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CHEMISTRY

Question 1 refer to the following compounds at Questions 4-7 refer to the following species.
25∞C and 1.0 atm.
(A) H2O
(A) CO2 (B) NH3
(B) PbO2 (C) BH3
(C) CaO (D) CH4
(D) N2O5 (E) SiH4
(E) Cu2O
4. Has two lone pairs of electrons
1. Contains an element in a +1 oxidation state
5. Has a central atom with less than an octet of
electrons

Questions #2 & 3 did not align with the 6. Is predicted to have the largest bond angle
new course and have been removed.
7. Has a trigonal-pyramidal molecular geometry

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Questions 8-9 refer to the chemical reactions represented below.

(A) 2 C6H6(l) + 15 O2(g) Æ 12 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l)


(B) C2H3O2-(aq) + H3O+(aq) Æ HC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l)
(C) 4 H+(aq) + 4 Co2+(aq) + O2(g) + 24 NH3(aq) Æ 4 Co(NH3)63+(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
(D) CaCO3(s) Æ CaO(s) + CO2(g)
(E) 2 H2O2(l) Æ O2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

8. The reaction between a Brønsted-Lowry acid and a Brønsted-Lowry base

9. The reaction in which a single species is both oxidized and reduced

Questions #10 - 14 did not align with the new course and have been removed.

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Questions 15-17 refer to the 1 L flasks shown below.

15. In which flask do the molecules have the greatest


average speed?

16. Which flask contains the smallest number of


moles of gas?

17. Which flask contains the sample with the greatest


density?

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18. Which of the following elements has the largest 22. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are
first ionization energy? in an 56
26 Fe atom?
(A) Li
(B) Be Protons Neutrons Electrons
(C) B (A) 26 30 26
(D) C (B) 26 56 26
(E) N (C) 30 26 30
(D) 56 26 26
19. A 0.20 mol sample of MgCl2(s) and a 0.10 mol (E) 56 82 56
sample of KCl(s) are dissolved in water and
diluted to 500 mL. What is the concentration 23. Which of the following is the electron
of Cl- in the solution? configuration of an excited atom that is
likely to emit a quantum of energy?
(A) 0.15 M
(B) 0.30 M (A) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p1
(C) 0.50 M (B) 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p5
(D) 0.60 M (C) 1s2 2s22p6 3s2
(E) 1.0 M (D) 1s2 2s22p6 3s1
(E) 1s2 2s22p6 3s13p1
20. Atoms of Mg combine with atoms of F to form
a compound. Atoms of which of the following
24. Which of the following molecules contains polar
elements combine with atoms of F in the same
covalent bonds but is a nonpolar molecule?
ratio?
(A) CH3Cl
(A) Li
(B) Ba (B) CH2Cl2
(C) Al (C) NH3
(D) Cl (D) CCl4
(E) Ne (E) N2

H2 + F2 Æ 2 HF
C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) Æ 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l)
25. In the reaction represented above, what
21. In the reaction represented above, what is the
total number of moles of reactants consumed mass of HF is produced by the reaction of
when 1.00 mole of CO2(g) is produced? 3.0 × 1023 molecules of H2 with excess F2 ?
(Assume the reaction goes to completion.)
(A) 0.33 mol
(B) 1.33 mol (A) 1.0 g
(C) 1.50 mol (B) 4.0 g
(D) 2.00 mol (C) 10. g
(E) 6.00 mol (D) 20. g
(E) 40. g

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26. For which of the following reaction mixtures at
N2O5(g) Æ̈ 2 NO2(g) +
1
O (g)
equilibrium would reducing the volume of the 2 2
container at constant temperature cause the
equilibrium to shift toward the products? 30. The equilibrium constant for the gas phase reaction
(A) SrCO (s) Æ̈ SrO(s) + CO (g)
3 2
above is 95 at 25∞C. What is the value of the
equilibrium constant for the following reaction
(B) C(s) + CO2(g) Æ̈ 2 CO(g)
at 25∞C?
(C) CO(g) + H2O(g) Æ̈ CO2(g) + H2(g)
O2(g) + 4 NO2(g) Æ̈ 2 N2O5(g)
(D) PCl (g) Æ̈ PCl (g) + Cl (g)
5 3 2
(E) 2 NO2(g) Æ̈ N2O4(g) (A) (95)2

(B) 95
Question #27 did not align with the new
course and has been removed. 1
(C) (95) 2

1
(D)
95
1
(E)
28. A 2 L sample of N2(g) and a 1 L sample of Ar(g), (95)2
each originally at 1 atm and 0°C, are combined in
a 1 L tank. If the temperature is held constant,
what is the total pressure of the gases in the tank?
(A) 1 atm
(B) 2 atm
(C) 3 atm
(D) 4 atm
(E) 5 atm

29. Which of the following processes involves the


greatest increase in entropy?
(A) SO3(g) + H2(g) Æ SO2(g) + H2O(g)
C2H4(g) + H2(g) ææææ
platinum
Æ C2H6(g)
(B) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) Æ 2 NH3(g)
(C) Ag+(aq) + Cl -(aq) Æ AgCl(s) 32. C2H4(g) is reduced by H2(g) in the presence of a
(D) C2H2(g) + 2 H2(g) Æ C2H6(g) solid platinum catalyst, as represented by the
equation above. Factors that could affect the rate
(E) MgSO3(s) Æ MgO(s) + SO2(g) of the reaction include which of the following?
I. Changes in the partial pressure of H2(g)
II. Changes in the particle size of the platinum
catalyst
III. Changes in the temperature of the reaction
system
(A) III only
(B) I and II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

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33. For an experiment, a student needs 100.0 mL of
0.4220 M NaCl. If the student starts with NaCl(s)
and distilled water, which of the following pieces
of laboratory glassware should the student use to
prepare the solution with the greatest accuracy?
(A) 25 mL volumetric pipet
(B) 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask
(C) 100 mL graduated cylinder
(D) 100 mL volumetric flask
(E) 1 L beaker

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D
2 NH3(g) → 3 H2(g) + N2(g) DH 298 = 92 kJ/molrxn

37. According to the information above, what is the standard


enthalpy of formation, DH Df , for NH3(g) at 298 K ?

(A) −92 kJ/mol


(B) −46 kJ/mol
(C) 46 kJ/mol
(D) 92 kJ/mol
(E) 184 kJ/mol

38. The percentage of silver in a solid sample is


determined gravimetrically by converting the
silver to Ag+(aq) and precipitating it as silver
chloride. Failure to do which of the following
could cause errors in the analysis?
I. Account for the mass of the weighing paper
when determining the mass of the sample
II. Measure the temperature during the
precipitation reaction
III. Wash the precipitate
IV. Heat the AgCl precipitate to constant mass
(A) I only
(B) I and II
(C) I and IV
(D) II and III
(E) I, III, and IV

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HSO4-(aq) + CO32-(aq) Æ̈ SO42-(aq) + HCO3-(aq)

40. The reaction represented above is observed to proceed


spontaneously to the right in aqueous solution. In this
system the strongest base is
(A) SO42-(aq)
(B) CO32-(aq)
(C) H2O(l)
(D) HCO3-(aq)
(E) HSO4-(aq)

. . . LiHCO3(aq) + . . . H2SO4(aq) Æ . . . Li2SO4(aq) + . . . H2O(l) + . . . CO2(g)

41. When the equation above is balanced and the coefficients are reduced to lowest
whole-number terms, what is the coefficient of H2O(l) ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5

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42. Which of the following lists the substances F2 , 44. When a 3.22 g sample of an unknown hydrate
HCl, and HF in order of increasing boiling point? of sodium sulfate, Na2SO4  x H2O(s), is heated,
(A) HF < HCl < F2 H2O (molar mass 18 g) is driven off. The mass
(B) HF < F2 < HCl of the anhydrous Na2SO4(s) (molar mass 142 g)
(C) HCl < F2 < HF that remains is 1.42 g. The value of x in the
(D) HCl < HF < F2 hydrate is
(E) F2 < HCl < HF (A) 0.013
(B) 1.8
(C) 6.0
(D) 10.
(E) 20.

45. A 0.10 M solution of a weak monoprotic acid has


a pH equal to 4.0. The ionization constant, Ka , of
the acid is
(A) 1 × 10-3
(B) 1 × 10-4
(C) 1 × 10-7
(D) 1 × 10-8
(E) 1 × 10-9
43. Gases generated in a chemical reaction are some-
times collected by the displacement of water, as 46. In an insulated cup of negligible heat capacity,
shown above. Which of the following gases can 50. g of water at 40.°C is mixed with 30. g of
be quantitatively collected by this method? water at 20.°C. The final temperature of the
mixture is closest to
(A) H2
(B) CO2 (A) 22°C
(C) HCl (B) 27°C
(C) 30.°C
(D) SO2
(D) 33°C
(E) NH3
(E) 38°C

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47. Which of the following is an isomer of 49. Which of the following substances has the
CH3OCH3 ? greatest solubility in C5H12(l) at 1 atm?
(A) CH3CH3 (A) SiO2(s)
(B) CH3COOH (B) NaCl(s)
(C) CH3CH2OH
(C) H2O(l)
(D) CH3CH2CH3
(D) CCl4(l)
(E) CH3CH2OCH2CH3
(E) NH3(g)
48. Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP, is used as a
primary standard for determining the concentration
of a solution of NaOH by titration. If the KHP
has not been dried before weighing, the calculated Question #50 did not align with the new
molarity of the NaOH would be course and has been removed.
(A) higher than the actual value, since water is
included in the apparent mass of KHP
(B) higher than the actual value, since the presence
of water requires a larger volume of titrant
(C) lower than the actual value, since NaOH
absorbs water
(D) unaffected, since KHP is a strong acid
(E) unaffected, since water is routinely added
before the titration

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Initial [X] Initial [Y] Initial Rate of Formation of Z
Experiment (mol L-1) (mol L-1) (mol L-1 s-1)
1 0.10 0.30 4.0 ¥10-4
2 0.20 0.60 1.6 ¥10-3
3 0.20 0.30 4.0 ¥10-4

51. The data in the table above were obtained for the reaction X + Y Æ Z. Which of the following is the rate law for
the reaction?
(A) Rate = k[X]2
(B) Rate = k[Y]2
(C) Rate = k[X][Y]
(D) Rate = k[X]2[Y]
(E) Rate = k[X][Y]2

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2 H2(g) + O2(g) Æ 2 H2O(g) 54. High solubility of an ionic solid in water is favored
by which of the following conditions?
52. For the reaction represented above at 25°C, what I. The existence of strong ionic attractions in
are the signs of Δ H°, Δ S°, and Δ G° ? the crystal lattice
II. The formation of strong ion-dipole
Δ H∞ Δ S∞ Δ G∞ attractions
(A) + + + III. An increase in entropy upon dissolving
(B) + + - (A) I only
(C) + - - (B) I and II only
(D) - - - (C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) - - + (E) I, II, and III

53. What is the empirical formula of an oxide of 55. Which of the following statements is true for the
chromium that is 48 percent oxygen by mass? equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid in a closed
(A) CrO system?
(B) CrO2 (A) It remains constant when the temperature
(C) CrO3 increases.
(B) It decreases to half its original value if the
(D) Cr2O
volume of the gas phase is doubled.
(E) Cr2O3 (C) It increases to twice its original value if the
volume of the liquid phase is doubled.
(D) It decreases to half its original value if the
surface area of the liquid is reduced by
one-half.
(E) It is independent of the volume of the vapor
phase.

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56. An unknown acid is dissolved in 25 mL of water and titrated
with 0.100 M NaOH. The results are shown in the titration
curve above. Which of the following could be the unknown
acid?
(A) Fluoroacetic acid, pKa = 2.6
(B) Glycolic acid, pKa = 3.8
(C) Propanoic acid, pKa = 4.9
(D) Hypochlorous acid, pKa = 7.5
(E) Boric acid, pKa = 9.3

-15-
57. Which of the following lists Mg, P, and Cl in X (g) + Y (g) R 2 Z (g)
order of increasing atomic radius?
(A) Cl < P < Mg 60. When 4.00 mol each of X ( g ) and Y ( g ) are
(B) Cl < Mg < P placed in a 1.00 L vessel and allowed to react at
(C) Mg < P < Cl constant temperature according to the equation
(D) Mg < Cl < P above, 6.00 mol of Z ( g ) is produced. What is the
(E) P < Cl < Mg value of the equilibrium constant, K c ?
(A) 3
(B) 6
Question #58 did not align with the (C) 8
(D) 16
new course and has been removed. (E) 36

61. If the oxygen isotope 20O has a half-life of


15 seconds, what fraction of a sample of
pure 20O remains after 1.0 minute?
1
(A)
2
1
Al3+(aq) + 3 e- Æ Al(s) E∞ = -1.66 V (B)
4
Ag+(aq) + e- Æ Ag(s) E∞ = +0.80 V 7
(C)
30
59. According to the standard reduction potentials
1
given above, what is the standard cell potential (D)
for the reaction represented below? 8
1
3 Ag+(aq) + Al(s) Æ 3 Ag(s) + Al3+(aq) (E)
16
(A) -1.74 V
(B) -0.86 V
(C) +1.74 V
(D) +2.46 V
(E) +4.06 V

-16-
X Æ products

62. Pure substance X decomposes according to the


equation above. Which of the following graphs
indicates that the rate of decomposition is second
order in X ?
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

-17-
2 MnO4-(aq) + 5 C2O42−(aq) + 16 H+(aq) → 2 Mn2+(aq) + 10 CO2(g) + 8 H2O(l)
63. Permanganate and oxalate ions react in an acidified solution according to the balanced equation above. How
many moles of CO2(g) are produced when 20. mL of acidified 0.20 M KMnO4 solution is added to 50. mL of
0.10 M Na2C2O4 solution?
(A) 0.0040 mol
(B) 0.0050 mol
(C) 0.0090 mol
(D) 0.010 mol
(E) 0.020 mol

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NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) 67. The role of a catalyst in a chemical reaction is to
(A) decrease the amount of reactants that must
65. A student is trying to determine the heat be used
of reaction for the acid-base neutralization (B) lower the activation energy for the reaction
reaction represented above. The student uses (C) supply the activation energy required for the
0.50 M NaOH and 0.50 M HCl solutions. reaction to proceed
Which of the following situations, by itself, (D) increase the amounts of products formed at
would most likely result in the LEAST error in equilibrium
the calculated value of the heat of reaction? (E) increase the entropy change for the reaction
(A) The thermometer was incorrectly calibrated
and read 0.5 Celsius degree too high during 68. If 50. mL of 1.0 M NaOH is diluted with distilled
the procedure. water to a volume of 2.0 L, the concentration of
(B) The volume of the acid solution added to the the resulting solution is
calorimeter was actually 1.0 mL less than (A) 0.025 M
what was recorded. (B) 0.050 M
(C) The calorimeter was poorly insulated, and (C) 0.10 M
some heat escaped to the atmosphere during (D) 0.50 M
the procedure. (E) 1.0 M
(D) The actual molarity of the base solution was
0.53 M but was recorded as 0.50 M . 69. Which of the following is NOT an accepted name
(E) The final temperature of the mixture was for the formula given?
taken before the contents of the calorimeter
had reached thermal equilibrium. (A) CH3OH . . methanol
(B) CuO . . copper(I) oxide
66. A molecular solid coexists with its liquid phase at (C) FeCl3 . . iron(III) chloride
its melting point. The solid-liquid mixture is (D) H2SO4 . . sulfuric acid
heated, but the temperature does not change while
(E) SrCO3 . . strontium carbonate
the solid is melting. The best explanation for this
phenomenon is that the heat absorbed by the
mixture
(A) is lost to the surroundings very quickly Question #70 did not align with the new
(B) is used in overcoming the intermolecular course and has been removed.
attractions in the solid
(C) is used in breaking the bonds within the
molecules of the solid
(D) causes the nonbonding electrons in the
molecules to move to lower energy levels
(E) causes evaporation of the liquid, which has a
cooling effect

-19-
71. Which of the following molecules contains 73. Resonance is most commonly used to describe the
exactly three sigma (σ) bonds and two pi (π) bonding in molecules of which of the following?
bonds? (A) CO2
(A) C2H2 (B) O3
(B) CO2 (C) H2O
(C) HCN (D) CH4
(D) SO3 (E) SF6
(E) N2
74. A student prepares a solution by dissolving
60.00 g of glucose (molar mass 180.2 g mol−1) in
enough distilled water to make 250.0 mL of
solution. The molarity of the solution should be
reported as
(A) 12.01 M
(B) 12.0 M
(C) 1.332 M
(D) 1.33 M
Question #72 did not align with the new (E) 1.3 M
course and has been removed.
75. Which of the following substances is a strong
electrolyte when dissolved in water?
(A) Sucrose
(B) Ethanol
(C) Sodium nitrate
(D) Acetic acid
(E) Ammonia

-20-
Question Key Aligned Learning Objective Secondary Learning
# Objective
LO 3.8 The student is able to identify redox reactions and justify the identification in
1 E terms of electron transfer. [See SP 6.1]
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
4 A [See SP 1.4]
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
5 C [See SP 1.4]
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
6 C [See SP 1.4]
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
7 B [See SP 1.4]
LO 3.7 The student is able to identify compounds as Bronsted-Lowry acids, bases,
and/or conjugate acid-base pairs, using proton-transfer reactions to justify the
8 B identification. [See SP 6.1]
LO 3.8 The student is able to identify redox reactions and justify the identification in
terms of electron transfer. [See SP 6.1]
9 E
LO 2.4 The student is able to use KMT and concepts of intermolecular forces to
make predictions about the macroscopic properties of gases, including both ideal
15 B and nonideal behaviors. [See SP 1.4, 6.4]
LO 2.6 The student can apply mathematical relationships or estimation to
determine macroscopic variables for ideal gases. [See SP 2.2, 2.3]
16 B
LO 2.6 The student can apply mathematical relationships or estimation to LO 1.4 The student is
determine macroscopic variables for ideal gases. [See SP 2.2, 2.3] able to connect the
number of particles,
17 C moles, mass, and
LO 1.9 The student is able to predict and/or justify trends in atomic properties
based on location on the periodic table and/or the shell model. [See SP 6.4]
18 E
LO 1.4 The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and
volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively.[See SP
19 E 7.1]
LO 1.10 Students can justify with evidence the arrangement of the periodic table LO 1.11 The student
and can apply periodic properties to chemical reactivity. [See SP 6.1] can analyze data,
based on periodicity
and the properties of
20 B binary compounds, to
LO 3.3 The student is able to use stoichiometric calculations to predict the results of
performing a reaction in the laboratory and/or to analyze deviations from the
21 D expected results. [See SP 2.2, 5.1]
LO 1.5 The student is able to explain the distribution of electrons in an atom or ion
22 A based upon data. [See SP 1.5, 6.2]
LO 1.8 The student is able to explain the distribution of electrons using Coulomb’s
Law to analyze measured energies. [See SP 6.2]
23 E
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
24 D [See SP 1.4]
LO 3.3 The student is able to use stoichiometric calculations to predict the results of
performing a reaction in the laboratory and/or to analyze deviations from the
25 D expected results. [See SP 2.2, 5.1]
LO 6.8 The student is able to use LeChatelier’s principle to predict the direction of
the shift resulting from various possible stresses on a system at chemical
26 E equilibrium. [See SP 1.4, 6.4]
LO 2.6 The student can apply mathematical relationships or estimation to
28 C determine macroscopic variables for ideal gases. [See SP 2.2, 2.3]
LO 5.12 The student is able to use representations and models to predict the sign
and relative magnitude of the entropy change associated with chemical or physical
29 E processes. [See SP 1.4]
LO 6.2 The student can, given a manipulation of a chemical reaction or set of
reactions (e.g., reversal of reaction or addition of two reactions), determine the
30 E effects of that manipulation on Q or K. [See SP 2.2]
LO 4.1 The student is able to design and/or interpret the results of an experiment
regarding the factors (i.e., temperature, concentration, surface area) that may
32 E influence the rate of a reaction. [See SP 4.2, 5.1]
LO 1.19 The student can design, and/or interpret data from, an experiment that LO 1.20 The student
uses gravimetric analysis to determine the concentration of an analyte in a solution. can design, and/or
[See SP 4.2, 5.1, 6.4] interpret data from,
33 D an experiment that
LO 5.8 The student is able to draw qualitative and quantitative connections
between the reaction enthalpy and the energies involved in the breaking and
37 B formation of chemical bonds. [See SP 2.3, 7.1, 7.2]
LO 1.19 The student can design, and/or interpret data from, an experiment that
uses gravimetric analysis to determine the concentration of an analyte in a solution.
38 E [See SP 4.2, 5.1, 6.4]
LO 6.7 The student is able, for a reversible reaction that has a large or small K, to LO 6.17 The student
determine which chemical species will have very large versus very small can, given an arbitrary
concentrations at equilibrium. [See SP 2.2, 2.3] mixture of weak and
strong acids and bases
(including polyprotic
40 B systems), determine
LO 1.18 The student is able to apply conservation of atoms to the rearrangement of
41 B atoms in various processes. [See SP 1.4]
LO 2.16 The student is able to explain the properties (phase, vapor pressure,
viscosity, etc.) of small and large molecular compounds in terms of the strengths
42 E and types of intermolecular forces. [See SP 6.2]
LO 2.15 The student is able to explain observations regarding the solubility of ionic
solids and molecules in water and other solvents on the basis of particle views that
include intermolecular interactions and entropic effects. [See SP 1.4, 6.2, connects
43 A to 5.E.1]
LO 1.2 The student is able to select and apply mathematical routines to mass data LO 1.4 The student is
to identify or infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures. [See SP able to connect the
2.2] number of particles,
44 D moles, mass, and
LO 6.16 The student can identify a given solution as being the solution of a
monoprotic weak acid or base (including salts in which one ion is a weak acid or
base), and calculate the pH and concentration of all species in the solution and/ or
infer the relative strengths of the weak acids or bases from given equilibrium
45 C concentrations. [See SP 2.2, 6.4]
LO 5.5 The student is able to use conservation of energy to relate the magnitudes of
the energy changes when two nonreacting substances are mixed or brought into
contact with one another. [See SP 2.2, connects to 5.B.1, 5.B.2]
46 D
LO 1.18 The student is able to apply conservation of atoms to the rearrangement of
47 C atoms in various processes. [See SP 1.4]
LO 1.20 The student can design, and/or interpret data from, an experiment that
uses titration to determine the concentration of an analyte in a solution. [See SP
48 A 4.2, 5.1, 6.4]
LO 2.15 The student is able to explain observations regarding the solubility of ionic
solids and molecules in water and other solvents on the basis of particle views that
include intermolecular interactions and entropic effects. [See SP 1.4, 6.2, connects
49 D to 5.E.1]
LO 4.2 The student is able to analyze concentration vs. time data to determine the
rate law for a zeroth-, first-, or second-order reaction. [See SP 5.1,6.4 connects to
51 B 4.A.3]
LO 5.13 The student is able to predict whether or not a physical or chemical process
is thermodynamically favored by determination of (either quantitatively or
qualitatively) the signs of both ΔH° and ΔS°, and calculation or estimation of
ΔG°when needed. *See SP 2.2, 2.3, 6.4, connects to 5.E.3+
52 D
LO 1.2 The student is able to select and apply mathematical routines to mass data
to identify or infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures. [See SP
53 C 2.2]
LO 2.14 The student is able to apply Coulomb’s Law qualitatively (including using
representations) to describe the interactions of ions, and the attractions between
ions and solvents to explain the factors that contribute to the solubility of ionic
54 D compounds. [See SP 1.4, 6.4]
LO 6.3 The student can connect kinetics to equilibrium by using reasoning about
equilibrium, such as LeChatelier’s principle, to infer the relative rates of the forward
55 E and reverse reactions. [See SP 7.2]
LO 6.13 The student can interpret titration data for monoprotic or polyprotic acids
involving titration of a weak or strong acid by a strong base (or a weak or strong
base by a strong acid) to determine the concentration of the titrant and the pKa for
a weak acid, or the pKb for a weak base. [See SP 5.1, 6.4, connects to 1.E.2]
56 B
LO 1.9 The student is able to predict and/or justify trends in atomic properties
based on location on the periodic table and/or the shell model. [See SP 6.4]
57 A
LO 3.12 The student can make qualitative or quantitative predictions about galvanic
or electrolytic reactions based on half-cell reactions and potentials and/or Faradays
59 D laws. [See SP 2.2, 2.3, 6.4]
LO 6.5 The student can, given data (tabular, graphical, etc.) from which the state of
60 E a system at equilibrium can be obtained, calculate the equilibrium constant, K. [See
LO 4.3 The student is able to connect the half-life of a reaction to the rate constant
of a first-order reaction, and justify the use of this relation in terms of the reaction
61 E being a first-order reaction. [See SP 2.1, 2.2]
LO 4.2 The student is able to analyze concentration vs. time data to determine the
rate law for a zeroth-, first-, or second-order reaction. [See SP 5.1,6.4 connects to
62 D 4.A.3]
LO 3.3 The student is able to use stoichiometric calculations to predict the results of
performing a reaction in the laboratory and/or to analyze deviations from the
63 D expected results. [See SP 2.2, 5.1]
LO 5.7 The student is able to design and/or interpret the results of an experiment in
which calorimetry is used to determine the change in enthalpy of a chemical
process (heating/cooling, phase transition, or chemical reaction) at constant
65 A pressure. [See SP 4.2, 5.1, 6.4]
LO 5.6 The student is able to use calculations or estimations to relate energy
changes associated with heating/cooling a substance to the heat capacity, relate
energy changes associated with a phase transition to the enthalpy of fusion/
vaporization, relate energy changes associated with a chemical reaction to the
enthalpy of the reaction, and relate energy changes to PΔV work. *See SP 2.2, 2.3+
66 B
LO 4.9 The student is able to explain changes in reaction rates arising from the use
of acid-base catalysts, surface catalysts, or enzyme catalysts, including selecting
appropriate mechanisms with or without the catalyst present. [See SP 6.2, 7.2]
67 B
LO 1.4 The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and LO 2.9 The student is
volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively.[See SP able to create or
68 A 7.1] interpret
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
69 B [See SP 1.4]
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
71 A [See SP 1.4]
LO 2.21 The student is able to use Lewis diagrams and VSEPR to predict the
geometry of molecules, identify hybridization, and make predictions about polarity.
73 B [See SP 1.4]
LO 1.4 The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and
volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively.[See SP
74 C 7.1]
LO 2.8 The student can draw and/or interpret representations of solutions that
show the interactions between the solute and solvent. [See SP 1.1, 1.2, 6.4]
75 C
INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 23-25 MAY BE USEFUL IN
ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.


-22-
Name: __________ ______________
Version A Period: ____________

NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED

Note: For all questions, assume that the temperature is 298 K, the pressure is 1.00 atmosphere, and solutions are aqueous
unless otherwise specified.

Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted.

Questions 1-3 refer to the following types of


elements in the periodic table.

(A) Noble gases


(B) Alkali metals
(C) Halogens
(D) Transition elements
(E) Actinides

1. Are the most difficult to oxidize in a given period


of the periodic table

2. Are always radioactive

3. Are the most likely to form anions

1
Version A

Questions 4-6 Questions 7-9 refer to the following pure


substances, which are gases at 25°C and 1
A solution of a weak monprotic acid is titrated atmosphere.
with a solution of a strong base, KOH. Consider
the points labeled (A) through (E) on the titration (A) NH3 (g)
curve that results, as shown below. (B) BH3 (g)
(C) H2 (g)
(D) H2S (g)
(E) HBr (g)

7. Has molecules with a pyramidal shape.

8. Is a strong electrolyte in aqueous solution

9. Is the slowest to effuse through a small opening at


25°C and 1 atm

Questions 10-11 refer to the following.

(A) Activation energy


(B) Enthalpy of formation
(C) Entropy
(D) Gibbs free energy
(E) Lattice energy
4. The point at which the moles of the added strong
base are equal to the moles of the weak acid 10. Quantity would be zero for a pure, perfect crystal at
initially present. 0 K.

5. The point at which the pH is closest to that of the 11. Quantity typically determined by measuring the
strong base being added. rate of a reaction at two or more different
temperatures

6. The point at which the concentrations of the weak


acid and its conjugate base are approximately
equal.

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Questions 12-14 refer to the following 13. True for the evaporation of water at 25°C and 1 atm
combinations of enthalpy changes (ΔH) and
entropy changes (ΔS) for chemical reactions. 14. True for the combustion of liquid pentane, C 5H12(l),
to form H2O(g) and CO2(g) at 1 atm
(A) ΔH > 0, ΔS > 0
(B) ΔH > 0, ΔS < 0
(C) ΔH < 0, ΔS > 0
(D) ΔH < 0, ΔS < 0
(E) ΔH = 0, ΔS < 0

12. Must be true for a reaction that is spontaneous at all


temperatures

Questions 15-17 refer to the following reactions.

(A) 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2 MgO(s)


(B) Pb2+(aq) + CrO42–(aq) → PbCrO4(s)
(C) SO3(g) + 2 H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + HSO4–(aq)
(D) 2 H2O(g) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)
(E) Ag+(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) → [Ag(NH3)2]+(aq)

15. A precipitation reaction

16. A Lewis acid-base reaction that produces a coordination complex

17. An oxidation-reduction reaction that is also a synthesis reaction

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18. 21. Of the following electron configurations of neutral


Δ⎯
2 KClO3(s) ⎯⎯→ 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g) atoms, which represents an atom in an excited
state?
MnO 2
A) 1s22s22p5
According to the equation above, how many moles
B) 1s22s22p53s2
of potassium chlorate, KClO3, must be decomposed
C) 1s22s22p63s1
to generate 1.0 L of O2 gas at standard temperature D) 1s22s22p63s23p2
and pressure? E) 1s22s22p63s23p5

1 ÊÁÁÁ 1 ˆ˜˜˜
A) mol 22. Which of the following is a nonpolar molecule that
3 ÁÁË 22.4 ˜˜¯
contains polar bonds?
1 ÊÁÁÁ 1 ˆ˜˜˜
B) mol
2 ÁÁË 22.4 ˜˜¯ A) F2
B) CHF3
2 ÊÁÁÁ 1 ˆ˜˜˜
C) mol C) CO2
3 ÁÁË 22.4 ˜˜¯
D) HC1
3 ÁÊÁÁ 1 ˜ˆ˜˜ E) NH3
D) mol
2 ÁÁË 22.4 ˜˜¯
ÁÊ 1 ˜ˆ˜ 23. The oxidation state that is common to aqueous ions
E) 2 ÁÁÁÁ ˜˜ mol
of Fe, Mn, and Zn is
Ë 22.4 ¯
˜

A) +1
19. Which of the following ions has the same number B) +2
of electrons as Br–? C) +3
D) +4
A) Ca2+ E) +5
B) K+
C) Sr2+
24. Which of the following shows the correct number
D) I–
of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutral
E) Cl–
cesium-134 atom?

20. In solid methane, the forces between neighboring Protons Neutrons Electrons
CH4 molecules are best characterized as
A) 55 55 55
A) ionic bonds B) 55 79 55
B) covalent bonds C) 55 79 79
C) hydrogen bonds D) 79 55 79
D) ion-dipole forces E) 134 55 134
E) London (dispersion) forces

4
Version A

25. The pressure, in atm, exerted by 1.85 mol of an


ideal gas placed in a 3.00 L container at
35.00 C is given by which of the following
expressions?

(1.85) (0.0821) (308)


A) atm
3.00
(1.85) (35.0)
B) atm
(0.0821) (3.00)
3.00
C) atm
(1.85) (0.0821) (308)
(1.85) (8.314) (308)
D) atm
3.00
(3.00) (1.85)
E) atm
(0.0821) (35.0)

27. Which of the following is a correctly balanced nuclear reaction?

238
A) 92
U → 232
90
Th + 42 He
249
B) 98
Cf + 157 N → 260
105
Db + 3 10 n
2
C) 1
H + 31 H → 42 He + 2 10 n
238
D) 92
U + 10 n → 239
92
U
40
E) 19
K → 40
20
Ca + 0
+1
β

5
Version A

28. Which of the following molecules contains only 29. What is the molality of a solution of phosphoric
single bonds? acid, H3PO4, that contains 24.5 g of phosphoric acid
(molar mass 98.8 g) in 100. g of H2O?
A) CH3COOH
B) CH3CH2COOCH3 A) 0.245 m
C) C2H6 B) 2.50 m
D) C6H6 C) 4.00 m
E) HCN D) 25.0 m
E) 40.0 m

30.
Mass (g)
Empty flask 18.990
Flask + liquid 39.493

The density of a pure liquid at 25°C was calculated by determining the mass and volume of a sample of the liquid.
A student measured the mass of a clean, dry 25.00 mL volumetric flask, filled the flask to its calibration mark with
the liquid, and then measured the mass of the flask and liquid. The recorded measurements are shown in the table
above. On the basis of this information, to how many significant figures should the density of the liquid be
reported?

A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 6
E) 8

31. A compound contains 30. percent sulfur and 70. 32. Gaseous cyclobutene undergoes a first-order
percent fluorine by mass. The empirical formula of reaction to form gaseous butadiene. At a particular
the compound is temperature, the partial pressure of cyclobutene in
the reaction vessel drops to one-eight its original
A) SF value in 124 seconds. What is the half-life for this
B) SF2 reaction at this temperature?
C) SF4
D) SF6 A) 15.5 sec
E) S2 F B) 31.0 sec
C) 41.3 sec
D) 62.0 sec
E) 124 sec

6
Version A

33. If 0.40 mol of H2 and 0.15 mol of O2 were to react


as completely as possible to produce H2O what
mass of reactant would remain?

A) 0.20 g of H2
B) 0.40 g of H2
C) 3.2 g of O2
D) 4.0 g of O2
E) 4.4 g of O2

34.
. . .Ca3(PO4)2(s) + . . .H3PO4(l) → . . .Ca(H2PO4)2(s)

When the equation above is balanced and all coefficients are reduced to lowest whole-number terms, what is the
coefficient for H3PO4(l)?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

35. 36. How many carbon atoms are contained in 2.8 g of


H2(g) + I2(g) 2 HI(g) ΔΗ > 0 C2H4?

Which of the following changes to the equilibrium A) 1.2 × 1023


system represented above will increase the quantity B) 3.0 × 1023
of HI(g) in the equilibrium mixture?
C) 6.0 × 1023
I. Adding H 2(g) D) 1.2 × 1024
II. Increasing the temperature
E) 6.0 × 1024
III. Decreasing the pressure

A) I only 37. Which of the following elements combines with


B) III only oxygen to form a covalent network solid?
C) I and II only
D) II and III only A) Si
E) I, II, and III B) S
C) C
D) Mg
E) Cs

7
Version A

38. How many mL of 10.0 M HC1 are needed to 40. On the basis of strength of intermolecular forces,
prepare 500.mL of 2.00 M HC1? which of the following elements would be expected
to have the highest melting point?
A) 1.00 mL
B) 10.0 mL A) Br2
C) 20.0 mL B) Cl2
D) 100. mL C) F2
E) 200. mL D) Kr
E) N2
39. A student mixes equal volumes of 1.0 M solutions
of tin(II) chloride and copper(II) sulfate and
observes that no precipitate forms. The student
mixes equal volumes of 1.0 M solutions of zinc(II)
sulfate and tin(II) fluoride and observes the
formation of a precipitate. The formula of the
precipitate must be

A) SnF2
B) SnSO4
C) Sn(SO4)2
D) ZnF
E) ZnF2

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41.

The diagram above represnets H2(g) and N2(g) in a closed container. Which of the following diagrams would
represent the results if the reaction shown below were to proceed as far as possible?
N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 NH3(g)

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

9
Version A

42. Equal masses of He and Ne are placed in a sealed 45.


container. What is the partial pressure of He if the
total pressure in the container is 6 atm?

A) 1 atm
B) 2 atm
C) 3 atm
D) 4 atm
E) 5 atm

43. A pure liquid in an open vessel boils at the


temperature at which the

A) molar entropy of the liquid becomes equal to


that of the gas
B) vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to The cooling curve above shows how the
the equilibrium pressure at the triple point temperature of a sample varies with time as the
C) vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to sample goes through phase changes. The sample
the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the starts as a gas, and heat is removed at a constant
liquid rate. At which time does the sample contain the
D) molar heat capacity of the liquid becomes equal most liquid?
to that of the gas
E) average kinetic energy of the liquid molecules A) t1
becomes equal to that of the gas molecules B) t2
C) t3
44. D) t4
C12(g) + 2 I (aq) → 2 C1 (aq) + I2(aq) E) t5

Which of the following best accounts for the fact 46. A solution is prepared by adding 16 g of CH 3OH
that a galvanic cell based on the reaction (molar mass 32 g) to 90. g of H2O (molar mass 18
represented above will generate electricity? g). The mole fraction of CH3OH in this solution is
closest to which of the following?
A) C12 can easily lose two electrons.
B) C12 is a stronger oxidizing agent than I 2. A) 0.1
C) I atoms have more electrons than do atoms B) 0.2
of C1. C) 0.3
D) I is a more stable species than I2. D) 0.4
E) 0.6
E) I2(s) is more soluble than Cl2(g).

10
Version A

47. When diluting concentrated H2SO4, one should 48. Which of the following is the conjugate acid of
slowly add acid to a beaker of water rather than add NH2–?
water to a beaker of acid. The reason for this
precaution is to ensure that A) NH2–
B) NH3
A) there is complete ionization of the H2SO4 C) H+
B) there is a sufficient volume of water to absorb D) NH4+
the heat released E) H2O
C) the water does not sink beneath the acid and
remain unmixed
49. Salts containing which of the following ions are
D) the acid does not react with impurities in the
generally insoluble in cold water?
dry beaker
E) any SO2 released quickly redissolves in the
A) Acetate
water B) Ammonium
C) Potassium
D) Nitrate
E) Phosphate

50.
2 MnO4 ¯(aq) + 10 Br¯(aq) + 16 H+(aq) → 2 Mn2+(aq) + 5 Br2(aq) + 8 H2O(l)

How many electrons are transferred in the reaction represented by the balanced equation above?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 5
D) 8
E) 10

51. Under which of the following conditions of 52. Which of the following measures of concentration
temperature and pressure would 1.0 mol of the real changes with temperature?
gas CO2(g) behave most like an ideal gas?
A) Mass percentage
Temperature Pressure B) Mole fraction
(K) (atm) C) Molarity
A) 100 0.1 D) Molality
B) 100 100 E) Parts per million by mass
C) 800 0.1
D) 800 1
E) 800 100

11
Version A

53. A sample of 10.0 mol of butyric acid, HC4H7O2, a 56. The London (dispersion) forces are weakest for
weak acid, is dissolved in 1000. g of water to make which of the following gases under the same
a 10.0-molal solution. Which of the following conditions of temperature and pressure?
would be the best method to determine the molarity
of the solution? (In each case, assume that no A) H2
additional information is available.) B) O2
C) Xe
A) Titration of the solution with standard acid D) F2
B) Measurement of the pH with a pH meter E) N2
C) Determination of the freezing point of the
solution
57.
D) Measurement of the total volume of the
solution H—C≡C—H
E) Measurement of the electrical conductivity of What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms in a
the solution molecule of ethyne, represented above?

54. The nonvolatile compound ethylene glycol, A) sp


C2H6O2, forms nearly ideal solutions with water. B) sp2
What is the vapor pressure of a solution made from C) sp3
1.00 mole of C2H6O2 and 9.00 moles of H2O if the D) dsp2
vapor pressure of pure water at the same E) d2sp
temperature is 25.0 mm Hg?
58. A 360. mg sample of aspirin, C9H8O4, (molar mass
A) 2.50 mm Hg 180. g), is dissolved in enough water to produce
B) 7.50 mm Hg 200. mL of solution. What is the molarity of
C) 12.5 mm Hg aspirin in a 50. mL sample of this solution?
D) 22.5 mm Hg
E) 27.5 mm Hg A) 0.0800 M
B) 0.0400 M
55. C) 0.0200 M
2 X(g) + Y(g) 3 Z(g) D) 0.0100 M
E) 0.00250 M
The reaction mixture represented above is at
equilibrium at 298 K, and the molar concentrations
are [ X ] = 2.0 M, [Y ] = 0.5 M, and [Z ] = 4.0 M.
What is the value of the equilibrium constant for
the reaction at 298K?

A) 0.50
B) 2.0
C) 4.0
D) 16
E) 32

12
Version A

59. 61.

The structure of a molecule of “banana oil” is


shown above. This organic compound is an
example of
The diagram above represents a mixture of NO2(g)
A) an alcohol
and N2O4(g) in a 1.0 L container at a given
B) an amine
temperature. The two gases are in equilibrium C) a carboxylic acid
according to the equation 2 NO 2(g) N2O4(g). D) an ester
Which of the following must be true about the E) a ketone
value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction at
this temperature? 62. Which of the following pieces of laboratory
glassware should be used to most accurately
A) K=0 measure out a 25.00 mL sample of a solution?
B) 0<K<1
C) K=1 A) 5 mL pipet
D) K>1 B) 25 mL pipet
E) Thee is not enough information to determine C) 25 mL beaker
the relative value of K. D) 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask
E) 50 mL graduated cylinder
60. When aqueous NH3 is first added to a solution
containing Ni2+, a precipitate forms, but when an 63. Which of the following best helps to account for
excess of aqueous NH3 is added, the precipitate the fact that the F– ion is smaller than the O2– ion?
dissolves. Which of the following best explains A) F– has a larger nuclear mass than O2– has.
why the precipitate dissolves? B) F– has a larger nuclear charge than O2– has.
C) F– has more electrons than O2– has.
A) Ni2+ forms hydrogen bonds with NH 3. D) F– is more electronegative than O2– is.
B) Ni2+ forms a complex ion with NH3. E) F– is more polarizable than O2– is.
C) Ni2+ acts as a Bronsted-Lowry base.
D) Ni2+ is oxidized to Ni3+. 64. Which of the following solutions has a pH greater
E) Ni2+ is reduced to Ni +. than 7.0?

A) 0.10 M KBr
B) 0.10 M NH4Cl
C) 0.10 M HC2H3O2
D) 0.10 M NaF
E) 0.10 M HI

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65. 66. Factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction


include which of the following?

I. Frequency of collisions of reactant particles


II. Kinetic energy of collisions of reactant
particles
III. Orientation of reactant particles during
collisions

A) II only
B) I and II only
C) I and III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III
In a laboratory experiment, H2(g) is collected over
water in a gas-collection tube as shown in the
diagram above. The temperature of the water is
21°C and the atmospheric pressure in the laboratory
is measured to be 772 torr. Before measuring the
volume of gas collected what step, if any must be
taken to make it possible to determine the total gas
pressure inside the tube?

A) Tilt the tube to the side enough to let some air


in to break the partial vacuum in the tube.
B) Lift the tube upward until it is just barely
immersed in the water.
C) Move the tube downward until the water level
is the same inside and outside the tube.
D) Adjust the temperature of the water to 25°C.
E) No further steps need to be taken as long as the
temperature of the water is known.

67.
...H+(aq) + ...NO2–(aq) + ...Cr2O72–(aq) → ...Cr3+ (aq) +.... NO3–(aq) +... H2O(l)

When the equation above is balanced and all coefficients are reduced to lowest whole-number terms, the
coefficient for H2O(l) is

A) 2
B) 4
C) 5
D) 6
E) 8

14
Version A

68. The pH of a solution prepared by the addition of 72. When mixed, each of the following pairs of
10. mL of 0.002 M KOH(aq) to 10. mL of distilled reactants gives visible evidence of a chemical
water is closest to reaction EXCEPT

A) 12 A) Na2CO3(s) + HC1(aq)
B) 11 B) Zn(s) + HC1(aq)
C) 10 C) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq)
D) 4 D) FeC13(aq) + KOH(aq)
E) 3 E) NH4C1(aq) + HC1(aq)

69. At standard temperature and pressure, a 0.50 mol 73.


sample of H2 gas and a separate 1.0 mol sample of
O2 gas have the same

A) average molecular kinetic energy


B) average molecular speed
C) volume
D) effusion rate
E) density
The figure above shows two closed containers.
70. Naturally produced amino acids typically contain Each contains the same volume of acetone in
all of the following elements EXCEPT equilibrium with its vapor at the same temperature.
The vapor pressure of the acetone is
A) nitrogen
B) chlorine A) higher in container 1 because the surface area
C) oxygen of the liquid is greater
D) hydrogen B) higher in container 1 because the volume of
E) carbon vapor is greater
C) lower in container 1 because the level of the
71. Of the following single bonds, which is the LEAST liquid is lower
polar? D) the same in both containers because the volume
of the liquid is the same
A) N–H E) the same in both containers because the
B) H–F temperature is the same
C) O–F
D) I–F
E) O–H

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74. An electric current of 1.00 ampere is passed through an aqueous solution of Ni(NO 3)2. How long will it take to
plate out exactly 1.00 mol of nickel metal, assuming 100 percent current efficiency?

(1 faraday = 96,500 coulombs = 6.02 × 1023 electrons)

A) 386,000 sec
B) 193,000 sec
C) 96,500 sec
D) 48,200 sec
E) 24,100 sec

75. Which of the following molecules has an angular (bent) geometry that is commonly represented as a resonance
hybrid of two or more electron-dot structures?

A) CO2
B) O3
C) CH4
D) BeF2
E) OF2

16
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