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„ Most of polymers need to add with specific ingredients to obtain
desirable properties.

„ Additives were used:

… To improved or modify the mechanical, chemical, and physical
… To prevent degradation (both during fabrication and in service)
… To reduce materials costs
… To improve the processability

„ Each of the additives in formulation has specific functions either

during processing or end products applications

„ Typical
yp additives include
„ filler materials,
„ Plasticizer
„ stabilizers,
„ colorants
„ flame retardants.

¾Fillers normally add in polymeric

materials for economical or technical

¾Filler materials are most often added to

polymers to improve tensile and
compression strengths
strengths, abrasion
resistance, toughness, dimensional and
thermal stability and other properties.

„ Materials used as particulate fillers Æ include wood flour

(finely powdered sawdust), silica flour and sand, glass,
clay, talc, limestone, and even some synthetic polymers.

„ Particle sizes range all the way from 10 nm to

macroscopic i di

„ Because these inexpensive

p materials replace
p some
volume of the more expensive polymer, the cost of the
final product is reduced.

¾ Can be in liquid, half solid or solid form.

¾ It must be compatible with the polymeric
materials and other compounding ingredients Æ
p y will results in p
poor p
¾ Plasticizer were used for:
1. ‘extender’ (large amount >20 pphr)Æ to make the
end products cheaper
2. Processing aid (small amount 2-5 pphr)Æ to
make the processing easier

3. M difi Æ to
Modifier t modifies
difi some polymeric
l i
¾ The aid of additives called plasticizers can :
¾ improved the flexibility, ductility, and toughness

¾ produces reductions in hardness and stiffness

¾ lowers the glass transition temperature Æ at

ambient conditions the polymers may be used
in applications requiring some degree of
flexibility and ductility.

„ These applications include thin sheets or

films,, tubing,
g, raincoats,, and curtains.
„ Some polymeric materials under normal environmental
conditions Æare subject rapid deterioration in mechanical

„ Most often this deterioration is a result of exposure to light

Æ in particular ultraviolet radiation and oxidation
… Ultraviolet radiation Æ
„ causes a severance of some of the covalent bonds along the
l l chain
h i
„ also result in some crosslinking.

… Oxidation deterioration is a consequence of the chemical

interaction between oxygen atoms and the polymer

„ Additives that
Additi th t counteract
t t these
th d t i ti processes are
called stabilizers.
¾ Colorants impart a specific color to a polymer

¾ They may be added in the form of:

¾ dyes
„ The molecules
Th l l iin a d
dye actually
t ll didissolve
l and
dbbecome partt
of the molecular structure of the polymer.

¾ pigments
„ Pigments are filler materials that do not dissolve Æ but
remain as a separate phase;

„ have a small particle size, are transparent, and have a

refractive index near to that of the parent polymer.

„ Others may impart opacity as well as color to the polymer.

Flame retardants

™ The flammability of polymeric materials is a major concern,

especially in the manufacture of textiles and children's toys.

™ Most polymers are flammable in their pure form Æ exceptions

include those containing significant contents of chlorine and/or
fluorine such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

™ The flammability
y resistance of the remaining g combustible
polymers enhanced by additives called flame retardants.

™ These retardants may function by

… interfering with the combustion process through the gas
phase, or
… by initiating a chemical reaction that causes a cooling of the
combustion region and a termination of burning.
p purpose
p p additives
Additives Function
Blowing agents Gas generating chemicals that are necessary for
manufacturing sponge or micro porous products
Odorants Strongly scented substances added in small amounts
that are capable of imparting a pleasant scent
Antistatic agents Added to reduce the accumulated of dust or dirt on
surface and also to minimize possibility of sparking
resulting from the discharge of accumulated static
Retarders Substances that used to reduce the tendency of
rubber mix to scorch Æ avoid premature
vulcanization during processing
Antioxidants Protects products from oxidation of heat

Antiflex cracking Agents that retard cracking caused by cyclic

Example of the exams question

„ What is the function of additives in

polymeric materials?

„ Discuss the used of fillers as one of

l compounding
di iingredients.
di t

ƒ Coating are frequently applied to the surface

of materials to serve one or more of the
following function:

1. to protect the item from the environment

that may produce corrosive or deteriorative

2. to improve
p o e tthe
e item's
te s appea
a ce

3. to provide electrical insulation.

ƒ Many
a yoof the
e ingredients
g ed e s in coa
materials are polymers Æ with majority
are organic
g in origin

ƒ These organic coatings fall into several

different classifications:
ƒ paint,
ƒ varnish,
ƒ enamel,l
ƒ lacquer, and
ƒ shellac :

ƒ An adhesive Æ substance used to join

together the surfaces of two solid material
(termed "adherends") to produce a joint with
a high
hi h shear
h strength

ƒ Adhesives may come from either natural or

synthetic sources.

ƒ Some modern adhesives Æare extremely

strong, and becoming increasingly important
in modern construction and industry
ƒ Polymeric materials that fall within the
classifications of thermoplastics, them setting
resins, elastomeric compounds, and natural
adhesives (animal glue,
glue cast starch,
starch and resin)
may serve adhesive functions.
ƒ Polymer adhesives may be used to join a large
variety of material combinations: metal-metal,
metal-plastic, metal-ceramic, and so on.
ƒ The primary drawback is the service
temperature limitation.
ƒ Organic polymers maintain their mechanical
integrity only at relatively low temperatures,
and strength decreases rapidly with increasing
Some categories
g off adhesives
„ Natural adhesives
… Adhesives based on vegetable (natural resin), food (animal hide and
), and mineral sources ((inorganic
skin), g materials).
„ Synthetic adhesives
… Adhesives based on elastomers, thermoplastic, and thermosetting
„ Drying adhesives
… These adhesives are a mixture of ingredients Æ polymer dissolved in a
solvent e.g. glues and rubber cements
… As the solvent evaporates Æ the adhesive hardens and they will adhere
to different materials to greater or lesser degrees.
… These adhesives are typically weak and are used for household
applications. Some intended for small children are now made non-toxic.
„ Hot adhesives (thermoplastic adhesives)
… Also known as "hot melt" adhesives
… theyy are applied
pp hot and simply
p y allowed to harden as theyy cool.
… These adhesives have become popular for crafts because of their ease
of use and the wide range of common materials to which they can
Adhesives ffailure
„ Adhesives may fail in one of two ways:
1. Adhesive failure is the failure of the adhesive to stick or bond with
the material to be adhered (also known as the substrate or
2. Cohesive failure is structural failure of the adhesive. Adhesive
remains on both substrate surfaces, but the two items separate.
„ Two substrates can also separate through structural failure of one of
the substrates Æ
… this is not a failure of the adhesive. In this case the adhesive remains
intact and is still bonded to one substrate and the remnants of the other.
„ For example,
p ,
… when one removes a price label, adhesive usually remains on the label
and the surface Æ this is cohesive failure.
„ If, however, a layer of paper remains stuck to the surface Æ the
adhesive has not failed.
… when someone tries to pull apart oreo cookies with the filling all on one
side. The goal is an adhesive failure, rather than a cohesive failure.

ƒ Polymeric materials have found widespread use the

form of thin films.
ƒ Films having thicknesses between 0.001-0.0005 in
(0.025 -0.125 mm)
ƒ Used extensively as
ƒ bags for packaging food products and other merchandise,
ƒ as textile products
products, and a host of other uses

ƒ Important characteristics of the materials produced and

used as films include:
ƒ Low density,
ƒ high degree of flexibility,
ƒ high tensile and tear strengths
ƒ resistance attack by moisture and other chemicals,
ƒ low permeability to some gases, especially water vapor.
ƒ Some of the polymers that meet these criteria and are
manufactured in film form are:
ƒ polyethylene,
ƒ polypropylene,
ƒ cellophane and
ƒ cellulose etate.

ƒ There are several forming methods:

ƒ simply extruded through a thin die slit Æfollowed by a rolling
operation that serves to reduce thickness and improve strength.
ƒ Blown mouldingÆ
ƒ continuous tubing is extruded through an annular die; and
maintaining a controlled positive gas pressure inside the
ƒ wall thickness may be continuously reduced( to produce a
thin cylindrical film, which may be cut and laid flat.
ƒ Some of the newer films Æ p
produce using
g co extrusion that is,,
multi layers of more than one polymer type are extruded

ƒ Very porous plastic materials Æ produced in a

process called foaming
p g
ƒ Both thermoplastic and thermosetting materials
mayy be foamed byy Æ including
g in the batch a
blowing agent
ƒ upon heating Ædecomposes with the liberation of a
ƒ gas bubbles are generated throughout the now-fluid
mass Æremain as pores up cooling and give rise to
a sponge-like structure.
ƒ The same effect is produced bubbling an inert
gas through a material while it is in a molten
ƒ Some of commonly foamed polymers are :
ƒ polyurethane,
ƒ rubber,
ƒ polystyrene, and
ƒ polyvinyl chloride.

ƒ Foams are commonly used as:

ƒ cushions in automobiles and furniture
ƒ in packaging and
ƒ thermal insulation.
p off the exams question

„ Discuss two of the various applications of

polymeric materials.

„ What are the polymer characteristic to

produced a film?