You are on page 1of 67

LTE1841 - Inter Frequency

Load Equalization
Network Engineering Information
• Krzysztof Golebiewski
• 16-10-2014

Please always check the latest version of this


NEI slides!
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization
Table of contents

Introduction Technical Inter – Benefits Configuratio Deployment


Details dependenci and Gains n Aspects
Motivation and Detailed Functionality es Simulation, Lab and Managemen Activation,
Description
Feature Overview
Interdependencies
Field Findings
Simulation, Lab t Configuration
Examples, Fault
1 with other features and Field Mgmt, Trial Area
Parameters and
and functions Findings
Parameterization
Scenarios

Performanc Compliance
e Aspects Aspects
Counters and KPIs, 3GPP, IETF, ETSI
Feature Impact
Analysis and
Verification

5 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Introduction

Table of contents

6 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Introduction
Load Balancing Features Overview
Inter-Frequency
Intra-Frequency
Intra-LTE Inter-RAT
Connected Mode Load Balancing
LTE1140
LTE1140 –– Intra-Frequency
Intra-Frequency Load
Load Features
LTE1387
LTE1387 –– Intra-eNB
Intra-eNB Inter-Frequency
Inter-Frequency Load
Load Balancing
Balancing Note: Arrows ( / ) signify the
Balancing
Balancing (RL70/RL55TD)
(RL70/RL55TD) (RL40)
(RL40)
extensions to features from previous
releases. The new/extension features
LTE1170
LTE1170 –– Inter-eNB
Inter-eNB Inter-frequency
Inter-frequency Load
Load Balancing
Balancing
(RL50/RL35TD/RL50FZ) share the same activation flags as the
original features and aimed at adding
LTE1531
LTE1531 –– Inter-frequency
Inter-frequency Load
Load Balancing
Balancing Extensions
Extensions additional functionalities to legacy
(RL60/RL45TD)
(RL60/RL45TD) features.

LTE1841
LTE1841 –– Inter
Inter Frequency
Frequency Load
Load Equalization
Equalization
(RL70/RL55TD)
Idle Mode Load Balancing Features
CRL0632 – Basic Idle mode Load Balancing (RL40)

LTE487 – Idle Mode Load Balancing (RL50/RL35TD/RL50FZ)

LTE1677 – Idle Mode Load Balancing Extensions (RL60/RL45TD)

LTE2050 – Load Triggered Idle Mode Load Balancing (RL70/RL55TD)


7 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Introduction

• Inter-frequency Load Balancing (iF-LB) and Idle


Mode Mobility Load Balancing (IMMLB) features

Pre-RL70 offload/steer UEs towards inter-frequency/Inter-


RAT neighbour cells
- iF-LB offers reactive offloading when High Load
Threshold is reached
• Connected Mode Load Balancing
˗ LTE1387 Intra-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing - The goal of iF-LB was not to equalize the load
˗ LTE1170 Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing between cells but rather to keep the load below
˗ LTE1531 Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Extensions
• Idle Mode Mobility Load Balancing configured Target Load Threshold
˗ LTE487 Idle Mode Mobility Load Balancing - IMMLB features impact on cell load is visible
˗ LTE1677 Idle Mode Mobility Load Balancing
Extensions just after next enter to RRC Connected state
• Load Information available only within own eNB
- No Load information exchange between eNBs
• Load-Blind HO towards cell of neighbouring eNB
8 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Introduction

• LTE1841 provides the possibility to equalize load


between inter frequency cells

RL70 - the load difference between partner cells is


maintained according to configured delta
• Candidate selection procedure for load equalization
is inherited from LTE1170/LTE1531
• Load Equalization (on top of existing • DL GBR, DL non-GBR and PDDCH cell loads are
features) measured, in order to make a decision whether AMLE
˗ LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load
- Active Mode Load Equalization phase should be
Equalization
started or not
• Resource Status Reporting (RSR) procedure is used
to facilitate exchange of load information between
cells
- No Load-Blind HOs are triggered due to LTE1841
• when no Load information about cell is available, cell
will not be a target for Load Based HO for LTE1841
9 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Technical Details

Table of contents

10 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
Dependency Table (LTE)
FDD LTE RL release eNodeB NetAct
Release/version RL70 LN7.0 NetAct 8 EP2

TDD LTE RL release eNodeB NetAct


Release/version RL55TD LNT5.0 NetAct 8 EP2

Flexi Zone Micro


RL release eNodeB NetAct
(FZM)
Release/version RL70/RL55 LNF7.0/LNZ5.0 NetAct 8 EP2

HW
Specified by
HW & IOT requirement MME SAE GW UE
3GPP
s
11x FSME,
© Nokia Solutions FSMF2014 x
and Networks x Rel. 8
For internal use
Technical Details
Inter Frequency Load Equalization overview
• Goal of the feature: load equalization (LE) Cell A
between source cell and partner neighbour (Source cell)
cells Cell B
- Partner cell – neighbour cell of the same or (Neighbour
different eNB that uses partner frequency layer and cell)
is AMLE allowed (LNREL:amleAllowed = true) Cell C
• The same set of parameters from AMLEPR is used for (Partner cell)
all partner cells of partner frequency layer
- Partner frequency layer – frequency layer that is
Cell D
configured in partnership for serving cell
(Partner cell)
- Partnership is created when frequency layer is
configured in any of Active Mode Load Equalization
Profile (AMLEPR): LNCEL:AMLEPR Load is being
• Intra frequency partnership is not supported
• Configuration of partnership is always done per
equalized between
frequency layer Source cell and
Partner cells only
12 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
Inter Frequency Load Equalization overview

When feature is activated (LNBTS:actAmle = true) its behaviour Source Cell


can be
reflected as 5 functional blocks Load supervision
1) Load supervision and exchange: and CAC exchange
Check of active
• Measurements of CACS and exchange with neighbours AMLE state
conditions
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions
Candidate UE
• AMLE state of source cell is determined AMLE feature
selection
3) Candidate UE selection Measurement
• When Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check Timer or Inter solicitation
Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer is expired UE is checked if it can
Load Equalization
be Candidate for offloading execution
4) Measurement solicitation
• A4 measurements of partner neighbour frequencies are triggered
5) Load Equalization execution Partner Cell
• Target Cell List is post-processed, unsuitable cells are removed
13 • Inter frequency
© Nokia SolutionsHandover preparation
and Networks 2014 phase is started
For internal use
Technical Details Load Supervision
and CAC
Source Cell

1) Load supervision and CAC exchange: exchange


AMLE feature

From RL50 onwards all load types are measured: GBR, PDCCH and
nonGBR DL GBR Load Measurements
Partner Cell

• DL GBR load (%) is defined as the ratio of the average DL GBR


utilization to the average available PRBs for dynamic scheduling
PDCCH Load Measurements
• PDCCH load (%) is defined as the averaged ratio of utilized CCEs to
total number of available CCEs
DL nonGBR Load Measurements
• DL non-GBR load (%) is defined as the ratio of the estimated resource
utilization for non-GBR bearers to the average available PRBs for non-
GBR dynamic scheduling

• Load measurements are used for determination of Composite Available


Capacity that is used by AMLE, Intra-frequency Load Balancing and
others More details about Load Measurements can be found here & here.

14 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:
DL GBR
• Each measured DL Load (ML) is reflected as DL GBR DL GBR Relative
Available
Available
Measured Load Load
Load
Relative Load (RL) Capacity
Capacity
PDCCH PDCCH
PDCCH
PDCCH
PDCCH Relative
Relative
˗ Relative Load defines measured load in relation Measured Load Load
Available
Available
Load Capacity
to configured Target Load Threshold (TL) Capacity
DL non-GBR DL DL non-GBR
˗ DL non-GBR
non-GBR
Target Load Threshold is configured via Measured Load Relative
Relative Load
Load
Available
Available
Capacity
Capacity
parameters:
LNCEL:LoadSettings:targetLoadGbrDl,
targetLoadNonGbrDl, targetLoadPdcch Cell LoadX [%]
˗ Relative load is a subcomponent in calculation 100%
of DL Available Capacity (AC)
• Available Capacity = [100% - RL]
TLX 50%
• DL Composite Available Capacity is the ACX
50%
minimum of all AC: MLX RLX
25% 50%
CACDL = min(ACGBR, ACnonGBR, 0%
X = GBR, nonGBR, PDCCH
ACPDCCH)
15 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:

• In RL50/RL60 all types of load were


always taken for CACDL calculation
• From RL70 onwards user has impact on LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperM
ode
which type of load is taken into account
for CACDL determination
• Parameter
LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode is
used to control CAC calculation nonGbrPdcc
allUes h nonGbrOnly
˗ allUes – DL GBR, DL nonGBR, PDCCH loads
are considered
˗ nonGbrPdcch – DL nonGBR and PDCCH
loads are considered
˗ nonGbrOnly – only nonGBR load is
considered

16 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:

Resource Status Report (RSR)


• Procedure is used to derive information about CAC
of cells that belong to neighbouring eNBs
• A neighbour cell is requested to report load
information by LTE1841 if:
1. Neighbour cell is partner cell of source cell
2. The neighbour cell is not X2 blacklisted and it is not
blacklisted for HO

RSR procedure
facilitates load
information
exchange between
eNBs
17 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:

Resource Status Report (RSR) Resource Status


Reporting (RSR)
• The RSR consists of two basic procedures:
1. RSR Initiation (START/STOP) triggers the
start and stop of the periodic load
information reporting of one requested
RSR
cell Initiation
RSR Update
2. RSR Update is the periodic reporting of
load information
• RSR messages are exchanged via X2 only

Initiation Initiation
(START) (STOP)

18 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:
IE/Group IE type and Semantics Assigned
Name Presence Range reference description Criticality Criticality
Composite
Composite
Available
Resource Status Report (RSR) Available
Capacity
M Capacity
3GPP TS
For the
Downlink
- -
Downlink
• As RSR procedure is available, no Load- 36.423
Composite
Composite
blind HOs due to AMLE are triggered Available
Capacity
M
Available
Capacity
For the
Uplink
- -
3GPP TS
- No CAC of target cell is known, no HOs Uplink
36.423

towards Composite Available Capacity Group IE used for RSR procedure


this cell
• RSR Update message, as specified by LNCEL:ulCacSelectio
3GPP, requires both UL and DL CAC n=

c”
- Only DL load is measured

Ca
- UL load can be reflected according to DL load

Ca

ct
c”

fe
or it can be set to fixed value, depending on

ed

Re
ix
LNCEL:ulCacSelection parameter setting

lF

l
“u
• LNCEL:ulCacSelection = ulStaticCac

“u
(configured value of LNCEL:ulStaticCac is CACUL =
always put as CACUL) LNCEL:ulStaticC CACUL = CACDL
• LNCEL:ulCacSelection = ulReflectCac (CACUL = ac
CACDL)
19 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:Requesting eNB Responding eNB

Cel Cel
Resource Status Update (RSU) message l1 l1



X2AP: RSU
• Resource Status Update message Cel Cel
contains LM information coming from lX lY

different eNB
• The first RSU is sent by responding eNB X2AP:RSU (Cell1)
as soon as first Load Measurements are A
A B
B C
C C
C C
C C
C
available Requested Periodicity time
Responding eNB
• Subsequent reporting is handled
according to Requested Periodicity Note:
˗ If more than one feature activated on A
A Successful RSR Initiation of Cell1.
Requesting eNB (like LTE1140 or LTE1113 B First Load Measurements are available on
B
among others) requires Load Measurements Responding eNB
C
C
from Responding eNB, the lowest periodicity
After each Requested periodicity RSU is sent again
requested by all features is used
• Requested periodicity for LTE1841 is More details about RSR Procedure one can find here.
defined by parameter
20 LNCEL:amlePeriodLoadExchange
© Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details Source Cell
Check of active
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions AMLE
AMLE state
state
conditions
conditions AMLE feature

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can


be in Partner Cell

active or inactive AMLE state with partner LNCE


L
cell
AMLEPR-0
• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only
Active mode load equalization profile identifieramlePrId
when: Headroom in CAC cacHeadroom
1. It is not in Active Inter Frequency Load Difference in CAC of source and target cellsdeltaCac
Balancing (iFLB) State (applicable when Threshold for maximum CAC maxCacThresho
LTE1170/LTE1531 is activated) ld
Target carrier frequency
2. There is at least one partner cell targetCarrierFre
q
configured Note:
for source cell (LNREL:amleAllowed=true) When LTE1841 is activated (LNBTS:actAmle = true), at
least default AMLEPR-0 has to be configured

21 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be Source


in TL
active or inactive AMLE state with partner

CACS
cell
• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only
when:
maxCacThreshold

RLS
3. Following criteria are met for configured
partner cell:

CRITERIUM 1: CACS <


Note:
AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold
Each time when either Source cell CAC is updated (500ms)
or source eNB gets more up-to-date CAC of Target Cell (e.g.
CRITERIUM 2: CACT ≥
via Resource Status Update),
AMLEPR:cacHeadroom
AMLE state of Source Cell is
rechecked
CRITERIUM 3: CAC - CAC > AMLEPR:deltaCac
T S
22 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be


Partner
in
TL
active or inactive AMLE state with partner
cell cacHeadroom

CACT
• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only
when:
3. Following criteria are met for configured
partner cell:

RLT
CRITERIUM 1: CACS <
Note:
AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold
Each time when either Source cell CAC is updated (500ms)
or source eNB gets more up-to-date CAC of Target Cell (e.g.
CRITERIUM 2: CACT ≥
via Resource Status Update),
AMLEPR:cacHeadroom
AMLE state of Source Cell is
rechecked
CRITERIUM 3: CAC - CAC > AMLEPR:deltaCac
T S
23 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be


in Source Partner
active or inactive AMLE state with partner TL

CACs
cell CACS

CACT
CACT
• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only
when: ∆CAC = CACT-CACS

RLS
3. Following criteria are met for configured

RLT
partner cell:

CRITERIUM 1: CACS <


Note:
AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold
Each time when either Source cell CAC is updated (500ms)
or source eNB gets more up-to-date CAC of Target Cell (e.g.
CRITERIUM 2: CACT ≥
via Resource Status Update),
AMLEPR:cacHeadroom
AMLE state of Source Cell is
rechecked
CRITERIUM 3: CAC - CAC > AMLEPR:deltaCac
T S
24 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions
Source Partner
Load is equalized when CAC TL
deviation

CACS
cacHeadroom
CACS=60%
between Source cell (CACS) and CACT=70%

CAC of maxCacThreshold
∆CAC=10%

RLS
target Cell (CACT) is low enough
• the load difference between
partner cells is maintained
according to configured delta CAC
• Delta CAC
(LNCEL:AMLEPR:deltaCac) defines
maximum allowed CAC deviation Load is equalized when:
between Source cell and Target
cell CACT - CACS ≤
25 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
AMLEPR:deltaCac
For internal use
Technical Details
2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

Example: AMLE State verification:


• 3 partner cells Partner Cell (PC) of Source Cell (S)
• 2 partner frequency layers PC1 PC2 PC3
f1 f2 f2
CACPC1 CACPC2 CACPC3
CAC
CACSS <
< CAC
CACSS <
< CAC
CACSS <
<
maxCacThresholdf1
f1
maxCacThreshold
maxCacThresholdf2
f2
maxCacThresholdf2
f2
Y
N
CACPC2
Y
≥ cacHeadroomf2 CAC
Y
≥ cacHeadroom
STOP PC2 f2 CACPC3
PC3 ≥ cacHeadroomf2
f2

Y N
CAC
CACPC2 – CACS>∆CAC
PC2 – CACS>∆CACf2
f2 STOP

AMLE INACTIVE AMLE ACTIVE AMLE INACTIVE

26 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details Source Cell

3) Candidate UE Selection
Candidate UE AMLE feature
Selection

Candidate UE Selection procedure is reused from


LTE1170/LTE1531 Partner Cell

• Each time when either


UE enters RRC Connected State
˗ [point A] Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 or UE was handed over to the cell that is in
Bearer Check Timer active AMLE state or active iFLB state

(LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer) or
˗ [point B] Inter Frequency Load Balancing Retry A B B
Timer (Tdyn = Int(max(#actUEs* div 60;1) x time
LNCEL:iFLBRetryTimer)
Note:
is expired, UE selection criteria are checked A Inter Frequency LB Bearer Check Timer is
A
started
B
B
UE selection criteria are verified. Inter
Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer (Tdyn)
* #actUEs = the actual number of active UEs in the cell excluding UEs with configured
is (re)started
SCC (Secondary Component Carrier)

27 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
3) Candidate UE Selection

Candidate UE Selection procedure is reused from


LTE1170/LTE1531
• Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer UE enters RRC Connected State
or UE was handed over to the cell that is in
Check Timer is started every time when: active AMLE state or active iFLB state
˗ UE either enters RRC Connection state or
˗ UE enters cell that is already in active AMLE state or
active iFLB state via Handover A B B
time
• Inter Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer is
started every time when: Note:
A Inter Frequency LB Bearer Check Timer is
˗ Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check A
started
Timer is expired B
B
UE selection criteria are verified. Inter
˗ Inter Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer is expired Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer (Tdyn)
is (re)started
˗ UE enters cell that is neither in active AMLE state nor
active iFLB state via Handover

28 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
3) Candidate UE Selection
UE is a candidate for offloading only if it fulfills UE selection
criteria
1) Source Cell is in active AMLE state
2) UE supports at least one partner frequency layer that is used by
partner cell with which source cell is in active AMLE state Source
Cell
3) UE has no QCI1 bearer established (depending on
LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer)
• UE with QCI1 established, analogously to iFLB feature, is considered to
be candidate for offloading only when LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer = ?
31 Partner
4) UE has no GBR bearer established (depending on the Cell
LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode setting)
• UE with GBR bearer established can only be offloaded if GBR load is
taken into account during CAC calculation
(LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode = allUEs)
5) UE has no Secondary Cell (SCell) configured
6) There are no ongoing inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurements for
29 the UE© Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
7) Required functionalities, i.e. Inter frequency Handover and A4
Technical Details Source Cell

4) Measurement Solicitation
AMLE feature
Measurement
Solicitation
For UE that is a candidate for offloading A4
measurements Partner Cell

are started, provided that maximum number of


ReportConfigEUTRA (A4)
concurrent
Parameter Name Set values
A4 measurements (LNCEL:iFLBA4ActLim) is not > Trigger Type event
reached >> eventId eventA4

• s-measure in measConfig is set to 0 >>> a4-Threshold

˗ s-measure=0 causes instant start of UE measurements


(regardless of RSRP level of serving cell) >>>> threshold-RSRP 0 (-140dBm)
• ReportConfigEUTRA is added in reportConfigToAddModList >> hysteresis 0
˗ A4 configuration is hardcoded and not modifiable >> Time To Trigger (TTT) 40ms

• Activation of A4 is done by adding selected measObjectIds and > Trigger Quantity RSRP

reportConfigIds to measIdToAddModList > Report Quantity Both(RSRP & RSRQ)

˗ Partner frequency layers (measObjectIds) that are supported > MaxReportCells 8

by the UE and for which at least one partner cell is in active > Report Interval 60min
AMLE state with source cell are added > Report Amount 1
30 • UE is informed about
© Nokia Solutions and changes in measConfig via RRC
Networks 2014
For internal use
Connection Reconfiguration message
Technical Details
4) Measurement Solicitation A4 event activation
A4 event deactivation
•• Set
Set s-measure
s-measure ==0
0 • Set s-measure = threshold1
•• Add measIDs in
Add measIDs in • Remove measIDs in
A4 Measurement Reports (MR) are expected measConfig
measConfig
• Measurement gap
MeasConfig
• Measurement gap handling
to be handling
handling
•• Send
• Send RRC Connection
Send RRC
RRC Connection
Connection Reconfiguration
Received within max 3s (supervision timer) Reconfiguration
Reconfiguration
RSRP
after RSRP
Neighb
or
A4 measurements start Lowest possible A4 A4 Report
RSRP threshold
• If at least one MR was received before allows for
Sent
supervision timer expiration, Target Cell List measurement of
A4-threshold most of neighbor
(TCL) is created = -140dBm cells
˗ The lowest possible threshold-RSRP is used. It TTT=40ms
ensures that almost all cells are reported via A4 time
report
Note:
˗ further filtering process is required to remove All cells with RSRP > -140dBm are reported . Further
cells that are unsuitable due to RSRP and/or post-processing and filtering unsuitable cells is
RSRQ criteria required.

• Whenever inter-RAT or inter-frequency


31 measurements
© Nokia Solutionsare started,
and Networks 2014 A4 is deactivated
and
For internal use UE will not be offloaded due to LE

˗ UE can still be Handed over to different cell via


Technical Details Source Cell

5) Load Equalization execution


AMLE feature

Load
Target Cell List (TCL) postprocessing Equalization
execution
STEP 1: Removing unsuitable cells from TCL Partner Cell

• Cells with unsufficient level of RSRP/RSRQ according to filtering


parameters setting: LNHOIF:thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter and
LNHOIF:thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter
• Cells from different RAT (including cells of Home eNB when
LNBTS:actHeNBMobility is activated)
• Cells that are blacklisted for Load Based HO (LB HO)
• Cells with unknown CAC and with too low CAC [CACT <
AMLEPR:cacHeadroom] *
• Cells for which CAC of Source cell is too high [CACS >
AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold] *
All unsuitable
• Cells that do not fulfill: CACT - CACS > AMLEPR:deltaCac *
• Note:
Number of AMLE HOs towards given cell, between two CAC updates
cells are
* from
Whenever
thismore
Whenever
verified
cell,up-to-date
more
verified again
again
is higher
up-to-date CAC is
is available,
CACthan AMLE
AMLE state
state of
LNCEL:amleMaxNumHo
available, of each
each cell
cell is
is removed from
TCL
32 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Technical Details
5) Load Equalization execution

Target Cell List (TCL) postprocessing


STEP 2: TCL sorting
• If there is at least one cell on TCL after STEP1, list is sorted
according to descending ∆CAC
• First candidate that is at the top of TCL is a partner target cell
with the biggest CAC deviation with source cell

The highest delta CAC


value determines
which target cell is the
first candidate to
accommodate UE from
33 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
the source cell
For internal use
Technical Details
5) Load Equalization execution Source Cell Target Cell

HO preparation phase
• First cell from the top of TCL is considered to be Handover Request
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
the first Target Cell
• Intra-eNB, X2 or S1-based handover is prepared
Radio
towards the chosen target cell with Handover Admission
Cause =“Reduce Load in Serving Cell” Control
• Radio Admission Control (RAC) is responsible for
verification if given handover can be admitted Handover Request
Ack.
˗ Case 1) Successful HO preparation phase End of HO preparation phase
• If target cell provides sufficient number of
resources to serve the UE, HANDOVER REQUEST
X2 based Handover message
ACKNOWLEDGE message is sent to source eNB flow
 Handover Execution phase is performed NOTE:
NOTE: For
For simplicity,
simplicity, only
only X2
X2 Load
Load Based
Based
Handover is described. In case of different
types
types of
of HO
HO (intra-eNB,
(intra-eNB, S1
S1 based
based HO)
HO) proper
proper
HO
HO messages
messages areare used
used

34 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details
5) Load Equalization execution Source Cell Target Cell

HO preparation phase Handover Request


˗ Case 2) Unsuccessful HO Cause: Reduce Load in Serving
preparation phase Cell Admission Other
Control Target Cell
• If RAC of target cell rejects the HO HO Preparation Failure
Request, HO Preparation failure with

prohibitLBHoTimer
Cause: No Radio Resources
proper cause is sent Available in
- If RAC admits only some of UE`s Target Cell/Transport
Resources Handover Request
bearers, LBHO is cancelled by Handover Request
Unavailable Cause: Reduce Load in
source cell (cause: Partial HO) Cause: Reduce Load in Serving
Cell Serving Cell
• Target cell in which RAC rejects (or
Handover Request
partially admits) LBHO is blocked by
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving
source cell to avoid next LBHOs
Cell
during time defined by
LNBTS:prohibitLBHOTimer NOTE:
NOTE: For
For simplicity,
simplicity, only
only X2
X2 Load
Load Based
Based
• In such case, HO towards the second Handover is described. In case of different
types
types of
of HO
HO (intra-eNB,
(intra-eNB, S1
S1 based
based HO)
HO) proper
cell in TCL (if any) will be triggered proper
HO
HO messages
messages areare used
used

35 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Technical Details

System behaviour after LTE1841 feature (de)activation:


• Feature is activated in source cell if LNBTS:actAmle is set to true
˗ Continuous Load Measurements are started if they have not been started yet
˗ CAC is exchanged with partner cells
• When Partner cell belongs to neighbour eNB, RSR procedure is established
˗ Whenever conditions for AMLE are fulfilled, UE can be offloaded to partner neighbour cell via Inter
Frequency Handover
• Feature is deactivated in source cell if LNBTS:actAmle is set to false
˗ Load Measurements are done only if other features require them, i.e. if LTE1841 was the only feature
that required Load Measurements, they are stopped
• If Load Measurements are stopped, RSR are stopped as well and there is no CAC exchange
˗ Already started AMLE actions like HO preparation and execution or A4 measurements are allowed to
be completed, however no new AMLE actions are triggered (e.g. no next A4 will be started)

36 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Interdependencies

Table of contents

37 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Interdependencies

prerequisites LTE55 – Inter Frequency Handover:


UE offloading is done via iFHO thus feature that
introduced that functionality has to be enabled
LTE1060 TDD - FDD handover:
Whenever FDD-TDD LB (or vice versa) shall be
supported, feature LTE1060 that introduced FDD-
TDD and TDD-FDD HO is required

38 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Interdependencies

extensions LTE1387/LTE1170/LTE1531 – Inter frequency


Load
Balancing (iFLB) and extensions:
• When LNBTS:actInterFreqLB is true, Inter
Frequency Load Equalization works only if cell is
not in Active Load Balancing State (offloading
only to partner cells)
• Inter frequency LB will ensure offloading towards
all neighbouring frequency layers (faster Load
reduction in source cell) when Active iFLB state is
reached (High Load Threshold is exceeded)
39 • iFLB
© Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 Features are not required to activate
LTE1841, however some mechanisms are reused
For internal use
Interdependencies

LTE1496 – eICIC – micro,


extensions
LTE1113 – eICIC – macro,
LTE2050 – Load Triggered Idle Mode Load Balancing
LTE1140 – Intra Frequency Load Balancing
• All of features outlined above enable CAC calculation
and exchange (RSR)
˗ Load Equalization is possible with each partner cell, in which
Load measurements and CAC exchange is initialized
• Activation of LTE1841 is not required in a partner neighbour cell

40 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Interdependencies

extensions LTE1089 – Downlink carrier aggregation - 20


MHz
LTE1332 – Downlink carrier aggregation - 40
MHz
Carrier Aggregation (CA) behavior provides natural ‘Load
Balancing’ characteristic. As a result, if SCell is
configured for UE, it is not a candidate for offloading.
Moving UEs that are configured for CA does not have to
be beneficial. It is not known if SCell will be able to be
added for new source cell
• LTE1089 and LTE1332 can be activated in parallel with
LTE1841

41
• AMLE algorithm will stop at step 3 (Candidate UE Selection)
© Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use when SCell is configured for UE
Interdependencies

limitations LTE1382 – Cell Resource Groups


LTE1382 causes incorrect load calculation and
thus calculated CAC is useless. As whole
mechanism is based on CAC, usage improper CAC
for Load Equalization can cause for example: high
load in target cell, significant deteriorate of iFHO
Success Ratio
•LTE1382 cannot be activated in parallel with
LTE1841

42 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Benefits and Gains

Table of contents

43 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Benefits and Gains

Feature is intended to equalize load of cells that cover similar area


• The maximum gain is for cells of the same coverage
• UEs are offloaded between partner cells before source cell enters Active iFLB State
˗ Thanks to Proactive UE distribution between cells, High Load Threshold is expected to be
exceeded less frequently
• Improved UE distribution is visible faster
˗ AMLE is expected to reduce number of Load-blind HOs which are a result of using
LTE1387/LTE1170/LTE1531. Load Equalization functionality, in contradiction to Inter
Frequency Load Balancing, takes into account CAC of all target cells and CAC has to be
available
• Increased number of Inter Frequency Handovers is expected as well as improved overall LB HO Success
Ratio
˗ Improved UE TP might be observed (cell by cell level)
Note: There are neither simulations nor tests done so far, as a result there is no confirmation what is really
impacted by LTE1841. This section will be updated when the results will be available

44 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Configuration
Management
Table of contents

45 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Configuration Management

• Definition of terms and rules for parameter classification*


The ‘Basic Parameters’ category The ‘Advanced Parameters’ category
contains primary parameters which should contains the parameters for network
be considered during cell deployment and optimisation and fine tuning:
must be adjusted to a particular scenario:
• Decent network performance should be achieved without
• Network Element (NE) identifiers tuning these parameters
• Planning parameters, e.g. neighbour definitions, • Universal defaults ensuring decent network performance
frequency, scrambling codes, PCI, RA preambles need to be defined for all parameters of this category. If
• Parameters that are the outcome from dimensioning, i.e. this is not possible for a given parameter it must be put
basic parameters defining amount of resources to the ‘Basic Parameters’ category
• Basic parameters activating basic functionalities, e.g. • Parameters requiring detailed system knowledge and
power control, admission control, handovers broad experience unless rules for the ‘Basic Parameters’
• Parameters defining operators’ strategy, e.g. traffic category are violated
steering, thresholds for power control, handovers, cell • All parameters (even without defaults) related to
reselections, basic parameters defining feature behaviour advanced and very complex features

* - purpose: categories of parameters have been defined to simplify network parameterization. Parameterization effort shall be focused mainly on parameters
included in basic category. Categorization is reflected in a ‘view’ definition in NetAct CM Editor (released in RL60) i.e. parameters will be displayed according to
the category: either in the ‘Basic parameters’ view or the ‘Advanced parameters’ view.

46 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Configuration Management
New basic parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


Activate active mode load
LNBTS:actAmle
equalization
Active mode load equalization
LNCEL:AMLEPR:amlePrId
profile identifier

LNCEL:AMLEPR:targetCarrierFreq Target carrier frequency

Active mode load equalization


LNREL:amleAllowed
allowed

47 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Configuration Management
New advanced parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


LNCEL:AMLEPR:cacHeadroom Headroom in CAC

Difference in CAC of source and


LNCEL:AMLEPR:deltaCac
target cells

LNCEL:AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold Threshold for maximum CAC

LNCEL:loadSettings:ulCacSelection Uplink CAC source selection

LNCEL:loadSettings:ulStaticCac Static CAC for uplink

LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMo Mode for calculating the CAC in load


de bal. and eICIC
LNCEL:loadSettings:nomNumPrbNon Nominal number of PRBs for load
Gbr balancing

LNCEL:loadSettings:targetLoadGbrDl
48 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 DL GBR resource target load
For internal use
Configuration Management
New advanced parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


LNCEL:loadSettings:targetLoadNonG
DL non-GBR resource target load
brDl

LNCEL:loadSettings:targetLoadPdcch PDCCH target load

LNCEL:loadSettings:cellCapClass Cell capacity class value

X2 resource status update


LNCEL:amlePeriodLoadExchange
periodicity

49 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Configuration Management
Related basic parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


Inter-freq load bal threshold for
LNHOIF:thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter
RSRP target filter
Inter-freq load bal threshold for
LNHOIF:thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter
RSRQ target filter

50 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Configuration Management
Related advanced parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


Inter-frequency load balancing QCI1
LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer
Bearer check timer

LNBTS:prohibitLBHOTimer Prohibit Load based handover timer

51 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Deployment
Aspects
Network graphic boxes Network element boxes
Table of contents

52 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Deployment Aspects

LTE1841 is activated on eNB level


 true

Target frequency layers have to be configured in AMLE Profiles


• Each AMLEPR is a configuration set related to all cells of one frequency layer
- Neighbour cell can be a partner neighbour cell only if LNREL:amleAllowed = true

deltaCac
cacHeadroom
targetCarrierFreq
maxCacThreshold  true

53 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Deployment Aspects

Feature LTE1841 is intended to equalize the CAC between source cell and
partner cells
• CAC is the min(ACGBR,ACnonGBR,ACPDCCH). It is determined in relation to configured target load threshold
• Different value of target load threshold can be configured at source cell and the target cell
• While LTE1841 will equalize the CAC (with accuracy of LNCEL:AMLEPR:deltaCac), it does not necessarily
equalize Cell
theLoad
Measured
[%] Load Note:
Note:
For simplicity, in given scenario it is assumed
100% that
that only
only nonGBR
nonGBR is is taken
taken into
into account.
account. All
All
threshold
threshold and
and variables
variables corresponds
corresponds toto nonGBR
nonGBR
load (e.g. CACnonGBR
nonGBR
, Related loadnonGBR
nonGBR
and so
TL 66% on)
on)
Composite Available Capacity (CAC)
50%
40% TL
50% Composite Available Capacity (CAC)
Relative Load = 50% 50% Measured Load = 33%
50% Measured Load = 20%
0%
Source Cell Partner Cell

54 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Deployment Aspects

Frequency layer prioritization for different frequency layers


• Different parametrization of separate AMLEPR structures is possible (configuration is
done per target frequency layer)
LNCEL:AMLEPR-(B):maxCacThreshold = 70% LNCEL:AMLEPR-(C):maxCacThreshold = 50%

A
60%
60% 80% 60%
60% 80%
80% 80%
B
40%
40% 40%
40%
20% 20%
0% 20% 0% 20% C
Source Partner Source Partner
Cell (A) Cell (B) Cell (A) Cell (C)

NOTE:
NOTE:
Different
Different LNCEL:AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold
LNCEL:AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold for
for different
different frequency
frequency layer
layer causes
causes certain
certain prioritization
prioritization in
in terms
terms of
of
what should be equalized first.
Different
Different LNCEL:AMLEPR:deltaCac
LNCEL:AMLEPR:deltaCac introduces
introduces different
different meaning
meaning for
for equalized
equalized load
load between
between target
target frequency
frequency layers.
layers.

55 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Deployment Aspects

Multivendor scenario issues


• Definition of CAC is specified by 3GPP, however calculation methodology is preserved for
eNB vendor
- Different CAC calculation method between different vendors might cause undesired UE offloading
• Example: CAC is determined according to full cell capacity, not Target Load Threshold. UE can be offloaded
despite the fact that cell of other vendor eNB is more loaded than cell of NOKIA eNB
Cell Load X [%] No Target Load Threshold in other vendor eNB!
100%

TLX 66% 60%


60% Composite Available Capacity (CAC)
Composite Available Capacity (CAC)
50%

Measured Load = 33% 40% Measured Load = Relative Load = 40%


50%
Relative Load = 50%
0%
Source Cell Partner Cell X – GBR, nonGBR, PDCCH
NOKIA eNB Other vendor eNB
56 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Performance
Aspects
Table of contents

57 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Performance Aspects
New counters
Cell DL Composite Available Capacity Description
(DL CAC)
DL_CAC_EQUAL_ZERO (M8011C81) This set of counters provides the number of instances that
DL_CAC_ABOVE_0_BELOW_EQ_20 the measured downlink CAC falls into certain range.
(M8011C82)
Trigger event: Every second, the Cell DL Composite
DL_CAC_ABOVE_20_BELOW_EQ_40 Available Capacity (CAC) is measured by an eNB internal
(M8011C83)
measurement. Value of measured CAC is compared with each
DL_CAC_ABOVE_40_BELOW_EQ_60 range and proper counter is incremented.
(M8011C84)
Use case: This counter is used to generate a histogram plot
DL_CAC_ABOVE_60_BELOW_EQ_80
(M8011C85) for the cell’s DL CAC over the measurement period. The
#
histogram plot gives insight to the cell’s load distribution over
DL_CAC_ABOVE_80_BELOW_EQ_100
(M8011C86)
the measurement period.

(LTE Cell Resource)

81 2 3 4 5 6
1C C8 C8 C8 C8 C8
01 8011 8011 8011 8011 8011
M8 M M M M M

58 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Performance Aspects
Related counters
Number of load balancing Handover Description
attempts

HO_LB_ATT (M8021C23) This counter provides the number of LB-based HO attempts for
both intra and inter-eNB LB-based HOs (regardless of LBHO was
triggered by iFLB or AMLE)
Trigger event: Transmission of an “RRC:Connection
Reconfiguration” message indicating a load based HO command to
Number of successful load balancing Description
the UE.
Handover completions
HO_LB_SUCC (M8021C24) This counter provides the number of successful LB HOs for both
intra and inter-eNB LB-based HOs (regardless of LBHO was
triggered by iFLB or AMLE)
Trigger event:
Intra-eNB: Counter is updated upon reception of an internal
message indicating successful Intra-eNB load-based HO.
Inter-eNB via X2: Counter is updated upon reception of X2AP: UE
CONTEXT RELEASE from target eNB in case received due to LB-
based HO
Inter-eNB via S1: Counter is updated upon reception of S1AP: UE
59 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND from MME with cause value Radio
For internal use Network Layer (Successful Handover) in case received due to LB-
based HO
Performance Aspects
Related counters
High cell load Indicator for Load Description
Balancing

HIGH_CELL_LOAD_LB This counter provides the number of times that a cell is in active
iFLB state for the whole measurement period
(M8011C69)
Trigger event: Every 1 second, the counter is incremented if cell
is in active iFLB state

60 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Performance Aspects
Related counters
Number of load balancing Handover Description
attempts

HO_INTFREQ_ATT (M8021C0) This counter provides The number of intra LTE inter-frequency
Handover attempts. It comprises both the intra- and inter-eNB
HOs.
Trigger event:
intra-eNB HO: This counter is updated following the transmission
of an RRC Connection Reconfiguration message sent by the eNB to
the UE, which indicates a Handover Command to the UE in case
that this message is sent in response to the preparation of an
inter-frequency Intra eNB Handover.
inter-eNB HO-via X2: This counter is updated following the
reception of an X2AP:HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE
message from the target eNB in case that this message is received
in response to the preparation of an inter-frequency Inter eNB
Handover.
inter-eNB HO-via S1: This counter is updated following the
reception of an S1AP:HANDOVER COMMAND message from the
MME in case that this message is received in response to the
preparation of an inter-frequency Inter eNB Handover.
61 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Performance Aspects
Related counters
Number of successful inter-frequency Description
Handover completions

HO_INTFREQ_SUCC (M8021C2) The number of successful intra LTE inter-frequency Handover


completions. It comprises the intra- and inter-eNB Handover
scenario.
Trigger event:
intra-eNB HO: This counter is updated following the reception of
an internal message in case that it is received for an inter-
frequency Intra eNB Handover.
inter-eNB HO-via X2: This counter is updated following the
reception of an X2AP:UE CONTEXT RELEASE message from the
target eNB for an inter-frequency Inter eNB Handover.
inter-eNB HO-via S1: This counter is updated following the
reception of an S1AP:UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND message
from the MME with the cause value Radio Network Layer
(Successful Handover) in case that this message is received for an
inter-frequency Inter eNB Handover.

62 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Performance Aspects
Feature monitoring
Feature impact How to measure?
Improved Traffic Distribution KPIs:
Note: Depending on scenario, traffic • E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Volume DL (LTE_5212a)
distribution may be improved due to UE • UTRAN PDCP SDU Volume UL (LTE_5213a)
offloading between partner frequency • E-UTRAN RLC PDU Volume UL (LTE_5810a)
layers. KPIs should be investigated on a
cell-by-cell level distribution
Improved UE Distribution Some selected KPIs:
Note: Depending on scenario, UE • Number of active users (users with data in buffer)
distibution may be improved due to UE • E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer DL (LTE_5800d)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer UL (LTE_5801d)
offloading between partner frequency • Maximum Active UEs with data in the buffer per cell DL (LTE_5802a)
layers. KPI should be investigated on a • Maximum Active UEs with data in the buffer per cell UL (LTE_5803a)
cell-by-cell level distribution. • Number of connected users (with DRB)
• E-UTRAN Average Active Connected Ues (LTE_5804c)
• Active UE per eNB max (LTE_1082a)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI1 DL (
LTE_5805c)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI2 DL (
LTE_5559b)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI3 DL (
LTE_5560b)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI4 DL (
63 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 LTE_5561b)
For internal use
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for non-GBR DRBs
(QCI5..9) DL (LTE_5806c)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for QCI1 DRBs UL (
Performance Aspects
Feature monitoring
Feature impact How to measure?
Increased number of Inter Frequency KPIs:
Handovers and improved iFHO SR • E-UTRAN Inter-Frequency HO Success Ratio (SR) (LTE_5114a
)
Note: Feature uses iFHO as a mechanism
that enables UE offloading. When feature
is active, increased number of iFHOs is
expected. Due to the fact that number of
Load Blind HO should be reduced,
improved Success Ratio (SR) is expected

Increased signalling load on X2 Monitoring of mentioned impact can be done via:


interface • M8004C0 (X2 data volume per eNB, incoming signaling
data) and
Note: Continuous RSR messages exchange • M8004C1 (X2 data volume per eNB, outgoing signaling
between eNBs will cause increased load data)
on X2

64 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load Equalization

Compliance
Aspects
Table of contents

65 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Compliance Aspects

• 3GPP 36.423 defines the standard for Resource Status Reporting procedure
• Some factors affect the reliability of AMLE functionality towards another vendor
˗ Composite Available Capacity(CAC) is defined as one of the Load Measurement that is communicated via
X2 Resource Status Reporting. However way of calculation of CAC is left to the vendors
• A Nokia eNB serving as the Requesting eNB includes only one cell per Resource Status Request
message.
˗ If cell from another vendor’s eNB request multiple cells in one RSR message, this is still supported by Nokia
eNB
• Note that Nokia eNB only calculate DL CAC. UL CAC can either reflect calculated value for DL or take a
fixed configurable value

66 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
67 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
Configuration Management
Hidden parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


Inter-frequency load balance
LNBTS:reportTimerIFLBA4
supervision timer A4 event

LNBTS:iFLBA4ActLim Inter Freq Load Bal A4 active limit

Inter-frequency load balance load


LNBTS:iFLBLoadExchangePeriod
exchange periodicity

68 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
References

Reference
Th. Stark + CFAM Team – LTE1841 Inter Frequency Load 1 Equalization CFAM

John Torregoza – NEI for LTE1140 Intra-Frequency Load Balancing

Katarzyna Rybianska – NEI for 1127 Service based mobility trigger

69 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
Abbreviations

Abbreviation Explanation
AMLE Active Mode Load Equalization
RSR Resource Status Report(ing)
iFLB Inter Frequency Load Balancing
iFHO Inter Frequency Handover
NR Neighbour Relation
TL Target Load
ML Measured load
RL Relative Load
AC Available Capacity
CAC Composite Available Capacity

70 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use