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QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN

ASPIRIN TABLETS BY BACK TITRATION

D.C. TAÑA
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: SEPTEMBER 23,
INSTRUCTOR’S NAME: GALLEPOSO, E.C.

1. Discuss the use of a more dilute NaOH 3. Discuss the principles behind the use of
solution for the standardization of back titration in the analysis of aspirin
NaOH. tablet.

Using a more dilute solution of NaOH Back titration is an analytical


for standardization would yield to more technique wherein a primary reactant of
accurate results as the probability of over unknown concentration is to be reacted in
titrating the solution would be far less due excess with another reactant. The solution
to the lower amount of moles being added; is then directly titrated to determine the
a sharper equivalence point would be amount of the second reactant in excess.2
observed as well. Using NaOH of higher
concentration would imply that a higher This method was performed in order
amount of moles would be added to the to determine the amount of acetylsalicylic
solution during titration and thus, it would acid due to the fact that aspirin hydrolyzes
be more difficult to identify its true at a slow rate, which makes it difficult to
molarity.1 determine the endpoint during titration.
Hence, adding a base in excess, ensuring
2. Explain the rationale behind the complete hydrolysis and then determining
dilution and aliquoting of the aspirin the unreacted base by titration with HCl
sample. would assure that the reaction proceeds to
completion.3, 4
Dilution and aliquoting was done for
the aspirin sample in order to speed up the 4. What is the importance of simmering
titration process as this would imply that a the tablet in the NaOH solution for 20
lesser amount of moles would be needed minutes?
to reach the equivalence point during
titration. Acetylsalicylic acid causes the
reaction between NaOH and aspirin to be
The diluting and aliquoting the relatively slow since it is a weak acid. By
aspirin sample would also result to a simmering the aspirin sample for the set
sharper endpoint, while assuring that only amount of time in the NaOH solution, it
excess base would react. Lastly, with this would have had undergone complete
being done prior to titration, interference hydrolysis.5
of other components within the aspirin
sample would be reduced. Apart from this, adding heat into the
system would increase the rate of reaction,

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thus making sure that only NaOH is left to [4]Libretexts.Hydrolysis.
be back-titrated.6 https://chem.libretexts.org/Textbook_M
aps/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry
5. Discuss the possible sources of errors _Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules
and their effects on calculated _(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/
parameters. Equilibria/Solubilty/Hydrolysis
(accessed Sep 26, 2018).
One possible source of personal error
is over titration during back titration,
[5] Determination of Aspirin using Back
which would result to using a greater Titration.
volume of hydrochloric acid and a lower http://mccord.cm.utexas.edu/courses/fa
calculated percentage of acetylsalicylic ll2004/ch455/aspirin.pdf
acid. (accessed Sep 26, 2018).

Incomplete hydrolysis could also be a [6] Determination of Aspirin in Tablets using


source of error as alkaline solutions have Back Titration.
tendencies to absorb carbon dioxide from https://www5.njit.edu/precollege/sites/
the atmosphere. Due to the lowering precollege/files/lcms/docs/RET_2010_A
concentration of solution, a lower volume spirin_in_Tablets_Lesson.pdf
of HCl would be used to titrate and a (accessed Sep 26, 2018).
higher percentage of acetylsalicylic acid
[7] University of Texas. Determination of
would be obtained. If the some of the
Aspirin Using Back Titration.
sample had dried out during the http://mccord.cm.utexas.edu/courses/fa
simmering process or if water vapor had ll2004/ch455/aspirin.pdf (accessed
escaped the beaker, this would September 26,2018)
subsequently lower the amount of
acetylsalicylic acid in the sample.

Other possible errors include that of


the uncertainties of the analytical balance,
burette, pipettes, and volumetric flasks
used throughout the experiment.6

REFERENCES
[1] Skoog, D.A.; West, D.M.; Holler, F.J.;
Crouch, S.R. Fundamentals of Analytical
Chemistry, 9th ed.; Brooks/Cole: USA,
2014.

[2] Stubbings, J. Back Titration or Indirect


TitrationTutorial.
https://www.ausetute.com.au/backtitrat
ion.html (accessed Sep 26, 2018).

[3] Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical


Analysis, 8th ed.; W. H. Freeman and
Company: New York, 2010.

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