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Mejia-Arangure JM, McNally RJ. Acute leukemia in children.

BioMed
Research International 2015, vol. 2015, Article Number: 787194

Copyright:

Copyright © 2015 Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré and Richard J. Q. McNally. This is an open access article
distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI link to article:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/787194

Date deposited:

22/05/2015

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Newcastle University ePrints - eprint.ncl.ac.uk


Hindawi Publishing Corporation
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 787194, 2 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/787194

Editorial
Acute Leukemia in Children

1 2
Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré and Richard J. Q. McNally
1
Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Pediatrics Hospital, National Medical Center “Century XXI”,

Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and Health Research Coordination, 06720 Mexico, DF, Mexico
2
Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK
Correspondence should be addressed to Juan Manuel Mej´ıa-Arangure;´ juan.mejiaa@imss.gob.mx

Received 1 April 2015; Accepted 1 April 2015

Copyright © 2015 J. M. Mej´ıa-Arangure´ and R. J. Q. McNally. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common From these articles it is clear that throughout the world
cancer during childhood. Nevertheless, in recent years there the survival of children with acute leukemia is a great
have been marked improvements in treatment and conse- concern, especially in less developed countries. It is very
quent survival. There are a number of patients that important to search for factors associated with treatment
experience relapses and patients that cannot be cured. In compliance in children and those factors that may be
this special issue different aspects relating to factors related to treatment response.
influencing the best response to treatment are described. M. The microenvironment in the leukemic bone marrow is
Czogała et al. showed that plasma ammonia concentration a very important factor in the etiology of acute leukemia.
reflexes L-asparaginase activity may be a useful tool for Recovery of the bone marrow during treatment is also very
assessing treatment in children with ALL. In another study important and further studies are needed to address this
A. Medina-Sanson et al. identified the importance of a important aspect.
genetic polymorphism of deoxycytidine kinase and cytidine The environmental etiology of acute leukemia is a chal-
deaminase in assessing the toxicity by cytarabine in lenge that still has not been resolved. To identify environ-
children with acute myeloid leukemia and found that this mental risk factors is not easy. It is important to identify
polymorphism might predict death in affected children. both the environmental risk factors and also the gene-
A. Vilchis-Ordonez˜ et al. addressed a very interesting environment interactions that increase the susceptibility to
topic about subpopulations of leukemic cells that contribute to development of leukemia.
a proinflammatory microenvironment within B-ALL bone The presentation of acute kinds of leukemia in Hispanic
marrow that may cause a delay in the normal hematopoiesis. children is different from other populations; notably
Two studies assessed the participation of environmental clinical features, the age incidence peak, and molecular
risk factors in the development of acute leukemia. A. factors are different.
Morales-Sanchez´ et al. did not find that EBV, HCMV, In this special issue the complexity of the molecular and
HHV6, and HHV7 were related to the development of clinical epidemiology of acute leukemia in children has been
ALL. Furthermore, J. D. Ferreira et al. did not show that shown. There are countries where success has been clearly
maternal alcohol con-sumption during pregnancy was demonstrated, but in other countries this is not apparent. T his
associated with leukemia in young children. disease kills more children in developed countries and some
Finally a study by V. C. Bekker-Mendez´ et al. demon- emerging economies. There is a need to strengthen the research
strated differences in the frequency of gene rearrangement groups that are working to identify the factors that affect the
between the Mexican population and populations from adherence to treatment and the response to treatment. However,
developed countries. there is also a need for integration with
2 BioMed Research International

those research groups that are working on the etiology of


leukemia, especially including epidemiology and cellular
and molecular biology.
We need to understand more about leukemia, in order to
be able to cure and prevent it. The challenge continues
because it is not a dream to think that one day almost all
kinds of leukemia in children could be cured and that one
day this disease could be prevented.
Juan Manuel Mej´ıa-Arangure´
Richard J. Q. McNally
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