Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 71

Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................. 1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 3
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................................. 4
NOMENCLATURE ..................................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................... 8
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 8
1.1 ENGINE MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................... 8
1.2 MAINTENANCE EXPERIENCE IN ETHIOPIA ............................................................................................. 8
1.3 BRIEF PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING MAINTENANCE ....................................................................10
1.4 MOTIVATION .......................................................................................................................................10
1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT .................................................................................................................11
1.6 PROJECT SPECIFICATION ......................................................................................................................11
CHAPTER TWO .........................................................................................................................................12
BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................................12
2.1TECHNOLOGY IN ETHIOPIA ...................................................................................................................12
2.2 ENGINES IN ETHIOPIA ..........................................................................................................................12
CHAPTER THREE.....................................................................................................................................13
LITERATURE REVIEW ...........................................................................................................................13
3.1 ENGINE ................................................................................................................................................13
3.2 VEHICLE ENGINE..................................................................................................................................13
3.3 CLASSIFICATION OF AN ENGINE ...........................................................................................................14
3.4 MAINTENANCE OF ENGINES .................................................................................................................15
3.5 ENGINE STANDS ...................................................................................................................................16
3.5.1 Types of engine stands ................................................................................................................16
3.6 WORM GEARING ..................................................................................................................................18
3.7 BEARINGS ............................................................................................................................................18
3.7.1. Thrust bearings ..........................................................................................................................19
3.7.2. Tapered bearings .......................................................................................................................20
3.8 SEALINGS.............................................................................................................................................20
3.9 GASKETS .............................................................................................................................................21
3.10 RETAINING RINGS ..............................................................................................................................21
3.11 WASHERS ..........................................................................................................................................21
3.12 LUBRICATION ....................................................................................................................................22
3.13 WELDED JOINTS .................................................................................................................................22
CHAPTER FOUR .......................................................................................................................................25
DESIGN ANALYSIS...................................................................................................................................25
4.1 ALTERNATIVES (DESIGN CONCEPTS) ...................................................................................................25
4.2. DESIGN MATRIX ..................................................................................................................................25
4.3 DESIGN OF HANDLE .............................................................................................................................26
4.4 DESIGN OF CRANK LEVER ARM ............................................................................................................27
4.5 DESIGN OF JOURNAL ............................................................................................................................29
4.6 DESIGN OF GEAR BOX .........................................................................................................................29

Samson T. & Serawit T. 1 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.6.1. Design of worm ..........................................................................................................................29


4.6.2. Design of worm gear ..................................................................................................................31
4.6.4. Design of worm gear shaft .........................................................................................................36
4.6.5. Self locking of the worm .............................................................................................................37
4.7. SELECTION OF LUBRICATION FOR THE WORM GEAR ............................................................................37
4.8. DESIGN OF FLANGE COUPLING ............................................................................................................38
4.8.1 Design of hub ..............................................................................................................................38
4.8.2. Design of key ..............................................................................................................................39
4.8.3 Design of flange ..........................................................................................................................40
4.8.4. Design of bolts ...........................................................................................................................40
4.9. BEARING SELECTION...........................................................................................................................41
4.9.1 Roller bearing selection for the worm ........................................................................................41
4.9.2 Thrust bearing selection for the wheel ........................................................................................42
4.9.3. Tapered bearing selection for transmission ...............................................................................43
4.10. BEARING SHAFT ...............................................................................................................................44
4.11 DEFLECTION OF THE GRIPPER SUPPORT PLATE ...................................................................................46
4.12 DEFLECTION OF BASE FRAME CHANNEL .............................................................................................46
4.13. SELECTION OF RETAINING RING (CIRCLIPS) .......................................................................................47
4.14. SPACER SELECTION ...........................................................................................................................48
4.15. WELDING ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................................48
4.15.1. Griper welding .........................................................................................................................48
4.15.2. Welding of the frame (beam) ....................................................................................................50
4.15.3. Welding of the reinforced link ..................................................................................................52
4.15.4. Welding of reinforcement link ..................................................................................................54
4.15.5. Welding of one member to another ..........................................................................................56
4.15.6. Welding of the base member ....................................................................................................58
4.16 DESIGN OF PIN FOR THE WHEEL..........................................................................................................59
4.17 DESIGN OF BOLT FOR THE WHEEL ......................................................................................................61
4.18 ENGINE BOLT .....................................................................................................................................61
4.19 WHEEL DESIGN ..................................................................................................................................62
4.20 ASSEMBLY AND PART MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES......................................................................63
CHAPTER FIVE .........................................................................................................................................65
FUTURE WORK ........................................................................................................................................65
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................66
RECOMMENDATION ..............................................................................................................................66
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................................67
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................71

Samson T. & Serawit T. 2 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, great thanks go toward our advisor Mr. Solomon G. who had helped us a lot
with his knowledge and material from the beginning to the end. Then, we would like to
thank all persons who helped us in this project towards the partial fulfillment of B.Sc.
degree in mechanical engineering. It is special to thank the staff members of the
department of mechanical engineering Mr. Ftwi, Mr. Tesfalidet, Mr. Endalkachew and
members of SUR CONSTRUCTION PLC; Mr. Legesse, Mr. Babar, Mr. Eyob, Mr.
Getachew since their kindness and cooperating spirit made us to step forward in this
project. Lastly great thanks go towards our advisor Mr. Solomon G. who had helped us a
lot with his knowledge and material. At last thank you all friends who helped us by
giving suggestions and ideas.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 3 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

ABSTRACT
This report presents a final year project pertaining to the design of an engine stand
for an inline type engines to avoid maintenance deficiencies of inline engines (Model
1924) and improve the maintenance standard time which helps the workers to perform
efficiently.
Maintenance is the major part for existence of machines. Since the society wants to
have a good maintenance for his machines, it is a duty of an engineering society to read
these needs. The design of an engine stand can be one solution to ease the maintenance
systems. Specifically, in challenging difficulties of maintaining an engine, so far many
ways are turned to hold the engines. But it is a troublesome and costly to perform such a
heavy engines.
The objective of the project is to reveal and get reduce such hardships to a certain
level. This can be done by applying ways of the engineering techniques relating with the
problem and the situations present. Using construction materials, mechanical components
and other simple components can achieve all the necessities.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 4 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

NOMENCLATURE
Lc Length of crank lever
lh length of handle
Mmax maximum bending moment
I moment of inertia
sb permissible bending stress
Z section modulus
dh diameter of handle
B width of lever near the boss
t thickness of lever arm
Te equivalent twisting moment
(Te) w equivalent twisting moment on worm shaft

(sb) in induced bending stress

max maximum shear stress


Ds diameter of journal
Pa applied force
d1 diameter of bolts for flange
C load rating
L rated life
w width of key
l length of key
 Density
R reaction
Fe equivalent radial force
db diameter of bolt
sy yield strength
Ds diameter of input shaft
po permissible input power
X center distance (meters)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 5 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

V.R velocity ratio


T torque to be transmitted
N input shaft speed
P input power
su ultimate strength

l lead angle
lN normal lead
l axial lead
n number of start
Tw number of threads on the worm
pa axial pitch
m module
Dw pitch circular diameter of worm
Ta number of teeth on worm gear
Lw length of threaded portion on worm
h depth of tooth
a addendum
pc circular pitch
Dow outer diameter of worm
sc contact stress

sa allowable static stress


Dg pitch diameter of worm gear
k lead stress factor
ww maximum load for wear
Qv heat generated
h efficiency of worm gearing
Vr rubbing velocity
µ Coefficient of friction

1 angle of friction

Samson T. & Serawit T. 6 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Dog Outer diameter of worm gear


Dt thread diameter
b face width
Nw speed of worm
Ng speed of worm gear
To out put torque
wt tangential load on gear
v pitch line (peripheral) velocity of worm gear
cv velocity factor
y tooth form factor
wd dynamic load
se endurance strength
Ws static load
Apro projected area of worm
Ag projected area of worm gear
A total projected area of worm and worm gear
Qd heat dissipating capacity
Tgear torque acting on worm gear
Tworm torque acting on worm shaft
Wa axial load on gear
Wr radial or separating force on worm gear
T maximum temperature change
kh average heating coefficient
Mworm resultant bending moment on worm shaft
 Shear stress
F.S factor of safety
dw diameter of worm shaft
x 2 center distance between worm gear shaft bearing
M gear resultant bending moment on worm gear shaft
dg diameter of worm gear shaft

Samson T. & Serawit T. 7 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Engine maintenance
During the operational life of mechanical systems maintenance costs constitute
a major portion of total expenses. Reciprocating engines are no exception. Accordingly,
an adequate maintenance program can reduce these costs over the life time of a system.
In recent years predictive maintenance programs have been implemented worldwide,
replacing older maintenance philosophies and realizing the task of reducing maintenance
costs. In heavy industry, where maintenance costs can represent 40% of the overall
production costs, the application of a predictive maintenance program can reduce these
costs by more than 50%. In contrast to run-to-failure and preventive maintenance
approaches, which are commonly implemented for reciprocating engines, predictive
maintenance is a condition-driven program .Ref [2].

1.2 Maintenance experience in Ethiopia


Though, Maintenance in Ethiopia had shorter time experience, now a day it had
been done smoothly and nicely in most factories, garages, and companies. The type of
maintenance system done varies on the factories goal. The maintained part can be a
machine part (eg.engine), a machine as a whole or some other. Some of the maintenance
experiences and recommendations for engine are:
o Keep engines properly tuned for efficient fuel consumption, clean exhaust,
and economy.
o Keep your engine clean. It makes it easier to spot and correct small leaks
before they become big problems.
o Keep an oil absorption pad in the bilge or below the engine to collect
Spilled products.
o When undertaking maintenance, wipe up spills so that they do not get
pumped overboard with bilge water.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 8 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

o Keep the use of engine cleaners to a minimum. Parts cleaning should not be
done in the bilge or over open ground. It should be done in a container or
parts washer where the dirty fluids can be collected and recycled.
o Keep fuel tanks full during winter storage to reduce condensation buildup.

Lack of engine maintenance is one of the most often reason for a car to break
down. Here is a visual example, which shows two engines, one is poorly maintained and
the other is well maintained figure 1.1, which shows poorly maintained engine which is
due to engine oil hasn't been changed for a long time. This engine has relatively low
mileage and already needs serious and costly repair than the engine in figure 1.2, which
is maintained properly.

Figure 1.1 Engine not maintained (Ref.2)

Figure 1.2 Engine properly maintained (Ref. 2)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 9 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The vast majority of engine damage results from the failure to maintain the cooling
system.

Figure 1.3 Internal water jacket of an engine (Ref. 2)

The result of lack of maintenance of engine cooling system is as shown in figure 1.3, that
is, it will corrode and inhibits cooling transfer and result in chronic overheating.

1.3 Brief problems encountered during maintenance


There are so many problems encountered during maintenance in Ethiopia but the
most common and major ones are:

i. Lack of spare parts.


ii. Lag of time for replacement of some components.
iii. Unwilling to service the machine after a rated life time.
iv. Lack of engine stand while maintenance of some engines.
v. Budget constraint.

1.4 Motivation
During our official visit to SUR CONSTRUCTION in the previous semester as an
aid for the course IC engines, we have seen the maintenance department. In this
department, the major task done is engine overhauling for different engines (from small
vehicles to earth moving machineries). Here the engines overhauled are v-shape engines
and inline engines. As we observed, the maintenance of v-shape engines is somewhat
easy due to the presence of engine stands for v-shape engines.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 10 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

But, there is a difficulty of maintaining inline engines due to the absence of inline engine
stands, so we are interested to design an engine stand for engines which are mostly
overhauled (engine model OM355, machine model 1924, Mercedes Benz).

1.5 Objective of the project


The main objective of the project is to reduce the problems encountered while
overhauling inline engines and improve the standard time of the total engine overhauling.
This makes the company profitable by minimizing the engine overhauling time.

1.6 Project specification


The major specifications that we had taken for the design of inline engine
Stand is:
 Engine weight
 Overall engine dimensions
 Engine type(inline)
 Engine stand used for maintenance

Samson T. & Serawit T. 11 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER TWO

BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION


2.1Technology in Ethiopia
Technology in Ethiopia is not such developed. Currently Ethiopia strongly tries
to follow two technologies .these are agricultural and water technology and this is related
to the countries policy to eliminate poverty. The remaining technologies include engine
overhauling, cement production, textile technology and so on.

2.2 Engines in Ethiopia


There are different types of engine in the world depending up on many criteria.
But the most common ones are inline, flat and v-type engine depending on there cylinder
arrangement ref[2].and out of these the two (v-type and inline) engines are found in
Ethiopia. But these engines get maintained only in very few garages and engineering
institutes. Some of them are Mesfin industrial engineering, SUR CONSTRUCTION
private limited company, Berta construction, professional garage and so on. The figure
below shows the number of stroke and piston arrangement of inline and v-type engines
(engines which are maintained in Ethiopia).

Figure 2.1 Different types of engines (Ref. 2)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 12 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER THREE

LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Engine
Engine is a machine designed for the conversion of energy into useful mechanical
motion. The principal characteristic of an engine is its capacity to deliver appreciable
mechanical power. An engine is usually a machine that consumes a fuel, as differentiated
from an electric machine that produces mechanical power without altering the
composition of matter. It is heavy in weight and has complex structures and parts.

Figure 3.1 Complicated structure of an engine (Ref.2)

3.2 Vehicle engine


These engines are internal combustion engines and they work by converting
gasoline into mechanical energy (motion). In order to create mechanical energy, car
engines needs to combust gasoline in a closed chamber to push of a mechanical part
(piston) down and up. The up and down motion of the piston creates a circular motion in
the crankshaft via the connecting rods

Vehicle engines are actually simple but ingenious in design. Almost all Vehicle
engines today are four-stroke engines. This means that there are four stages on how an
engine transforms gasoline into mechanical energy. These stages are the intake,
compression, combustion and exhaust.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 13 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Each stroke (stage) is a representation of the upward or downward movement of the


pistons inside the chamber of the engine. We all know that gasoline lights up when
ignited. Now in order for gasoline to combust, it needs to be mixed with oxygen (air) then
compressed before being ignited. The by-product or the exhaust then needs to be
released. These all happens in the four strokes (stages) of your engine.

3.3 Classification of an engine


There are different types of an engine based on different criteria. But most
commonly they can be classified depending up on:
A) Their combustion chamber - internal and external combustion engines.
B) Their cylinder arrangement
 Inline (cylinders are arranged in a line in a single bank)

Figure 3.3 Inline engine (Ref. 2)

 V-type (cylinders are arranged in two banks set at an angle to


One another)

Figure 3.4 V-type engines. (Ref.2)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 14 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

 Flat (cylinders are arranged in two banks on opposite sides of the


engine)

Figure 3.5 flat engines (Ref. 2)

C) Their stroke -two strokes, four strokes, and five strokes.


D) Their fuel consumption – petrol and diesel.

3.4 Maintenance of engines


Maintenance is any activity, such as tests, measurements, replacements,
adjustments and repairs, intended to restore or retain a functional unit in a specified state
in which the unit can perform its required functions. It includes all actions taken to retain
material in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. This includes
inspection, testing, servicing, and classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding,
and reclamation.
Therefore maintenance of engines incorporates all activities taken place in order
to keep engines work properly. But the activities performed during maintenance of an
engine are difficult and need critical attention. This is due to the complex nature and
heavy weight of engines. Therefore one has to think the ways to handle an engine before
starting to maintain the different components of an engine. The best and common way to
handle an engine during its maintenance is to use engine stands.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 15 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

3.5 Engine stands


An engine stand is a structure having a mounting apparatus for securing loads
such as different sizes of automotive engines and the like to a ratable face plate which has
a wheeled stand therefore the stand having adjustable means for balancing and stabilizing
the load carried by the mounting.
Engine stands are used to perform the repairing of engines without load and
suffocation in a reasonable short time. The main aim of engine stands is to hold the
engine and rotate in 360degree or to hold the engine and banked at some angle in order to
make easier the assembling and disassembling process of the engine parts while
maintenance. The way the stands hold the engines differs from engine to engine even for
the same engine type for different vehicles. So there is no uniform guide for the engine
stands arrangement and shape.

3.5.1 Types of engine stands


There are many types of engine stands based on the arrangement and shape of the
engine cylinders. Some of them are:
 Stand for inline cylinders engines,
 Stand for v-type engines,
 Stand for flat engine types…
They can be manual or motor driven.
Inline engine stand
Inline engine stand is a stand for inline cylinder engine which is used to hold and
rotate in the required amount of degree while maintenance in order to avoid the
complexity of assembling and disassembling of the engine and the power required. Inline
cylinder engine differs for vehicles and construction equipments (e.g., caterpillar) both in
weight and casting structure of the engine block, thus their stand may also differs.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 16 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Figure 3.6 Inline engine stand. (Ref. 2)

V-type engine stand


It is an engine stand to hold v-type engines during their maintenance or repair.
They might differ for different types of v-type engines. As example we can see the
following stand:

Figure 3.7 Engine stands for v-type engine. (Ref.2)

Flat engine stand


This engine stand is not commonly used now days. It can be shown in the
following figure:

Figure 3.8 Engine stands for flat engine. . (Ref.2)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 17 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

3.6 Worm gearing


The American Gear Manufacturer’s Association (AGMA) has issued certain
standards relating to worm gear design. The purpose of these publications which are the
work of broad committees, is to share the experience of the industry and thus to arrive at
good standard design practice. [Ref 4]
 Number of teeth of gear: Center distance influences to a large extent a minimum
number of teeth for the gear. Recommended minimums are available. The
maximum number of teeth selected is governed by high ratios of reduction and
considerations of strength and load carrying capacity.[ Ref 4, pp36.13]
 Number of threads in worm: The minimum number of teeth in the gear and the
reduction ratio determine the number of threads for the worm. Generally, 1 to 10
threads are used. In special cases, a larger number may be required. [Ref 4,
pp36.13]
 Gear ratio: Either prime or even gear ratios may be used. However, if the gear
teeth are to be generated by a single-tooth “fly cutter”, the use of prime ratio will
eliminate the need for indexing the cutter. [Ref 4,pp36.13]
 Pitch of the worm: It is recommended that pitch be specified in the axial plane of
the worm and that it be a simple fraction, to permit accurate factoring for change
gear ratios.[Ref 4,pp 36.14]
 Worm pitch diameter: The pitch diameter of the worm for calculation purposes
is assumed to be at the mean of the working depth. A worm does not have a true
pitch diameter until it is mated with a gear at a specified center distance. If the
actual addendum and dedendum of the worm are equal, respectively, to the
addendum and dedendum of the worm gear, the nominal and actual pitch
diameters of the worm are same. How ever, it is not essential that this condition
exist for satisfactory operation of the gearing. [Ref 4, pp36.14]

3.7 Bearings
Bearings permit smooth, low-friction movement between two surfaces. The
movement can be either rotary (a shaft rotating with in a mount) or linear (one surface
moving along another).

Samson T. & Serawit T. 18 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Bearings can employ either a sliding or a rolling action. Bearings based on rolling
action are called rolling-element bearings. Those based on sliding action are called plain
bearings. Plain bearings are bearings that work by sliding action with or without
lubricant. [Ref 11, pp716]
Rolling contact bearings use balls and rollers to exploit the small coefficients of
friction when herd bodies roll on each other. The balls and rollers are kept separated and
equally spaced by a separator (cage or retainer).
Permissible speeds are influenced by bearing size, properties, lubrication detail,
and operating temperatures. The speed varies inversely with mean bearing diameter.
Some of the guidelines for selecting bearings which are valid more often than not
are as follows:
 Ball bearings are less expensive choice in the smaller sizes and under lighter
loads; where as roller bearings are less expensive for larger sizes and heavier
loads.
 Roller bearings are more satisfactory under shock or impact loading than ball
bearings.
 Ball-thrust bearings are for pure thrust loading only. At high speeds a deep groove
or angular contact ball bearing usually will be a better choice, even for pure thrust
loads.
 Self aligning ball bearings and cylindrical roller bearings have very low friction
coefficients.
 Although rolling contact bearings are “standardized” and easily selected from
vendor catalogs, these are instances of cooperative development by customer and
vendor involving special materials, hollow elements, distorted race ways, and
novel applications.
[Ref 4]

3.7.1. Thrust bearings


They can be considered to be 900 angular contact bearings. They support pure
thrust load at moderate speeds, but for practical purpose their radial load capacity is nil.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 19 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Because they can not support radial loads, ball thrust bearings must be used together with
radial bearings.
Thrust bearings can be one directional grooved-race bearing having grooved
races very similar to those in radial bearings or two directional, grooved-race bearings
consist of two stationary races, one rotating race, and two ball components.
[REF.9 pp720]

3.7.2. Tapered bearings


Tapered roller bearings are widely used in roll-neck applications in rolling
mills, transmissions, gear reducers, geared shafting, steering mechanisms, and machine
tool spindles, where speeds are low, grease lubrication sufficient but for high speeds
demands oil lubrication and for a very high speeds it require special lubricating
arrangements. [Ref 11, pp720]

3.8 Sealings
Seal rings of the O-ring are used as both static and dynamic seals. Static seals
serve the same purpose as gaskets; that is they provide a seal between two members that
are not intended to undergo relative motion. Dynamic seals, however are used where
rotating or reciprocating motion is intended to anchor.
The size of O-rings is designated by the cross sectional diameter and the nominal
inside diameter (ID). [REF.4 pp 17.1]

Figure 3.9 Standard shape of groove for seal rings. [Ref 4, PP17.1]
O-rings have been used successfully on rotating shafts when they are
installed under compression by using a smaller-then-normal groove diameter in
the housing. Satisfactory life can then be obtained at shaft speeds up to 3.8m/s and
seated pressures up to 1.38N/mm2.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 20 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Recommended O-ring cross sections are 3.53mmfor speeds up to 2.0m/s, 2.62mm


for speeds from 2.0 to 3.0m/s, and 1.78mm for speeds exceeding 3.0m/s. [Ref 4,
pp 17.2]

3.9 Gaskets
A gasket is a material or combination of materials clamped between two
separable members of a mechanical joint. Its function is to affect a seal between
the members (flanges) and maintain the seal for a prolonged period. [Ref 4, pp
26.1]
Gaskets fabricated from compressible materials should be as thin as possible. The
gasket should be no thicker than is necessary if it is to confirm to the unevenness of the
mating flanges. [Ref 4, pp 26.7]
Some advantages of thin gaskets over thick gaskets are:
i. Reduced creep relaxation and subsequent torque loss,
ii. Less distortion of mating flanges,
iii. Higher resistance to blow out,
iv. Fewer voids through which sealing media can enter and so less permeability.
v. Lower thickness tolerances.
vi. Better heat transfer.

3.10 Retaining rings


Shoulders are used on shafts and on the interior of bored parts to accurately
position or retain assembled parts to prevent axial motion or play. It is often
advantageous to use circlips as a substitute for these machined shoulders. Such rings can
be used to axially position parts on shafts and in housing bores and often save a great deal
in machining costs. [Ref 4, pp 22.16]

3.11 Washers
Plain washers are flat and circular and are used on bolts and screws. They are
applied under the nut, under the head or both. Plain washers can also be made square or
triangular and are sometimes beveled for use on an inclined surface. [Ref 4, pp 22.26-
22.27]

Samson T. & Serawit T. 21 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Figure 3.10 Plain washer

3.12 Lubrication
Any process by which the friction in a moving contact is reduced may be
described as lubrication.
The two main factors in selecting the type of lubricant are the speed and the load.
If the speed is high, then the amount of frictional heating tends to be high, and low
viscosity lubricants will give lower viscous friction and better heat transfer. If the loads
are high, then viscosity lubricants will tend to be expelled from the contact. [Ref 4, pp
25.2]
Typical operating viscosity ranges are given as follows:
Lubricant Viscosity range, CST
 Clocks and instrument oils 5-20
 Motor oils 10-50
 Roller bearing oils 10-300
 Plain bearing oils 20-1500
 Medium speed gear oils 50-150
 Hypoid gear oils 50-600
 Worm gear oils 200-1000
[Ref 4, pp 25.7]

3.13 Welded joints


[Ref 4, pp14.23-14.39]
The loads in a welded steel design are transferred from one member to another
through welds placed in weld joints. Both the type of joint and the type of weld are
specified by the designer.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 22 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The following figure shows the joint and weld types:


Butt joint Fillet weld

Tee joint V groove

Corner joint J groove

Lap joint
Figure 3.11 Joint and weld joint.
The fillet weld requiring no groove preparation is one of the most commonly used
welds. Corner welds are also widely used in machine design.
The size the weld should always be designed with reference to the size of the
thinner member. The joint can not be made any stronger by using the thicker member for
the weld size, and much more weld metal will be required as shown in the following
figures:

Vs
Bad Good
Figure 3.12 Comparisons of weld types.

Edge preparation
Edge preparations are mainly used in order to minimize any burn through
tendency. Among preparations providing a root face, J and U preparations are the
commonly used ones. Sometimes a bevel preparation with a back up strip may be used
instead of J or U groove.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 23 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Figure 3.13 Bevel preparations with a back up strip.


Weld able materials
[REF: Introduction to Manufacturing pro. J A Schey pp552-553]
Generalizations are more dangerous for welding than for other processes, but
some guidelines can be formulated. In actual production situations specialized reference
volumes, computer data bases, and industry standards should be consulted. Some of the
weld able materials are:
 Ferrous materials
o Ferritic steels: are readily welded, but martensite formation is a danger in
pearlitic steels. Preheating and, if possible, post heating are necessary
when martensite formation is unavoidable.
o Stainless steels.
 Cast iron
The weld ability of cast irons varies greatly, but many cast irons are welded,
especially by arc welding. High-nickel filler is frequently used to stabilize the
graphitic form. Preheating and slow cooling are also helpful. In welding gray iron
the welding rod is enriched in silicon, and to ensure spheroidal graphite
formation-Mg is incorporated in the rod for welding nodular cast iron. Malleable
iron reverts to brittle while iron, reducing the toughness of the weld. When
toughness is important, the weld metal is heat treated or the joint is made by
brazing. [REF.pp 552-553]
Bronze welding rods are extensively used on cast iron. Cast iron has excellent
vibration damping characteristics as well as good resistance to wear. [REF. 6
pp821]

Samson T. & Serawit T. 24 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER FOUR
DESIGN ANALYSIS
4.1 Alternatives (Design concepts)
Design concept 1: a flexible engine stand in which the engine is attached by using friction
and consisting of a spur gear box.
Design concept 2: an engine stand in which the engine is attached by using bolts and
consisting of a worm gear box.

4.2. Design matrix


Design matrix shows the comparison of a number of design concepts presented or
initiated by a designer or designers.
Comparison parameters Design concept value 1 Design concept value 2
(out of 5) (out of 5)
1. Operation 3 4
2. Maintenance 2 5
3. Welding 3 3
4. Safety 3 4
5. Material 2 3
6. Size 2 5
7. Accuracy 3 4
8. Cost 2 4
9. Versatility 4 3
10. Flexibility 4 3
11. Efficiency 3 4
12. Assembly 1 4
13. Self locking ability 1 5
Total (out of 65) 33 51
Total percentage (%) 50.1% 78%

Samson T. & Serawit T. 25 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

As we can see from the design matrix table, the total comparison value shows as
design concept two is more reasonable and advantageous than design concept one
.therefore the design of inline engine stand will be based on design concept two.

4.3 Design of handle


Material selection
The material selected for the handle is ASTM –A36 steel having a mechanical
property of;
y = 250 Mpa
 = 145 Mpa
Assumptions
-The amount of force applied by a person is 200N
-The length of cranked lever is 200mm
- The length of handle is 150mm
-The effort will be applied at 2/3 rd of the length of handle

Lc

Figure 4.1 Cranked lever handle


We know that the maximum bending moment on the lever is;
Mmax =Pa* lh
Mmax = 60kN-mm
Since the cross-section of the lever is rectangular, the moment of inertia can be calculated
as;
I=1/12*bt3

Samson T. & Serawit T. 26 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And assume that b=t;


I =1/12*t4
We know that the centroid of the cross section is t/2.therefore from the bending stress
b =M/I*y
the thickness will be;
t3=6M/b
t=20mm and b=20mm

4.4 Design of crank lever arm


The cross section of the lever is rectangular having uniform thickness .the base
of the lever is tapered from the boss to handle

Figure 4.2cranked lever arm


Since the lever is subjected to both twisting and bending we shall design the
lever arm for 25% more bending moment, therefore the maximum bending moment will
be ;
M=1.25*Pa*lh
M= 100kNmm
And the section modules for tapered cross section is
Z=1/6*t*B2 assume B =2t
Z=0.667t3
And from the bending stress formula

b =M/Z

Samson T. & Serawit T. 27 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The thickness will be;


t=15mm and B=30mm
Now let us check the lever arm for induced bending and shear stress. The bending
moment on the lever arm near the boss (assuming that the length of the arm extends up to
the center of the shaft) is given by
Ma= Pa *Lc
Ma=40kN-mm
Section modules
Z=1/6*t*B3
Z=2250mm3
Therefore, the induced bending stress
b= M/Z
b =34.7Mpa
Thus considering the bending stress the induced bending stress is with in the safe limits
We know that the twisting moment is;
T=2/3* Pa* lh
T=20kN-mm
Since our section side is square
=9/2t3*T
= 22.5Mpa
Therefore, this induced shear stress is also with in the safe limit
Now let us check the cross section of lever arm for maximum shear stress
We know that the maximum principal stress;
bmax =1/2*[ b + √ (b2 + 4*2) ]
bmax =46.4MPa
And the maximum shear stress;
max =1/2* √ (b2 + 4*2)
max =28.6Mpa
Therefore the design of crank lever arm is with in the safe limits in both conditions.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 28 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.5 Design of journal


Since the journal of the shaft is subjected to twisting moment and bending
moment, therefore its diameter is obtained from equivalent twisting moment
We know that the equivalent twisting moment
Te=Pa √ ((2* lh)/3 + Lc2)
Te=85.4kN-mm
Thus the diameter of the journal is;
Ds3 = (16/π)*Te
Ds =50mm.

4.6 Design of Gear Box


General assumptions
 The in put shaft speed=10rpm.
 Speed reduction (V.R) =5.
 Pressure angle=20˚, since the number of threads in a worm are greater than three
for small revolutions.
 The center distance between the shafts(X) is 225mm.
General given: The torque transmitted by a worm gear (T) is 20kNmm. (From design
of handle)

4.6.1. Design of worm


 The permissible input power:
According to AGMA recommendations, the limiting input power of a plain worm
gear unit from the standpoint of heat dissipation is:

Po=3650* X1.7
V.R+5
Thus, Po =19.3kW
Then, check our input power:
P=2ΠNT/60
P=20.94W

Samson T. & Serawit T. 29 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Therefore, our assumed input power is less than the permissible input power.
Thus our assumption is with in the safe range.
 Material selection:
The worm is mostly made of steel (low and medium carbon or low alloyed) and
also worm are made of gray cast iron with an ultimate stress of 180Mpa. The
material selected for the worm is carbon and alloy steel (1020 HR) having a
mechanical property of
σy = 42kpsi=290MPa
σu = 66kpsi=457MPa.
 Analysis
Now, in order to make X/lN minimum
Cot3λ=V.R
λ=25
It is known that
X/l N=1/2Π (1/sin λ +V.R/cos λ)
l N =181.5mm.
And axial lead (la) is
la= l N /cos λ =212mm
From table 5, we find that for velocity ratio of 5, the number of starts of threads
on the worm (n) will be,
n=Tw=6.
Therefore axial pitch of threads on the worm will be,
Pa= la /n=35mm
And the module will be;
m=Pa/Π=11.25mm,
Thus from standard table; m=12mm.
The axial pitch of the threads on the worm (Pa) using the standard module will be,
Pa =m * Π =38mm.
The axial lead of the threads on the worm (lw);
lw = Pa *n=212mm.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 30 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And the normal lead of the threads on the worm (lN) will be;
lN = lw cos λ =182mm.
It is known that the center distance is given by;
X = l N /2Π (1/sin λ +V.R/cos λ)
X =395mm
Now from the equation tan λ =lw/ Π Dw;
DW=lw / Π tan λ =113mm.
Since the velocity ratio is 5 and the worm has sextuple thread (that is,
n=Tw=6).therefore the number of teeth on the worm gear (TG) will be,
TG=5*6=30.
From table 6, we find that the face length of the worm or the length of threaded
portion is (LW)
LW=Pc*(4.5+0.02*Tw) =Pa*(4.5+0.02Tw), since Pc=Pa.
LW =175mm.
This length should be increased by 25 to 30mm for the feed marks produced.
Therefore let us take LW=200mm.
We know that the depth of tooth; (from table 6)
h=0.623Pc=24mm.
The addendum
a=0.286Pc=11mm.
And therefore the outside diameter of worm (Dow) will be
Dow=DW+2a=135mm.

4.6.2. Design of worm gear


 Material selection:
Materials for worm wheel (gear) are those which are softer but have a low
coefficient of friction in combination with steel. High tin bronzes are preferable for
worm wheel when the velocity of sliding exceeds 3m/s. the material selected for the
worm wheel is ordinary grade cast iron having a mechanical property of;
σb =41.3MPa
σc =6.89MPa

Samson T. & Serawit T. 31 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

BHN=150
σo =83MPa
σu =83MPa
 Analysis
Now, we know that the pitch circle diameter of the worm gear (DG) is;
DG=m*TG=360mm.
From table 7, we find that outside diameter of worm gear (dog) is;
DOG=DG+0.8903Pc=394mm.
Throat diameter (DT)
DT=DG+0.572Pc=382mm
And face width (b),
b= 5Pc+5mm=87mm
Now let’s check the designed worm gear from the standpoint of tangential load, dynamic
load, and static load or endurance strength, wear load and heat dissipation.
a) check for the tangential load
We know that the velocity ratio of the drive (V.R)
V.R=NW/NG
NG=NW/V.R=2rpm
Therefore the output torque transmitted (To);
To=60P/2  NG=100Nm
And the tangential load acting on the gear (WT);
WT=2*To/DG=556N
We know that pitch line or peripheral velocity of worm gear ()
=DGNG/60=0.04m/s
Velocity factor (Cv);
CV=6/ (6+) =0.99
And tooth form factor for 20 in volute teeth(y);
y=0.154-0.912/TG=0.1236
Since the worm gear is made of cast iron, taking the allowable static stress for
cast iron, σo =83MPa.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 32 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

We know that the designed tangential load (WT),


WT = σo Cv bmy=33311N.
Since this is greater than the tangential load acting on the gear (that is 556N,
the design is safe from the standpoint of tangential load.
b) check for dynamic load(WD)
WD = WT/ Cv =33648N
Since this is greater than the tangential load acting on the gear (WT =556N),
the design is safe from standpoint of dynamic load.
c) check for static load or endurance strength(σe);
It is given that σe =83MPa.
Therefore static load (WS)
WS = σe bmy=33648N
Since the endurance strength is much more than the tangential load acting on
the gear (WT =556N), the design is safe from the stand point of static load or
endurance strength.
d) check for wear
Since the material selected is hardened steel, then from table , it is found that
for hardened steel worm and cast iron worm gear, the value of load stress
factor(k),
k=0.345N/mm2
Therefore the limiting or maximum load for wear (Ww),
Ww =DG*b*k=7204N
Since the limiting load for wear is greater than the tangential load acting on
the gear (WT =556N), the design is safe from the stand point of wear.
e) check for heat dissipation
Assume that 25 percent overload, then the heat generated will be (Qv);
Qv=1.25*p* (1-)
And we know that
 =tan λ /tan (λ+1)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 33 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Since the rubbing velocity (Vr)


Vr=DwNw/cos λ =4.2m/min
Since our rubbing velocity is less than 10m/min, =0.015,
Angle of friction (1) will be;
1=tan-1=0.860
Thus the efficiency will be
 =tan λ /tan (λ+1) =97
Therefore, the heat generated Qv will be
Qg=Qv=1.25p (1- ) =0.79W
We know that the projected area of the worm (AW)
AW=DW2/4=10029mm2
And the projected area of the worm gear (AG);
AG=DG2/4=101788mm2
Therefore the total projected area of the worm and worm gear (A)
A=AW+AG=111817*10-6m 2
And we know that the heat dissipating capacity (Qd)
Qd=A (t2-t!)kh = 42.3(t2-t1)
(Since the average value of kh is 378W/m2/0c)
Since the heat generated must be dissipated in order to avoid heating of the
drive, therefore equating Qg=Qd;
t2 - t1 =0.0190c
Since the maximum temperature (t2-t1) doesn’t exceed 27 to 300c, therefore
the design is safe from the stand point of heat.4.6.3. Design of worm shaft
 Material selection: the material selected for the shaft is steel.
 Analysis
We know that the torque acting on the worm gear shaft (Tgear) by taking 25% over
load;
Tgear=1.25P*60/2NG=125Nm
Therefore the torque acting on the worm shaft will be
Tworm= Tgear/V.R*=26000Nmm

Samson T. & Serawit T. 34 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

We know that the tangential force on the worm gear,


WT=2* Tgear/DG=695N
And the axial force on the worm gear,
WA=2* Tworm/DW=460N
And the radial or separating force on the worm gear (WR)
WR=WAtan=215N
(Taking the lead angle  =250 from table)
Now let us take the distance between the bearings of the worm shaft(X1) =530mm
Therefore the bending moment due to axial force (WA) in the vertical plane
=WR*X1/4=28487.5Nmm
And the bending moment due to axial force (WA) in the vertical plane
= WA*DW/4=12995Nmm
Therefore the total bending moment in the vertical plane will be
M1=28487.5+12995=41482.5Nmm
We know that the bending moment due to tangential force (WT) in the horizontal plane
will be,
M2=WT*DG/4=62550Nmm
Therefore now the resultant bending moment on the worm shaft will be
Mworm= (M12+M22)0.5=41951mm
And from the equivalent twisting moment on the worm shaft (Tew)
Tew= (Tworm2+Mworm2)0.5=49355Nmm

Also it is known that the equivalent twisting moment (Tew) can be given as
Tew= dw3/16 =49355Nmm
And the shear stress by taking factor of safety =5
Thus  =y/2*F.S= 28.96MPa.
Therefore, substituting  in Tew, dw = 40mm.
Now let us check the maximum shear stress induced
We know that the actual shear stress
 =16Tew / dw3 =3.93MPa

Samson T. & Serawit T. 35 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And direct compressive stress on the shaft due to axial force (c) will be
c = 4WA/dw2= 0.367MPa
Therefore the maximum shear stress (max),
max =1/2 (c2+42)0.5 =3.9MPa
Since the maximum shear stress induced is less than 28.96, therefore the design of the
worm shaft is safe.

4.6.4. Design of worm gear shaft


 Material selection
The material selection for the worm gear shaft is steel.
 Analysis
It is known that the bending moment due to the axial force on the worm gear;
=axial force *DG/4=41400Nmm
N.B: The bending moment due to the axial force will be in the vertical plane.
Now take the distance between the bearings of the worm gear shaft (X2) =200mm.
Therefore, The bending moment due to the radial force on the worm gear
= radial force* X2/4=10750Nmm.
The bending moment due to the radial force will also be in the vertical plane. Thus the
total bending moment in the vertical plane (M3)
M3=52150Nmm.
It is known that the bending moment due to the tangential force in the horizontal plane is
given as
M4= tangential force *X2/4=34750Nmm.
Now the resultant bending moment on the worm gear shaft will be,
Mgear= (M32+M42)0.5=62.67*103Nmm.
And the equivalent twisting moment on the worm gear shaft will be,
Teg= (Tgear2+Mgear2)0.5=62.7*103
But the equivalent twisting moment can also be given as
Teg = dG3/16=62.7*103.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 36 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Since our material is cast iron the shear stress is based on the allowable stress by taking
factor of safety =10.
=all/F.S= 8.26MPa
Therefore, substituting  in the equation of Teg and solving for dG,
dG3 =16 Teg/
dG =34mm
Take dG=50mm for more safety.
N.B; Because of the engine load the torque should be multiplied as large as possible.
Now let us check the maximum shear stress induced:
The actual stress () is given as
 = 16Teg /dG3=2.6MPa
And the direct compressive stress on the shaft due to the axial force is given as
σco =axial force/ (dG2/4) =234.3kPa
Therefore the maximum shear stress will be
max =1/2*(σco2 +42 )0.5=5.2MPa.
Since the maximum shear stress induced is less than the allowable shear stress 83MPa,
the design of the worm gear is safe.

4.6.5. Self locking of the worm


To check whether the worm screw locks or not, let us calculate the efficiency of
self locking and if it is greater than 50%, then the screw is over hauling and if it is less
than 50% the screw will be self locking.
η=output/input

=0.5-[0.5*(tan2∅)]

η =42%.
Therefore, the worm screw is self lock.

4.7. Selection of lubrication for the worm gear


It is recommended that for worm gears, oil with viscosity in the range of 200 to
1000 cst (centistokes) can be used. It is commercially available.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 37 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.8. Design of flange coupling


Usually coupling is used to connect two separate shafts .but here a single flange
on the shaft is connected with a flange welded to the rotating structure .therefore ,here it
is necessary to design the single on the shaft and check the strength of bolts.
Material selection
The material we select for the flange is grey cast iron since it has very low cost; it is easy
to machine .the mechanical property of the grey cast iron is as follows;
t = (100-400) MPa
c = (3or4)* t
E = (75-150)*GPa
=120MPa

Figure 4.3 flange coupling


Thus from the recommended dimensions
L=1.5*dg =75mm
D=2 *dg =100mm
D1=3* dg =150mm
D2=4* dg =200mm
Now let us check for the strength,

4.8.1 Design of hub


By considering as a hollow shaft,
T=/16*c *[(D4-d4)/D]

Samson T. & Serawit T. 38 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

But the torque transmitted is the torque transmitted from the shaft.
Therefore, T=20N-m
And c=/f .s taking f .s =2
c=30MPa
Assume service factor =1.5 [Ref. 4]
Tmax= f .s*T
Tmax =30N-m
Now let us check the induced shear stress for hub material;
c= Tmax*(16/)*D/ (D4-d4)
c=0.163MPa
Since the induced shear stress is less than the permissible value (30MPa)the design of
hub is safe

4.8.2. Design of key


Material selection
The material we select for the key is steel having a mechanical property of
y=400MPa [Ref. 4]
For the shaft diameter of 50mm, the key size will be;
wk =14mm
hk =9mm
Key way depth=5.5mm
Note that: the length of key is equal to the length of hub
Now let us check the crashing and shearing strength of the key
Considering the shearing strength
And k=y/2* f .s taking f .s =4
k= 50MPa
Now considering the dimensions of the key
k = (2*Tmax)/ (l*w *d)
k=1.1MPa

Samson T. & Serawit T. 39 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Since the induced shear stress is less than the permissible shear stress, the design of key
considering shearing strength is safe.
Considering the crushing strength
k = (2*Tmax)/ (l*h/2* d)
k =7.1MPa
Since the crushing stress is less than the permissible stress the design of key considering
crushing stress is safe.

4.8.3 Design of flange


The thickness of the flange can be taken as 0.5*d
tf =25mm
Now let us check the induced shearing stress at the junction of the hub
c= (2* Tmax)/ (*D2*tf)
c=76.4MPa
Since it is less than the permissible shear stress (120MPa), the design of flange is safe.

4.8.4. Design of bolts


Material selection
The material we select for the key is steel having a mechanical property of
y=400MPa
Assume the number of bolts is 8
Pitch circular diameter of the bolt is,
D1=3*d
D1=150mm
Since bolts encounter shearing due to the torque, by considering the shear stress the
diameter will be;
d2= (4* Tmax)/ (* b*n*D1/2)
d=10mm

Samson T. & Serawit T. 40 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.9. Bearing selection


4.9.1 Roller bearing selection for the worm
We know that the axial load (WA) =834N
And the radial load (Wr) =304N
The general formula to select the bearing is using the equivalent load;
Fe=x*v*Wr + y*WA

The life of the bearing is 10years at 8hours per day. Therefore the life of the bearing in
the revolution;
L10=25040hr*60min/hr*10rev/min
L10=15*106 rev
Assume WA/ Fe =0.5 and e=0.44
Now let us calculate the ratio WA/Wr =0.36
Thus from table 10, the value of
x=1 and y =0
And the rotational factor for bearings whose inner race rotates
v=1
Therefore the equivalent radial load;
Fe=Wr=834N
From table, the service factor for ball bearing of uniform and steady load
Ks=1
Therefore the bearing should be selected for Fe=834N
And from the dynamic load factor
C= Fe*L(1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing
C=2.06kN
Then from table let us select the bearing number of 200 which has the following basic
capacities
Fe=2.24kN and C=4kN
Now let us check the assumed ratio
WA/ Fe=0.37

Samson T. & Serawit T. 41 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Therefore from table, the value of x and y are


x=1 and y= 0
Therefore the assumed ratio is correct. Thus the bearing having a dynamic load rating(C)
=2.06 kN will be selected. Thus from table for the load rating C=30.7kN .therefore the
dimensions for the bearing are;
Bore diameter=40mm
Outer diameter=80mm
Width=18mm
Fillet radius=1mm
Shoulder diameter =ds=46mm and dh=72mm

4.9.2 Thrust bearing selection for the wheel


We know that the axial load (WA) =1750N
And the radial load (Wr) =1050N
The general formula to select the bearing is using the equivalent load;
Fe=x*v*Wr + y*WA
The life of the bearing is 10years at 8hours per day. Therefore the life of the bearing in
the revolution
L10=25040hr*60min/hr*10rev/min
L10=15*106 rev
Assume WA/ Fe =0.025 and e=0.22
And the ratio will be
WA/Wr =1.6
Thus from table
Fe=WA/0.025
Fe=70kN
And the value of x=0.56 and y=2
And the rotational factor for bearings whose inner race rotates
v=1
Therefore Fe= 4088N

Samson T. & Serawit T. 42 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Again from table the service factor for ball bearing of uniform and steady load
Ks=1
Therefore Fe=4088N
Therefore the bearing should be selected for Fe=4088N
And from the dynamic load factor
C= Fe*L (1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing
C=10KN
Then from table, let us select bearing number 304 which has the following capacities
C=12.5Kn and Fe=7.65Kn
Now let us check the assumed ratio
WA/ Fe=0.23
Therefore from table, the value of x and y is 0.56 and 1.2 respectively
Thus the equivalent load will be
Fe=2240N
Therefore the dynamic load rating will be
C= Fe*L (1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing
C=5.6KN
Thus from table 3 the bearings dimension for the load rated (C=6.07Kn from table)
Bore diameter=12mm
Outer diameter=32mm
Width=10mm
Fillet radius=0.6mm
Shoulder diameter =ds=14.5mm and dh=28mm.

4.9.3. Tapered bearing selection for transmission


The tangential force on the worm (Wt) =axial force or thrust o the worm gear
Wt=2*Tworm/Dw
Wt=389N
Axial force or thrust on the worm (WA) =tangential force on the worm gear
WA= Wt/tan
WA=834N

Samson T. & Serawit T. 43 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The radial or separating force on the worm (Wr) =radial or separating force on the worm
gear
Wr= WA*tan
Wr=304N

4.10. Bearing Shaft


 For vertical loads

180mm 80mm Wgear

Ra Rb

Wgear=*v*g
Since the gear is made of cast iron the density is 7250kg/m3
Wgear=190N
Thus taking moment at a
 Ma=0;
Rb= (Wgear-Wr)*260)/180
Rb=-165N
This implies that the direction of force at b is in the opposite direction
And Fy =0;
Ra = Wgear- Wr- Rb
Ra =51N
 For horizontal loads

Rb

Ra Wt

Samson T. & Serawit T. 44 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Thus taking moment at a


 Ma=0
Rb= (Wt*260)/180
Rb=562N
And fromFx=0; Ra= Rb- Wt
Ra=173N
In order to select the tapered bearing the general formula is;
FeA=0.4FrA +Ka (0.47*FrB/Kb +Fa)
We know that FrA= (Ra) ver*KB/0.47
FrA=163N
And FrB = (Rb) ver*KB/0.47
FrB =527N
Therefore for the vertical load components the equivalent load will be;
For bearing at the point a , FeA=390N
And For bearing at the point b, FeB=535N
Thus Since FeB is greatest of all reactions we use 535N as the equivalent radial load to
select the bearing at a
The life of the bearing is 10years at 8hours per day. Therefore the life of the
bearing in the revolution
L10=25040hr*60min/hr*10rev/min
L10=15*106 rev
And from the dynamic load factor
C= FeA*L(1/a) where a=3 for ball bearing
C=5.8Kn
Thus from the table 4, for the cone type 3779 of 3700series
Bore diameter=47.625mm
Width=30.302mm
Maximum shaft filet radius =3.5mm
For the cop of 3732
Outer diameter=98.435mm

Samson T. & Serawit T. 45 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Width=23.812mm
Maximum housing fillet radius =3.3mm
Bearing width=30.162mm

4.11 Deflection of the gripper support plate

W/4

B=175mm
H=10mm
It is known that the deflection can be given as
d= WL3/3EI
But, I=BH3/12=15mm4 and E=210GPa
Therefore d=0.032mm. From these we conclude that the plate can withstand the engine
load, since the deflection is very small as compared to the engine load.

4.12 Deflection of base frame channel


The loads in the base frame channel can be shown as

Now calculating the reactions at A, B, C, D, and E respectively


VA=VB=1717N (engine load)
VC=1631N
VD=1803N

Samson T. & Serawit T. 46 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Now measuring X from A


MX= -1717X+1631(X-210) +1803(X-2242)
MX=EId2Y/dX
Integrating and solving
At X=250, Y=0 or
At X=2242, Y=0.
At A, X=0
YA= -0.123mm
At mid span, X= 1216mm
YE= 0.78mm
At B, X=2432mm
YB= -0.7mm
Therefore from these we can conclude that the selected structural steel can withstand the
loads with a negligible deflection.

4.13. Selection of retaining ring (circlips)


Circlips are circular steels having a limited flexibility which is used to accurately
position or retain assembled parts to prevent axial motion or play .they are selected for a
small shaft bore diameter
Since the shaft diameter is 50mm, then from table 2, extended flat ring IRR series
3100.

Figure 4.4 circlips [Ref. 4]

Samson T. & Serawit T. 47 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.14. Spacer selection


Using the diameter of the tapered bearings, the thickness of the spacer should be greater
than the bearings inner race thickness. Therefore, let as assume the thickness to 5mm.and
the type of material which is made from is rubber.

4.15. Welding analysis


Welding is a process of joining members (parts) by fusing the edges of the two
parts to be joined together, with or without the application of pressure and a filler
material
Welding is extensively used in fabrication as an alternative method for casting
and forging and as a replacement for bolted and riveted joints .it also used as a repair
medium.

4.15.1. Griper welding


The material we select for the structural members is angle iron 50*5*5
The effective length for a transverse weld;
l1=50-12.5=37.5mm
And l2=l1

Figure 4.5 griper

The load which acts on the griper is 1800N.


The maximum shear stress in the weld is 35MPa
First let consider the shear stress
Assume the eccentricity=25mm
Thus the area of the throat will be; A= (2*t*l1) + (2*l2*t)

Samson T. & Serawit T. 48 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And since t=0.707s


A=1065mm2
Therefore the shear stress will be;
=17/s
And the bending moment is;
M=load * eccentricity
M=45kN-mm
The section modulus of the weld through the throat;
Z=t*(b*l + b2/2)
Z=2356.7smm2
Therefore the bending stress is;
b=M/Z
b=19.09/s N/mm2
Thus we know that the maximum shear stress the weld leg can be calculated as
=1/2*√ (b2 +4*)
Therefore, s=16mm
Now let us consider the combined tensile and shearing stress
t=35MPa
The effective length for the transverse weld is=37.5mm
We know that the maximum load that the selected angle iron can carried by the joint is;
Pmax=area * stress
Pmax=65625N
The load carried by a single transverse weld is
p1=0.707s*l1* t
p1=928s
And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld is;
P2=1.414*l2*
P2=1856s
The load carried by the joint;
P=P1 + P2

Samson T. & Serawit T. 49 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Therefore from the above the weld leg will be


s=Pmax/P
s = 24mm
By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse fillet weld which is equal
to 1.5, the permissible tensile stress will be;
tp= tensile stress/ concentration factor
tp =23MPa
And the permissible shear stress;
p=shear stress /concentration factor
p=24MPa
Thus the load carried by double transverse weld
P1=P21.414*s*l1*tp
P1=p21648s
The load carried by parallel weld
P2=1.414*s*l1*p
P2=1028s
And the load carried by the joint
P=P1+P2
Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be
s=Pmax/P =20mm
Since the leg size of the weld is larger while we are considering the combined tensile and
shearing stress in which the structural member will be subjected while rotating at 90
and 270.we will take the weld leg 24mm.

4.15.2. Welding of the frame (beam)


Material selection
The material we select is steel of AISIO No 1030 having a mechanical property of
t=42.2MPa
=12.65MPa

Samson T. & Serawit T. 50 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The beam or a member encounters both shearing and tensile stresses

Figure 4.6 frame


The effective length for the weld is
ll=l2=50-12.5=37.5mm
The load carried by the transverse weld is
P1=1.414*s*l1* t
P1=2238s
The load carried by the double parallel fillet weld
P2=1.414*s*l2*
P2=671s
Therefore the total load carried by the weld joint
P=P1+P2
P=2909s
We know that the maximum load in which the plate can carry is
Pmax=area*stress
Pmax=20045N
Since the maximum load the plate can carry is greater than the load applied by the
engine, our plate dimensions are safe.
Thus from the maximum load the weld leg will be
s= Pmax/P
s =7mm
Now considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal
to1.5 and for parallel fillet 2.7

Samson T. & Serawit T. 51 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Therefore the permissible tensile stress


tp=t /concentration factor
tp= 28.13MPa
And the permissible shearing stress;
p= /concentration factor
p=4.69MPa
Therefore the total load carried by a single transverse weld
P1=0.707*s*l1*tp

P1=1492s

And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld


P2=1.414*l2*p
P2=249s
Since the total load carried by the joint is;
P=P1+P2
And the leg of the weld
s= Pmax/P =11mm
Thus taking the larger of the two, the weld leg size
s=11mm
And the thickness of the weld, t=0.707*s
t=8mm

4.15.3. Welding of the reinforced link


Material selection
The material we select is steel of AISIO No 1030 having a mechanical property of
t=42.2MPa
=12.65MP

Samson T. & Serawit T. 52 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Figure 4.7 reinforced link


The effective length for the weld is
ll =l2=50-12.5=37.5mm
We know that the maximum load in which the plate can carry is
Pmax=area*stress =10550N
The load carried by the transverse weld is
P1=1.414*s*l1* t
P1=1119N
And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld
P2=1.414*l2*
P2=671N
Since the total load carried by the weld joint is
P=P1+P2
Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be
s = Pmax/P
s = 6mm
By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal to1.5
and for parallel fillet 2.7
Therefore the permissible tensile stress
tp=t /concentration factor
tp=28.13MPa
And the permissible shearing stress;
p= /concentration factor
p=4.69MPa

Samson T. & Serawit T. 53 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The total load carried by a single transverse weld


P1=0.707*s*l1* t
P1=746s
And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld
P2=1.414*s*l2*p
P2=249s
Since the total load carried by the weld joint is
P=P1+P2
And the leg of the weld
s= Pmax/P
s= 10mm
Thus taking the larger of the two, the weld leg size will be s=10mm
And the thickness of the weld
t=0.707*s = 8mm

4.15.4. Welding of reinforcement link


The material we select for the reinforcement link is steel 80*10*100 of AISI No 1030
having a mechanical property of
y=421MPa
t= 586MPa

Figure 4.8 reinforcement link


The effective length for the weld is
ll =l2=50-12.5=37.5mm
We know that the maximum load in which the plate can carry is
Pmax=area*stress
Pmax=146500N

Samson T. & Serawit T. 54 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The load carried by the transverse weld is


P1=1.414*s*l1* t
P1=15537s
And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld
P2=1.414*l2*
P2=671s
Since the total load carried by the weld joint is
P=P1+P2
Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be
s = Pmax/P
s = 9mm
By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal to1.5
and for parallel fillet 2.7
Therefore the permissible tensile stress
tp=t /concentration factor
tp =391MPa
And the permissible shearing stress;
p= /concentration factor
p=4.69MPa
The total load carried by a single transverse weld
P1=0.707*s*l1* tp
P1=103366s
And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld
P2=1.414*s*l2*p
P2=249s
Since the total load carried by the weld joint is P=P1+P2
And the leg of the weld
s= Pmax/P
s= 2mm
Thus taking the larger of the two, the weld leg size; s=9mm.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 55 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And the thickness of the weld


t=0.707*s =7mm
Now let us check the tensile stress induced in the member
tin =engine load/tensile area
tin =2.2MPa
Let us check the shear stress induced in the member
in =load/shearing area
in =2.3MPa
Since the induced stresses are less than the material strength, it can withstand the stress
induced on it.

4.15.5. Welding of one member to another


Material selection
The material we select is steel of AISIO No 1030 having a mechanical property of
t=42.2MPa
=12.65MP

Figure 4.9 connections of members


The effective length of the weld run for the transverse weld is
l1=l2=50-2*12.5=25mm
The maximum load the plate can carry is , P=area*stress= 11kN.
By considering the stress concentration factor for the transverse weld which is equal to1.5
and for parallel fillet 2.7
Therefore the permissible tensile stress
tp=t /concentration factor
tp =28.13MPa

Samson T. & Serawit T. 56 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And the permissible shearing stress;


p= /concentration factor
p=4.69MPa
The total load carried by double transverse weld
P1=1.414*s*l1* tp
P1=995s
And the load carried by double parallel fillet weld
P2=1.414*s*l2*p=166s
Since the total load carried by the weld joint is
P=P1+P2
Therefore from the above equation the weld leg will be
s = Pmax/P
s =9mm
And the thickness of the weld
t=0.707*s
t=7mm
Welding for the members connected in the form of T as shown in the figure below
P=Ps sin +Pn/2cos+ Ps/2sin + Pn/2cos
Assuming that the resultant of Ps/2 + Pn/2 is vertical, then the horizontal components are
equal
Therefore Pn =Ps cos / sin
And from the geometry of figure below
s=tcos + tsin 
We know that the throat area
A=2*t +l
Since =ps/A

Samson T. & Serawit T. 57 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Figure 4.10 force application on the weld


Assuming the angle to 45 and Substituting all the above equation in the shear stress
equation, the weld length will be
s=9mm
And the thickness of the weld
t=0.0707*s=7mm.

4.15.6. Welding of the base member


The base member is a structural steel channel (152*76) having the
following dimensions
t=6.4mm
m=17.88mass per meter
Z=21.05cm3
X=2.21cm

Figure 4.11 base member

Now let us find the centroid of the channel


ӯ=ai*yi/A

Samson T. & Serawit T. 58 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

ӯ=72.8mm
and the second moment of area
I=b*h3/12
I= 362951mm4
Since the tension occurred at the top and compression at the bottom
yc= ӯ=72.8mm
yt=152- ӯ=79.2mm
and the moment carrying capacity considering tensile strength
=fper*I/ yt Since fper=29.5MPa
=124kN-mm
And the maximum moment on the beam is 1500*pe
pe *1500=124*103
pe=83KN
Therefore since the load carrying capacity of the beam is 83kN and our applied load is
2KN, the beam can withstand the load without deflection.

4.16 Design of pin for the wheel


It is known that the load at the wheel is W/4=2000
Assume l=1.75d
Pb= safe bearing pressure on pins = 10MPa.
Material selection for the pin:
Forged steel with a property of
Shear stress = 60MPa.
Tensile stress= 75MPa.
Analysis:
W/4=d* l* Pb =2000
d=12mm.
Now let us check for the shear stress induced in the pin. Since the pin is in double
Shear. The load on the pin is
W/4 = /2* d2*=2000

Samson T. & Serawit T. 59 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

=8.84MPa.
Since the shear stress induced in the pin is with in permissible limits, therefore the design
is safe.
Since the end is forked end, the thickness of each eye (t) will be
t=l/2= 10.5mm.
In order to reduce wear, chilled phosphor bronze bushes of 3mm thickness are provided
in the eye.
Inner diameter of each eye= d+ 2*3=18mm.
And the outer diameter of the eye, (D) will be
D=2*d1=40mm.
Now let us check the induced bending stress in the pin. The pin is neither simply
supported nor not rigidly fixed at the ends.

Figure 4.12 Pin assembly

Therefore the maximum bending moment at the center is


M=W/2(l/2 + t/3) - (W/2 * l/4)
=8750 Nmm.
And the section modulus (Z)
Z=/32* d3 =169.7mm3.
Therefore the bending stress induced () will be
=M/Z= 51.6MPa.
Therefore the induced bending stress is with in safe limit.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 60 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4.17 Design of bolt for the wheel


Material selection:
Steel Q&T 600oF having
y =1720MPa.
u = 1930MPa.
z = 2340MPa. [Ref 3,pp 760]
Assuming the major diameter of the bolt is M18;
From table pitch=2.5mm
Pitch diameter (dp) =16.376
Core diameter (dc) for bolt=14.933mm
For nut=15.294mm
Depth of thread (bolt) = 1.534mm
Stress area=245mm2.
Analysis:
Torsional shear stress caused by the frictional resistance of the threads during its
tightening is
nut =16T/dc nut bolt= T*r/J=16T/dc3 bolt
nut =214MPa. bolt =69MPa.
Therefore the compression or crushing stress on the threads c will be
nut =P/(*(d-dc2 nut))n bolt =P/(*(d-dc2 bolt))n number of bolts(n) =1
=25MPa. = 22MPa
Since the induced stresses are below the materials strength both the nut and bolt
materials can withstand the load.

4.18 Engine bolt


It is made of steel and the effective height of nut is made equal to the normal
diameter of the bolt. The type of bolt we select is through bolt (machine bolts, automobile
bolts) with hexagonal head since it has a better locking mechanism and can withstand
loads efficiently than others.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 61 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The material for the bolt is mild steel having a mechanical property of y =345MPa since
the material is ductile and the yield point is clearly defined. Thus
d =working stress or design stress= y /F.S = 86.25MPa.
(Taking factor of safety 4)
Assuming l1=the distance from end to the center of the bolt=25mm
L =load acting distance from margin=50mm
l2=the distance from the same end to the other side bolt=75mm
We know that the direct tensile load carried by each bolt (Wtlmax) =875N
And the load in a bolt per unit distance
=W.L/2(l12+l22) =0.028kN/mm
We know that the maximum tensile load on bolt is
Wtlmax=dc2y /4
Dc=4mm.
Since the core diameter of the engine bolt is 10mm, the bolt can withstand all the engine
loads and the effective length of the nut is equal to the normal diameter of the bolt. And
there is also a 2mm washer between the engine and the engine bolt.
N.B
All the remaining bolts except flange bolts have a core diameter of 5mm.

4.19 Wheel design


Assuming the length of the tire= 100mm
Width=30mm
The diameter of the drum=50mm
Stress area= 50*30=1500mm2
Therefore the total carrying capacity of the wheel will be
 =F/A=8000/1500=5.3MPa.
Since the number of wheels is six the stress is induced on each wheel;
each =  /n=2.7MPa (for the front wheels i.e. n=2)
The tangential stress at a radius ri will be
t =pri2*[1+ro2/ri2]/(ro2-ri2) =3.4MPa.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 62 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

The radial stress at a radius ri will be


r = 3.4MPa.
And the maximum tangential stress at the inner surface of the steel
Rtmax=p [ro2+ri2]/ro2-ri2 …… (1)
=3.4MPa
And the minimum tangential stress of the outer surface of the shell
 tmin =2pri2/ro2-ri2 =1.4MPa.
Now the thickness of the tire
Substituting Ro=2t + ri in equation 1
T=6mm.
And for the rare wheel which are for in number
 each=  /n=1.325MPa.
Assume the length of tire is 150mm, and bearing for the wheels is outer
race rotating.

4.20 Assembly and Part manufacturing procedures


The assembly procedure starts up by gathering all the required parts for the
assembly of engine stand. These are:
 Structural steel channel of dimension (5*50*2892)
 Angle iron of dimension (5*50* required length)
 Worm gear having 360mm diameter and worm shaft having 30mm diameter
of 6 start up and 171mm threaded length
 Cranked lever arm of 200mm length and 60mm journal length
 Tapered bearings having 50mm bore diameter
 Ball bearings having 30mm bore diameter
 Bearing housing of circular channel made by cast iron
 Thrust bearing
 Bolts of major diameter 10mm and 16mm.
The procedure begins by bending and welding simultaneously the angle iron at 1700mm
length and 800mm width in order to make the base frame.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 63 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

And then weld at each joint and a plate (support for the gripper) is weld on the inner side
of the base frame to the inside only. Then the two angle irons having 80mm length weld
to have a rectangular cross section and 100mm length of angle iron will be weld on top of
the welded angle iron of 80mm length. And the rectangular cross section will be weld on
the plate. With the same procedure for making a base frame the two side frames will be
made again. After these the two reinforcement links (80*10mm) will be weld on each
side of the two side frames and a circular plate will be weld on the reinforcement links
and counter bore of 10mm diameter. Then the structural steel channels will be cut at a
length of 2292mm and two angle irons (50*5) will be weld on each side of both channels.
Then make a key way for the flange coupling and a groove for the circlips on
each distance provided by the design and put the two tapered bearings each of 180mm
centroidal distance and put spacers of 5mm thickness between them. Put circlips on the
side of a bearing which doesn’t have a spacer and then put the housing on it. Then after
couple the flange to the shaft using a key and put a seal between the casing and the
flange. On the opposite side put the cover plate on the shaft and again put a seal between
them. Then fasten the cover and the housing using a bolt. Put a key on the shaft for the
worm gear and insert the worm gear on it and then put a circlips at the end of the worm
gear. Then hold all the assemblies of the housing, plate cover, worm gear and fasten with
the circular plate which is welded on the reinforcement link using the six bolts. Again
with the same procedure except that the worm gear and the shaft remain end with in the
casing, assembly on the other side will be done. And here the ball bearing will be
assembled on the bearing housing and the worm shaft will be put on it. And then a cover
will be put.
Then put a thrust bearing under the channel in one side for the two channels
for the front wheels which rotate in every direction and fasten the fixed rare wheels to the
channel with out thrust bearing. And then put a screw having a crabber on the channel for
fixing the stand to the ground. At last put the whole assembly of the bearing, shaft, and
housing to the angle iron which is already welded on the channel on both sides.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 64 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CHAPTER FIVE
FUTURE WORK
 This stand can be modified to fit for engine test, which is done after
overhauling, by applying vibration damping systems.
 This stand can be modified as universal inline engine for all inline
engines overhauled in SUR CONSTRUCTION

Samson T. & Serawit T. 65 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

CONCLUSION
In this project, the design of an engine stand for inline type engines, we conclude
that there are a number of engineering problems encountered in a certain engineering
institution. Major problem among is maintenance problem. We conclude that design of an
engine stand can be one solution for the maintenance problems.

RECOMMENDATION
From the general design analysis and results we get, we recommend that: whenever
there is a design of an engine stand, use a large factor of safety since the engine load is
high; when ever there is a requirement of large speed reduction use worm gears, a
universal engine stand can be made( for different engines); always work by locking the
worm gear; always lubricate the worm gear; always position the wheels fixed during
working period and also we recommend that if this engine stand is manufactured, it will
largely decrease the maintenance time of the engine.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 66 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. (Material properties)

Ultimate strength Yield strength


Tension Tension Shear
Material (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)
STEEL
Structural (ASTM-36) 400 250 145
High strength low alloy
ASTM-A242 480 345 205
ASTM-A441 460 320
ASTM-A572 415 290
Quenched and tempered
ASTM-A514 760 690 380
Stainless, AISI 302
Cold rolled 860 520
Annealed 655 260 150

Table 2. (Standard External Circlips: To DIN 471 metric)

Circlips dimensions(mm) Groove dimensions(mm)


Shaft t D Cs b L h Fr G W n Fr
diameter(mm)
48 1.75 44.5 62.5 5.0 6.9 2.5 49.4 45.5 1.85 3.8 30.07

50 2.00 45.8 64.5 5.1 6.9 2.5 73.3 47.0 2.15 4.5 38.00
N.B For diameter 48 code number EXT 0480
For diameter 50 code number EXT 0500

Samson T. & Serawit T. 67 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Table 3 (Dimensions and load ratings for single row 0.2 series Deep groove and Angular
contact Ball bearings.)
(in mm) Shoulder Load Rating
diameter(mm) Deep groove Angular contact
Bore OD width fillet ds dh C Co C Co
diameter.(mm) radius

40 80 18 1 46 72 30.7 16.6 31.9 18.6


45 85 19 1 52 77 33.2 18.6 35.8 21.2
50 90 20 1 56 82 35.1 19.6 37.7 22.8
60 110 22 1.5 70 99 47.5 28 55.9 35.5

Table 4 (Tyson tapered roller bearings)


d B R D C r T
SERIES CONE bore WID. Max shaft CUP O.D wide ma housing Bearing
fillet radii fillet radius width
3700 3767 52.388 30.302 2.3 3720 93.264 23.812 3.3 30.162
3778 47.625 >> 6.4 3732 98.425 23.812 3.3 30.162
3778 47.625 >> 3.5
3780 50.800 >> 3.5
3782 44.450 >> 3.5
3783 44.450 >> 6.4
3795 50.800 >> 3.5

Samson T. & Serawit T. 68 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

Table 5 (Number of starts to be used on the worm for different velocity ratios)
Velocity 36 and 12 to 36 8 to 12 6 to 12 4 to 10
ratio(V.R) above
Number of starts
or threads on the Single Double Triple Quadruple Sextuple
worm(n= Tw)

Table 6 (Proportions of worm)


Particulars Single and double Triple and quadruple
threaded worms threaded worms
1 Normal pressure angle 14.50 200
2 Pitch circle diameter for worms integral 2.35Pc+10mm 2.35Pc+10mm
with the shaft.
3 Pitch circle diameter for worms bored to 2.4Pc+28mm 2.4Pc+28mm
fit over the shaft.
4 Maximum bore for the shaft. Pc+13.5mm Pc+13.5mm
5 Hub diameter. 1.66Pc+25mm 1.726Pc+25mm
6 Face length (Lw). Pc(4.5+0.02Tw) Pc(4.5+0.02Tw)
7 Depth of tooth (h). 0.686Pc 0.623Pc
8 Addendum (a) 0.318Pc 0.286Pc

Table7 (proportions of worm gear)


Particulars Single and double threads Triple and quadruple
threads
1 Nominal pressure angle() 14.50
2 Outside diameter(DOG) DG + 1.0135Pc
3 Throat diameter (DT) DG + 0.636Pc

Samson T. & Serawit T. 69 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

4 Face width (b) 2.38Pc+6.5mm


5 Radius of gear face (Rf) 0.882Pc+14mm
6 Radius of gear rim(Rr) 2.2Pc+14mm
Table 8 (load stress factor values)
Material for worm Material for worm gear Load stress factor(k)
MPa
1 Steel (BHN 250) Phosphor bronze 0.415
2 Hardened steel Cast iron 0.345
3 Hardened steel Phosphor bronze 0.550
4 Hardened steel Chilled Phosphor bronze 0.830
5 Hardened steel Antimony bronze 0.830
6 Cast iron Phosphor bronze 1.035

Table 9 (recommended values of lead angle and pressure angle)


Lead angle ( ) in degrees 0 - 16 16 – 25 25 - 35 35 - 45
Pressure angle() in degrees 14.5 20 25 30

Table 10(factors X and Y for roller bearings)


Bearing type Single row
X Y
Radial ball bearing 0.6 0.5
Angular contact ball bearing
Contact angle= 200 0.6 0.42
=300 0.5 0.33
=400 0.5 0.26
Tapered roller bearing 0.5 0.22cot
Thrust bearing 2.3tan 1

Samson T. & Serawit T. 70 MU/FST/DME/1999


Design of Engine stand for inline type engines. Final year project.

REFERENCES
1. F.Beer - E.Russel Johnston, Mechanics of materials, Metric Edition, Mc Graw-
Hill, 1992, Singapore.
2. Internet
3. J.E Shigley- Ch.R.Mischke, Mechanical Engineering Design, Mc Graw-Hill
international Edition, 1989, Singapore.
4. J.E Shigley- Ch.R.Mischke, standard handbook of machine design, second
edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 1996, New York
5. J.M. Dominguez- M.G/Sellasie, Teaching Material on Machine Design, Mekelle
University, 2003, Mekelle
6. M.F. SPOTTS- T.E. SHOUP-L.E.HORNBERGER, Design of machine elements,
Eighth edition, PEARSON Prentice Hall, 2004
7. P.N. RAO, Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 1998
New Delhi
8. R.Juvinal - K. Marshek, Fundamentals of Machine Components Design, Third
Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2000, New York.
9. R.S Khurmi-J.K. Gupta, A Text Book Of Machine design .
10. S S Bhavikatti, Strength of Materials, Second Revised Edition, Vikas Publishing
House, 2003, New Delhi.

Samson T. & Serawit T. 71 MU/FST/DME/1999