpm. Calculate the speed of the motor whea operating on a.c.
at 500 V. 25 Hz and taking 90 A. Neglect the effect of irua losses, of saturation, and of short circuit current under
the brushes.
For small and sensitive servo systems, give reasons why are a.e. sers omolors preferred to d.e. servomotors? (5)
(A) Which types of servomotors lend themselves to large kW requirements? (3)
What arc the various methods of damping employed in sers omoturs? Explain the working principles of the
methods. (6)
Describe the constructional features of shaded pole motor and explain its working principle.
/) /, and J, are the stator and the rotor frequencies respectively. If
/,>/,, how does the induction motor operate?
(ZO Is it possible for an alternator to base full-load terminal voliagr greater than the no-load terminal s ullage ?
(ZZZ) Why does an a.c. servomotor has e high rotor resistance ?
(/u) Under what condition of power factor, armature mmf of a
Synchronous motor assists thefield mmf.
(s’) W'hich of the machines in Hopkinson’s test has iron loss lest than that in the other and why ?
(vZ) flow docs the synchronous motor current change ssith excitation if the motor is fo operate continuously at
unity power factor ?
(s’/Z) In starting slip- ring induction motor, why is rotor resistance preferred to reactance to limit the starting
current inspitr of the fact that the audition -I resistance causes loss in the system?
(I'/Z/) What should be Ihe ratio of full-load copper loss inconstant loss of a d.c. machine if the maximum
efficiency is io occur ai 80% of the full-load?
(Zv) A d.c. separately excited motor, with resistance R in series with armature, is driving a constant torque load. A
resistance of
Explain drawing the necessary experimental circuit diagram, the Sw.neburne’a test of fioding the efficiency of a
d,c. 'hunt motor.• ’ (?)
(A) Two 220V, separately excited d.c. generators operate in parallel. One machine has a terminal voltage of 270V
on no load and 220 V at a load current of 35A. The other has a voltage of 280V at no load and 220V at 50A. The
external characteristics are cectilineur. Find the output current of each machine and the busbar voltage when thc
(<•') Explain any two methods of speed control of a d.c. series motor.
Explain why a star della connection of three-phase transformers is a commonly used connection.
(b) liras* the circuit diagram and explain the working „f Scott connection of transformers for three-phase to two-
phase transformation. (10)
(A) Ihrce single-phase I kVA. 200/100V transformers are to be connected to operate as step up three-phase
transformer. For various three-phase connections, find the possible three-phase kVA rating, input current rating,
and the output current rating.
Explain the ‘preventive reactor’ method of on load lap changing of transformers. (5)
Discuss why the short-circuit characteristic of a synchronous machine is a linear characteristic. (5)
Derive the expression for power output of n salient pole synchronous generator in term terminal salient
synchronous, soilage, reactance and the load angle. Sketch the same a* , function of load angle Neglect armature
resistance.
ist the essential conditions to be satisfied before a synchronous generator can be connected to the network bus bars.
Drawing the circuit diagram and the phasor diagram of a synchronous motor resistance neglected, explain how do
wc cur's- for constant power output. (8)
S
(c) A synchronous generator has a direct-axis synchronous and a quadrature-axis ons generator has a direct-axis
synchronous tancc of 0‘8 p.u. and a quadrature-axis synchronous reactance f 0 5 P u' ** ‘S suPP*>‘nR ful* *°ad al rale<*
voltage a’ 0 8 lagging **’ .r factor. Find the open circuit soilage of the machine. Neglect
C.«»«
«) Explain how a rotating field is produced when a balanced three-phase induction machine is connected to a
balanced three-phase supply. (7)
(b) Stating the assumptions made, find a suitable expression for the torque developed by an induction motor in
terms of applied voltage, rotor constants, slip, etc. Thereafter, find the condition for the starting torque to be
maximum.
A three-phase. 50 H/, four-pole induction motor l,rtS a sl>P ol °'04 l)er uni« when the output is 20 UVV. The
friction loss is -W°w- VVhat is Ulc relative speed between the rotating mmf anil |||C I0lor? Wh;lt is lhc l'oto> circuit
copper loss?
(I,) Explain the auto transformer method of starting of three.phase induction motors.
((c) Calculate the relative values of (i) the starting torque. and (") tlic startin8 current of a three-phase cage-
rotor induction niotor when started \vith (A) direct switching; (R) a star-delta st.,rter; and (Q an auto
transformer having 40% tappings.
A 20 hp, 400V, 50 c/s, 3-phase star-connected induction motor gave the following test data (line values):
No load test : -400V, 9A, cos«p = 0-2. Short-circuit test: 200V, 50A, cos<p = 0.4
Staler voltage (d.c.) drop test (between any two lines): 1.1V, 5A.
From the stator, find the line current and power factor at full load, and the maximum horse
power. Also, draw its equivalent circuit with values of the elements labelled. (20) Solution, (a)
A Draw the Equivalent circuit of a pure single phase induction motor expaling various symbols
used .
Describe the construction, working and torque –speed characteristics of a shaded pole induction
Draw the torque –speed characteristics
In a d.c. shunt motor, it the motor shaft loud f increased, how does buck emf change?
(//') A differentially compounded d.c. motor is rarely Usc(i Why?
(Hi) Cive an application of d.c. scries generator. (iv) If the core loss in a transformer at voltage V is
p wj,at approximately shall it be at half (he voltage, i.e., at F/2?
(v) If the eddy current loss at voltage I7 and frequency/be Pc, what shall it be at voltage V and
frequency 2/?
(vi) What is the meaning of (he transformer connection Vdl?
(vii) The change in the rotor circuit resistance of a three-phase induction motor does not effect the
value of maximum torque of the motor, though the starting torque is affected. Explain briefly.
(viii) When the slip of the induction machine is negative then in which of the modes is the machine
operating i.e., whether the machine motoring, generating or plugging?
(ix) The magnetizing current of an induction motor is relatively larger than that in a transformer
of nearly the same kVA and voltage rating. Explain briefly.
(x) In a synchronous generator, the armature reaction is mainly demagnetizing under lagging
power factor condition
(b) Discuss factors determining the load distribution between a number of d.c. shunt
DYNAMOS RUNINIG IN PARALLEL

## FOR D.C COMPOUND generators operating in parallel

(b) Discuss factors determining the load distribution between a number of d.c. shunt
DYNAMOS RUNINIG IN PARALLEL

## FOR D.C COMPOUND generators operating in parallel

(A 120 V, 50 Hz, three-phase, star-connected, round-rotor synchronous motor has an armature-
winding resistance of (0-5 +/3) ohm/phase. The motor takes a current of 10 A at 0-8 p.f. leading when
operating at a certain field current. The load is gradually increased until the motor develops the
maximum torque while the field current is held constant. Determine the new line current, the power
factor, and the torque developed by the motor.
(10)
(b) The armature current increases with an increase in the field current of a synchronous motor. What
is the initial power-factor angle ? What is the effect on the torque-angle ? (6)
(c) Why is it necessary to improve the overall power factor of a manufacturing plant ?
(A 120 V, 50 Hz, three-phase, star-connected, round-rotor synchronous motor has an armature-
winding resistance of (0-5 +/3) ohm/phase. The motor takes a current of 10 A at 0-8 p.f. leading when
operating at a certain field current. The load is gradually increased until the motor develops the
maximum torque while the field current is held constant. Determine the new line current, the power
factor, and the torque developed by the motor.
(10)
(b) The armature current increases with an increase in the field current of a synchronous motor. What
is the initial power-factor angle ? What is the effect on the torque-angle ? (6)
(c) Why is it necessary to improve the overall power factor of a manufacturing plant ?
A 230 V, 50 Hz, 4-pole, delta-connected three-phusc induction motor operates at a full-load speed
of 1440 rpm. The power developed at (his speed is 2 H.P. and the rotor current is 4-S amp. If the
.supply voltage fluctuates ±10%, determine (/) torque range, and (/'/) current range. (10)
Explain the method of speed control of 3-phase induction motor by varying the supply
frequency. (5)
(c) What is the purpose of using deep-bar cage rotors ? Explain the construction and working of a
deep-bar cage motor.(S)
A 230 V. 50 Hz. -l-pole single-phase induction motor has the following equivalent circuit impedances:
K
\m (resistance of main stator winding) = 2-2 ohm Xlm (leakage reactance of the main stator
winding) = 3-1 ohm tf,' (standstill rotor resistance referred to the main stator winding) = 4-5 ohm
X2' (standstill rotor leakage reactance referred to the main stator winding) = 2-6 ohm
XM (magnetizing reactance) = 80 ohm.
Friction, windage and core loss = 40 W, for a slip of 0-03 p.u. Calculate (/) input current, (/;") power
factor, (Hi) developed power. (iv) output power, and (v) efficiency. (14) (b) Explain why a universal
motor can operate from d.c. as well as a.c. supply. What are the main differences in construction
between a.c. series motor and d.c. series motor? (3+3)?
Explain the construction and working of a deep-bar cage motor.(S)
-5 h.p., 230 V, single-phase induction motor (split-phase) takes a current of 4-2 amp lagging the
voltage by 10° for the I
<
(b) Name three types of d.c stepping motor instructional differences are Jou' Mother? For the same .^
°. produces the .argest and smalles,
Why cannot an induction motor run at synchronous speed?
(lit Distinguish between harmonic induction 'orqu. .nd
harmonic synchronous torque developed in a 3-pha«
induction motor.
(a) A 230 V. 50 Hz. -l-pole single-phase induction motor has the following equivalent circuit
impedances:
K
\m (resistance of main stator winding) = 2-2 ohm Xlm (leakage reactance of the main stator
winding) = 3-1 ohm tf,' (standstill rotor resistance referred to the main stator winding) = 4-5 ohm
X2' (standstill rotor leakage reactance referred to the main stator winding) = 2-6 ohm
XM (magnetizing reactance) = 80 ohm.
Friction, windage and core loss = 40 W, for a slip of 0-03 p.u. Calculate (/) input current, (/;") power
factor, (Hi) developed power. (iv) output power, and (v) efficiency. (14) (b) Explain why a universal
motor can operate from d.c. as well as a.c. supply. What are the main differences in construction
between a.c. series motor and d.c. series motor? (3+3)
(a) \ 0-5 h.p., 230 V, single-phase induction motor (split-phase) takes a current of 4-2 amp
lagging the voltage by 10° for the
(b) Name three tvne< nf h (12) instructional differences are Jou' Mother? For the same .^ °.
produces the .argest and sm
Why are cylindrical rotor alternators used Wj,h steam turbines and salient pole alternators with hydroelectric
plan,?
(8)
(b) A synchronous generator, with a synchronous reactance of 1.3 p.u., is connected to an infinite bus whose
voltage is 1.0 p.u through an equivalent reactance 0.2 p.u. The maximum permissible output is 1.2 p.u.
Explain why an induction motor cannot run at synchronous speed? (^
(b) What are two tvpes of rotor constructions used in induction
<S1 motors? Compare them.
(b) Deselop the torqne-speed/slip curve of a three-phase faction motor and indicate stable and unstable
regions.
(c) Show that when the stator impedance is neglected, the of a balanced three-phase induction motor.
Tf, at slip 5 can
(b) Deselop the torqne-speed/slip curve of a three-phase faction motor and indicate stable and unstable
regions.
(c) Show that when the stator impedance is neglected, the of a balanced three-phase induction motor.
Tf, at slip 5 can
Explain how the speed of slip-ring induction motor
can he varied by varying its rotor circuit resistance. What are the
limitations of this method? <10)
(/;) An 8-pole, 50 11/., three-phase induction motor is loaded
deliberately to a point where pull-out torque will occur. The rotor
Explain how the speed of slip-ring induction motor
can he varied by varying its rotor circuit resistance. What are the
limitations of this method? <10)
(/;) An 8-pole, 50 11/., three-phase induction motor is loaded
deliberately to a point where pull-out torque will occur. The rotor
A 250 V d.c. shunt motor has a field resistance of 125 ohnis and an armature resistance of 1 Ohm. It takes
an armature current of 25A at a speed of 900 r.p.m. It is required , 0 -n rease the speed to 1100 r.p.m.
keeping the torque constant, i md the value of additional resistance to be added in the field circuit to
get this speed. Assume unsaturated magnetic uit.
circuit.
(15)
Sol. (a) Speed torque characteristic of a motor is also known as mechanical characteristic. For drawing
torque characteristic
What are the distinguishing features of star-star , star-delta –star and delta-delta connection in 3 phase
transformer,
Explain the scoot connection giving a suitable digram show the current in windings in the diagram.
What do you understand by direct and quadratue axis reactance of synchronous generators.
Hoew can direct and quadrature axis reactance be measures explain.
Explain briefly any one method for synchronization 3-phase synchronous generators.
raw V curves for a synchronous motor. Justify the shape of these curves. ^
(b) What is the application of a synchronous condenser? Explain. (6)
(c) What is the significance of torque-angle characteristics of a synchronous machine?
Explain. (
(a) Draw and explain the torque-slip curve of a 3 phase induction motor. ^.
(t>) A slip ring induction motor has a full load speed Of 288 r.p.m. and frequency is 50 Hz. Find
the (/) number of polcs and slip, and (//) slip for full load, if rotor resistance is doub| Cli If initial rotor
copper loss is 275 W, find new value of rotor copper loss. (2 x 4^
(f) List the methods for speed control of J-phase induction motor. (4)
Beriefy discuss the principle of split phase shaded pole and capacitor single phase inducuction motor
Discuss the priniciple of a.c servicer motor draw its performance characteristics

## What are the application of a.c series motor.

Write short ^ (a) Repulsion motor (ft) d.c. servomotor
Necessary conditions for parallel operations of D.C. generators:
Explain the difference between Yd 1 and Dy 11 of a three-phase transformer. (4)
(b) Draw the electrical connections and vector diagram of (/) delta/zig-zag of three-phase
transformer, and (if) double delta of three-phase transformer. (4 + 4)
(c) Two electric furnaces are connected with the help of two scott-connected transformers.
The three-phase supply was made to this transformer with the help of a 15 kV source. The
load on one transformer is 650 kW at 120 V and the load on the other transformer is 1050
kW at 120 V. If the power factor is unity, determine the current flow in all three-phase lines.
(8)
A synchronous generator has the following data : Direct axis synchronous reactance = 0-85 p.u.
Determine per unit value of the open-circuit voltage with full-load excitation. Assume that the
resistance and the effect of saturation are neglected. ^
Explain the V-curves of synchronous machine. (5) (/>) A three-phase star-connected synchronous
generator is of salient pole-type. It is being run at synchronous speed with field circuit open. The stator
is supplied from a three-phase balanced supply. A voltmeter, which is connected across the line,
provides the maximum and minimum readings as 2825 V and 2805 V, respectively. The line current
varies from 360 A to 280 A. Determine the direct and quadrature axis synchronous reactance per
phase. The armature resistance may be negative.
(8)
(c) Determine the rating of the synchronous condenser, which will raise the power factor of the
substation from 0-7 lagging l» 0-85 lading. The substation is operating at full load of 1050 kVA and at a
power factor of 0-7 lagging. (7)
Explain the circle diagram of a three phase induction motor
(b) The test results of 400 V <5) induction motor are the following • ' UW dclta c
' - «nnected
i\o load test : 400 \V TO
W" W, 2-8 a power factor = 0-2*
Blocked rotor test : 200 V us
Draw the circle diagram and determine the (i) full load current
Describe a closed loop feedback system of speed control of three phase slip ring induction motot

Two three phase 50HZ induction motor have 8 poles and 6 poles respectively

A three phase slip ring induction motor is provided with the following data.

## Rotor resistance per phase =0.014

What is capacitor split phase motor ? Etpliin clearly its principle of operation. (6)
(b) The inductive reactance and resistance of each « Hiding of a split phase induction motor are 2-
IOfl and 82Q, respectively.

What is the different between repulsion induction motor and reulsion sart induction motor
How many types of d.c. servomotors are h*
Describe them. What is drag cap induction motor •> c***^
clearly. '
(b) A 115 V, 260 W, 5000 r.p.m., 50 Hz a.c. series provided with the following data : Or ti
Total resistance = I-6Q Total reactance = 16Q Stray power loss = 22W
Determine the (/> current and the power factor at the normal rated condition, (ii) efficiency, speed and
power factor' when the load current is reduced to three-eighth of the rated condition.
(10)
How many types of d.c. servomotors are h*
Describe them. What is drag cap induction motor •> c***^
clearly. '
(b) A 115 V, 260 W, 5000 r.p.m., 50 Hz a.c. series provided with the following data : Or ti
Total resistance = I-6Q Total reactance = 16Q Stray power loss = 22W
Determine the (/> current and the power factor at the normal rated condition, (ii) efficiency, speed and
power factor' when the load current is reduced to three-eighth of the rated condition.
(10)
Which method will you adopt to control the speed of a.d.c shunt motor below the base speed.

The speed of a 500 V d.c shunt motot is rasied from 700 rpm
The Hopkinson test on two shunt machiens gave the results for full load :
Draw the circuit diagram and mark the values. resistance of each machine as. 0-02 fl, determine the efficien each
machine.
(b) \ 200 V, 2000 rpm, 10 A. separately excited d.c. motor h a an armature resistance is of 2 fl. Rated d.c. voltage is
app|jC(| both the armature and field winding of the motor. If the armatur° draws 5 A from the source. Find the
torque-developed by the *
cy
Draw the circuit diagram and mark the values. resistance of each machine as. 0-02 fl, determine the efficien each
machine.
(b) \ 200 V, 2000 rpm, 10 A. separately excited d.c. motor h a an armature resistance is of 2 fl. Rated d.c. voltage is
app|jC(| both the armature and field winding of the motor. If the armatur° draws 5 A from the source. Find the
torque-developed by the *
cy
,B '*)
(c) A 250 kW and 750 kVV, 550 V generators operate j n parallel, delivering a total load of 1500 A. The
voltage regulation f the smaller machine is 0-058 in per unit and for larger one is 0-035 in per unit. Assume
that the external characteristics are straight lines. Effect of armature reaction is negligible. Determine th (/)
current delivered by each machine, and (/'/") terminal voltage

What are the requirements for a satisfactory parallel operation of two 3-phase transformers ? (4) (b) \ 100
kVA transformer, having 1% resistance and 4% leakage reactance, is operated in parallel with a 200 kVA
transformer having 1% resistance and 6% leakage reactance. If the total load delivered is 300 kVA at unity
p.f., calculate the kVA load on each transformer as well as the operating p.f. of each transformer. Also,
determine the largest value of load that can he delivered by the parallel combination of two transformers
(a) Name the various method of speed control slipring and cage rotor induction motor. (4)
(b) Two induction motors, with 4-poles and 6-poles, respec-five/y, are connected in
cuminuhitive cascade. The frequency in the secondary circuit of 6-pole motor is observed to be
2-0 Hz. Determine the combined speed of the set and the slip in each machine. Assume supply
frequency as 50 Hz. (8)
(c) An X-polc, 50 Hz, 3-phase induction motor has an equivalent rotor resistance of 0-
071 Q per phase. If its stalling speed is 630 rpm, how much resistance must be
included per phase to obtain maximum torque at starting. Ignore magneti/Jng current.

## a) Give two applications of servo motors. (2)

(b) A 400 V, 3-phase, 50 Hz star-connected, induction motor has the following test results :
No-load test : 400 V, 8-5 A, 1100 W Blocked rotor test : 180 V, 45 A, 5700 W Calculate the
line current and power factor when operating 4% slip. The stator resistance per phase is 0-5 Q.
Give a proof of the slip scale method. (18)
(a) Why does a single-phase induction motor not-pos-sess any starting torque ?
(b) What is a servo motor ? Why and where is a dragcup rotor servo motor used ? (5.
(c) A 4-pole, 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase induction motor runs at 1425 rpm. The power absorbed by the
forward and backward fields are 245 W and 35 W, respectively. The no load rotational losses is 45 W.
Determine the developed torque and shaft'torque.
(a) Why does a single-phase induction motor not-pos-sess any starting torque ?
(b) What is a servo motor ? Why and where is a dragcup rotor servo motor used ? (5.
(c) A 4-pole, 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase induction motor runs at 1425 rpm. The power absorbed by the
forward and backward fields are 245 W and 35 W, respectively. The no load rotational losses is 45 W.
Determine the developed torque and shaft'torque.
Why is in a normal synchronous machine x smaller than xd?
(ii) Resistance of dampers for synchronous generators is lower than that of dampers for
synchronous motors. Why? (Hi) What is meant by an infinite bus ?
(iv) Distribution transformers are designed for lower iron losses. Why ?
(v) What are the functions of transformer oil ?
(vi) Do we use laminations for all iron parts of an electrical machine, /f not, why ?
(vii) Explain why is an induction motor a high value of rotor resistance is preferred at starting
?
(viii) Why is an ordinary induction motor not started at normal voltage ?

(/v) Distribut.on transformer are kept on for 24 hours even if load ,s there or not, hence continuous!)
iron losses takes place, therefore these are designed for low value of iron losses.
(v) Functions of transformer oil are:
(a) To create insulation to insulated conductors and coils.
(h) To provide cooling medium to dissipate or cam-over heat to
the tank walls.
(vi) We make use of laminations for those iron pans only in which fiucturations of flux takes
place. For all those parts, where, there are no ll actuations, no eddy currents are included,
hence laminations are not provided.
(v/7) By adding external resistance to the rotor circuit, the starting torque of the motor is
increased as a result of improved power factor.
(viii) An ordinary motor if, started at normal voltage, will draw very high starting current,
which may be 5 to 7 times the full load current and hence motor may be damaged.
What is armature reaction Describe demagnetizing and cross-magetizing effects

A.d.c generator has an armature emf of 100 V when the useful flux per pole is 20 Mwb

Explain the process of bulinding up of voltage in d.c generator and give the conditions
Building of emf in D.C. Generator:
Explain the speed-current and speed-torque characteristics of a d.c. series motor. Account for the
shape of these characteristics curves. (6)
(b) A shunt generator delivers 50 k\V at 250 \ \\hen running at -100 rpm. The armature and field
resistance are 0.02 fi and 50 fi. respectively. Calculate speed of the machine uhen running as a
shunt motor and taking 50 k\V input at 250 V. Allow IV per brush for contact drop. (10)
(c) Explain why a d.c. series motor should never run unloaded.
State the conditions for proper operation of tvv transformers in parallel giving reasons for imposition of
.hes°
CMKtfllOIM. (f,,
(*) Two single phase transformers, having the same volta^ ratio oa mo-lo*d. operate in parallel to
supplv a load of 1000 kVA M f.» power factor la«gin«. One of the transformers is rated at 4M k\ A and
has a per unit equivalent impedance of (0.01 + y 0.06); and fbe other one is rated at 600 k\ A and has a
per unit equivalent impedance of (0.0 I *• / 0.05). Determine the load on each of the transformer (in
kVA) and the operating power factor. <|0) (c) What is an open-delta (V-V) system ? What are the
applications of this system ?
iscuss the phenomenon of sudden three-phase s|,0r| circuit at the armature terminals of an a tcrnator. Draw a
,ypieal xvave shape of current and mark the diflerent reRions
"^^llJlfa^orl-clrcullUio'^Why are modern a,terna£ designed with high value of s
Explain the principle of operation of a three-phiK synchronous motor. Draw phasor diagrams of
cylindrical ro * synchronous motor for lagging and leading power factors, ^ discuss these phasor
diagrams.
(b) Why is synchronous motor not self-starting ? What are th methods generally used to start
synchronous motors ? (2)e
(c) A three-phase, 3.3 kV, 2 pole, 3000 rpm, 934 kyy
synchronous motor has an efficiency of 0.95 p.u. and delivers
factor is unity. The moment of inertia of the motor and its load i
30 kg-nv and synchronous impedance is (0.0 + j \[^ ^
Determine the period of undamped oscillation on full ioad fQ'
small changer in load angle. <|Q,
Explain the principle of operation of a three-phiK synchronous motor. Draw phasor diagrams of
cylindrical ro * synchronous motor for lagging and leading power factors, ^ discuss these phasor
diagrams.
(b) Why is synchronous motor not self-starting ? What are th methods generally used to start
synchronous motors ? (2)e
(c) A three-phase, 3.3 kV, 2 pole, 3000 rpm, 934 kyy
synchronous motor has an efficiency of 0.95 p.u. and delivers
factor is unity. The moment of inertia of the motor and its load i
30 kg-nv and synchronous impedance is (0.0 + j \[^ ^
Determine the period of undamped oscillation on full ioad fQ'
small changer in load angle. <|Q,
Explain (he principle of operation of a linear induction
motor. Draw its characteristics. Also, list its important
applications. (10)
(b) Describe the operation of a variable reluctance-type
stepper-motor. What do you mean by micro-stepping ?
Answer the following in brief • (i) Why do round rotor synchronous generators have
diameters and large avial length of core' (tf) Why does open-circuit characteristics of a synchronous
machine have curved shape?
(iii) Do slot harmonics affect the torque-speed curve of a three
phase induction motor?
(iv) Why are brushes of a d.c. machine made of carbon? (v) Why are interpoles used in a d.c. machines?
(vi) What is the all-da> efficiency of a transformer? (vii) What is the use of oil in a transformer?
Why are core-t\pe transformer used in high-voltage circuits?
Which method will you adopt to control the speed a d.c shunt motor above the base speed.this method of speed
control is called a constant power drive method explain.
(n) Why does a single-phase induction motor not^ posses anv starting torque ?
(6) What is a servomotor ? Why and where » a drag-cup
rotor servomotor used.

## What are the requirements for a satisfactory parallel operation of 3-phase

Fxplain (he production of air-gap rotation field wliethe symmetrically wound armature of a three-phase
machine '-supplied from a balanced three-phase .supply. ,„'
(h) If (he cmf in the stalor of an 8-pole induction motor hasa frequency of 50 c/s, and that in the ro(or I !/2 c/s,
at what speed
is the motor running and what is the slip? ,4,
(c) Draw (nc equivalent circuit of a three-phase induction
machine and (he (orque slip characteristics for a slip range of-l n
to 2.0.

explain the auto transformer starter for starting a three phase squirrel cage induction motor

## sate the salient features of d.c servo motor

Describe the frequency control method of speed con< of induction motors. Also, develop the torque-
speed relation „„,• w constant v/f condition. er (*) In a short-circuit test, a 12-pole, 3-phase, 50 c/s
induct!!! motor took 100 kW. Find the starting torque developed in N Assume equivalent standstill
rotor resistance equal to the «», resistance.
= 955 N-m
Q. 8 (a) Develop the equivalent circuit of a pure single-phase induction motor using double
revolving field theory. (10) (b) Give the construction and working of an a.c. series motor.
Draw its circuit model and phasor diagram for a.c. operation.
Eplain the parallel operation of D.c shunt generator
Describe in detail the speed contol of d.c shunt mototrs by flux control method
(fl) What arc the advantages of a Transformer Bank of , SIng.e-phase transforms over a three-phase unit
transformer 1
(b) Where are delta-star connection of a three phase
transformer used ? Show the winding connection for a DY,,
' (t>)
(c) How is a three-phase supply converted to a two-phase system ? Show the connection, mentioning in brief
the winding arrangement and the power output
What are V-curves with regard to synchronous motor' Also, explain the same with practical significance. ,, ft'
(b) Explain ho\v a synchronous motor may act as a synchron condenser and draw the phasor diagram of the
synchrono condenser. ,.,.

## Draw the slip-torque characteristics of double-cage squirrel cage motor. (10)

(b) Explain in detail various methods of speed control for
induction motors. (10)
What are various types of single-phase induction motor ? Discuss rneir respective applications.
Explain in detail about the working principle and•f split phase induction motor.

Q. 8 (a) Explain in detail rtie construction of the circle diagram for induction motor, and the parameters
determined for the c.rcle diagram. (10)
(t>) Explain the load test on three-phase induction motor to evaluate its performance with a neat sketch.
Write the condition to be satisfied before two d.c generator are connected in parallel

Why is it necceassary to provide equalizer bar for prarallel operation of series generators.
What arc the advantages of a Transformer Bank of , SIng.e-phase transforms over a three-phase unit
transformer 1
(b) Where are delta-star connection of a three phase
transformer used ? Show the winding connection for a DY,,

With the help of a phasor diagram, show how the regulation of an alternator is computed from the
synchronous impedance of the machine for a U>M'" load current. 1,6) (b) \ three-phase star
connected 1000 kVA, U kV alternator has rated current 52-5 A. The a.c. resistance of the
winding/phase is 0-45 Q. The test result shows that a field current of 125 A gives an open-circuit
voltage of 422 V between lines and 52-6 A of armature current on short-circuit. Determine the full
What arc the advantages of a Transformer Bank of , SIng.e-phase transforms over a three-phase unit
transformer 1
(b) Where are delta-star connection of a three phase
transformer used ? Show the winding connection for a DY,,

With the help of a phasor diagram, show how the regulation of an alternator is computed from the
synchronous impedance of the machine for a U>M'" load current. 1,6) (b) \ three-phase star
connected 1000 kVA, U kV alternator has rated current 52-5 A. The a.c. resistance of the
winding/phase is 0-45 Q. The test result shows that a field current of 125 A gives an open-circuit
voltage of 422 V between lines and 52-6 A of armature current on short-circuit. Determine the full
Why is star delta sUirlinR preferred to DOL (Direct
on Line) starting in case of large induction motors ? Compare the
relative values, of starting torques in two cases. (4+4)
(t>) Show the circuit diagram for a star-delta starter. (6)
(O Name different methods of controlling the speed of an
induction motor. Describe any one of the methods with the diagram
of the control element.

## Describe how from a pulsating magnctic field in single phase

Show how an armature winding connected with a series
a.c- (4) (c) Sketch the torque-speed characteristic of a single-phase induction motor showing the forward,
backward and net torque in the speed range of
Explain, with a neat diagram how a torque is produced in a shaded pole induction motor

w
-/
Answer any five of the following : (5*4)
(/') Show the connection for two identical d.c. series motors
for traction purposes at low speed and high speed.
(//') Mention the advantages of a V-V (open delta) connection
of a three-phase transformer, showing the connection.
(/'//) Explain the need for interpole and compensating windings
in a d. c. machine. (iv) How can one control (he speed of a d.c. shunt motor ?
Show the simple connections.
(v) If a transformer llkV/400V, 50 Hz is energized by a w
-/
Answer any five of the following : (5*4)
(/') Show the connection for two identical d.c. series motors
for traction purposes at low speed and high speed.
(//') Mention the advantages of a V-V (open delta) connection
of a three-phase transformer, showing the connection.
(/'//) Explain the need for interpole and compensating windings
in a d. c. machine. (iv) How can one control (he speed of a d.c. shunt motor ?
Show the simple connections.
(v) If a transformer llkV/400V, 50 Hz is energized by a w
-/