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University of Engineering and Technology Lahore,

Faisalabad Campus
What is writing?
Writing is the process of using symbols (letters of the alphabet, punctuation and
spaces) to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form.
Also,Writing is a method of representing language in visual or tactile form.
Explaining further, Writing is a form of communication that allows students to put their
feelings and ideas on paper, to organize their knowledge and beliefs into convincing
“Writing is utter solitude, the descent into the cold abyss of oneself.”
(Franz Kafka, novelist)
Writing is not in this form as we can see now-a-days, but it was develop day by day.
There are 6 basic development stages of writing
 Scribbling
 Letter-like Symbols
 Strings of letters
 Consonant Represent Words
 Transitional Phrases
 Standard Spelling

In this stage random marks on the paper were made. These marks resemble drawing
Letter-like Symbols:
In the second stage, attempt to make some letters was made and Letter like and number-like
symbols are scattered throughout the page.

Strings of letters:
Capital letters were used in this stage. Some legible letters were also written
Consonants represent word:
In the 4th stage, people got familiar with spaces and punctuation
Transitional Phrases:
During this stage, beginning to understand root words, compound words and
Standard Spelling:
Final form to language was given.
Types of Writing Systems:
 Phonetic
 Alphabetic
 Pictographic
 Symbolic
 Ideographic

Ideograms or ideographs are symbols
which graphically represent abstract
ideas. The image below shows a number
of ideographic Chinese characters.

Pictograms or pictographs resemble the things they represent.
Logograms are symbols that represent parts of words or whole

Alphabets, or phonemic alphabets, are sets of letters that represent consonants and vowels.
Phonetic writing systems allow their users to record precise sequences of sound.
Symbolic system use a single symbol for an entire word.

Purpose of writing:
There are three basic purposes of writing.
The first and most important one is persuade. The author tries to get to do something or
believe what he is saying.
Second one is to inform reader. The author tries you information about a certain topic.
The third one, entertain, is not so important because sometime we have to face a bitter reality
that’s not entertaining.
Technical Writing
“Technical writing is the type of writing where the author is writing about a particular subject
that requires direction, instruction or explanation.”
1. Clarity
2. Comprehensive
3. Consistency
4. Coherent
5. Correctness
6. Conciseness

1. Clarity:

If u must abbreviate, define the term in its first occurrence and put
abbreviations in parentheses.
Some might call this ability to say less and offer more: brevity
with clarity. Say what you mean and only what you mean, keeping
the reader in mind, and avoiding unnecessarily complicated words.
 Standard Pressure and Volume (STP).

(STP) makes it clear.

2. Comprehensive:

A comprehensive technical document have all the necessary information in it. Readers who
must act on a document need to be able to apply the information efficiently and effectively.
When writing technically, all the information should be provided, its background must be
described and clear description of any process, or method of carrying out a specific work,
should also be given. It also includes results, conclusions and recommendations.

3. Consistency:

Consistency is formatting the document properly.

 Use Times Roman typeface.
 Maintain 2 point font size.
4. Coherence:

Coherence in writing is the logical bridge between words,

sentences, and paragraphs. Coherent writing uses devices to
connect ideas within each sentence and paragraph. Main ideas
and meaning can be difficult for the reader to follow if the
writing lacks coherence.
 To contrast
 Finally
 In addition

5. Correctness:

“Expressing oneself in the fewest number of words at the same time retaining completeness
in meaning.”
Good technical report must also be correct. It. must be free from grammatical errors,
punctuation mistakes, and should have appropriate format standard.

 Use end rather than terminate.
 Use soon rather than presently.
6. Conciseness:

Correctness in technical writing is the use of proper grammar punctuation and spelling.
a) Only Ali secured two Goals.

b) Two goals were secured by Ali only.

c) Ali secured two goals only.

d) Two goals only secured by Ali.

C is correct.
Technical Writing Process:

• Identify the audience

• Determine the objective

• Gather information
• Organize data

• Edit, revise and finalize

First you have to identify the audience that what are the requirements of your audience. What
they want from you? Then according to their choice you have to determine the objective.
Choose a powerful objective. On the basis of objective gather information from all the
sources u have either it’s an article or internet. After gathering information organize that
information. When the document is completed revise it and in last approve it.

Purpose of Technical Writing

• Give Information that leads to accomplishment of scientific tasks.

• Analyze events and their Implications.

• Persuade and Influence decisions.

The main purposeoftechnical writing is to provide sometimes complex information. This

is the type of writing that will: Assist a person with understanding more about a particular
item, such as a computer or a new drug or a new piece of technology.
Outputs of Technical Writing
1. Abstract:

An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, and review.

2. Graphic Aids:

It involves the use of pictures, videos, charts or internet material that relate to the subject.
3. Memorandum:

A written message in business or diplomacy.

4. Instructional Manual:

Instructional book or booklet that is supplied with almost all technologically advanced
consumer products such as vehicles, home appliances.
Non-Technical Writing
Any writing that expresses the free thinking falls into the category of nontechnical writing. It
is also known as creative writing. Any writing that goes outside the bounds of normal
professional, journalistic, academic, or technical forms of literature called nontechnical
writing. It presents the writer thoughts, feelings and emotions in an imaginative way instead
of presenting facts. Traditionally referred to as literature, non-Technical Writing is done in a
way that is not academic or technical but still attracts the audience.
 Discovery
 Lyrics
 Imagination
 rhythm
 character
 comedy
 sonnet
 dialogue
 story
 inspiration
 villain
 climax
 drama
 suspense
 mystery
 muse
 narrative
 craft
 plot
 journaling
 revising
 protagonist
 diabetic

The purpose of nontechnical writing is to entertain and share human experience like love and
loss. Writers attempt to get at the truth about humanity through poetic way. For nontechnical
writing just keep it in mind whether you are going to express a feeling or a thought the first
step is to just use your own imagination.
 Poetry
 Plays
 Movies and Television scripts
 Songs
 Speeches
 Fiction (Novels)
 Memories
 Personal Essays
 Short stories

Short story:-
A short story is a work of fictional prose with a few characters limited setting and a single
major event. A short story is meant to be read in a single sitting.
Elements of a short story:
1) Character

Characterization refers to a character’s personality or the method by which the writer

reveals this personality. There are two ways
Direct characterization: the writer tells you directly about the character
Indirect Characterization: the writer lets the reader learn about the characters through
dialogue, actions, their thoughts, or what other characters think about them.

It is the central idea or message that the story is trying to get across - must be discovered
by the reader - sometimes it is hidden so well that discussion is needed to find it - it can also
be called the ‘point to the story’

Defined as the time & place of a story’s action. Some stories contain a detailed description of
the setting if it is important to the story it is also the cultural background against which the
action takes place the customs, ideas, values, and beliefs of the society in which the story
occurs provide what might be called the cultural setting
Historical Setting: a story takes place in the past. The time and place of the story are those of
a significant event in history you need to know about the events of that time period to better
understand the story
Fictional Setting: a story that takes place in a make-believe place. Setting of a science
fiction story is usually the future. Using ideas from science or space travel, science fiction
writers may take you to places that do not now exist or that are currently beyond reach.
Where is the story set? It might be in ancient time or modern age or in a fantasy world. But
wherever it is does not matter it must be believable.

Every story has a main character does every story has a plot? The answer is not every
story but all the good one have them. Plot can be anything in the world it can be sad,
happy,serious, funny and realistic.

The angle from which the story is told.

Techniques used for nontechnical writing:-
 Metaphor
 Similes
 Figure of speech
 Imaginative language
 Emotions
 Description
 Point of view
 Dialogue
 Theme
 Vivid setting
 Character development
 Plot development

Nontechnical writing process:-

The writing process for nontechnical writing involved are:
1. Activate Knowledge
2. Take in information
3. Generate ideas
4. Organize / reorganize them
5. Publish

1) Imagination
The action of forming new ideas images or concepts of external objects not
present to the senses.

2) Creativity
Ability of a mind to be creative
3) Self-expression
The expression of one’s own feelings thoughts or ideas in writing and art.
4) Self-confidence
A feeling of trust on yourself without any doubt.
5) Communication
The exchanging of information by speaking writing or using some other medium.
6) Presentation skill
A speech or talk in which a new product idea or piece of work is shown and
explained to an audience.


Technical writing
Technical writing, a form of technical communication, is a style of writing used in fields as
diverse as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aerospace industry,
robotics, finance, consumer electronics and biotechnology. Technical writers explain
technology and related ideas to audience. This could mean, for example, telling a
programmer how to use software library or telling a consumer how to operate a television
remote control.
 Various kinds of technical reports
 Business letters
 Abstracts
 Graphic aids
 Proposals
 Memorandum
 Manuals
Non-Technical Writing
Non-Technical writing is an imaginative writing that goes outside the regular and defined
criteria of writing such as normal professional, journalistic, academic or technical forms of
Non-Technical Writing is also known as creative writing.
 Magazines
 Fictions
 Poetry
 Newspapers
We can compare technical writing with non-technical writing on the following basis:

 The purpose of writing:

The purpose of technical writing to entertain people while that of technical writing is
to convey information to readers
 The format used for writing:
In Technical Writing, we eliminate technical jargons and write in such a way that it is
understandable by laymen. We need to make sure the meaning of the original
technical word doesn’t change. Non-technical Writing doesn’t include or relate to
technical stuff. This covers a vast range like - essay writing, blogging etc.

 The language used for it:

The language used in technical writing should be easy to understand and cognitive.
 Precision in writing:
The idea we present in technical writing should be accurate, if your idea is wrong then
your device is also wrong.
 Intent of writing:
The technical writing should not evoke some intent, its only objective is to provide

Difference between Technical and Non-Technical Writings

 Technical writing is fact based while non-technical writing is fictional and
 Technical writing can be informative, instructional or persuasive, but the non-
technical writing is entertaining, provocative and captivating.
 Technical writing is clear, precise and straightforward while the other one is artistic,
figurative, symbolic or even vague.
 Technical writing has some objective i.e., it should be free from personal emotions
and it should involve only technical information while non-technical one is subjective.
 We use specialized vocabulary in technical writing while there is no need of it in non-
technical writing.
 Active vocabulary is used in technical writing while non-technical writing is written
in elaborated format.
 Technical writing is plain while non-technical writing has some transitions.
 Technical writing is easy to understand while the other one is cogitative.
 Technical writing demands simplicity while there is some mystery in non-technical
 Technical writing is free of emotions, precise and accurate while non-technical one
doesn’t contain such features.
Why there is a need of Technical Writing:
 In professional jobs our 20-40% time is consumed in dealing with writings and all of
these writings are technical.
 For expanding our knowledge (writing books, journal and research reports) technical
writing is required.
 Technical writings help is in improving communication skills.
 While designing a job profile versatility is required which is provided to it by writing
it in a technical manner.
Can Technical Writing be creative?
 Technical writing can be creative but here creativity means:
“Personal touch is being applied in writing style to engage reader rather
than to inform, although it can be both.”
 Core of Technical writing:
Core of technical writing is to persuade information. In some cases, reader
may get bored and find it overwhelmed. So, this is where creativity in
technical writing comes in.
 Our project should be properly planned.
 We should have a well idea to distinguish technical writing from non-technical

“Good writing is habit that takes time to

Develop; practice makes perfect.”