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Cell cycle

Mitosis

Phase Description
Prophase 1. Chromosomes condense and become shorter and
thicker.
2. Each chromosome can be seen to consist of 2
sister chromatids joined at the centromere.
3. Spindle fibres begin to form
4. Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear at
the end of prophase.

Metaphase 1. All the chromosomes line up along the equator of


the cell with centromeres attached to the spindle
fibres which are now completely formed.

Anaphase 1. The centromere of each chromosomes divides


into two.
2. Spindle fibres contracts and pull the chromatids
apart.
3. Sister chromatids of each chromosome separate
and are pulled to the opposite pole of the cell.

Telophase 1. Separated chromatids reach the respective poles


and will become daughter chromosomes.
2. The daughter chromosomes start to uncoil and
revert to their thin and extended state
(chromatin)
3. Spindle fibre disintegrate
4. New nuclear membrane forms around each set of
chromosomes.
5. Nucleolus reappears in each daughter nucleus.
Cytokinesis  In animal cell, the constriction of the
plasma membrane at the cell equator.
 The cell breaks at the constricted region
and two diploid(2n) daughter cells are
formed.
 In plant cell, a cell plate is formed at the
equator and enlarges to form a
continuous barrier.
 Cell wall divides the cell into 2 diploid(2n)
daughter cell.

Meiosis (in plant cell, there is NO centriole but spindle fibres are still formed)

Prophase I  Chromosomes condense and become shorter


and thicker.
 Each chromosome can be seen to consist of 2
sister chromatids joined at the centromere.
 Pairing of homologous chromosomes
takes place (called synapsis) to form a
bivalent and chromatids of homologous
chromosomes criss-cross at points called
chiasmata.
 Crossing over takes place at chiasmata
and there is exchange of genetic material
between 2 non-sister chromatids
 Spindle fibres begin to form.
 Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear
at the end of prophase I.
Metaphase I  All the paired homologous chromosomes line
up along the equator of the cells with
centromeres attached to the spindle fibre.
Anaphase I  Paired homologous chromosomes separate and
are pulled to the opposite poles of the cell.
 Each chromosome which is made up of 2 sister
chromatids moves to the opposite.
Telophase I  The chromosome reaches the poles of the cell.
 New nuclear membrane forms around each set
of chromosomes.
 Nucleolus reappears in each daughter nuclear.
 Cytokinesis occur forming 2 haploid daughter
cells.
Prophase II  Chromosomes condense and become shorter
and thicker.
 Each chromosome can be seen to consist of 2
sister chromatids joined at the centromere.
 Spindle fibres begin to form again
 Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear at
the end of prophase II.
Metaphase II  Chromosomes line up along the equator of the
cell with the centromeres attached to the
spindle fibres.
Anaphase II  The sister chromatids of each chromosome
separate and are pulled to the opposite poles
of the cells.
Telophase II  The separated chromatids reach the poles,
become fine and extended and are called
chromatins.
 New nuclear membrane forms around each set
of chromatids.
 Nucleolus reappears in each daughter nuclear.
 Cytokinesis occur forming 4 haploid daughter
cells (gametes).