0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

14 просмотров71 страницаdfcgvnmv,nbvbbvbvbvbnbnbbvb

Nov 02, 2018

Hid_tesis

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

dfcgvnmv,nbvbbvbvbvbnbnbbvb

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

14 просмотров71 страницаHid_tesis

dfcgvnmv,nbvbbvbvbvbnbnbbvb

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 71

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 3

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................................. 4

NOMENCLATURE ..................................................................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 8

1.1 ENGINE MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................... 8

1.2 MAINTENANCE EXPERIENCE IN ETHIOPIA ............................................................................................. 8

1.3 BRIEF PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING MAINTENANCE ....................................................................10

1.4 MOTIVATION .......................................................................................................................................10

1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT .................................................................................................................11

1.6 PROJECT SPECIFICATION ......................................................................................................................11

CHAPTER TWO .........................................................................................................................................12

BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................................12

2.1TECHNOLOGY IN ETHIOPIA ...................................................................................................................12

2.2 ENGINES IN ETHIOPIA ..........................................................................................................................12

CHAPTER THREE.....................................................................................................................................13

LITERATURE REVIEW ...........................................................................................................................13

3.1 ENGINE ................................................................................................................................................13

3.2 VEHICLE ENGINE..................................................................................................................................13

3.3 CLASSIFICATION OF AN ENGINE ...........................................................................................................14

3.4 MAINTENANCE OF ENGINES .................................................................................................................15

3.5 ENGINE STANDS ...................................................................................................................................16

3.5.1 Types of engine stands ................................................................................................................16

3.6 WORM GEARING ..................................................................................................................................18

3.7 BEARINGS ............................................................................................................................................18

3.7.1. Thrust bearings ..........................................................................................................................19

3.7.2. Tapered bearings .......................................................................................................................20

3.8 SEALINGS.............................................................................................................................................20

3.9 GASKETS .............................................................................................................................................21

3.10 RETAINING RINGS ..............................................................................................................................21

3.11 WASHERS ..........................................................................................................................................21

3.12 LUBRICATION ....................................................................................................................................22

3.13 WELDED JOINTS .................................................................................................................................22

CHAPTER FOUR .......................................................................................................................................25

DESIGN ANALYSIS...................................................................................................................................25

4.1 ALTERNATIVES (DESIGN CONCEPTS) ...................................................................................................25

4.2. DESIGN MATRIX ..................................................................................................................................25

4.3 DESIGN OF HANDLE .............................................................................................................................26

4.4 DESIGN OF CRANK LEVER ARM ............................................................................................................27

4.5 DESIGN OF JOURNAL ............................................................................................................................29

4.6 DESIGN OF GEAR BOX .........................................................................................................................29

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.6.2. Design of worm gear ..................................................................................................................31

4.6.4. Design of worm gear shaft .........................................................................................................36

4.6.5. Self locking of the worm .............................................................................................................37

4.7. SELECTION OF LUBRICATION FOR THE WORM GEAR ............................................................................37

4.8. DESIGN OF FLANGE COUPLING ............................................................................................................38

4.8.1 Design of hub ..............................................................................................................................38

4.8.2. Design of key ..............................................................................................................................39

4.8.3 Design of flange ..........................................................................................................................40

4.8.4. Design of bolts ...........................................................................................................................40

4.9. BEARING SELECTION...........................................................................................................................41

4.9.1 Roller bearing selection for the worm ........................................................................................41

4.9.2 Thrust bearing selection for the wheel ........................................................................................42

4.9.3. Tapered bearing selection for transmission ...............................................................................43

4.10. BEARING SHAFT ...............................................................................................................................44

4.11 DEFLECTION OF THE GRIPPER SUPPORT PLATE ...................................................................................46

4.12 DEFLECTION OF BASE FRAME CHANNEL .............................................................................................46

4.13. SELECTION OF RETAINING RING (CIRCLIPS) .......................................................................................47

4.14. SPACER SELECTION ...........................................................................................................................48

4.15. WELDING ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................................48

4.15.1. Griper welding .........................................................................................................................48

4.15.2. Welding of the frame (beam) ....................................................................................................50

4.15.3. Welding of the reinforced link ..................................................................................................52

4.15.4. Welding of reinforcement link ..................................................................................................54

4.15.5. Welding of one member to another ..........................................................................................56

4.15.6. Welding of the base member ....................................................................................................58

4.16 DESIGN OF PIN FOR THE WHEEL..........................................................................................................59

4.17 DESIGN OF BOLT FOR THE WHEEL ......................................................................................................61

4.18 ENGINE BOLT .....................................................................................................................................61

4.19 WHEEL DESIGN ..................................................................................................................................62

4.20 ASSEMBLY AND PART MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES......................................................................63

CHAPTER FIVE .........................................................................................................................................65

FUTURE WORK ........................................................................................................................................65

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................66

RECOMMENDATION ..............................................................................................................................66

LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................................67

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................71

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, great thanks go toward our advisor Mr. Solomon G. who had helped us a lot

with his knowledge and material from the beginning to the end. Then, we would like to

thank all persons who helped us in this project towards the partial fulfillment of B.Sc.

degree in mechanical engineering. It is special to thank the staff members of the

department of mechanical engineering Mr. Ftwi, Mr. Tesfalidet, Mr. Endalkachew and

members of SUR CONSTRUCTION PLC; Mr. Legesse, Mr. Babar, Mr. Eyob, Mr.

Getachew since their kindness and cooperating spirit made us to step forward in this

project. Lastly great thanks go towards our advisor Mr. Solomon G. who had helped us a

lot with his knowledge and material. At last thank you all friends who helped us by

giving suggestions and ideas.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

ABSTRACT

This report presents a final year project pertaining to the design of an engine stand

for an inline type engines to avoid maintenance deficiencies of inline engines (Model

1924) and improve the maintenance standard time which helps the workers to perform

efficiently.

Maintenance is the major part for existence of machines. Since the society wants to

have a good maintenance for his machines, it is a duty of an engineering society to read

these needs. The design of an engine stand can be one solution to ease the maintenance

systems. Specifically, in challenging difficulties of maintaining an engine, so far many

ways are turned to hold the engines. But it is a troublesome and costly to perform such a

heavy engines.

The objective of the project is to reveal and get reduce such hardships to a certain

level. This can be done by applying ways of the engineering techniques relating with the

problem and the situations present. Using construction materials, mechanical components

and other simple components can achieve all the necessities.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

NOMENCLATURE

Lc Length of crank lever

lh length of handle

Mmax maximum bending moment

I moment of inertia

sb permissible bending stress

Z section modulus

dh diameter of handle

B width of lever near the boss

t thickness of lever arm

Te equivalent twisting moment

(Te) w equivalent twisting moment on worm shaft

Ds diameter of journal

Pa applied force

d1 diameter of bolts for flange

C load rating

L rated life

w width of key

l length of key

Density

R reaction

Fe equivalent radial force

db diameter of bolt

sy yield strength

Ds diameter of input shaft

po permissible input power

X center distance (meters)

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

T torque to be transmitted

N input shaft speed

P input power

su ultimate strength

l lead angle

lN normal lead

l axial lead

n number of start

Tw number of threads on the worm

pa axial pitch

m module

Dw pitch circular diameter of worm

Ta number of teeth on worm gear

Lw length of threaded portion on worm

h depth of tooth

a addendum

pc circular pitch

Dow outer diameter of worm

sc contact stress

Dg pitch diameter of worm gear

k lead stress factor

ww maximum load for wear

Qv heat generated

h efficiency of worm gearing

Vr rubbing velocity

µ Coefficient of friction

1 angle of friction

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Dt thread diameter

b face width

Nw speed of worm

Ng speed of worm gear

To out put torque

wt tangential load on gear

v pitch line (peripheral) velocity of worm gear

cv velocity factor

y tooth form factor

wd dynamic load

se endurance strength

Ws static load

Apro projected area of worm

Ag projected area of worm gear

A total projected area of worm and worm gear

Qd heat dissipating capacity

Tgear torque acting on worm gear

Tworm torque acting on worm shaft

Wa axial load on gear

Wr radial or separating force on worm gear

T maximum temperature change

kh average heating coefficient

Mworm resultant bending moment on worm shaft

Shear stress

F.S factor of safety

dw diameter of worm shaft

x 2 center distance between worm gear shaft bearing

M gear resultant bending moment on worm gear shaft

dg diameter of worm gear shaft

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Engine maintenance

During the operational life of mechanical systems maintenance costs constitute

a major portion of total expenses. Reciprocating engines are no exception. Accordingly,

an adequate maintenance program can reduce these costs over the life time of a system.

In recent years predictive maintenance programs have been implemented worldwide,

replacing older maintenance philosophies and realizing the task of reducing maintenance

costs. In heavy industry, where maintenance costs can represent 40% of the overall

production costs, the application of a predictive maintenance program can reduce these

costs by more than 50%. In contrast to run-to-failure and preventive maintenance

approaches, which are commonly implemented for reciprocating engines, predictive

maintenance is a condition-driven program .Ref [2].

Though, Maintenance in Ethiopia had shorter time experience, now a day it had

been done smoothly and nicely in most factories, garages, and companies. The type of

maintenance system done varies on the factories goal. The maintained part can be a

machine part (eg.engine), a machine as a whole or some other. Some of the maintenance

experiences and recommendations for engine are:

o Keep engines properly tuned for efficient fuel consumption, clean exhaust,

and economy.

o Keep your engine clean. It makes it easier to spot and correct small leaks

before they become big problems.

o Keep an oil absorption pad in the bilge or below the engine to collect

Spilled products.

o When undertaking maintenance, wipe up spills so that they do not get

pumped overboard with bilge water.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

o Keep the use of engine cleaners to a minimum. Parts cleaning should not be

done in the bilge or over open ground. It should be done in a container or

parts washer where the dirty fluids can be collected and recycled.

o Keep fuel tanks full during winter storage to reduce condensation buildup.

Lack of engine maintenance is one of the most often reason for a car to break

down. Here is a visual example, which shows two engines, one is poorly maintained and

the other is well maintained figure 1.1, which shows poorly maintained engine which is

due to engine oil hasn't been changed for a long time. This engine has relatively low

mileage and already needs serious and costly repair than the engine in figure 1.2, which

is maintained properly.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The vast majority of engine damage results from the failure to maintain the cooling

system.

The result of lack of maintenance of engine cooling system is as shown in figure 1.3, that

is, it will corrode and inhibits cooling transfer and result in chronic overheating.

There are so many problems encountered during maintenance in Ethiopia but the

most common and major ones are:

ii. Lag of time for replacement of some components.

iii. Unwilling to service the machine after a rated life time.

iv. Lack of engine stand while maintenance of some engines.

v. Budget constraint.

1.4 Motivation

During our official visit to SUR CONSTRUCTION in the previous semester as an

aid for the course IC engines, we have seen the maintenance department. In this

department, the major task done is engine overhauling for different engines (from small

vehicles to earth moving machineries). Here the engines overhauled are v-shape engines

and inline engines. As we observed, the maintenance of v-shape engines is somewhat

easy due to the presence of engine stands for v-shape engines.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

But, there is a difficulty of maintaining inline engines due to the absence of inline engine

stands, so we are interested to design an engine stand for engines which are mostly

overhauled (engine model OM355, machine model 1924, Mercedes Benz).

The main objective of the project is to reduce the problems encountered while

overhauling inline engines and improve the standard time of the total engine overhauling.

This makes the company profitable by minimizing the engine overhauling time.

The major specifications that we had taken for the design of inline engine

Stand is:

Engine weight

Overall engine dimensions

Engine type(inline)

Engine stand used for maintenance

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER TWO

2.1Technology in Ethiopia

Technology in Ethiopia is not such developed. Currently Ethiopia strongly tries

to follow two technologies .these are agricultural and water technology and this is related

to the countries policy to eliminate poverty. The remaining technologies include engine

overhauling, cement production, textile technology and so on.

There are different types of engine in the world depending up on many criteria.

But the most common ones are inline, flat and v-type engine depending on there cylinder

arrangement ref[2].and out of these the two (v-type and inline) engines are found in

Ethiopia. But these engines get maintained only in very few garages and engineering

institutes. Some of them are Mesfin industrial engineering, SUR CONSTRUCTION

private limited company, Berta construction, professional garage and so on. The figure

below shows the number of stroke and piston arrangement of inline and v-type engines

(engines which are maintained in Ethiopia).

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER THREE

LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1 Engine

Engine is a machine designed for the conversion of energy into useful mechanical

motion. The principal characteristic of an engine is its capacity to deliver appreciable

mechanical power. An engine is usually a machine that consumes a fuel, as differentiated

from an electric machine that produces mechanical power without altering the

composition of matter. It is heavy in weight and has complex structures and parts.

These engines are internal combustion engines and they work by converting

gasoline into mechanical energy (motion). In order to create mechanical energy, car

engines needs to combust gasoline in a closed chamber to push of a mechanical part

(piston) down and up. The up and down motion of the piston creates a circular motion in

the crankshaft via the connecting rods

Vehicle engines are actually simple but ingenious in design. Almost all Vehicle

engines today are four-stroke engines. This means that there are four stages on how an

engine transforms gasoline into mechanical energy. These stages are the intake,

compression, combustion and exhaust.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

pistons inside the chamber of the engine. We all know that gasoline lights up when

ignited. Now in order for gasoline to combust, it needs to be mixed with oxygen (air) then

compressed before being ignited. The by-product or the exhaust then needs to be

released. These all happens in the four strokes (stages) of your engine.

There are different types of an engine based on different criteria. But most

commonly they can be classified depending up on:

A) Their combustion chamber - internal and external combustion engines.

B) Their cylinder arrangement

Inline (cylinders are arranged in a line in a single bank)

One another)

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

engine)

D) Their fuel consumption – petrol and diesel.

Maintenance is any activity, such as tests, measurements, replacements,

adjustments and repairs, intended to restore or retain a functional unit in a specified state

in which the unit can perform its required functions. It includes all actions taken to retain

material in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. This includes

inspection, testing, servicing, and classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding,

and reclamation.

Therefore maintenance of engines incorporates all activities taken place in order

to keep engines work properly. But the activities performed during maintenance of an

engine are difficult and need critical attention. This is due to the complex nature and

heavy weight of engines. Therefore one has to think the ways to handle an engine before

starting to maintain the different components of an engine. The best and common way to

handle an engine during its maintenance is to use engine stands.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

An engine stand is a structure having a mounting apparatus for securing loads

such as different sizes of automotive engines and the like to a ratable face plate which has

a wheeled stand therefore the stand having adjustable means for balancing and stabilizing

the load carried by the mounting.

Engine stands are used to perform the repairing of engines without load and

suffocation in a reasonable short time. The main aim of engine stands is to hold the

engine and rotate in 360degree or to hold the engine and banked at some angle in order to

make easier the assembling and disassembling process of the engine parts while

maintenance. The way the stands hold the engines differs from engine to engine even for

the same engine type for different vehicles. So there is no uniform guide for the engine

stands arrangement and shape.

There are many types of engine stands based on the arrangement and shape of the

engine cylinders. Some of them are:

Stand for inline cylinders engines,

Stand for v-type engines,

Stand for flat engine types…

They can be manual or motor driven.

Inline engine stand

Inline engine stand is a stand for inline cylinder engine which is used to hold and

rotate in the required amount of degree while maintenance in order to avoid the

complexity of assembling and disassembling of the engine and the power required. Inline

cylinder engine differs for vehicles and construction equipments (e.g., caterpillar) both in

weight and casting structure of the engine block, thus their stand may also differs.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

It is an engine stand to hold v-type engines during their maintenance or repair.

They might differ for different types of v-type engines. As example we can see the

following stand:

This engine stand is not commonly used now days. It can be shown in the

following figure:

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The American Gear Manufacturer’s Association (AGMA) has issued certain

standards relating to worm gear design. The purpose of these publications which are the

work of broad committees, is to share the experience of the industry and thus to arrive at

good standard design practice. [Ref 4]

Number of teeth of gear: Center distance influences to a large extent a minimum

number of teeth for the gear. Recommended minimums are available. The

maximum number of teeth selected is governed by high ratios of reduction and

considerations of strength and load carrying capacity.[ Ref 4, pp36.13]

Number of threads in worm: The minimum number of teeth in the gear and the

reduction ratio determine the number of threads for the worm. Generally, 1 to 10

threads are used. In special cases, a larger number may be required. [Ref 4,

pp36.13]

Gear ratio: Either prime or even gear ratios may be used. However, if the gear

teeth are to be generated by a single-tooth “fly cutter”, the use of prime ratio will

eliminate the need for indexing the cutter. [Ref 4,pp36.13]

Pitch of the worm: It is recommended that pitch be specified in the axial plane of

the worm and that it be a simple fraction, to permit accurate factoring for change

gear ratios.[Ref 4,pp 36.14]

Worm pitch diameter: The pitch diameter of the worm for calculation purposes

is assumed to be at the mean of the working depth. A worm does not have a true

pitch diameter until it is mated with a gear at a specified center distance. If the

actual addendum and dedendum of the worm are equal, respectively, to the

addendum and dedendum of the worm gear, the nominal and actual pitch

diameters of the worm are same. How ever, it is not essential that this condition

exist for satisfactory operation of the gearing. [Ref 4, pp36.14]

3.7 Bearings

Bearings permit smooth, low-friction movement between two surfaces. The

movement can be either rotary (a shaft rotating with in a mount) or linear (one surface

moving along another).

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Bearings can employ either a sliding or a rolling action. Bearings based on rolling

action are called rolling-element bearings. Those based on sliding action are called plain

bearings. Plain bearings are bearings that work by sliding action with or without

lubricant. [Ref 11, pp716]

Rolling contact bearings use balls and rollers to exploit the small coefficients of

friction when herd bodies roll on each other. The balls and rollers are kept separated and

equally spaced by a separator (cage or retainer).

Permissible speeds are influenced by bearing size, properties, lubrication detail,

and operating temperatures. The speed varies inversely with mean bearing diameter.

Some of the guidelines for selecting bearings which are valid more often than not

are as follows:

Ball bearings are less expensive choice in the smaller sizes and under lighter

loads; where as roller bearings are less expensive for larger sizes and heavier

loads.

Roller bearings are more satisfactory under shock or impact loading than ball

bearings.

Ball-thrust bearings are for pure thrust loading only. At high speeds a deep groove

or angular contact ball bearing usually will be a better choice, even for pure thrust

loads.

Self aligning ball bearings and cylindrical roller bearings have very low friction

coefficients.

Although rolling contact bearings are “standardized” and easily selected from

vendor catalogs, these are instances of cooperative development by customer and

vendor involving special materials, hollow elements, distorted race ways, and

novel applications.

[Ref 4]

They can be considered to be 900 angular contact bearings. They support pure

thrust load at moderate speeds, but for practical purpose their radial load capacity is nil.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Because they can not support radial loads, ball thrust bearings must be used together with

radial bearings.

Thrust bearings can be one directional grooved-race bearing having grooved

races very similar to those in radial bearings or two directional, grooved-race bearings

consist of two stationary races, one rotating race, and two ball components.

[REF.9 pp720]

Tapered roller bearings are widely used in roll-neck applications in rolling

mills, transmissions, gear reducers, geared shafting, steering mechanisms, and machine

tool spindles, where speeds are low, grease lubrication sufficient but for high speeds

demands oil lubrication and for a very high speeds it require special lubricating

arrangements. [Ref 11, pp720]

3.8 Sealings

Seal rings of the O-ring are used as both static and dynamic seals. Static seals

serve the same purpose as gaskets; that is they provide a seal between two members that

are not intended to undergo relative motion. Dynamic seals, however are used where

rotating or reciprocating motion is intended to anchor.

The size of O-rings is designated by the cross sectional diameter and the nominal

inside diameter (ID). [REF.4 pp 17.1]

Figure 3.9 Standard shape of groove for seal rings. [Ref 4, PP17.1]

O-rings have been used successfully on rotating shafts when they are

installed under compression by using a smaller-then-normal groove diameter in

the housing. Satisfactory life can then be obtained at shaft speeds up to 3.8m/s and

seated pressures up to 1.38N/mm2.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

for speeds from 2.0 to 3.0m/s, and 1.78mm for speeds exceeding 3.0m/s. [Ref 4,

pp 17.2]

3.9 Gaskets

A gasket is a material or combination of materials clamped between two

separable members of a mechanical joint. Its function is to affect a seal between

the members (flanges) and maintain the seal for a prolonged period. [Ref 4, pp

26.1]

Gaskets fabricated from compressible materials should be as thin as possible. The

gasket should be no thicker than is necessary if it is to confirm to the unevenness of the

mating flanges. [Ref 4, pp 26.7]

Some advantages of thin gaskets over thick gaskets are:

i. Reduced creep relaxation and subsequent torque loss,

ii. Less distortion of mating flanges,

iii. Higher resistance to blow out,

iv. Fewer voids through which sealing media can enter and so less permeability.

v. Lower thickness tolerances.

vi. Better heat transfer.

Shoulders are used on shafts and on the interior of bored parts to accurately

position or retain assembled parts to prevent axial motion or play. It is often

advantageous to use circlips as a substitute for these machined shoulders. Such rings can

be used to axially position parts on shafts and in housing bores and often save a great deal

in machining costs. [Ref 4, pp 22.16]

3.11 Washers

Plain washers are flat and circular and are used on bolts and screws. They are

applied under the nut, under the head or both. Plain washers can also be made square or

triangular and are sometimes beveled for use on an inclined surface. [Ref 4, pp 22.26-

22.27]

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

3.12 Lubrication

Any process by which the friction in a moving contact is reduced may be

described as lubrication.

The two main factors in selecting the type of lubricant are the speed and the load.

If the speed is high, then the amount of frictional heating tends to be high, and low

viscosity lubricants will give lower viscous friction and better heat transfer. If the loads

are high, then viscosity lubricants will tend to be expelled from the contact. [Ref 4, pp

25.2]

Typical operating viscosity ranges are given as follows:

Lubricant Viscosity range, CST

Clocks and instrument oils 5-20

Motor oils 10-50

Roller bearing oils 10-300

Plain bearing oils 20-1500

Medium speed gear oils 50-150

Hypoid gear oils 50-600

Worm gear oils 200-1000

[Ref 4, pp 25.7]

[Ref 4, pp14.23-14.39]

The loads in a welded steel design are transferred from one member to another

through welds placed in weld joints. Both the type of joint and the type of weld are

specified by the designer.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Butt joint Fillet weld

Lap joint

Figure 3.11 Joint and weld joint.

The fillet weld requiring no groove preparation is one of the most commonly used

welds. Corner welds are also widely used in machine design.

The size the weld should always be designed with reference to the size of the

thinner member. The joint can not be made any stronger by using the thicker member for

the weld size, and much more weld metal will be required as shown in the following

figures:

Vs

Bad Good

Figure 3.12 Comparisons of weld types.

Edge preparation

Edge preparations are mainly used in order to minimize any burn through

tendency. Among preparations providing a root face, J and U preparations are the

commonly used ones. Sometimes a bevel preparation with a back up strip may be used

instead of J or U groove.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Weld able materials

[REF: Introduction to Manufacturing pro. J A Schey pp552-553]

Generalizations are more dangerous for welding than for other processes, but

some guidelines can be formulated. In actual production situations specialized reference

volumes, computer data bases, and industry standards should be consulted. Some of the

weld able materials are:

Ferrous materials

o Ferritic steels: are readily welded, but martensite formation is a danger in

pearlitic steels. Preheating and, if possible, post heating are necessary

when martensite formation is unavoidable.

o Stainless steels.

Cast iron

The weld ability of cast irons varies greatly, but many cast irons are welded,

especially by arc welding. High-nickel filler is frequently used to stabilize the

graphitic form. Preheating and slow cooling are also helpful. In welding gray iron

the welding rod is enriched in silicon, and to ensure spheroidal graphite

formation-Mg is incorporated in the rod for welding nodular cast iron. Malleable

iron reverts to brittle while iron, reducing the toughness of the weld. When

toughness is important, the weld metal is heat treated or the joint is made by

brazing. [REF.pp 552-553]

Bronze welding rods are extensively used on cast iron. Cast iron has excellent

vibration damping characteristics as well as good resistance to wear. [REF. 6

pp821]

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER FOUR

DESIGN ANALYSIS

4.1 Alternatives (Design concepts)

Design concept 1: a flexible engine stand in which the engine is attached by using friction

and consisting of a spur gear box.

Design concept 2: an engine stand in which the engine is attached by using bolts and

consisting of a worm gear box.

Design matrix shows the comparison of a number of design concepts presented or

initiated by a designer or designers.

Comparison parameters Design concept value 1 Design concept value 2

(out of 5) (out of 5)

1. Operation 3 4

2. Maintenance 2 5

3. Welding 3 3

4. Safety 3 4

5. Material 2 3

6. Size 2 5

7. Accuracy 3 4

8. Cost 2 4

9. Versatility 4 3

10. Flexibility 4 3

11. Efficiency 3 4

12. Assembly 1 4

13. Self locking ability 1 5

Total (out of 65) 33 51

Total percentage (%) 50.1% 78%

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

As we can see from the design matrix table, the total comparison value shows as

design concept two is more reasonable and advantageous than design concept one

.therefore the design of inline engine stand will be based on design concept two.

Material selection

The material selected for the handle is ASTM –A36 steel having a mechanical

property of;

y = 250 Mpa

= 145 Mpa

Assumptions

-The amount of force applied by a person is 200N

-The length of cranked lever is 200mm

- The length of handle is 150mm

-The effort will be applied at 2/3 rd of the length of handle

Lc

We know that the maximum bending moment on the lever is;

Mmax =Pa* lh

Mmax = 60kN-mm

Since the cross-section of the lever is rectangular, the moment of inertia can be calculated

as;

I=1/12*bt3

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

I =1/12*t4

We know that the centroid of the cross section is t/2.therefore from the bending stress

b =M/I*y

the thickness will be;

t3=6M/b

t=20mm and b=20mm

The cross section of the lever is rectangular having uniform thickness .the base

of the lever is tapered from the boss to handle

Since the lever is subjected to both twisting and bending we shall design the

lever arm for 25% more bending moment, therefore the maximum bending moment will

be ;

M=1.25*Pa*lh

M= 100kNmm

And the section modules for tapered cross section is

Z=1/6*t*B2 assume B =2t

Z=0.667t3

And from the bending stress formula

b =M/Z

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

t=15mm and B=30mm

Now let us check the lever arm for induced bending and shear stress. The bending

moment on the lever arm near the boss (assuming that the length of the arm extends up to

the center of the shaft) is given by

Ma= Pa *Lc

Ma=40kN-mm

Section modules

Z=1/6*t*B3

Z=2250mm3

Therefore, the induced bending stress

b= M/Z

b =34.7Mpa

Thus considering the bending stress the induced bending stress is with in the safe limits

We know that the twisting moment is;

T=2/3* Pa* lh

T=20kN-mm

Since our section side is square

=9/2t3*T

= 22.5Mpa

Therefore, this induced shear stress is also with in the safe limit

Now let us check the cross section of lever arm for maximum shear stress

We know that the maximum principal stress;

bmax =1/2*[ b + √ (b2 + 4*2) ]

bmax =46.4MPa

And the maximum shear stress;

max =1/2* √ (b2 + 4*2)

max =28.6Mpa

Therefore the design of crank lever arm is with in the safe limits in both conditions.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Since the journal of the shaft is subjected to twisting moment and bending

moment, therefore its diameter is obtained from equivalent twisting moment

We know that the equivalent twisting moment

Te=Pa √ ((2* lh)/3 + Lc2)

Te=85.4kN-mm

Thus the diameter of the journal is;

Ds3 = (16/π)*Te

Ds =50mm.

General assumptions

The in put shaft speed=10rpm.

Speed reduction (V.R) =5.

Pressure angle=20˚, since the number of threads in a worm are greater than three

for small revolutions.

The center distance between the shafts(X) is 225mm.

General given: The torque transmitted by a worm gear (T) is 20kNmm. (From design

of handle)

The permissible input power:

According to AGMA recommendations, the limiting input power of a plain worm

gear unit from the standpoint of heat dissipation is:

Po=3650* X1.7

V.R+5

Thus, Po =19.3kW

Then, check our input power:

P=2ΠNT/60

P=20.94W

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Therefore, our assumed input power is less than the permissible input power.

Thus our assumption is with in the safe range.

Material selection:

The worm is mostly made of steel (low and medium carbon or low alloyed) and

also worm are made of gray cast iron with an ultimate stress of 180Mpa. The

material selected for the worm is carbon and alloy steel (1020 HR) having a

mechanical property of

σy = 42kpsi=290MPa

σu = 66kpsi=457MPa.

Analysis

Now, in order to make X/lN minimum

Cot3λ=V.R

λ=25

It is known that

X/l N=1/2Π (1/sin λ +V.R/cos λ)

l N =181.5mm.

And axial lead (la) is

la= l N /cos λ =212mm

From table 5, we find that for velocity ratio of 5, the number of starts of threads

on the worm (n) will be,

n=Tw=6.

Therefore axial pitch of threads on the worm will be,

Pa= la /n=35mm

And the module will be;

m=Pa/Π=11.25mm,

Thus from standard table; m=12mm.

The axial pitch of the threads on the worm (Pa) using the standard module will be,

Pa =m * Π =38mm.

The axial lead of the threads on the worm (lw);

lw = Pa *n=212mm.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And the normal lead of the threads on the worm (lN) will be;

lN = lw cos λ =182mm.

It is known that the center distance is given by;

X = l N /2Π (1/sin λ +V.R/cos λ)

X =395mm

Now from the equation tan λ =lw/ Π Dw;

DW=lw / Π tan λ =113mm.

Since the velocity ratio is 5 and the worm has sextuple thread (that is,

n=Tw=6).therefore the number of teeth on the worm gear (TG) will be,

TG=5*6=30.

From table 6, we find that the face length of the worm or the length of threaded

portion is (LW)

LW=Pc*(4.5+0.02*Tw) =Pa*(4.5+0.02Tw), since Pc=Pa.

LW =175mm.

This length should be increased by 25 to 30mm for the feed marks produced.

Therefore let us take LW=200mm.

We know that the depth of tooth; (from table 6)

h=0.623Pc=24mm.

The addendum

a=0.286Pc=11mm.

And therefore the outside diameter of worm (Dow) will be

Dow=DW+2a=135mm.

Material selection:

Materials for worm wheel (gear) are those which are softer but have a low

coefficient of friction in combination with steel. High tin bronzes are preferable for

worm wheel when the velocity of sliding exceeds 3m/s. the material selected for the

worm wheel is ordinary grade cast iron having a mechanical property of;

σb =41.3MPa

σc =6.89MPa

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

BHN=150

σo =83MPa

σu =83MPa

Analysis

Now, we know that the pitch circle diameter of the worm gear (DG) is;

DG=m*TG=360mm.

From table 7, we find that outside diameter of worm gear (dog) is;

DOG=DG+0.8903Pc=394mm.

Throat diameter (DT)

DT=DG+0.572Pc=382mm

And face width (b),

b= 5Pc+5mm=87mm

Now let’s check the designed worm gear from the standpoint of tangential load, dynamic

load, and static load or endurance strength, wear load and heat dissipation.

a) check for the tangential load

We know that the velocity ratio of the drive (V.R)

V.R=NW/NG

NG=NW/V.R=2rpm

Therefore the output torque transmitted (To);

To=60P/2 NG=100Nm

And the tangential load acting on the gear (WT);

WT=2*To/DG=556N

We know that pitch line or peripheral velocity of worm gear ()

=DGNG/60=0.04m/s

Velocity factor (Cv);

CV=6/ (6+) =0.99

And tooth form factor for 20 in volute teeth(y);

y=0.154-0.912/TG=0.1236

Since the worm gear is made of cast iron, taking the allowable static stress for

cast iron, σo =83MPa.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

WT = σo Cv bmy=33311N.

Since this is greater than the tangential load acting on the gear (that is 556N,

the design is safe from the standpoint of tangential load.

b) check for dynamic load(WD)

WD = WT/ Cv =33648N

Since this is greater than the tangential load acting on the gear (WT =556N),

the design is safe from standpoint of dynamic load.

c) check for static load or endurance strength(σe);

It is given that σe =83MPa.

Therefore static load (WS)

WS = σe bmy=33648N

Since the endurance strength is much more than the tangential load acting on

the gear (WT =556N), the design is safe from the stand point of static load or

endurance strength.

d) check for wear

Since the material selected is hardened steel, then from table , it is found that

for hardened steel worm and cast iron worm gear, the value of load stress

factor(k),

k=0.345N/mm2

Therefore the limiting or maximum load for wear (Ww),

Ww =DG*b*k=7204N

Since the limiting load for wear is greater than the tangential load acting on

the gear (WT =556N), the design is safe from the stand point of wear.

e) check for heat dissipation

Assume that 25 percent overload, then the heat generated will be (Qv);

Qv=1.25*p* (1-)

And we know that

=tan λ /tan (λ+1)

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Vr=DwNw/cos λ =4.2m/min

Since our rubbing velocity is less than 10m/min, =0.015,

Angle of friction (1) will be;

1=tan-1=0.860

Thus the efficiency will be

=tan λ /tan (λ+1) =97

Therefore, the heat generated Qv will be

Qg=Qv=1.25p (1- ) =0.79W

We know that the projected area of the worm (AW)

AW=DW2/4=10029mm2

And the projected area of the worm gear (AG);

AG=DG2/4=101788mm2

Therefore the total projected area of the worm and worm gear (A)

A=AW+AG=111817*10-6m 2

And we know that the heat dissipating capacity (Qd)

Qd=A (t2-t!)kh = 42.3(t2-t1)

(Since the average value of kh is 378W/m2/0c)

Since the heat generated must be dissipated in order to avoid heating of the

drive, therefore equating Qg=Qd;

t2 - t1 =0.0190c

Since the maximum temperature (t2-t1) doesn’t exceed 27 to 300c, therefore

the design is safe from the stand point of heat.4.6.3. Design of worm shaft

Material selection: the material selected for the shaft is steel.

Analysis

We know that the torque acting on the worm gear shaft (Tgear) by taking 25% over

load;

Tgear=1.25P*60/2NG=125Nm

Therefore the torque acting on the worm shaft will be

Tworm= Tgear/V.R*=26000Nmm

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

WT=2* Tgear/DG=695N

And the axial force on the worm gear,

WA=2* Tworm/DW=460N

And the radial or separating force on the worm gear (WR)

WR=WAtan=215N

(Taking the lead angle =250 from table)

Now let us take the distance between the bearings of the worm shaft(X1) =530mm

Therefore the bending moment due to axial force (WA) in the vertical plane

=WR*X1/4=28487.5Nmm

And the bending moment due to axial force (WA) in the vertical plane

= WA*DW/4=12995Nmm

Therefore the total bending moment in the vertical plane will be

M1=28487.5+12995=41482.5Nmm

We know that the bending moment due to tangential force (WT) in the horizontal plane

will be,

M2=WT*DG/4=62550Nmm

Therefore now the resultant bending moment on the worm shaft will be

Mworm= (M12+M22)0.5=41951mm

And from the equivalent twisting moment on the worm shaft (Tew)

Tew= (Tworm2+Mworm2)0.5=49355Nmm

Also it is known that the equivalent twisting moment (Tew) can be given as

Tew= dw3/16 =49355Nmm

And the shear stress by taking factor of safety =5

Thus =y/2*F.S= 28.96MPa.

Therefore, substituting in Tew, dw = 40mm.

Now let us check the maximum shear stress induced

We know that the actual shear stress

=16Tew / dw3 =3.93MPa

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And direct compressive stress on the shaft due to axial force (c) will be

c = 4WA/dw2= 0.367MPa

Therefore the maximum shear stress (max),

max =1/2 (c2+42)0.5 =3.9MPa

Since the maximum shear stress induced is less than 28.96, therefore the design of the

worm shaft is safe.

Material selection

The material selection for the worm gear shaft is steel.

Analysis

It is known that the bending moment due to the axial force on the worm gear;

=axial force *DG/4=41400Nmm

N.B: The bending moment due to the axial force will be in the vertical plane.

Now take the distance between the bearings of the worm gear shaft (X2) =200mm.

Therefore, The bending moment due to the radial force on the worm gear

= radial force* X2/4=10750Nmm.

The bending moment due to the radial force will also be in the vertical plane. Thus the

total bending moment in the vertical plane (M3)

M3=52150Nmm.

It is known that the bending moment due to the tangential force in the horizontal plane is

given as

M4= tangential force *X2/4=34750Nmm.

Now the resultant bending moment on the worm gear shaft will be,

Mgear= (M32+M42)0.5=62.67*103Nmm.

And the equivalent twisting moment on the worm gear shaft will be,

Teg= (Tgear2+Mgear2)0.5=62.7*103

But the equivalent twisting moment can also be given as

Teg = dG3/16=62.7*103.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Since our material is cast iron the shear stress is based on the allowable stress by taking

factor of safety =10.

=all/F.S= 8.26MPa

Therefore, substituting in the equation of Teg and solving for dG,

dG3 =16 Teg/

dG =34mm

Take dG=50mm for more safety.

N.B; Because of the engine load the torque should be multiplied as large as possible.

Now let us check the maximum shear stress induced:

The actual stress () is given as

= 16Teg /dG3=2.6MPa

And the direct compressive stress on the shaft due to the axial force is given as

σco =axial force/ (dG2/4) =234.3kPa

Therefore the maximum shear stress will be

max =1/2*(σco2 +42 )0.5=5.2MPa.

Since the maximum shear stress induced is less than the allowable shear stress 83MPa,

the design of the worm gear is safe.

To check whether the worm screw locks or not, let us calculate the efficiency of

self locking and if it is greater than 50%, then the screw is over hauling and if it is less

than 50% the screw will be self locking.

η=output/input

=0.5-[0.5*(tan2∅)]

η =42%.

Therefore, the worm screw is self lock.

It is recommended that for worm gears, oil with viscosity in the range of 200 to

1000 cst (centistokes) can be used. It is commercially available.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Usually coupling is used to connect two separate shafts .but here a single flange

on the shaft is connected with a flange welded to the rotating structure .therefore ,here it

is necessary to design the single on the shaft and check the strength of bolts.

Material selection

The material we select for the flange is grey cast iron since it has very low cost; it is easy

to machine .the mechanical property of the grey cast iron is as follows;

t = (100-400) MPa

c = (3or4)* t

E = (75-150)*GPa

=120MPa

Thus from the recommended dimensions

L=1.5*dg =75mm

D=2 *dg =100mm

D1=3* dg =150mm

D2=4* dg =200mm

Now let us check for the strength,

By considering as a hollow shaft,

T=/16*c *[(D4-d4)/D]

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

But the torque transmitted is the torque transmitted from the shaft.

Therefore, T=20N-m

And c=/f .s taking f .s =2

c=30MPa

Assume service factor =1.5 [Ref. 4]

Tmax= f .s*T

Tmax =30N-m

Now let us check the induced shear stress for hub material;

c= Tmax*(16/)*D/ (D4-d4)

c=0.163MPa

Since the induced shear stress is less than the permissible value (30MPa)the design of

hub is safe

Material selection

The material we select for the key is steel having a mechanical property of

y=400MPa [Ref. 4]

For the shaft diameter of 50mm, the key size will be;

wk =14mm

hk =9mm

Key way depth=5.5mm

Note that: the length of key is equal to the length of hub

Now let us check the crashing and shearing strength of the key

Considering the shearing strength

And k=y/2* f .s taking f .s =4

k= 50MPa

Now considering the dimensions of the key

k = (2*Tmax)/ (l*w *d)

k=1.1MPa

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Since the induced shear stress is less than the permissible shear stress, the design of key

considering shearing strength is safe.

Considering the crushing strength

k = (2*Tmax)/ (l*h/2* d)

k =7.1MPa

Since the crushing stress is less than the permissible stress the design of key considering

crushing stress is safe.

The thickness of the flange can be taken as 0.5*d

tf =25mm

Now let us check the induced shearing stress at the junction of the hub

c= (2* Tmax)/ (*D2*tf)

c=76.4MPa

Since it is less than the permissible shear stress (120MPa), the design of flange is safe.

Material selection

The material we select for the key is steel having a mechanical property of

y=400MPa

Assume the number of bolts is 8

Pitch circular diameter of the bolt is,

D1=3*d

D1=150mm

Since bolts encounter shearing due to the torque, by considering the shear stress the

diameter will be;

d2= (4* Tmax)/ (* b*n*D1/2)

d=10mm

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.9.1 Roller bearing selection for the worm

We know that the axial load (WA) =834N

And the radial load (Wr) =304N

The general formula to select the bearing is using the equivalent load;

Fe=x*v*Wr + y*WA

The life of the bearing is 10years at 8hours per day. Therefore the life of the bearing in

the revolution;

L10=25040hr*60min/hr*10rev/min

L10=15*106 rev

Assume WA/ Fe =0.5 and e=0.44

Now let us calculate the ratio WA/Wr =0.36

Thus from table 10, the value of

x=1 and y =0

And the rotational factor for bearings whose inner race rotates

v=1

Therefore the equivalent radial load;

Fe=Wr=834N

From table, the service factor for ball bearing of uniform and steady load

Ks=1

Therefore the bearing should be selected for Fe=834N

And from the dynamic load factor

C= Fe*L(1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing

C=2.06kN

Then from table let us select the bearing number of 200 which has the following basic

capacities

Fe=2.24kN and C=4kN

Now let us check the assumed ratio

WA/ Fe=0.37

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

x=1 and y= 0

Therefore the assumed ratio is correct. Thus the bearing having a dynamic load rating(C)

=2.06 kN will be selected. Thus from table for the load rating C=30.7kN .therefore the

dimensions for the bearing are;

Bore diameter=40mm

Outer diameter=80mm

Width=18mm

Fillet radius=1mm

Shoulder diameter =ds=46mm and dh=72mm

We know that the axial load (WA) =1750N

And the radial load (Wr) =1050N

The general formula to select the bearing is using the equivalent load;

Fe=x*v*Wr + y*WA

The life of the bearing is 10years at 8hours per day. Therefore the life of the bearing in

the revolution

L10=25040hr*60min/hr*10rev/min

L10=15*106 rev

Assume WA/ Fe =0.025 and e=0.22

And the ratio will be

WA/Wr =1.6

Thus from table

Fe=WA/0.025

Fe=70kN

And the value of x=0.56 and y=2

And the rotational factor for bearings whose inner race rotates

v=1

Therefore Fe= 4088N

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Again from table the service factor for ball bearing of uniform and steady load

Ks=1

Therefore Fe=4088N

Therefore the bearing should be selected for Fe=4088N

And from the dynamic load factor

C= Fe*L (1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing

C=10KN

Then from table, let us select bearing number 304 which has the following capacities

C=12.5Kn and Fe=7.65Kn

Now let us check the assumed ratio

WA/ Fe=0.23

Therefore from table, the value of x and y is 0.56 and 1.2 respectively

Thus the equivalent load will be

Fe=2240N

Therefore the dynamic load rating will be

C= Fe*L (1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing

C=5.6KN

Thus from table 3 the bearings dimension for the load rated (C=6.07Kn from table)

Bore diameter=12mm

Outer diameter=32mm

Width=10mm

Fillet radius=0.6mm

Shoulder diameter =ds=14.5mm and dh=28mm.

The tangential force on the worm (Wt) =axial force or thrust o the worm gear

Wt=2*Tworm/Dw

Wt=389N

Axial force or thrust on the worm (WA) =tangential force on the worm gear

WA= Wt/tan

WA=834N

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The radial or separating force on the worm (Wr) =radial or separating force on the worm

gear

Wr= WA*tan

Wr=304N

For vertical loads

Ra Rb

Wgear=*v*g

Since the gear is made of cast iron the density is 7250kg/m3

Wgear=190N

Thus taking moment at a

Ma=0;

Rb= (Wgear-Wr)*260)/180

Rb=-165N

This implies that the direction of force at b is in the opposite direction

And Fy =0;

Ra = Wgear- Wr- Rb

Ra =51N

For horizontal loads

Rb

Ra Wt

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Ma=0

Rb= (Wt*260)/180

Rb=562N

And fromFx=0; Ra= Rb- Wt

Ra=173N

In order to select the tapered bearing the general formula is;

FeA=0.4FrA +Ka (0.47*FrB/Kb +Fa)

We know that FrA= (Ra) ver*KB/0.47

FrA=163N

And FrB = (Rb) ver*KB/0.47

FrB =527N

Therefore for the vertical load components the equivalent load will be;

For bearing at the point a , FeA=390N

And For bearing at the point b, FeB=535N

Thus Since FeB is greatest of all reactions we use 535N as the equivalent radial load to

select the bearing at a

The life of the bearing is 10years at 8hours per day. Therefore the life of the

bearing in the revolution

L10=25040hr*60min/hr*10rev/min

L10=15*106 rev

And from the dynamic load factor

C= FeA*L(1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing

C=5.8Kn

Thus from the table 4, for the cone type 3779 of 3700series

Bore diameter=47.625mm

Width=30.302mm

Maximum shaft filet radius =3.5mm

For the cop of 3732

Outer diameter=98.435mm

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Width=23.812mm

Maximum housing fillet radius =3.3mm

Bearing width=30.162mm

W/4

B=175mm

H=10mm

It is known that the deflection can be given as

d= WL3/3EI

But, I=BH3/12=15mm4 and E=210GPa

Therefore d=0.032mm. From these we conclude that the plate can withstand the engine

load, since the deflection is very small as compared to the engine load.

The loads in the base frame channel can be shown as

VA=VB=1717N (engine load)

VC=1631N

VD=1803N

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

MX= -1717X+1631(X-210) +1803(X-2242)

MX=EId2Y/dX

Integrating and solving

At X=250, Y=0 or

At X=2242, Y=0.

At A, X=0

YA= -0.123mm

At mid span, X= 1216mm

YE= 0.78mm

At B, X=2432mm

YB= -0.7mm

Therefore from these we can conclude that the selected structural steel can withstand the

loads with a negligible deflection.

Circlips are circular steels having a limited flexibility which is used to accurately

position or retain assembled parts to prevent axial motion or play .they are selected for a

small shaft bore diameter

Since the shaft diameter is 50mm, then from table 2, extended flat ring IRR series

3100.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Using the diameter of the tapered bearings, the thickness of the spacer should be greater

than the bearings inner race thickness. Therefore, let as assume the thickness to 5mm.and

the type of material which is made from is rubber.

Welding is a process of joining members (parts) by fusing the edges of the two

parts to be joined together, with or without the application of pressure and a filler

material

Welding is extensively used in fabrication as an alternative method for casting

and forging and as a replacement for bolted and riveted joints .it also used as a repair

medium.

The material we select for the structural members is angle iron 50*5*5

The effective length for a transverse weld;

l1=50-12.5=37.5mm

And l2=l1

The maximum shear stress in the weld is 35MPa

First let consider the shear stress

Assume the eccentricity=25mm

Thus the area of the throat will be; A= (2*t*l1) + (2*l2*t)

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

A=1065mm2

Therefore the shear stress will be;

=17/s

And the bending moment is;

M=load * eccentricity

M=45kN-mm

The section modulus of the weld through the throat;

Z=t*(b*l + b2/2)

Z=2356.7smm2

Therefore the bending stress is;

b=M/Z

b=19.09/s N/mm2

Thus we know that the maximum shear stress the weld leg can be calculated as

=1/2*√ (b2 +4*)

Therefore, s=16mm

Now let us consider the combined tensile and shearing stress

t=35MPa

The effective length for the transverse weld is=37.5mm

We know that the maximum load that the selected angle iron can carried by the joint is;

Pmax=area * stress

Pmax=65625N

The load carried by a single transverse weld is

p1=0.707s*l1* t

p1=928s

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld is;

P2=1.414*l2*

P2=1856s

The load carried by the joint;

P=P1 + P2

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

s=Pmax/P

s = 24mm

By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse fillet weld which is equal

to 1.5, the permissible tensile stress will be;

tp= tensile stress/ concentration factor

tp =23MPa

And the permissible shear stress;

p=shear stress /concentration factor

p=24MPa

Thus the load carried by double transverse weld

P1=P21.414*s*l1*tp

P1=p21648s

The load carried by parallel weld

P2=1.414*s*l1*p

P2=1028s

And the load carried by the joint

P=P1+P2

Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be

s=Pmax/P =20mm

Since the leg size of the weld is larger while we are considering the combined tensile and

shearing stress in which the structural member will be subjected while rotating at 90

and 270.we will take the weld leg 24mm.

Material selection

The material we select is steel of AISIO No 1030 having a mechanical property of

t=42.2MPa

=12.65MPa

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The effective length for the weld is

ll=l2=50-12.5=37.5mm

The load carried by the transverse weld is

P1=1.414*s*l1* t

P1=2238s

The load carried by the double parallel fillet weld

P2=1.414*s*l2*

P2=671s

Therefore the total load carried by the weld joint

P=P1+P2

P=2909s

We know that the maximum load in which the plate can carry is

Pmax=area*stress

Pmax=20045N

Since the maximum load the plate can carry is greater than the load applied by the

engine, our plate dimensions are safe.

Thus from the maximum load the weld leg will be

s= Pmax/P

s =7mm

Now considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal

to1.5 and for parallel fillet 2.7

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

tp=t /concentration factor

tp= 28.13MPa

And the permissible shearing stress;

p= /concentration factor

p=4.69MPa

Therefore the total load carried by a single transverse weld

P1=0.707*s*l1*tp

P1=1492s

P2=1.414*l2*p

P2=249s

Since the total load carried by the joint is;

P=P1+P2

And the leg of the weld

s= Pmax/P =11mm

Thus taking the larger of the two, the weld leg size

s=11mm

And the thickness of the weld, t=0.707*s

t=8mm

Material selection

The material we select is steel of AISIO No 1030 having a mechanical property of

t=42.2MPa

=12.65MP

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The effective length for the weld is

ll =l2=50-12.5=37.5mm

We know that the maximum load in which the plate can carry is

Pmax=area*stress =10550N

The load carried by the transverse weld is

P1=1.414*s*l1* t

P1=1119N

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld

P2=1.414*l2*

P2=671N

Since the total load carried by the weld joint is

P=P1+P2

Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be

s = Pmax/P

s = 6mm

By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal to1.5

and for parallel fillet 2.7

Therefore the permissible tensile stress

tp=t /concentration factor

tp=28.13MPa

And the permissible shearing stress;

p= /concentration factor

p=4.69MPa

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

P1=0.707*s*l1* t

P1=746s

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld

P2=1.414*s*l2*p

P2=249s

Since the total load carried by the weld joint is

P=P1+P2

And the leg of the weld

s= Pmax/P

s= 10mm

Thus taking the larger of the two, the weld leg size will be s=10mm

And the thickness of the weld

t=0.707*s = 8mm

The material we select for the reinforcement link is steel 80*10*100 of AISI No 1030

having a mechanical property of

y=421MPa

t= 586MPa

The effective length for the weld is

ll =l2=50-12.5=37.5mm

We know that the maximum load in which the plate can carry is

Pmax=area*stress

Pmax=146500N

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

P1=1.414*s*l1* t

P1=15537s

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld

P2=1.414*l2*

P2=671s

Since the total load carried by the weld joint is

P=P1+P2

Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be

s = Pmax/P

s = 9mm

By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal to1.5

and for parallel fillet 2.7

Therefore the permissible tensile stress

tp=t /concentration factor

tp =391MPa

And the permissible shearing stress;

p= /concentration factor

p=4.69MPa

The total load carried by a single transverse weld

P1=0.707*s*l1* tp

P1=103366s

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld

P2=1.414*s*l2*p

P2=249s

Since the total load carried by the weld joint is P=P1+P2

And the leg of the weld

s= Pmax/P

s= 2mm

Thus taking the larger of the two, the weld leg size; s=9mm.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

t=0.707*s =7mm

Now let us check the tensile stress induced in the member

tin =engine load/tensile area

tin =2.2MPa

Let us check the shear stress induced in the member

in =load/shearing area

in =2.3MPa

Since the induced stresses are less than the material strength, it can withstand the stress

induced on it.

Material selection

The material we select is steel of AISIO No 1030 having a mechanical property of

t=42.2MPa

=12.65MP

The effective length of the weld run for the transverse weld is

l1=l2=50-2*12.5=25mm

The maximum load the plate can carry is , P=area*stress= 11kN.

By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal to1.5

and for parallel fillet 2.7

Therefore the permissible tensile stress

tp=t /concentration factor

tp =28.13MPa

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

p= /concentration factor

p=4.69MPa

The total load carried by double transverse weld

P1=1.414*s*l1* tp

P1=995s

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld

P2=1.414*s*l2*p=166s

Since the total load carried by the weld joint is

P=P1+P2

Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be

s = Pmax/P

s =9mm

And the thickness of the weld

t=0.707*s

t=7mm

Welding for the members connected in the form of T as shown in the figure below

P=Ps sin +Pn/2cos+ Ps/2sin + Pn/2cos

Assuming that the resultant of Ps/2 + Pn/2 is vertical, then the horizontal components are

equal

Therefore Pn =Ps cos / sin

And from the geometry of figure below

s=tcos + tsin

We know that the throat area

A=2*t +l

Since =ps/A

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Assuming the angle to 45 and Substituting all the above equation in the shear stress

equation, the weld length will be

s=9mm

And the thickness of the weld

t=0.0707*s=7mm.

The base member is a structural steel channel (152*76) having the

following dimensions

t=6.4mm

m=17.88mass per meter

Z=21.05cm3

X=2.21cm

ӯ=ai*yi/A

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

ӯ=72.8mm

and the second moment of area

I=b*h3/12

I= 362951mm4

Since the tension occurred at the top and compression at the bottom

yc= ӯ=72.8mm

yt=152- ӯ=79.2mm

and the moment carrying capacity considering tensile strength

=fper*I/ yt Since fper=29.5MPa

=124kN-mm

And the maximum moment on the beam is 1500*pe

pe *1500=124*103

pe=83KN

Therefore since the load carrying capacity of the beam is 83kN and our applied load is

2KN, the beam can withstand the load without deflection.

It is known that the load at the wheel is W/4=2000

Assume l=1.75d

Pb= safe bearing pressure on pins = 10MPa.

Material selection for the pin:

Forged steel with a property of

Shear stress = 60MPa.

Tensile stress= 75MPa.

Analysis:

W/4=d* l* Pb =2000

d=12mm.

Now let us check for the shear stress induced in the pin. Since the pin is in double

Shear. The load on the pin is

W/4 = /2* d2*=2000

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

=8.84MPa.

Since the shear stress induced in the pin is with in permissible limits, therefore the design

is safe.

Since the end is forked end, the thickness of each eye (t) will be

t=l/2= 10.5mm.

In order to reduce wear, chilled phosphor bronze bushes of 3mm thickness are provided

in the eye.

Inner diameter of each eye= d+ 2*3=18mm.

And the outer diameter of the eye, (D) will be

D=2*d1=40mm.

Now let us check the induced bending stress in the pin. The pin is neither simply

supported nor not rigidly fixed at the ends.

M=W/2(l/2 + t/3) - (W/2 * l/4)

=8750 Nmm.

And the section modulus (Z)

Z=/32* d3 =169.7mm3.

Therefore the bending stress induced () will be

=M/Z= 51.6MPa.

Therefore the induced bending stress is with in safe limit.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Material selection:

Steel Q&T 600oF having

y =1720MPa.

u = 1930MPa.

z = 2340MPa. [Ref 3,pp 760]

Assuming the major diameter of the bolt is M18;

From table pitch=2.5mm

Pitch diameter (dp) =16.376

Core diameter (dc) for bolt=14.933mm

For nut=15.294mm

Depth of thread (bolt) = 1.534mm

Stress area=245mm2.

Analysis:

Torsional shear stress caused by the frictional resistance of the threads during its

tightening is

nut =16T/dc nut bolt= T*r/J=16T/dc3 bolt

nut =214MPa. bolt =69MPa.

Therefore the compression or crushing stress on the threads c will be

nut =P/(*(d-dc2 nut))n bolt =P/(*(d-dc2 bolt))n number of bolts(n) =1

=25MPa. = 22MPa

Since the induced stresses are below the materials strength both the nut and bolt

materials can withstand the load.

It is made of steel and the effective height of nut is made equal to the normal

diameter of the bolt. The type of bolt we select is through bolt (machine bolts, automobile

bolts) with hexagonal head since it has a better locking mechanism and can withstand

loads efficiently than others.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The material for the bolt is mild steel having a mechanical property of y =345MPa since

the material is ductile and the yield point is clearly defined. Thus

d =working stress or design stress= y /F.S = 86.25MPa.

(Taking factor of safety 4)

Assuming l1=the distance from end to the center of the bolt=25mm

L =load acting distance from margin=50mm

l2=the distance from the same end to the other side bolt=75mm

We know that the direct tensile load carried by each bolt (Wtlmax) =875N

And the load in a bolt per unit distance

=W.L/2(l12+l22) =0.028kN/mm

We know that the maximum tensile load on bolt is

Wtlmax=dc2y /4

Dc=4mm.

Since the core diameter of the engine bolt is 10mm, the bolt can withstand all the engine

loads and the effective length of the nut is equal to the normal diameter of the bolt. And

there is also a 2mm washer between the engine and the engine bolt.

N.B

All the remaining bolts except flange bolts have a core diameter of 5mm.

Assuming the length of the tire= 100mm

Width=30mm

The diameter of the drum=50mm

Stress area= 50*30=1500mm2

Therefore the total carrying capacity of the wheel will be

=F/A=8000/1500=5.3MPa.

Since the number of wheels is six the stress is induced on each wheel;

each = /n=2.7MPa (for the front wheels i.e. n=2)

The tangential stress at a radius ri will be

t =pri2*[1+ro2/ri2]/(ro2-ri2) =3.4MPa.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

r = 3.4MPa.

And the maximum tangential stress at the inner surface of the steel

Rtmax=p [ro2+ri2]/ro2-ri2 …… (1)

=3.4MPa

And the minimum tangential stress of the outer surface of the shell

tmin =2pri2/ro2-ri2 =1.4MPa.

Now the thickness of the tire

Substituting Ro=2t + ri in equation 1

T=6mm.

And for the rare wheel which are for in number

each= /n=1.325MPa.

Assume the length of tire is 150mm, and bearing for the wheels is outer

race rotating.

The assembly procedure starts up by gathering all the required parts for the

assembly of engine stand. These are:

Structural steel channel of dimension (5*50*2892)

Angle iron of dimension (5*50* required length)

Worm gear having 360mm diameter and worm shaft having 30mm diameter

of 6 start up and 171mm threaded length

Cranked lever arm of 200mm length and 60mm journal length

Tapered bearings having 50mm bore diameter

Ball bearings having 30mm bore diameter

Bearing housing of circular channel made by cast iron

Thrust bearing

Bolts of major diameter 10mm and 16mm.

The procedure begins by bending and welding simultaneously the angle iron at 1700mm

length and 800mm width in order to make the base frame.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And then weld at each joint and a plate (support for the gripper) is weld on the inner side

of the base frame to the inside only. Then the two angle irons having 80mm length weld

to have a rectangular cross section and 100mm length of angle iron will be weld on top of

the welded angle iron of 80mm length. And the rectangular cross section will be weld on

the plate. With the same procedure for making a base frame the two side frames will be

made again. After these the two reinforcement links (80*10mm) will be weld on each

side of the two side frames and a circular plate will be weld on the reinforcement links

and counter bore of 10mm diameter. Then the structural steel channels will be cut at a

length of 2292mm and two angle irons (50*5) will be weld on each side of both channels.

Then make a key way for the flange coupling and a groove for the circlips on

each distance provided by the design and put the two tapered bearings each of 180mm

centroidal distance and put spacers of 5mm thickness between them. Put circlips on the

side of a bearing which doesn’t have a spacer and then put the housing on it. Then after

couple the flange to the shaft using a key and put a seal between the casing and the

flange. On the opposite side put the cover plate on the shaft and again put a seal between

them. Then fasten the cover and the housing using a bolt. Put a key on the shaft for the

worm gear and insert the worm gear on it and then put a circlips at the end of the worm

gear. Then hold all the assemblies of the housing, plate cover, worm gear and fasten with

the circular plate which is welded on the reinforcement link using the six bolts. Again

with the same procedure except that the worm gear and the shaft remain end with in the

casing, assembly on the other side will be done. And here the ball bearing will be

assembled on the bearing housing and the worm shaft will be put on it. And then a cover

will be put.

Then put a thrust bearing under the channel in one side for the two channels

for the front wheels which rotate in every direction and fasten the fixed rare wheels to the

channel with out thrust bearing. And then put a screw having a crabber on the channel for

fixing the stand to the ground. At last put the whole assembly of the bearing, shaft, and

housing to the angle iron which is already welded on the channel on both sides.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER FIVE

FUTURE WORK

This stand can be modified to fit for engine test, which is done after

overhauling, by applying vibration damping systems.

This stand can be modified as universal inline engine for all inline

engines overhauled in SUR CONSTRUCTION

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CONCLUSION

In this project, the design of an engine stand for inline type engines, we conclude

that there are a number of engineering problems encountered in a certain engineering

institution. Major problem among is maintenance problem. We conclude that design of an

engine stand can be one solution for the maintenance problems.

RECOMMENDATION

From the general design analysis and results we get, we recommend that: whenever

there is a design of an engine stand, use a large factor of safety since the engine load is

high; when ever there is a requirement of large speed reduction use worm gears, a

universal engine stand can be made( for different engines); always work by locking the

worm gear; always lubricate the worm gear; always position the wheels fixed during

working period and also we recommend that if this engine stand is manufactured, it will

largely decrease the maintenance time of the engine.

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. (Material properties)

Tension Tension Shear

Material (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

STEEL

Structural (ASTM-36) 400 250 145

High strength low alloy

ASTM-A242 480 345 205

ASTM-A441 460 320

ASTM-A572 415 290

Quenched and tempered

ASTM-A514 760 690 380

Stainless, AISI 302

Cold rolled 860 520

Annealed 655 260 150

Shaft t D Cs b L h Fr G W n Fr

diameter(mm)

48 1.75 44.5 62.5 5.0 6.9 2.5 49.4 45.5 1.85 3.8 30.07

50 2.00 45.8 64.5 5.1 6.9 2.5 73.3 47.0 2.15 4.5 38.00

N.B For diameter 48 code number EXT 0480

For diameter 50 code number EXT 0500

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Table 3 (Dimensions and load ratings for single row 0.2 series Deep groove and Angular

contact Ball bearings.)

(in mm) Shoulder Load Rating

diameter(mm) Deep groove Angular contact

Bore OD width fillet ds dh C Co C Co

diameter.(mm) radius

45 85 19 1 52 77 33.2 18.6 35.8 21.2

50 90 20 1 56 82 35.1 19.6 37.7 22.8

60 110 22 1.5 70 99 47.5 28 55.9 35.5

d B R D C r T

SERIES CONE bore WID. Max shaft CUP O.D wide ma housing Bearing

fillet radii fillet radius width

3700 3767 52.388 30.302 2.3 3720 93.264 23.812 3.3 30.162

3778 47.625 >> 6.4 3732 98.425 23.812 3.3 30.162

3778 47.625 >> 3.5

3780 50.800 >> 3.5

3782 44.450 >> 3.5

3783 44.450 >> 6.4

3795 50.800 >> 3.5

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Table 5 (Number of starts to be used on the worm for different velocity ratios)

Velocity 36 and 12 to 36 8 to 12 6 to 12 4 to 10

ratio(V.R) above

Number of starts

or threads on the Single Double Triple Quadruple Sextuple

worm(n= Tw)

Particulars Single and double Triple and quadruple

threaded worms threaded worms

1 Normal pressure angle 14.50 200

2 Pitch circle diameter for worms integral 2.35Pc+10mm 2.35Pc+10mm

with the shaft.

3 Pitch circle diameter for worms bored to 2.4Pc+28mm 2.4Pc+28mm

fit over the shaft.

4 Maximum bore for the shaft. Pc+13.5mm Pc+13.5mm

5 Hub diameter. 1.66Pc+25mm 1.726Pc+25mm

6 Face length (Lw). Pc(4.5+0.02Tw) Pc(4.5+0.02Tw)

7 Depth of tooth (h). 0.686Pc 0.623Pc

8 Addendum (a) 0.318Pc 0.286Pc

Particulars Single and double threads Triple and quadruple

threads

1 Nominal pressure angle() 14.50

2 Outside diameter(DOG) DG + 1.0135Pc

3 Throat diameter (DT) DG + 0.636Pc

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

5 Radius of gear face (Rf) 0.882Pc+14mm

6 Radius of gear rim(Rr) 2.2Pc+14mm

Table 8 (load stress factor values)

Material for worm Material for worm gear Load stress factor(k)

MPa

1 Steel (BHN 250) Phosphor bronze 0.415

2 Hardened steel Cast iron 0.345

3 Hardened steel Phosphor bronze 0.550

4 Hardened steel Chilled Phosphor bronze 0.830

5 Hardened steel Antimony bronze 0.830

6 Cast iron Phosphor bronze 1.035

Lead angle ( ) in degrees 0 - 16 16 – 25 25 - 35 35 - 45

Pressure angle() in degrees 14.5 20 25 30

Bearing type Single row

X Y

Radial ball bearing 0.6 0.5

Angular contact ball bearing

Contact angle= 200 0.6 0.42

=300 0.5 0.33

=400 0.5 0.26

Tapered roller bearing 0.5 0.22cot

Thrust bearing 2.3tan 1

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

REFERENCES

1. F.Beer - E.Russel Johnston, Mechanics of materials, Metric Edition, Mc Graw-

Hill, 1992, Singapore.

2. Internet

3. J.E Shigley- Ch.R.Mischke, Mechanical Engineering Design, Mc Graw-Hill

international Edition, 1989, Singapore.

4. J.E Shigley- Ch.R.Mischke, standard handbook of machine design, second

edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 1996, New York

5. J.M. Dominguez- M.G/Sellasie, Teaching Material on Machine Design, Mekelle

University, 2003, Mekelle

6. M.F. SPOTTS- T.E. SHOUP-L.E.HORNBERGER, Design of machine elements,

Eighth edition, PEARSON Prentice Hall, 2004

7. P.N. RAO, Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 1998

New Delhi

8. R.Juvinal - K. Marshek, Fundamentals of Machine Components Design, Third

Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2000, New York.

9. R.S Khurmi-J.K. Gupta, A Text Book Of Machine design .

10. S S Bhavikatti, Strength of Materials, Second Revised Edition, Vikas Publishing

House, 2003, New Delhi.

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.