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Module Code : CT100-3-2-SWIT

Intake Code : UC2F1708IT(NC)


Lecturer Name : QUSAY SABAH ISHAQ
Hand in Date : 14th May 2018

Student ID Student Name


TP042816 Abdurraouf Fathi Ali
TP047430 Beh Wei Xiang
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Marking scheme:

Group Component (40%): Weightage Marks

Overall recommendations 20% /20


Documentation 10 % /10
Overall presentations layout 10% /10
and teamwork
Individual Component (60%):

Citation and referencing 10 %


Research and Investigation 15 %
Presentation 20 %
Critical Analysis 15 %
TOTAL 100 % /100

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Workload Matrix:

Task Abdurraouf Fathi Beh Wei Xiang


(TP042816) (TP047430)
Introduction 100%

Why VLAN? 100%

Floor plan for the company 100%

Switched network plan/layout for the 100%


company

Recommended VLAN Membership. 100%

Recommended Type of Switch. 100%

Common issues in VLAN. 100%

Importance of Spanning Tree Algorithm 100%


(STA) to solve issues in VLAN.

Common area to be managed in VLAN. 100%

Recommended Network Management Tools 100%


in managing VLAN.

Recommended WAN Switching Technology. 100%

Conclusion 100%

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Contents
1. Introduction: ......................................................................................................................................... 5
2. Why is VLAN? ........................................................................................................................................ 5
3. Floor plan for the company (before switched and VLAN network implementation): .......................... 7
4.Switched network plan/layout for the company (after switched and VLAN network implementation): . 8
5.VLAN membership: .................................................................................................................................. 14
6.Recommended Type of Switch and Cable: .............................................................................................. 17
7.Importance of Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) to solve issues in VLAN: ................................................. 20
8. Common area to be managed in VLAN: .................................................................................................. 21
9. Recommended Network Management Tools in managing VLAN: ..................................................... 25
10. Common issues in VLAN: ...................................................................................................................... 28
11. Recommended WAN Switching Technology:.................................................................................. 31
12. Simulation of the designed network and justification: ................................................................... 35
13. Conclusion: ...................................................................................................................................... 36
14. Appendices:..................................................................................................................................... 38
14.1 Individual referenced essay: ....................................................................................................... 38
14.2 Minutes of meeting:........................................................................................................................ 41
14.2 Gantt chart: ................................................................................................................................. 47
15. References: ..................................................................................................................................... 48

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1. Introduction:

Cyber Petronet Limited Company (CPLC) has assigned out team as a network consultant since
they are moving into a new building; each floor has different departments. Ground floor has
Business and Marketing Department; First floor has Telecommunication Department; Second
floor has Network Call Centre (NCC); Third floor has Network Operation Department; and fourth
floor is Managing Department. The plan is to organize the Local Area Network neatly, with each
floor has its own switches where some of the groups on ground floor are connected through
switches and its network is planned for future growth.

However, the company grows faster and changed compared to initial plan. Some of the
Telecommunication Departments’ and Network Operation departments’ employees has moved
offsite, where they not particular working in office. So, the NCC must be expanded to increase the
productivity of the company. Even the space has compressed, the communities of interest has not
change, and they will still need to communicate to the same service.

In this proposal, we have carried out a document to analyze and recommend how VLAN
concept can be implanted in the company in which bandwidth is not wasted and the network is not
overloaded with packets and members of the same VLAN can be located in different part of the
building and still communicate with each other. Some additional recommendation is proposed to
come up with an efficient network design and satisfy the company’s goals.

2. Why is VLAN?

A virtual LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of devices on one or more LANs that are
configured to communicate as if they were connected in the same wire, yet, they are located on
many different LAN segments, because LAN are more on logical than physical connections. The
advantage of using LAN in a large organization is to help the administration easily manage the
network, confinement of domains, reduced broadcast traffic, and enforce the security policies. It
also enables the logical grouping of workstation that are physically scattered in a network.

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Deploying VLANs in CPLC company can carry out many advantages that help the business
process and aid to achieve their business goals as their business is expanding rapidly.

In terms of performance in CPLC network where traffic consists of high level of broadcast and
multicasts in the old design, VLAN can reduce the need to send traffic to unwanted destination.
Also, compared switches, routers require more processing of incoming traffic. As the number of
traffic passing through the routers increases, the latency of the router increases, which can reduce
the performance. (Varadarajan, 2018)

Next, it is common that workgroups are formed in a short period of time in an organization.
During this period, communication between members of workgroup will be high. With VLANs, it
is easier to place the member together without physically move them closer together. However, it
does not form without a problem. Example, where the managing department in fourth floor and
Network Call Center department in second floor, and there is a printer located in second floor, this
will be inconvenient to user in fourth floor.

Moreover, the network cost of CPLC stake holders is decreased in which adding, moving and
change of user in the network. Whenever a user has move into the network, re cabling, station
addressing and reconfiguration of routers are necessary. But some of the task can be simplified
when using VLAN. If the user in the managing department has mode into a VLAN, reconfiguration
of routers is not needed. Depends on the type of VLAN, the work for administrative can be reduced
or eliminated, Other than that, VLAN can create broadcast domains which can reduced the number
of router use in the network.

In security, the sensitive data may broadcast in the network between the five department in
CPLC company. In such situation, VLANs comes to help, with placing only the users who can
access the data in a VLAN can reduced the chances of outsiders accessing the data. VLANs can
also control the broadcast domains, setup access list, firewalls, restrict access. (Varadarajan, 2018)

Beside all of the that, in CPLC company, each of the department will have their own VLAN
to make sure the data go to the right place. Example, the Network Call Centre has in a same VLAN
with the Telecommunication Centre, to make them easy to communicate without any traffic
congestion. It also saves the time for network administrator to manage the network in the company.
It also easy to determine which computer has problem when they connected in the VLAN network.

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3. Floor plan for the company (before switched and VLAN network
implementation):

CPLC has 5 departments before they shifted to the new building. In the initial plan, the
company was designed as one floor office that has all the departments. Each department has one
room. The network was designed to use Cat6 cables to connect all the devices and the main switch
is located in the Rack Room. The office has around 17 PCs in total without the printers and other
devices. Yet, the company grows faster than they have expected, so a new design to the network
with implantation of VLAN is needed. As shown in the next figure, all departments are connected
in one broadcast domain and most of the bandwidth is consumed in not an efficient way. In
addition, the security implantation is too poor as all department can comminute with each other
without any restrictions. Next diagram shows the network design before they shifted in details.

Figure shows how CPLC was before shifting to new building (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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4.Switched network plan/layout for the company (after switched and VLAN network
implementation):
CPLC has shifted into a new building as their business is expanding and growing too fast.
Overall, the company has five different departments and each one of them is in different floor with
its own switch and devices. However, some of the departments have shifted offsite their original
location, so some floors will be shared between them, yet, the same users of department still need
to communicate with the same services regardless of their location. The following diagrams
describes the design for each floor and how VLAN is implemented so the network is not flooded
with packets as required, and members of the same VLAN can be located in different part of the
building. Moreover, the network should be segmented into different broadcast domains to avoid
bandwidth consumption. The new building is assumed to have around 75 employees in all
departments with 7 rooms in each floor.

4.1 The fourth Floor:

This floor is allocated to the Managing Department. The floor consists of 6 rooms includes the
Rack Room. Each room has several PCs that are all connected to a switch in the rack. The fourth
floor which entirely assigned to the managing department is given a VLAN 10 so all devices that
are considered to be in this department can communicate with each other.

Figure shows how the fourth floor is planned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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4.2 The Third Floor:

The third floor is allocated for three different departments which are the Network Operation
with VLAN 20, Network Call Center with VLAN 30 and the Managing Department with VLAN
10. Each department can communicate with its related one only even though they are in the same
floor. All PCs are connected to a switch in the Rack Room where VLAN concept is used so only
the intended group can talk to each other. The following diagram shows how exactly the network
is designed in this floor.

Figure shows how the third floor is planned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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4.3 The Second Floor:

The second floor is allocated for the Network Call Center Department with VLAN 30 and the
Managing Department with VLAN 10. Most of the rooms in this floor are occupied by the Network
Call Center Department and only one room is for the Managing Department which will not be able
to communicate with the neighbor rooms as they are in different VLANs, yet, they can
communicate with other PCs in the same VLAN in the different floors such as the fourth floor.

Figure shows how the second floor is planned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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4.4 The First Floor:

The first floor is allocated for three different departments which are the Telecommunication
Department with VLAN 40, Network Call Center with VLAN 30 and the Managing Department
with VLAN 10. Three rooms are stated for the Telecommunication Department as it is the pre-
defined floor for the department. Even though the Managing Department is located in each floor,
they will not be able to communicate with the neighbor devices as they are in different VLANs,
however, they can communicate with other PCs in the same VLAN in the different floors.

Figure shows how the first floor is planned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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4.5 The Ground Floor:

Most of the ground floor is allocated for the Business and Marketing Department with VLAN
50. In addition, there is only one room allocated for the Managing Department with VLAN 10 as
it was required. All departments are connected through a switch in each floor so they can be
connected to the core one which is in this floor.

Figure shows how the ground floor is planned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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4.6 The Offsite of the building:

As the Network Call Center with VLAN 30 had expanded in the other floors, some of the
Telecommunications Department’s employees on the First Floor and Network Operations
Department’s employees on the Third Floor have shifted offsite, so more space has become
available for the other. However, the communication among the VLANs still available regardless
of the location. The following pictures shows how the off-site network has been designed. Since
the room is not far from the main Rack room of the building , a CAT 6 cable form the Rack Room
to the main Rack room of the building is used to connected them.

Figure shows how the off-site place is planned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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5.VLAN membership:
VLANs is a switched network method that divides our network into logical segments based on
function or group without the need to be in the same physical locations of the clients. Generally,
VLAN memberships can be classified into two types which are static VLANs and Dynamic
VLANs. While Static VLANs assigns each port in the switch to a specific VLANs manually,
dynamic VLANs allows the switch to assign VLANs automatically once the client is connected to
the switch (Cisco.com, 2015).

Figure shows the difference between Static and Dynamic memberships (Cisco.com, 2015)

1. Static VLANs:

Static VLANs or as it is known as port based VLANs are the most secure type of VLAN
memberships as only one VLAN can be assigned to a specific port manually by the network
administrator. Static VLAN membership is known as the most widely utilized strategy and VLANs
are assigned and associated with a pre-defined port till the admin changes it and other ports will
be denied even though they are plugged in the switch port. It is considered as a secure and easy to
configure type as only one IP address is assigned to the port which can access to the network.

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Moreover, Static VLANs have another solid point since network administrator can manage
where clients move inside the network and control access to the network resources and which
clients can utilize. Thus, as long as the ports are assigned to the same VLAN, they can
communicate and share information together (Firewall.cx, 2017).

An example of deploying static VLANs is where port 1 to 4 are allocated to the business
department VLAN and port 5 to 10 are allocated to the management VLAN. Once any device
connected to port 3, it will become a member of the business department and when a client needs
to modify port 3 to become on the management VLAN, network administrator needs to reconfigure
the port of the VLAN. Therefore, this process may be a hard to apply in large networks, yet, it is
more secure.

2. Dynamic VLANs:

The second type of VLAN membership is the dynamic VLANs which is used to provide the
adaptability and overcome the difficulty that Static VLANs did not give. This type of VLANs is
very uncommon as its many necessities and the administrative overhead as it is not based on the
port numbers method. A dynamic VLAN assigns VLAN automatically based on the device MAC
address or protocols by utilizing intelligent management software in a central server called VLAN
Member Policy Server (VMPS) which manages each port configuration of each switch on the
VLAN network. The VMPS server has a database of all devices MAC addresses, alongside with
its related VLAN that associates with and that basically maps a VLAN-to-MAC address
(Firewall.cx, 2017).

This type of memberships is effective and supported by most of the vendors, yet, it has some
limits and downtimes such as it does not give a full security features and each device connected to
the same port needs to be added in the VMPS server to be a part of the same VLAN, or else the
port will be in shut down statue as the security protection. If any client’s device is connected into
the switch, the VMPS database is used to determine that user and allow them to be in the VLAN
despite the port location as long as it is on the pre-defined VLAN.

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Recommendation:

Each type of VLAN membership has its own mechanism, features as well as some
disadvantages. From the previous discussion, we recommend CPLC Company to use Static
VLANs as it is suited for the company size and its number of VLANs. CPLC has five departments
that need to be divided logically using VLAN concept. Each department such as
telecommunication will have a separate broadcast domain and that will ensure the communication
security among end users, so only devices that are in the same VLAN can communicate together.
In addition, CPLC is considered as a medium size company with around 75 employees separated
among departments. Thus, using Static VLAN over the other types will help the company to
achieve the pre-intend purpose. Static VLAN provides high level of security as each port is
assigned to a specific VLAN and no other VLANs can be connected to it expect the defined and
intend one. Moreover, if a port is supposed to be in Telecommunication VLAN and another device
is plugged in, the port will be in shutdown status as it is considered as an illegal activity. To add
on that, assigning ports to VLAN will not be a big issue as the company size and that will reduce
the overhead as assigning VLAN will happen one time by the network administrator and if the
company continues to grow, more ports can be assigned easily it is a simple process and
configuration compared to the complex procedures of implementing Dynamic VLANs either using
MAC address, IP or protocols. Below is an example of how Static VLAN should be assigned in
the CPLC network.

Figure shows how VLANs are statically assigned (Abdurraouf, 2018)

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6.Recommended Type of Switch and Cable:

6.1 Layer 3 Switch:


Layer 3 switch works in OSI layer 3 which is the Network Layer. It is specialized hardware
device that used for network routing. It has a lot common features with traditional switch not just
the appearance. It can support routing protocols, examine incoming packets and create dynamic
routing based on source and destination addresses. It has less latency because packets no need to
go through an additional step through a router. The reason for using layer 3 switch is to increase
the network routing performance in an organization which has a large scale of local area network
(LAN). There is also benefits for using layer 3 switch in the VLANs, which is, reduce the amount
of broadcast traffic, improve fault isolation and simplified security management (Mitchell, 2018).
It works well in VLAN because it contains DHCP supports by automatically assigning IP address
to the devices within a VLAN. There is also limitation in layer 3 switch, it cost more than a
traditional switch. The features in layer 3 switch are limited to intranet environment which has a
large scale of device subnets and traffic. It is not good to use in home network because it is costly,
it also lacks WAN function, and it is not a replacement for routers.

Figure shows how layer 3 switches are used (Cisco Meraki, 2017)

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6.2 Layer 2 Switch

Layer 2 switch works on layer 2 in the OSI layer which is data link layer. It uses devices’ MAC
address to segment a network. Switch and bridge are used in layer 2 switching to break a large
collision domain into smaller one. It directs the MAC address from the source port to destination
port. It ensures the multiple switching in the switch can be active at the same time. In VLAN,
MAC broadcast is restricted to VLAN where the stations are already configured. It works well
where the configuration of port and MAC addresses involve in VLANs. There are two ways on
how layer 2 VLAN works, port based and MAC address-based. Port based means it point out the
frames that comes from a port belong to the same VLAN, where MAC address-based it use MAC
address to determine VLAN membership. (Sridhar, 1998) The benefits of using this switch is the
bandwidth, it provides excellent network performance to individual users by allocating fixed
bandwidth to the switch port. It also restricting the broadcast domain to VLAN member ports
before configuring it.

Figure shows how layer 2 switches work (Cisco Meraki, 2017)

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6.3 Cable:
Category 6:
Category 6 Ethernet cable is a sixth generation of twisted pair Ethernet cabling which use
in home or business network. It supports Gigabit Ethernet data rates of 1 gigabit per second.
(Mitchell, 2018). They can oblige 10 Gigabit Ethernet associations over restricted separation 164
feet for a single cable. Feline 6 cable contains four sets of copper wire and uses every one of the
sets for motioning keeping in mind the end goal to get its abnormal state of execution. The end of
cat 6 cable uses the same RJ-45 standard connector as previous generation of Ethernet cables.

Example of Cat6 Cable (Nexans, 2018)

Justification:

As for CPLC project, the best proposed switch that has all the functionality of deploying the
network is by using layer 2 switch. It is can be used for production purposed and data that going
through the local network, where the NCC and Network Operation Department can have done
their works without any delay in the network. Because layer 2 switch can be configured by
restricting access unnecessary MAC address to another station, this makes the file sharing system
safe because it only allows the designated ports to receive the senders’ data. Example, Business
and Marketing Department has some confidential data that need to send to Managing Department,
and this switch features comes in handy where it can be configured the specific ports that direct to
the receiver’s station port without any interrupt from other station. However, using layer 3 switches

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will not have a benefit in this time as no interVLAN routing is done and the company already has
routers to access the internet hence, even if the interVLAN needs to be implemented, the router
will be enough. The company also will be using category 6 cable in order to speed up the
transmission between the departments and connected them to the main switch. Using a good cable
increase the productivity of the company because they can do their work fast and accurate.

7.Importance of Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) to solve issues in VLAN:

Spanning Tree Algorithm is mean where a switch or bridge can eliminate loop in the network
topology. A loop occurs when the packets send from A to B on the same network through more
than one path. It means the destination station will receive more than one message from the sender.
This Algorithm uses 802.1D IEEE to detect loops and remove the loop by shutting down the
selected interface. This algorithm guaranteed there is only one active path between two network
devices. (Cisco, 2018) Example, if telecommunication department receives a call and have created
a case for the call, then the case will send to NCC to follow up. In the process of sending the case,
there may be an open port for a station. This will cause multiple case to send through the network
to the station. And this will cause confusion for the workers that who follow up the case. Because
they may more than one people who will follow up the case. This will slow down the productivity
of the company and cost amount of time.

Figure shows how STA works (SupportCisco., 2016)

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Justification:

It is important for the Spanning Tree Algorithm to solve the issues within the VLAN in
CPLC network. It eliminates the loops that occur in the network. This can prevent the slow
productivity of the company and save the time use by solving the loop problem. When a loop
occurs in the network, there may be no harm to the network, but it gives problem to the network
administrator and also the workers who need to be using the data that send within the network. If
the same data send multiple times to the same station, it may affect the performance of the network
for the station. Besides that, most of local area networks suffer from the huge load of the used
bandwidth which leads to a poor performance and STP is used to decrease the cause of this issue.
STP can change its algorithm in circumstances were the network is delayed to boost up the network
performance. STP establishes a root bridge which ensures that data is forwarded in a efficient way
when multiple paths are provided. STP aids the communication to be done smoothly and provides
a backup which will be used if the connection is lost.

8. Common area to be managed in VLAN:


One of the areas always be managed in VLAN is the security. The Managing Department does
not want its data to be visible on the same network as Business and Marketing Department. The
use of VLAN will be separate the two networks in order to prevent the shared of the data between
the two departments. VLAN can configured as it can be grouping the stations as two as or more
than that. This can help the department for keeping the data leaked to the other unnecessary
department, example NCC have cases want to pass to Network Operations Department, VLAN
can be configured as other department will not see the cases on the network. (Quora, 2018)

Next, VLAN also can help in administration simplification where the network security team
wants to apply some new policies on group level. Rather than apply the same policies on to every
device on every single port, the security policies can be applied on a specific VLAN. Example,
Managing Department does not want the data to be visible on the network as Business and
Marketing Department. So, the VLAN helps the administration easy to apply the security policy
into the group of devices which have already in a VLAN. When a policy has applied in a switch,
every device that connected the switch will be having the same policies. So, this can prevent

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misconfigured of policies for every devices and save the time of the network security team to do
the configuration. (Quora, 2018)

Moreover, VLAN also helps to manage fault domain isolation easily. When there is a device
become faulty when connected in a network and group in a VLAN, it is easy to isolate the device
from the network. VLAN can be configured as deny access of the faulty devices to network as it
could be infected with virus or others malware. Even when a device has suddenly detected faulty,
the network team no need to find out which device has problem. They can manage it by using
configuring VLAN to block the access of the devices by using IP address. This saves the time of
finding the problems and prevent the loss of the company. (Quora, 2018)

Lastly, VLAN helps a lot in the network. It groups the stations in two or more and it could
block the access of a device which is not necessary to the network. Also, it helps the department
to maintain the confidential of the data that passing through the network. Sender will send the data
to the receiver and will not visible to others.

Inter-VLAN routing is also one of the areas that need to be managed defined as a way to
forward the traffic between VLAN by implementing a router in the network. As we know, VLANs
segment the switch into different subnets and when a router connected to a switch, network
administrator can configure the router to forward the traffic between the VLANs that configured
in the switch. The nodes in the VLANs will then forward the traffic to router which will forward
the traffic to the destination network. (Firewall.cx, 2015)

The process of how it works is shown above (Firewall.cx, 2015).


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The destination will be PC B, PC A with the VLAN 20 tag, the data forward to the R1, the
router will change the format of the data from VLAN 20 to VLAN 30, it will pass through the
switch then the data will reach PC B. There are two ways to accomplished inter-VLAN routing:

- Traditional inter-VLAN Routing


- Router-on-a-stick

Traditional Inter-VLAN Routing:

In this inter-VLAN routing, a router normally connected to a switch using multiple interface.
One interface for one VLAN group. The interface of the router will then be configured as the
default gateway for the VLANs that configured in the switch. The ports from switch that connected
to the router are configured in access mode in their corresponding VLANs.

Whenever a node send message to another node that connected to a different VLAN, the
message moves from the node to the port that connects the router on the VLAN. When router
receives packet, it will determine the packet’s destination IP address and transmit it to the correct
network using the access port for the destination VLAN (Firewall.cx, 2015).

Figure shows how traditional intrtVlan is used (Firewall.cx, 2015)

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If PC A in VLAN 20, wanted to send a message to PC B in VLAN 30, the steps it would take are
shown below.

1. PC A would check whether the destination IPv4 address is in its VLAN if it is not, it would
need to forward the traffic to its default gateway which is the ip address on Fa0/0 on R1.
2. PC A then sends an ARP request to AS1 so as to determine the physical address of Fa0/0 on
R1. Once the router replies, PC A can send the frame to the router as a unicast message, since
AS1 has Fa0/0’s MAC address, it can forward the frame directly to R1.
3. When the router receives the frame, it compares the destination IP address by referring to its
routing table so as to know to which interface it should send the data towards the destination
node.
4. The router then sends an ARP request out the interface connected to the destination VLAN
in this case out Fa0/1, when the switch receives the message, it would flood it to its ports and
in this case, PC B would reply with its MAC address.
5. R1 would then use this information to frame the packet and finally send it to PC B as a unicast
frame.
Router-on-a-Stick:
This type of inter-VLAN routing is where router connected to the switch using single
interface. The switch port connecting to router using trunk link. This single interface on router in
configured with multiple IP address that correspond to the VLANs on the switch. The interface
will accept the traffic from all VLANs and determines the destination network based on the source
and destination IP in the packets which passing through the router. It will forward the packet to
the switch with correct VLAN information.

Figure shows how router on a stick is used (Firewall.cx, 2018)


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In this type of inter-VLAN routing, the interface connecting the router to the switch is usually a
trunk link. The router accepts traffic that is labeled from the VLANs on the switch through the
trunk link. On the router, the physical interface is separated into smaller interfaces called sub
interfaces. At the point when the router gets the labeled traffic, it forwards the traffic out to the sub
interface that has the destination IP address. Sub interfaces aren’t real interfaces but they use the
LAN physical interfaces on the router to forward data to various VLANs. Each sub interface is
configured with an IP address and assigned a VLAN based on the design.

9. Recommended Network Management Tools in managing VLAN:


There are many Network Management Tools in managing VLAN that are available to be used.
Only two are selected to compare and recommend the best one.

9.1 Solarwinds Network Performance Monitor:


Solarwinds Network Performance Monitor is a software which can discovers network devices
and deploy within an hour. It is customizable and the interface is easy to manage and change very
quickly. We can have customized the web-based performance dashboards, charts and views. It can
use to design a topology for the entire network infrastructure. It can also customized dependency-
aware intelligent alert and more. As for above, it can also reduce network outages and rapidly
detect, diagnose and resolve multi-vendor network performance issues with affordable.
(Solarwinds, 2018)

It consists of performance analysis dashboard which have already mention above. It accelerates
the identification of root cause by drag and drop network performance metrics into a common
timeline for visual correlation across all the network data. Next, it has an intelligent alerts where
it can reduce the flood of unnecessary network alerts. It can create alerts based on simple or
complex nested trigger conditions. (Solarwinds, 2018)

Moreover, it can have automated monitoring and management of Cisco ASA infrastructure to
help ensure the service availability. It monitors and manage the cisco ASA environment with
Network Insight for Cisco ASA. Gain visibility in to VPN tunnels, failover monitoring and
connection counts. Also, it can monitor the health and performance of all components of
application. Other than that, it can see the performance metrics for access point, wireless
controllers and clients. It can easily identify the dead zone and improve wireless coverage. It can
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show the heat map of the wireless coverage in order to identify the area of current access point can
cover. (Solarwinds, 2018)

A screenshot from the tool (Solarwinds, 2018).

9.2 Paessler PRTG:

PRTG Network Monitoring software known for its advanced infrastructure management
capabilities. All devices, systems, traffic, and applications in your network can be effectively
shown in a various levelled see that abridges execution and alarms. PRTG screens IT infrastructure
utilizing innovation, for example, SNMP, WMI, SSH, Flows/Packet Sniffing, HTTP asks for,
REST APIs, Pings, SQL and significantly more. (Paessler, 2018)

It filters network segments by pinging characterized IP ranges. Along these lines PRTG
will consequently perceive an extensive variety of gadgets and systems and make sensors from
predefined gadget templates. This spares you a great deal of setup work and you can begin
observing immediately. Moreover, PRTG maps allow to create web pages with exceptional

26
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

checking information in your coveted outline. You can even make maps with your checking
information openly accessible. (Paessler, 2018)

Last but not least, PRTG alerts you when it finds notices or uncommon measurements. With the
free Apps for Android, iOS, and Windows Phone can get push warnings specifically to the
telephone. You can undoubtedly setup warnings by means of email or SMS as per your
requirements. With the intense API you can even compose your own particular notice contents.
(Paessler, 2018)

A screenshot of the tool (Paessler, 2018)

Justification
For this company, we would suggest using Solarwinds Network Performance Monitor.
Because it has many departments which required the network to perform fluently. As Network
Operations Department required a good network in order to come out a good quality of service for
the company and also the customer. It also makes easy for network administrator to manage the
network device that locates around the building. When it comes to network, there will always be
a server to be connected. Some of the employees work at offsite, which will need the network for

27
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

their working. So it is important to have a good network management tools to manage the network
within the company.

10. Common issues in VLAN:


10.1 Native VLAN Mismatches:

This issue happens when a trunk port is configured with different native VLAN number. Native
VLAN is where any untagged traffic frames pass in your switch which has a native VLAN number
assigned to it also. If the native VLANs are different, a security risk and unintended results will be
posed. In addition, the native VLAN mismatch is challenging and sticky as it makes confusions
with traffic flow as untagged traffic moves between VLANs getting assigned to different VLANs
as the traffic flows and when any trunk ports are configured with different native VLANs, console
notification is shown and causes control and manage traffic to be misdirected (Academy, 2017).
For example, if Switch X has VLAN 22 for traffic without a tag on and Switch Y has a native
VLAN of 33, then traffic from one side of the network in VLAN 22 is transferred into VLAN 33.

Figure shows show Native VLAN mismatch happens (Harmoush, 2018)

10.2 Trunk Mode Mismatches:

Port trunk links are configured manually in switches with specific commands that are intended
to do that. The Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) is a protocol introduced by Cisco to negotiate
trunking on a link and its type of encapsulation. If a trunk port on a link is misconfigured with a
trunk mode that is mismatched with the other trunk port, trunk mode mismatches issue happens as

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

the trunk link cannot be formed between the two switches. For example, when a trunk port is
configured with trunk mode off and the other port with trunk mode on, the link fails. Below is an
example of the described situation (Academy, 2017).

Figure shows show how Trunk Mode Mismatch happens (Slideplayer.com, 2018)

10.3 Allowed VLANs on trunk:

When the existing VLAN trunking are not updated on the allowed VLANs list of on a trunk,
traffic will not be passed as it is missing. By default, all configured VLANs are allowed send traffic
in the link once the trunk link is initialed. Nevertheless, the allowed list might be removed some
VLAN traffic so that keeps from passing over the trunk link (Academy, 2017).

10.4 IP Addressing issues with VLAN:

This type of issue is one of the most common problems in VLAN and considered easy to be
solved once incorrect configuration of the IP is found and changed to the right one as all VLANs
need to have a unique IP address and subnet and if multiple devices are detected to have the
different subnet in the same VLAN, they will not be able to talk to each other. For example, if a
device is configured with an IP address of 192.168.20.2, but the VLAN is configured with subnet
29
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

of 192.16.20.2 then the addressing issue will happen. So, devices within the same VLAN must
have the same IP network to communicate (Academy, 2017).

10.5 Missing VLANs:

The last common issue in VLAN is the missing VLAN where the connection has not
established yet between devices in a VLAN and IP addresses are correct, so the port is missing the
correct VLAN or it has not been created yet in the database. The next figure shows how this issue
can be identified (Academy, 2017).

Figure shows how missing VLAN issue can be overcome (Academy, 2017).

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

11. Recommended WAN Switching Technology:

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is the process of exchange between networks and allow
communications that a moderately wide geographic zone and regularly utilizes transmission
facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies are
always at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model which are the physical layer, the data
link layer, and the network layer. Deploying Wide Area Network (WAN) infrastructures is one of
the most expensive assets that many enterprise corporates face in terms of cost of network.
Therefore, choosing the most suitable wide area resolution can be challenging especially with the
number of existing technologies (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016).

11.1 Point-to-Point Links:

This WAN technology is commonly known as Leased Lines as it interconnects different


network sites in wide geographical area by leasing dedicated lines between the nodes on the WAN.
HDLC and PPP encapsulations are examples of lease lines and they are simple to be configured
and provide a high quality. Leased lines are popular solution for many enterprises as it carries out
first-rate quality of service and decreases security support which reduces the costs. Yet. Installing
Point-to-Point Link is very expensive method of making a WAN infrastructure compared to shared
services since they are provided by third party and various enterprise networks are changing from
this technology to more cost-effective solutions (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016). Leased Lines provide
one and pre-recognized WAN infrastructures path from the client’s building over a carrier network
which will be leased from, such as a telephone company, to a remote network. The leased point is
estimated based on selected bandwidth option and the distance between the points and the carrier
network will assign pairs of wire and hardware to your leased line only and no one shares it with
you (Theregister.co.uk, 2018).

Figure shows how leased lines are used (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016).

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

11.2 Circuit Switching:

This type of WAN technology is the most flexible one as the connection between the networks
can be started whenever it is needed and ends when communication is over. It is a method in which
a dedicated physical circuit will be used with no additional fees charged when there is no
transmission. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is an example of circuit switching which
operates similar to the normal telephone line for the normal voice communication. For example,
if the router wants to send data for the remote site, both sites have to be connected and authenticated
then the circuit will start to transmit based on the circuit number of the remote network. Circuit
switching is considered as a low-cost solution compare to leased line. (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016).

Figure shows how Circuit Switching are used (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016).

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

11.3 Packet Switching:

Packet switching is a WAN technology that allows clients to use shared carrier resources and
allows the carrier to use its infrastructure in an efficient way, thus, the cost is very effective
compared with leased lines. Some examples of Packet Switching are Frame Relay and Switched
Multimegabit Data Services (SMDS). In this solution. Different users can share the carrier's
network so both networks can get connection into the carrier's network. This is done by creating
virtual connections called circuits between the client’s sites and sending the data from one site to
the other through the network and this section usually refers to as a cloud. Generally, the bandwidth
is shared among different enterprises to save the cost and dividing the packets to send it into
different routes even though several pairs communicate over the same channel. Packet Switching
configuration is complex and quite challenging, yet, it is the cheapest solution compared to a leased
line and others.

Figure shows how Circuit Switching are used (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016).

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Recommendation:

There are several ways to extend VLAN so they can be transported across the Wide Area
Network (WAN). One of the solutions is the EoMPLS which stands for Ethernet over Multi-
Protocol Label Switching. EoMPLS is used as a tunneling mechanism which sends Layer 2
Ethernet frames over an MPLS network so two Layer 2 switches can be connected even though
they are in different places as in CPLC case. The concept is same as any other MPLS Layer 2 VPN
service which is utilized to connect porin to point layer 2 circuit. Frames are sent though via MPLS
labels through an IP routed network and then they go in the switch’s port and give it to another
switch. EoMPLS can transport data on VLAN-based which allows the traffic to be sent. It can
transport various VLANs to different endpoint locations or combination and tie layer 2 and layer
3 activities on a port though sub interfaces using dot1q encapsulation. Therefore, EoMPLS is used
in situations where VLANs need to be in both building, yet, they far from each other using a routed
network in between. For example, when there is need of connecting VLAN 10 in Malaysia TO
VLAN 10 in Singapore, EoMPLS will take the frame that arrives in the port and sends it crossways
the central, and spits it out the paired port on the other end. In addition, the examination of MAC
address is not required as well as the learning of source MAC address and no switching logic is
applied. However, EoMPLS can be difficult to be maintained even though it is easy to configure
as the complex match between Layer 2 and layer 3. That makes troubleshooting more complicated,
overthrows the network structured design (NetCraftsmen, 2018). Below is an example of how
EoMPLS can applied in CPLC.

Figure shows how EoMPLS works (Gee, 2014).

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

12. Simulation of the designed network and justification:

As shown in the next diagram, the network consists of two buildings which are the old one and
the new one. The new building which is the in the right side consists of 5 floors and each floor has
its own switch and device. Overall, there are 5 departments that are various from one another.
Some of the floors such as the fourth one which was mainly used by Network Operation
department and it has been shared with another two departments which are the Managing and the
Network Call Center. Access switches are used in each floor then they are connected in one core
switch which is the central one and located in the ground floor in the Rack Room. In addition,
there is an off-site place in the new office which is occupied by the Network Operation Department
and the Telecommunication Department to overcome the issue in which the Network Call Center
Department had to expand in the fourth and second floors and make the network operation and
telecommunication departments allocated off-site.

Figure shows the proposed network simulation (Abdurraouf, 2018)

35
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Five different VLANs have been implemented in the new building that are separated in
different floors. That should reduce the bandwidth consumption and take the advantage of creating
logical division in the core switch instead of buying more switches. Different VLANs are not
allowed to communicate to each other, yet the same users who are in the same VLAN still can
communicate with the same services even though some VLANs are in different floors and not
connected to the access floor switch. However, allowing all VLANs to communicate together is
done using the concept of InterVLAN Routing which allows routing between different VLANs.
When communication between different VLANs is required, a device that can-do routing need to
be available. The device can either a router or layer 3 switch (Cisco.com, 2016). In the scenario,
the network access services are based on departments, not limited to location of the physical
switches, so the use of VLANs and Trunk concept is enough to carry out the network.

The concept of InterVLAN Routing can be used to on the scenario, however, it was required
that only same departments can communicate with each other and implementing it would allow
all different VLANs to talk, Thus, access control list which is added into VLAN interface will be
required so we can get control of the packet traffic between VLAN.

13. Conclusion:

To conclude, VLAN gives simpler administration and easier manage of the broadcast
domains. Using VLAN will decrease the traffic, and security arrangements. In addition, VLAN
empowers end-stations that are physically scattered on the network in a logical way, so when
clients shift to another physical area to do same capacity, the end stations require no addition
reconfigurations. In this assignment, we have carried out a documentation to analyze, evaluate,
explain and recommend for how a Virtual LAN (VLAN) could be implemented so that
bandwidth is not consumed in CPLC network as their business is expanding. Yet, the same
users in department can only communicate together. Justification was added in each section
which recommend the technology that need to be used. A floor plan for the old building as
well as the new building which demonstrates all device in the network was drawn to get a full
understanding of the network design. In addition, static VLAN membership is recommended
in the network as the several advantages it has such as security and easy to configure.

36
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Layer 2 switches are used as end stations to deploy the VLAN method and a comparison
was done with layer 3 switches which no need to use them as the network already has a router
as a gateway. Besides. explanation on how Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) is able to solve
some issues in VLAN and recommendations on standard/s related to it were added as well as
the Importance of VLAN management and tools are used in the project which is Solarwinds
Network Performance Monitor. Lately,how CPLC network can extend VLAN across the Wide
Area Network (WAN) using EoMPLS was discussed. Overall, several resources and courses
were taken to help in accomplish this assignment and recommend a full network design for
CPLC network.

37
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

14. Appendices:

14.1 Individual referenced essay:


Abdurraouf Fathi Ali (TP042816):

As CPLC has hired our team to propose a solution to overcome their business growth obstacles
and shifting to a new building, I have contributed in different aspects in the assignment. Before I
can come up with any solution, I got to know and learn what VLAN is and how to be implemented,
so any info I write or propose needs to be cited and fully understood. I have enrolled in two
different CCNA online courses and paid attention of the module lectures and tutorials. In this
proposal, I have carried out a document to analyze and recommend how VLAN concept can be
implemented in CPLC company in which bandwidth is not wasted and the network is not
overloaded with packets and members of the same VLAN can be located in different part of the
building and still communicate with each other. My first role was to come up with a simulation of
the proposed network in Cisco Packet tracer in which each department got its own VLAN and
users of the departments are located in different places. Besides that, a floor plane of each floor is
designed to get compressive details of the network design and where each department is located.

In addition, I got to do the VLAN membership section which indicates that VLAN
memberships can be classified into two types which are static VLANs and Dynamic VLANs.
While Static VLANs assigns each port in the switch to a specific VLANs manually, dynamic
VLANs allows the switch to assign VLANs automatically once the client is connected to the switch
(Cisco.com, 2015). I recommended static VLAN as the discussed advantages that make it better
than the dynamic. In addition, common issues in VLAN were discussed such as IP Addressing
issues with VLAN, Allowed VLANs on trunk, Trunk Mode Mismatches and Native VLAN
Mismatches (Academy, 2017). Each one of them has been discussed in detail and how to overcome
them if they happen in the network.

Moreover, recommendation of deploying Wide Area Network (WAN) infrastructures to


extend VLAN is one of the most expensive assets that any enterprise may do. Therefore, choosing
the most suitable wide area resolution can be challenging especially with the number of existing
technologies (Docwiki.cisco.com, 2016). EoMPLS which stands for Ethernet over Multi-Protocol
Label Switching. EoMPLS is used as a tunneling mechanism which sends Layer 2 Ethernet frames
over an MPLS network so two Layer 2 switches can be connected even though they are in different
38
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

places as in CPLC case. Overall, all the material and courses I have done has helped a lot in
accomplishing this assignment and how to come up with a solution of a problem which is very
popular in the real-life industry. VLAN plays a sophisticated role in which allows a logical division
of the network in the same physical end station. To summer up, a detailed documentation that
indicates all different aspects of VLAN was done. I have now understood how the VLAN works
and how it is importance to a company in order to increase the productivity of the organization.
VLAN helps a lot in a business company where it can increase the productivity and reduce the cost
of network devices that needed for the company business.

Beh Wei Xiang (TP047430):

As I have started this assignment, I am here to implement a VLAN network to this company
called, Cyber Petronet Limited Company (CPLC). They have four departments which is
Telecommunication Department, Network Call Centre, Network Operation Department and
Managing Department. All this departments were located on different floor. The plan is to organize
a Local Area Network for the whole building, and each floor has its own switches and the ground
floor are connected through switches and its planned for future growth. As there are two
departments where some of the employees are worked on offsite, there is a need for Network Call
Centre to expand in order to increase the productivity of the company.

VLAN known as virtual Local Area Network, where a group of devices are configured to
communicate as they connected in the same wire. Using VLANs help the administration to manage
the network, confinement of domains, reduced broadcast traffic and enforce the security policies.
VLAN can reduce the need to send traffic to unwanted destination. Also, compared switches,
routers require more processing of incoming traffic. As there are five departments, there will be
five groups of VLANs in the network, this will make the network administration easy to manage
the traffic flow within the company network. Next, we will be implementing static VLAN for the
company. CPLC has five departments that need to be divided logically using VLAN concept. Each
department such as telecommunication will have a separate broadcast domain and that will ensure
the communication security among end users, so only devices that are in the same VLAN can
communicate together. Using Static VLAN over the other types will help the company to achieve
the pre-intend purpose. Static VLAN provides high level of security as each port is assigned to a
specific VLAN and no other VLANs can be connected to it expect the defined and intend one.

39
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Other than that, we will be using layer 2 switch and category 6 cable in the company. It
uses for the production purposed and data that going through the local network. Layer 2 switch
can be configured by restricting access unnecessary MAC address to another station, this makes
the file sharing system safe because it only allows the designated ports to receive the senders’ data.
The use of Category 6 cable is to speed up the transmission between the departments and connected
them to the switch. Besides that, there will be also problems that happens when using VLAN in
the network. First, native VLAN mismatches when a trunk port is configured with different native
VLAN number. It can cause security risk and unintended results. Second, trunk mode mismatches
where the trunk link cannot be formed between two switches if it is misconfigured. Third, allow
VLAN on trunk where the existing VLAN trunking are not updated, traffic will not passed. Fourth,
IP addressing issues with VLAN where it considered easy to be solved when the error is found
since every devices have its own unique IP address. Lastly, missing VLAN is where the connection
has not established between devices in a VLAN.

Furthermore, using Spanning Tree Algorithm in VLAN is very importance to solve the
loop issues that happen within the network. It can prevent the performance of the network
decreases as it eliminate unnecessary path to a specific port. Also, VLAN has some common area
to be manage, which is inter-VLAN routing. It is a way to forward traffic between different VLAN
by implementing a router into the network. As user nodes VLAN forwards traffic to the router
which then forwards the traffic to the destination network. There are two ways that inter-VLAN
routing can be accomplished, which is Traditional inter-VLAN routing and Router-on-a-stick.
Traditional inter-VLAN routing usually is a router connected to the switch using multiple
interfaces. The interfaces on the router are configured as the default gateways for the VLANs that
configured on the switch. Next, Router-on-a-stick is where a router connected to the switch using
a single interface. The switch port connecting to the router is configured as trunk link. The single
interface in configured with multiple IP address that correspond to VLANs on the switch.

Lastly, Network management tool that I have suggested for this company is Solarwinds
Network Performance Monitor where it can have many features that can helps this company a lot
because this company productivity is depends on the network. This software makes easy for
network administrator to manage the network devices, bandwidth of wireless in the building.

40
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

14.2 Minutes of meeting:


Meeting number 1:

Call to order:

The first meeting of our group was held at APU new campus on 19-Mar-2018.

Attendees:

All the group members had attended.

Members not in attendance

None.

Reports

The first meeting was held to get a brief understanding of the assignment and how we can carry
out a professional assignment that complies with research standards.

Unfinished business:

As it is the first meeting, not too much has been done. Only get a general understanding of the
assignment.

Announcements

The second meeting date was selected and agreed between the group members.

Group leader Date

41
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Meeting number 2:

Call to order:

The s second meeting of our group was held at APU new campus on 26-Mar-2018.

Attendees:

All the group members had attended.

Members not in attendance

None.

Reports

The second meeting was held to get started with the assignment. The assignment was discussed
in details and several resources that helped in proposing the solution were shared. In addition,
first tasks were assigned.

Unfinished business:

All the pre-decided points were discussed successfully.

Announcements

The third meeting date was selected and agreed between the group members. Start with the other
sections of the assignment.

Group leader Date

42
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Meeting number 3:

Call to order:

The s third meeting of our group was held at APU new campus on 09-April-2018.

Attendees:

All the group members had attended.

Members not in attendance

None.

Reports

The third meeting was held to discuss the completed sections of the assignment. What is the need
of VLAN for the company and the Floor plan for the company and Switched network plan/layout
for the company were reviewed between the group members and several minor changes were
spotted.

Unfinished business:

All the pre-decided points were discussed successfully.

Announcements

The fourth meeting date was selected and agreed between the group members. Change some
points and layout in the floor plan. Start with the other sections of the assignment.

Group leader Date

43
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Meeting number 4:

Call to order:

The s third meeting of our group was held at APU new campus on 23-April-2018.

Attendees:

All the group members had attended.

Members not in attendance

None.

Reports

The fourth meeting was held to discuss the completed sections of the assignment which are
Common issues in VLAN, Importance of Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) to solve issues in
VLAN and Common area to be managed in VLAN.

Unfinished business:

The documentation did not finish in a proper way.

Announcements

The fifth meeting date was selected and agreed between the group members. Improve the
documentation of the last part and start with the next sections.

Group leader Date

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CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Meeting number 5:

Call to order:

The s third meeting of our group was held at APU new campus on 07- May- 2018.

Attendees:

All the group members had attended.

Members not in attendance

None.

Reports

The fifth meeting was held to discuss the completed sections of the assignment which are
Recommended Network Management Tools in managing VLAN, Recommended WAN
Switching Technology, Simulation of the designed network and justification.

Unfinished business:

All the pre-decided points were discussed successfully.

Announcements

The sixth meeting date was selected and agreed between the group members. Start with the next
sections.

Group leader Date

45
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Meeting number 6:

Call to order:

The s sixth and last meeting of our group was held at APU new campus on 14- May-2018.

Attendees:

All the group members had attended.

Members not in attendance

None.

Reports

The sixth meeting was held to discuss the completed sections of the assignment and review each
section, write the conclusion and submit the assignment

Unfinished business:

All the pre-decided points were discussed successfully.

Announcements

No more new announcements.

Group leader Date

46
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

14.2 Gantt chart:

19- 26- 02- 09- 16- 23- 07- 14-


1st Day of the week Mar Mar Apr Apr Apr Apr May May
Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Introduction and understanding the
problem.

Why VLAN?

Floor plan for the company

Switched network plan/layout for


the company

Recommended VLAN Membership.

Recommended Type of Switch.

Common issues in VLAN.

Importance of Spanning Tree


Algorithm (STA) to solve issues in
VLAN.

Common area to be managed in


VLAN.

Recommended Network
Management Tools in managing
VLAN.

Recommended WAN Switching


Technology.

Simulation of the designed network


and justification.

Conclusion and compiling

Appendices and submission

47
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

15. References:

Academy, C. (2017). Troubleshoot VLANs and Trunks (3.2.4) > Cisco Networking
Academy's Introduction to VLANs. [online] Ciscopress.com. Available at:
http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2181837&seqNum=9 [Accessed 6 May
2018].

Cisco.com. (2016). InterVLAN. [online] Available at:


https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/inter-vlan-routing/41860-howto-
L3-intervlanrouting.pdf [Accessed 6 May 2018].

Cisco, 2018. Spanning Tree Protocol. [Online] Available at:


https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/tech/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/index.html
[Accessed 10 April 2018].
Cisco.com. (2015). [online] Available at:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/connectedgrid/switch_module_swcg/cgr-esm-
configuration/config_vlans.pdf [Accessed 6 May 2018].

Cisco Meraki. (2018). Layer 3 versus Layer 2 Switch for VLANs. [online] Available at:
https://documentation.meraki.com/MS/Layer_3_Switching/Layer_3_versus_Layer_2_Switch
_for_VLANs [Accessed 15 May 2018].

Firewall.cx. (2017). Static VLANs. [online] Available at:


http://www.firewall.cx/networking-topics/vlan-networks/designing-vlans/216-static-
vlans.html [Accessed 6 May 2018].

Firewall.cx. (2015). How To Configure Router On A Stick - 802.1q Trunk To Cisco Router.
[online] Available at: http://www.firewall.cx/cisco-technical-knowledgebase/cisco-
routers/336-cisco-router-8021q-router-stick.html [Accessed 15 May 2018].

Firewall.cx. (2017). Dynamic VLANs. [online] Available at:


http://www.firewall.cx/networking-topics/vlan-networks/designing-vlans/217-dynamic-
vlans.html [Accessed 6 May 2018].

48
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Gee, D. (2014). Cisco ME3750 – EoMPLS over ES ports. [online] ipengineer.net. Available
at: http://ipengineer.net/2012/09/cisco-me3750-eompls-over-es-ports/ [Accessed 7 May
2018].

Harmoush, E. (2018). Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) – Practical Networking .net.
[online] Practical Networking .net. Available at: http://www.practicalnetworking.net/stand-
alone/vlans/ [Accessed 6 May 2018].

Mitchell, B., 2018. Cat 6 Ethernet cable. [Online]


Available at: https://www.lifewire.com/cat6-ethernet-cable-standard-817553
[Accessed 1 April 2018].

Mitchell, B., 2018. Layer 3 Switch. [Online]


Available at: https://www.lifewire.com/layer-3-switch-817583
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

NetCraftsmen. (2018). Working with EoMPLS - NetCraftsmen. [online] Available at:


https://www.netcraftsmen.com/working-with-eompls/ [Accessed 7 May 2018].

Nexans.co.uk. (2018). Essential-6 - Nexans. [online] Available at:


https://www.nexans.co.uk/eservice/UK-
en_GB/navigateproduct_540125215/Essential_6_U_UTP_Cat_6_PVC_305m_box.html
[Accessed 15 May 2018].

Support, T., Switching, L., Protocol, S. and TechNotes, C. (2016). Understanding and
Configuring Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) on Catalyst Switches. [online] Cisco. Available
at: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/5234-
5.html [Accessed 15 May 2018].

Sridhar, T., 1998. The Internet Protocol Journal. [Online]


Available at: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/press/internet-protocol-journal/back-
issues/table-contents-19/switch-evolution.html
[Accessed 15 April 2018].

49
CT100-3-2-SWIT Group Assignment

Theregister.co.uk. (2018). What WAN technology is right for your business?. [online]
Available at: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2003/11/24/what_wan_technology_is_right/
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