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Research Research & & Development Development activities activities STASSKOL GmbH Dr. Marc Langela August, 28

ResearchResearch && DevelopmentDevelopment activitiesactivities

& & Development Development activities activities STASSKOL GmbH Dr. Marc Langela August, 28 t h 2009

STASSKOL GmbH

Dr. Marc Langela

August, 28 th 2009

Development activities activities STASSKOL GmbH Dr. Marc Langela August, 28 t h 2009 Lan / 28.08.09

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 1 / 73

OutlineOutline

⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • • • • •
⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • • • • •

• New Materials: why, who and how?

Development of polymer processing

Development of polymer processing

Development of polymer characterization

Development of polymer characterization

Material development

Material development

Material production at the STASSKOL site

Material production at the STASSKOL site

development Material production at the STASSKOL site Material production at the STASSKOL site Lan / 28.08.09

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 2 / 73

PolymersPolymers materialmaterial ofof 2121 stst centurycentury

material of of 21 21 s t s t century century Production volume from 1950 to
material of of 21 21 s t s t century century Production volume from 1950 to

Production volume from 1950 to 2002

s t century century Production volume from 1950 to 2002 kt 180.000 Worldwide Worldwide Production 2002:
kt 180.000 Worldwide Worldwide Production 2002: Worldwide*) 194.000 kt 140.000 Western Europe Germany 51.000 kt
kt
180.000
Worldwide Worldwide
Production 2002:
Worldwide*)
194.000 kt
140.000
Western Europe
Germany
51.000
kt
16.500
kt
=>=> 2010:2010: apprappr 260.000260.000 ktkt
100.000
60.000
Western Western Europe Europe
20.000
Germany
Germany
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000

*) including adhesives, paints, dispersions, fibres, etc.

Origin: BASF

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 3 / 73

NewNew MaterialsMaterials marketmarket rulesrules ofof polymerpolymer productionproduction

rules rules of of polymer polymer production production polymer commodities many many applications applications one
rules rules of of polymer polymer production production polymer commodities many many applications applications one
rules rules of of polymer polymer production production polymer commodities many many applications applications one
polymer commodities
polymer commodities

manymany

applicationsapplications

oneone specialspecial application:application:

pistonpiston compressorcompressor

sealing sealing material material
sealing sealing material material

key key fact: fact: polymers, polymers,

but but totally totally different different market market rules rules

large

very small

very small

low

Optimized materials for compressor sealings are not available from traditional polymer suppliers like BASF, Evonics, GE, etc. Need for material optimization by the supplier of compressor sealings!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 4 / 73

NewNew MaterialsMaterials

⇒ ⇒ New New Materials Materials Benefits • Reduction of material costs • Products with optimized
⇒ ⇒ New New Materials Materials Benefits • Reduction of material costs • Products with optimized

Benefits

• Reduction of material costs

• Products with optimized properties

• Better quality control

• Independence from suppliers

• Lower delivery times

properties • Better quality control • Independence from suppliers • Lower delivery times Lan / 28.08.09
properties • Better quality control • Independence from suppliers • Lower delivery times Lan / 28.08.09
properties • Better quality control • Independence from suppliers • Lower delivery times Lan / 28.08.09
properties • Better quality control • Independence from suppliers • Lower delivery times Lan / 28.08.09

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 5 / 73

NewNew MaterialsMaterials

⇒ ⇒ New New Materials Materials Requirements Evaluation of raw materials Development of PTFE processing Development
⇒ ⇒ New New Materials Materials Requirements Evaluation of raw materials Development of PTFE processing Development

Requirements

Evaluation of raw materials

Development of PTFE processing

Development of characterization methods Material development
Development of
characterization methods
Material development
of characterization methods Material development Sealing materials for lubricated applications Sealing
of characterization methods Material development Sealing materials for lubricated applications Sealing
Sealing materials for lubricated applications
Sealing materials for
lubricated applications
Sealing materials for dry-running appl.
Sealing materials for
dry-running appl.
Sealing materials for lubricated applications Sealing materials for dry-running appl. Lan / 28.08.09 slide 6 /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 6 / 73

OutlineOutline

⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing
⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing

• New Materials: why, who and how?

• Development of polymer processing

• Development of polymer characterization

• Material development

• Material production at the STASSKOL site

polymer characterization • Material development • Material production at the STASSKOL site Lan / 28.08.09 slide

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 7 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer processingprocessing

Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Steps from the powders to the semi finished product
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Steps from the powders to the semi finished product
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Steps from the powders to the semi finished product

Steps from the powders to the semi finished product

PTFE

Additives

from the powders to the semi finished product PTFE Additives Lubricants Homogeneous Powder Mixture Compression Molding

Lubricants

Homogeneous Powder Mixture

product PTFE Additives Lubricants Homogeneous Powder Mixture Compression Molding Semi finished product Lan / 28.08.09

Compression

Molding

Additives Lubricants Homogeneous Powder Mixture Compression Molding Semi finished product Lan / 28.08.09 slide 8 /

Semi finished product

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 8 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer processingprocessing

Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Mixing of PTFE and Additives Mixing procedure Recipe
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Mixing of PTFE and Additives Mixing procedure Recipe

Mixing of PTFE and Additives

Mixing procedure

Recipe

Mixing of PTFE and Additives Mixing procedure Recipe Creating the pre-mixture Mixing device 4200 rpm 10

Creating the pre-mixture

Mixing device 4200 rpm 10 l Volume Programmable

Mixing device

4200 rpm 10 l Volume Programmable

Mixing device 4200 rpm 10 l Volume Programmable Cooling down the pre-mixture Transfer of the mixture

Cooling down the pre-mixture

rpm 10 l Volume Programmable Cooling down the pre-mixture Transfer of the mixture in the mixing

Transfer of the mixture in the mixing device

down the pre-mixture Transfer of the mixture in the mixing device Executing the mixing program Lan

Executing the mixing program

down the pre-mixture Transfer of the mixture in the mixing device Executing the mixing program Lan

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 9 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer processingprocessing

Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Molding of PTFE compounds Rotational axis Plunger Core
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Molding of PTFE compounds Rotational axis Plunger Core
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Molding of PTFE compounds Rotational axis Plunger Core

Molding of PTFE compounds

Rotational axis

Plunger Core Shell Base plate PTFE PTFE
Plunger
Core
Shell
Base plate
PTFE
PTFE

Pressure plates

Plunger Core Shell Base plate PTFE PTFE Pressure plates Efficient and modular tool concept Highly reproducible

Efficient and modular tool concept Highly reproducible material properties Short setup times Large variety of outer and inner diameters

Tool with further optimizations for hot compression molding

Parameters

Pressure, Pressure duration Temperature, Duration of Sinter Process

molding Parameters Pressure, Pressure duration Temperature, Duration of Sinter Process Lan / 28.08.09 slide 10 /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 10 / 73

CharacterizationCharacterization ofof sealingsealing materialsmaterials

of of sealing sealing materials materials 1. Material composition & processing Pressure PTFE
of of sealing sealing materials materials 1. Material composition & processing Pressure PTFE

1. Material composition & processing

Pressure

PTFE powder
PTFE
powder

Pressure

composition & processing Pressure PTFE powder Pressure bush- ing pre- form Cold preforming pre-heated tool
bush- ing
bush-
ing
pre- form
pre-
form
Pressure PTFE powder Pressure bush- ing pre- form Cold preforming pre-heated tool Pressure free sinter process

Cold preforming

pre-heated tool

Pressure free sinter process (8 h @ 380 °C)

- easy process

- average mechanical properties

- average wear resistance

- average mechanical properties - average wear resistance Sinter process under pressure complex temperature profile -

Sinter process under pressure

complex temperature profile

- time consuming process

- excellent mechanical properties

- high wear resistance

- time consuming process - excellent mechanical properties - high wear resistance Lan / 28.08.09 slide
- time consuming process - excellent mechanical properties - high wear resistance Lan / 28.08.09 slide

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 11 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer processingprocessing

Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Test 1 12.09.07 Test 2 20.09.07 Test 3 24.09.07
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing Test 1 12.09.07 Test 2 20.09.07 Test 3 24.09.07

Test 1

12.09.07

Test 2

20.09.07

Test 3

24.09.07

processing Test 1 12.09.07 Test 2 20.09.07 Test 3 24.09.07 First tool for hot compression No
processing Test 1 12.09.07 Test 2 20.09.07 Test 3 24.09.07 First tool for hot compression No
processing Test 1 12.09.07 Test 2 20.09.07 Test 3 24.09.07 First tool for hot compression No

First tool for hot compression No homogeneous temperature profile Problems at the ejection of the bushing

Improved temperature homogeneity Problems at the ejection by fretting of the tool components

Optimized pressure plate Optimized temperature profile Small crack caused by inhomogeneous pressure distribution Further improvements needed

Small crack caused by inhomogeneous pressure distribution Further improvements needed Lan / 28.08.09 slide 12 /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 12 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer processingprocessing

Development of of polymer polymer processing processing STASSKOL – laboratory 5 WB 4 Oven Hydraulic press
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing STASSKOL – laboratory 5 WB 4 Oven Hydraulic press
Development of of polymer polymer processing processing STASSKOL – laboratory 5 WB 4 Oven Hydraulic press
STASSKOL – laboratory 5 WB 4 Oven Hydraulic press WB 3 1 H WB M
STASSKOL – laboratory
5
WB
4
Oven
Hydraulic
press
WB
3
1
H
WB
M
2
F
Rack for matrix materials and fillers
Tools

Process steps:

1 – Mixing of the components

2 – Freezing

3 – Homogenization

4 – Pressure application

5 – Sintering

4 – Pressure application 5 – Sintering H = Hood F = Freezer M = Mixing

H

= Hood

F

= Freezer

M = Mixing device

B = Bench for handling

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 13 / 73

OutlineOutline

⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing
⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing

• New Materials: why, who and how?

• Development of polymer processing

• Development of polymer characterization

• Material development

• Material production at the STASSKOL site

characterization • Material development • Material production at the STASSKOL site Lan / 28.08.09 slide 14

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 14 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Origins from the greek word for
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Origins from the greek word for

Basics about tribology

characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Origins from the greek word for friction ( → tribos).

• Origins from the greek word for friction (tribos).

• Interdisciplinary part of mechanical engineering

• Combination of engineering, material science, physics and chemistry

• Scientific description of friction, wear and lubrication

• Development of technologies for optimization of friction behavior.

Economic importance:

About 5 % of the gross products of the industrial nations are getting lost by friction and wear This means for Germany: 35 Billion EUR/Year

[Origin: Society of tribology; 2007].

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 15 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system

Basics about tribology

characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system property and never a

• Tribology is always a system property and never a material property!

1. 1. Material Material 2. Service composition composition parameter Temperature, Pressure, Gas, Dew point,
1. 1. Material Material
2. Service
composition composition
parameter
Temperature,
Pressure,
Gas,
Dew point,
Counter surface,
Roughness of CS,
etc.
3. Testing
equipment
Test rig design
Direction of
Movement,
sample geometry,
etc.
Polymer matrix Fillers Lubricants
Polymer matrix
Fillers
Lubricants

Samples can be very wear resistant in one system and they can fail in systems with other operational conditions.

A material testing procedure close to the compressor is needed!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 16 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization PTFE – A long history of an innovative material 1941
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization PTFE – A long history of an innovative material 1941

PTFE – A long history of an innovative material

1941

– Patent of PTFE under the brand name Teflon ® by DuPont.

1946

– Use of PTFE for machine parts at industrial and military applications

1960

– Start of the career as anti-stick coating for frying pans

Today:

Broad product family based on PTFE (coatings, films, powders, sheets, grades for injection molding, etc.) Distribution under a large variety of product names

• Usage in a broad spectrum in the industry from aerospace to pharmacy

• Distribution of PTFE in over 40 countries

to pharmacy • Distribution of PTFE in over 40 countries Roy Plunkett, 1938 PTFE as „accident“

Roy Plunkett, 1938 PTFE as „accident“

• Distribution of PTFE in over 40 countries Roy Plunkett, 1938 PTFE as „accident“ Lan /
• Distribution of PTFE in over 40 countries Roy Plunkett, 1938 PTFE as „accident“ Lan /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 17 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basic properties of native PTFE • Outstanding resistance
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basic properties of native PTFE • Outstanding resistance

Basic properties of native PTFE

Outstanding resistance against light and weather

Outstanding chemical resistance but

light and weather • Outstanding chemical resistance but no resistance against fluorinated gases (e.g. cooling

no resistance against fluorinated gases (e.g. cooling agents)

No detectable water absorption

Lowest friction coefficient of all commercial polymers

High cold flow (poor mechanical properties)

Extremely high wear rate (not suitable for compressor sealings)

Fillers and lubricants have to be added to overcome the high cold flow and high wear rate

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 18 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Fillers (mainly improving the mechanical properties) •
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Fillers (mainly improving the mechanical properties) •
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Fillers (mainly improving the mechanical properties) •

Fillers (mainly improving the mechanical properties)

Glass fibers und Glass pearls

Metal powders (e.g. bronze or steel powder)

Carbon fibers

Carbon black (hard and/or weak)

• Carbon fibers • Carbon black (hard and/or weak) Lubricants (mainly improving the tribological properties)
• Carbon fibers • Carbon black (hard and/or weak) Lubricants (mainly improving the tribological properties)

Lubricants (mainly improving the tribological properties)

Graphite

Molybdenum disulfide

(mainly improving the tribological properties) • Graphite • Molybdenum disulfide Lan / 28.08.09 slide 19 /
(mainly improving the tribological properties) • Graphite • Molybdenum disulfide Lan / 28.08.09 slide 19 /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 19 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Optimization of the wear properties • Despite its
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Optimization of the wear properties • Despite its

Optimization of the wear properties

characterization Optimization of the wear properties • Despite its excellent properties, the wear rate and the

• Despite its excellent properties, the wear rate and the cold flow of PTFE are to high for engineering applications. These properties can be improved considerably by adding suitable fillers.

parameter

mechan.

cold flow

friction

wear

chemical

expansion

thermal

properties

coefficient

resistance

coefficient

conductivity

virgin

virgin
virgin
virgin
virgin
virgin
virgin
virgin

PTFE

PTFE +

PTFE +
PTFE +
PTFE +
PTFE +
PTFE +
PTFE +
PTFE +
PTFE +

Fillers

anorg./org

trends:

blue: no effect

PTFE + Fillers anorg./org trends: blue: no effect red: negativ green: positiv The choice of the

red: negativ

green: positiv

The choice of the fillers and lubricants and the right concentrations are responsible for matching the application requirements

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 20 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system

Basics about tribology

characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system property and never a

• Tribology is always a system property and never a material property!

1. Material composition 2. 2. Service Service parameter parameter Temperature, Pressure, Gas, Dew point, Counter
1. Material
composition
2. 2. Service Service
parameter parameter
Temperature,
Pressure,
Gas,
Dew point,
Counter surface,
Roughness of CS,
etc.
3. Testing
equipment
Test rig design
Direction of
Movement,
sample geometry,
etc.
Polymer matrix Fillers Lubricants
Polymer matrix
Fillers
Lubricants

Samples can be very wear resistant in one system and they can fail in systems with other operational conditions.

A material testing close to the compressor is needed!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 21 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Tribological System Operation conditions (Temperature,
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Tribological System Operation conditions (Temperature,

Tribological System

Operation conditions

(Temperature, velocity, etc.)

Structure of the tribological system intermediate Sample system (gas and/or lubricant) Counter suface
Structure of the tribological system
intermediate
Sample
system
(gas and/or
lubricant)
Counter
suface

Structural changes of the surface (visual effects)

friction coefficient, wear rate (measured properties)

friction coefficient, wear rate (measured properties) Tribology is always a system property and never a

Tribology is always a system property and never a material property! Samples can be very wear resistant in one system and they can fail in systems with other operational conditions.

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 22 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Tribological system of a piston compressor Parameters: •
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Tribological system of a piston compressor Parameters: •

Tribological system of a piston compressor

Parameters:

Tribological system of a piston compressor Parameters: • Material of the sealing ring (composition) • Material

• Material of the sealing ring (composition)

• Material of the piston rod or cylinder (with or without coatings)

• Lubrication (intermediate substance)

• Surrounding media (e.g. gas type)

• Temperature

• Dew point of the gas

• Roughness of the piston rod or cylinder

• Pressure of application

• Velocity of the piston rod or piston

Changing one parameter can change the tribological material behavior!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 23 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Service parameters – Classification of the gas system Gas
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Service parameters – Classification of the gas system Gas
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Service parameters – Classification of the gas system Gas

Service parameters – Classification of the gas system

Gas
Gas

inert

(N 2 )

oxidizing (air, O 2 )

reducing (H 2 , CH 4 )

Humidity
Humidity

dry

wet

bone-dry

Major focus of actual developments: dry and bone-dry gases.

Improvements against competitor materials

The other parameter (T, p, etc.) have also be close to the application

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 24 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system

Basics about tribology

characterization characterization Basics about tribology • Tribology is always a system property and never a

• Tribology is always a system property and never a material property!

1. Material composition 2. Service parameter Temperature, Pressure, Gas, Dew point, Counter surface, Roughness of
1. Material
composition
2. Service
parameter
Temperature,
Pressure,
Gas,
Dew point,
Counter surface,
Roughness of CS,
etc.
3. 3. Testing Testing
equipment equipment
Test rig design
Direction of
Movement,
sample geometry,
etc.
Polymer matrix Fillers Lubricants
Polymer matrix
Fillers
Lubricants

Samples can be very wear resistant in one system and they can fail in systems with other operational conditions.

A material testing close to the compressor is needed!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 25 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Wear measurement Measurement of the wear rate by a pin/disc
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Wear measurement Measurement of the wear rate by a pin/disc
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Wear measurement Measurement of the wear rate by a pin/disc

Wear measurement

Measurement of the wear rate by a pin/disc tribometer

counter surface

sample pin v (velocity of rotation)
sample pin
v (velocity of rotation)

p (pressure of application)

The absolute wear [mm] is proportional to the pressure (p in N/mm 2 ), to the friction velocity (v in m/sec) and to the test duration (t in sec)

This means:

wear rate k =

wear t p v

Friction coefficient: µµµµ = F R /F N

[mm 3 /Nm]

But: Is it comparable to oscillating movement?

3 /Nm] But: Is it comparable to oscillating movement? Parameters • Continuous measurement of friction

Parameters

• Continuous measurement of friction coefficients, wear rates and temperature

• Sample velocity of up to 6 m/sec

• Variable contact pressures

• Controlled temperature of the counter surface up to 150°C

• Different gaseous media

)

• Dew point: below - 80°C

• Exchangeable counter surfaces

(N 2 , H 2 , CH 4

(X20,GG, Repcoat, Ni-Resist

)

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 26 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Comparison of tribological behavior under rotational and
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Comparison of tribological behavior under rotational and
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Comparison of tribological behavior under rotational and

Comparison of tribological behavior under rotational and oscillatory movement

material rotation oscillation c. surf. k-fact. temp. time k-fact. temp. time
material
rotation
oscillation
c. surf.
k-fact. temp. time k-fact. temp. time

Comparison between the results of tribological characterization

The tribological properties under rotational movement are not corresponding to the tribological properties under oscillatory movement

The results of rotational tribology can not be converted to the test compressor

A oscillatory tribometer comparable to the compressor is needed!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 27 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Wear measurement under reciprocating movement Principle of
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Wear measurement under reciprocating movement Principle of

Wear measurement under reciprocating movement

Principle of measurement

Pressure load p = F N / A

Frictional force F F

Pressure load p = F N / A Frictional force F F Sample ∆ l Counter

Sample

Pressure load p = F N / A Frictional force F F Sample ∆ l Counter

l

load p = F N / A Frictional force F F Sample ∆ l Counter surface

Counter surface

Counter surface

Direction

of movement (speed v)

Sample ∆ l Counter surface Direction of movement (speed v) Test duration ∆ t Two major

Test duration t

Two major responses:

a) Friction coefficient: µ = F F / F N

b) Wear rate:

k = l / (p v t)

Temperatureµ = F F / F N b) Wear rate: k = ∆ l / (p

Life-time ( Reliability ) (Reliability)

/ F N b) Wear rate: k = ∆ l / (p v ∆ t) Temperature

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 28 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating Tribometer – Requirements • Continuous
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating Tribometer – Requirements • Continuous

Oscillating Tribometer – Requirements

• Continuous measurement of friction coefficients, wear rates and temperature

• Stroke of 130 mm

• Average sample velocity of up to 6 m/s

• Normal force to counter surface: 50 N to 500 N (pressures of 10 bars to 100 bars)

• Simultaneous test of 4 samples

• Controlled temperature of the counter surface up to 200°C

• Different gaseous media (N 2 , H 2 , CH 4

• Dew point: below - 80°C (adjustable)

• Exchangeable counter surfaces of different materials

)

(X20,GG, Tungsten carbide, Repcoat, Ni-Resist

)

materials ) (X20,GG, Tungsten carbide, Repcoat, Ni-Resist ) Drive train and working principle of the tribometer

Drive train and working principle of the tribometer has to be comparable to a piston compressor

Transferability of the results

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 29 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating tribometer – time line Project start:
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating tribometer – time line Project start:

Oscillating tribometer – time line

characterization Oscillating tribometer – time line Project start: Validation of measuring unit: Complete

Project start:

Validation of measuring unit:

Complete drawings for the drive train:

Completion of tribometer construction:

Test runs at the supplier:

Tribometer at STASSKOL:

20.08.2007

25.10.2007

11.01.2008

KW18

KW18 - KW22

July 2008

Status:

Tests on reproducibility and transferability Material development

- KW22 July 2008 Status: Tests on reproducibility and transferability Material development Lan / 28.08.09 slide

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 30 / 73

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof polymerpolymer characterizationcharacterization

of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating Tribometer – Operating @ STASSKOL site
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating Tribometer – Operating @ STASSKOL site
of of polymer polymer characterization characterization Oscillating Tribometer – Operating @ STASSKOL site

Oscillating Tribometer – Operating @ STASSKOL site

Oscillating Tribometer – Operating @ STASSKOL site Oscillating tribometer under process gas with temperature

Oscillating tribometer under process gas with temperature controlling units

tribometer under process gas with temperature controlling units Tribometer head in detail Lan / 28.08.09 slide

Tribometer head in detail

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 31 / 73

CharacterizationCharacterization ofof sealingsealing materialsmaterials

of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan /
of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan /
of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan /

The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing

of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan / 28.08.09 slide 32 /
of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan / 28.08.09 slide 32 /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 32 / 73

CharacterizationCharacterization ofof sealingsealing materialsmaterials

of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan /
of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan /
of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan /

The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing

of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Lan / 28.08.09 slide 33 /

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 33 / 73

CharacterizationCharacterization ofof sealingsealing materialsmaterials

of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing
of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing
of of sealing sealing materials materials The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing

The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing

The STASSKOL-COMPRESSOR for close-to-service testing Highlights: a) variable length of packing b) Cooled /

Highlights:

a) variable length of packing

b) Cooled / uncooled packings

c) Various systems of packings

d) Monitoring the pressure and temperature

of each packing chamber

e) Monitoring of packing´s leakage

f) Various rod diameters

g) 250 bar final pressure for non lube application

h) Cooled rod

i) Applied gases: N 2 , H 2 , CH 4 , AIR, CO 2

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 34 / 73

CharacterizationCharacterization ofof sealingsealing materialsmaterials

of of sealing sealing materials materials Layout of the piston rod packing Sealing ring pair Leakage
of of sealing sealing materials materials Layout of the piston rod packing Sealing ring pair Leakage

Layout of the piston rod packing

materials materials Layout of the piston rod packing Sealing ring pair Leakage gas sealing Measurement of
Sealing ring pair Leakage gas sealing Measurement of the chamber temperature Measurement of the gas
Sealing ring pair
Leakage gas sealing
Measurement of the
chamber temperature
Measurement of the
gas temperature
Pressure
breaker
Pressure measurement

Determination of the working principle of the piston rod packing

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 35 / 73

OutlineOutline

⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing
⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing

• New Materials: why, who and how?

• Development of polymer processing

• Development of polymer characterization

• Material development

• Material production at the STASSKOL site

characterization • Material development • Material production at the STASSKOL site Lan / 28.08.09 slide 36

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 36 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment atat STASSKOLSTASSKOL

Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL Development process Product (Field) Test planning Analysis
Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL Development process Product (Field) Test planning Analysis
Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL Development process Product (Field) Test planning Analysis

Development process

Product (Field)

Product (Field)

at at STASSKOL STASSKOL Development process Product (Field) Test planning Analysis Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM)

Test planning Analysis

Development process Product (Field) Test planning Analysis Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM) Finding the right mix

Mixing

process Product (Field) Test planning Analysis Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM) Finding the right mix Parameters

“real-Testing” (FPM)

Test planning Analysis Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM) Finding the right mix Parameters • Material
Test planning Analysis Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM) Finding the right mix Parameters • Material

Finding the right mix

Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM) Finding the right mix Parameters • Material composition •
Mixing “real-Testing” (FPM) Finding the right mix Parameters • Material composition •

Parameters

Material composition

Processing parameters (p, T,

)

Testing conditions (p, T, v, t, gas)

) • Testing conditions (p, T, v, t, gas) • Semi finished product Characterization (tribological,

Semi finished product

Characterization (tribological, mechanical, etc.)

Efficient chain for a quick development of custom-made materials!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 37 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment atat STASSKOLSTASSKOL

Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL STASSKOL – Development Database Raw materials Mixing
Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL STASSKOL – Development Database Raw materials Mixing
Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL STASSKOL – Development Database Raw materials Mixing
Material development development at at STASSKOL STASSKOL STASSKOL – Development Database Raw materials Mixing

STASSKOL – Development Database

Raw materials Mixing Mixture Molding Bushing Machining Sealing ring Tribometer Pins
Raw materials
Mixing
Mixture
Molding
Bushing
Machining
Sealing ring
Tribometer Pins

Lot no., sample, etc.

Mixture no., sample, etc.

Bushing no., etc.

sample, etc. Mixture no., sample, etc. Bushing no., etc. Tensile test samples Bushing no Database for
Tensile test samples
Tensile test
samples

Bushing no

Database for material processing and handling Documentation of all steps for 100% traceability

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 38 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications Material
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications Material
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications Material

Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications

Material

Density [g/cm 3 ]

Modulus

Elongation at break [%]

k-factor* [10 -7 mm 3 /Nm]

µµµµ-

Additives

[MPa]

factor*

Competitor 1

2,22

970

147

2,3

0,07

GF

Competitor 2

2,24

1104

300

2,5

0,07

GF

STASSKOL

2,24

1278

232

0,6

0,06

GF + CP

GF = Glass fibers, CP = Color pigment, * = rotating, X20CrMo13

STASSKOL materials can be colorful Higher modules of STASSKOL materials Lower friction coefficients of STASSKOL materials Lower wear rates of STASSKOL materials

Higher time of service is expected

materials Lower wear rates of STASSKOL materials Higher time of service is expected Lan / 28.08.09
materials Lower wear rates of STASSKOL materials Higher time of service is expected Lan / 28.08.09

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 39 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications

Properties of STASSKOL materials for lubricated applications

Morphology of STASSKOL Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy

of STASSKOL Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy x 20 magnification Sample 1: Material composition: PTFE +
x 20
x 20

magnification

Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy x 20 magnification Sample 1: Material composition: PTFE + glass fiber
Sample 1: Material composition: PTFE + glass fiber + color pigment
Sample 1:
Material composition:
PTFE + glass fiber + color pigment
Material composition: PTFE + glass fiber + color pigment Homogeneous distribution and good bonding of filler

Homogeneous distribution and good bonding of filler particles

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 40 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal: dry Hydrogen applications Gas inert (N 2 )
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal: dry Hydrogen applications Gas inert (N 2 )

Development goal: dry Hydrogen applications

Gas
Gas

inert

(N 2 )

oxidizing (air, O 2 )

reducing reducing

(H (H

, , CH CH ) )

2 2

4 4

Humidity
Humidity

dry dry

wet

bone-dry

, CH CH ) ) 2 2 4 4 Humidity dry dry wet bone-dry Development of

Development of a sealing material for dry Hydrogen applications

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 41 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of a substitute of FOF-315 Measuring unit 1 2
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of a substitute of FOF-315 Measuring unit 1 2

Development of a substitute of FOF-315

development Development of a substitute of FOF-315 Measuring unit 1 2 3 4 Bushing no.

Measuring unit

1

2

3

4

Bushing no.

20080514-1

20080514-2

20080514-3

20080514-4

Filler &

Carbon black (cold comp.)

Carbon fiber (cold comp.)

Carbon black (hot comp.)

Carbon fiber (hot comp.)

Processing

Counter surface

GG 30

GG 30

GG 30

GG 30

Contact force

50 N

50 N

50 N

50 N

Temperature

-

-

-

-

Velocity

2,7 m/sec

2,7 m/sec

2,7 m/sec

2,7 m/sec

Gas

Air

Air

Air

Air

Tribometer test run no. 389

Test duration: 12 hours

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 42 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Oscillation tribometer – test run no. 389 vs. compressor run
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Oscillation tribometer – test run no. 389 vs. compressor run
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Oscillation tribometer – test run no. 389 vs. compressor run

Oscillation tribometer – test run no. 389 vs. compressor run B15

           

Wear ΣΣΣΣ Ch1, Ch2 absolute

k-Factor

Wear ΣΣΣΣ Ch1, Ch2 normalized

k-Factor

Wear

Wear

Wear

Wear

V389

V389

Packing

Material

CR Ch1

SR Ch1

CR Ch2

SR Ch2

absolute

normalized

 

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm

3 /Nm]

[a.u.]

[a.u.]

1

H20080514-1

0,083

0,210

0,083

0,123

0,499

2,08E-5

12,5

11,1

2

H20080514-3

0,147

0,300

0,143

0,177

0,767

2,54E-5

19,2

13,6

3

H20080514-4

0,000

0,000

0,010

0,030

0,040

1,87E-6

1,0

1,0

4

FOF-315

0,120

0,367

0,097

0,090

0,674

 

-

16,9

-

Differences:

Counter surface, temperatures, gas, dew point

CR = cover ring SR = sealing ring Ch = chamber

Results of STASSKOL compressor and oscillating tribometer were comparable

Two STASSKOL materials did have lower wear than FOF-315

Further development was done to improve the performance

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 43 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development SK-404 – performance comparison versus FOF-315 a) Results from the
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development SK-404 – performance comparison versus FOF-315 a) Results from the
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development SK-404 – performance comparison versus FOF-315 a) Results from the

SK-404 – performance comparison versus FOF-315

a) Results from the oscillating tribometer

wear rates:

FOF-315:

k = 5.6 10 -7

H20080714-4:

k = 4.2 10 -7

unit:

mm 3 /Nm

Parameter:

• hydrogen gas

• velocity: 2,7 m/sec

• pressure: 26 bar

• X20WC count. surf.

• temp.: 100 °C

b) Results from the test compressor

900 800 wear of the test specimen vs. time ∆s 700 ∆t 600 ∆s 500
900
800
wear of the test specimen
vs.
time
∆s
700
∆t
600
∆s
500
∆t
400
300
FOF-315 (Garlock)
200
H20080714-4 (STASSKOL)
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
wear [µm]

test duration [h]

Test run no.

Packing

Material

Total wear [mm]

Pressure work [Nsec/mm 2 ]

Wear rate [mm 3 /Nm]

B15

4

FOF-315

0,68

1,97 10 6

12,8 10 -7

B17

4

H20080714-4

0,43

3,19 10 6

6,2 10 -7

Better performance of SK-404 on both – osz. tribometer and test-compressor Next step: Field experience to verify the results

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 44 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Field test of SK404 - parameters of operation Suction pressure:
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Field test of SK404 - parameters of operation Suction pressure:

Field test of SK404 - parameters of operation

Suction pressure:

Discharge pressure:

4,7 bar (68.2 psi) 9,7 bar (140.7 psi)

Suction temperature:

22 °C

(71.6 °F)

Discharge temperature:

92 °C

(197.6 °F)

Speed:

441 rpm

Stroke:

230 mm

Mean piston speed:

Piston rod diameter:

3,4 m/sec

80 mm

Analysis of the host gas

rod diameter: 3,4 m/sec 80 mm Analysis of the host gas Average molecular weight: 7.411 g/mol
rod diameter: 3,4 m/sec 80 mm Analysis of the host gas Average molecular weight: 7.411 g/mol

Average molecular weight: 7.411 g/mol

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 45 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Design of packing A – single sealing ring design out
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Design of packing A – single sealing ring design out
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Design of packing A – single sealing ring design out

Design of packing A – single sealing ring design out of FOF 315

development development Design of packing A – single sealing ring design out of FOF 315 Lan

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 46 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Design of packing B – traditional design out of SK404
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Design of packing B – traditional design out of SK404
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Design of packing B – traditional design out of SK404

Design of packing B – traditional design out of SK404

Material development development Design of packing B – traditional design out of SK404 Lan / 28.08.09

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 47 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Sealing ring designs Advantages of the single sealing ring design
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Sealing ring designs Advantages of the single sealing ring design

Sealing ring designs

Advantages of the single sealing ring design

• Less space required

• Lower frictional energy

• Homogeneous pressure distribution

• Lower wear of the ring segments

• Higher service life-time

Single sealing ring design

Spring

Traditional design

Gap
Gap

Gap

Ring segments

Gap Flow channel Outer groove Inner groove
Gap
Flow
channel
Outer groove
Inner groove
a l d e s i g n Gap Gap Ring segments Gap Flow channel Outer

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 48 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Last report on packing’s operational conditions (April 24 t h
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Last report on packing’s operational conditions (April 24 t h
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Last report on packing’s operational conditions (April 24 t h

Last report on packing’s operational conditions (April 24 th 2009)

development Last report on packing’s operational conditions (April 24 t h 2009) Lan / 28.08.09 slide

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 49 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Measurement report on packing A (FOF315 – single sealing rings)
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Measurement report on packing A (FOF315 – single sealing rings)
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Measurement report on packing A (FOF315 – single sealing rings)

Measurement report on packing A (FOF315 – single sealing rings)

report on packing A (FOF315 – single sealing rings) Every single sealing ring has still some

Every single sealing ring has still some gap left for adjustment

Buffer gas system is in a very good condition

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 50 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Measurement report on packing B (SK404 – tangential cutted rings)
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Measurement report on packing B (SK404 – tangential cutted rings)
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Measurement report on packing B (SK404 – tangential cutted rings)

Measurement report on packing B (SK404 – tangential cutted rings)

report on packing B (SK404 – tangential cutted rings) Only 1 ring pair and 1 cover

Only 1 ring pair and 1 cover ring are still operational

Buffer gas system is in a “like-new condition”

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 51 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Result of the SK404 field test • Good performance of
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Result of the SK404 field test • Good performance of

Result of the SK404 field test

• Good performance of the new material

• Material will be used at Polysilicon applications

• Material will be used at Polysilicon applications • Also general permission to use the material

• Also general permission to use the material at other hydrogen applications (Dew points down to – 50 °C)

• Actual production volume: ~ 30 bushings / week

• Actual possible dimensions: up to 200 mm (outer diameter)

• Future developments: The material will be tested after processing by hot compression molding

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 52 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal – dry Nitrogen applications Gas inert (N 2
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal – dry Nitrogen applications Gas inert (N 2

Development goal – dry Nitrogen applications

Gas
Gas

inert

(N 2 )

oxidizing (air, O 2 )

reducing (H 2 , CH 4 )

Humidity
Humidity

dry

wet

bone-dry

) reducing (H 2 , CH 4 ) Humidity dry wet bone-dry Major focus for actual

Major focus for actual developments are on dry Nitrogen

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 53 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-701 (V1) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-701 (V1) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-701 (V1) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating

Development of SK-701 (V1)

a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating tribometer

Parameter:

Materials

• Temperature: 100 °C

• Pressure: ~ 30 bar

• Test duration: 15 hrs

• Stroke: 130 mm

• Velocity: 2.7 m/sec

• Hydrogen gas (T d < - 50 °C)

• CSF: steel with TC coating

gas (T d < - 50 °C) • CSF: steel with TC coating H20090107-4 H20090107-5 SK-404

H20090107-4

H20090107-5

SK-404 (V1)

SK-801 (V1)

H20090211-1

SK-701 (V1)

Comp. mat. 1

Comp. mat. 2

STASSKOL

STASSKOL

STASSKOL

STASSKOL

STASSKOL

STASSKOL

Competitor

Competitor

Pricing

Pricing

Pricing

Pricing

Pricing

Pricing

Pricing

Pricing

Experiment

Experiment

Commercial

Commercial

Experiment

Commercial

Commercial

Commercial

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 54 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-701 (V1) wear rates of the investigated materials
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-701 (V1) wear rates of the investigated materials

Development of SK-701 (V1)

development development Development of SK-701 (V1) wear rates of the investigated materials RELIABILITY!
wear rates of the investigated materials RELIABILITY! friction coefficients of the investigated materials actual:
wear rates of the
investigated materials
RELIABILITY!
friction coefficients
of the investigated materials
actual:
SK-701 Optimum of performance & pricing
Compressor-Test
& Field-Test
Lan / 28.08.09
slide 55 / 73
wear rate [mm 3 /Nm]

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Field test of SK-701 (V1) Compressor is running at Air
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Field test of SK-701 (V1) Compressor is running at Air

Field test of SK-701 (V1)

Material development development Field test of SK-701 (V1) Compressor is running at Air Liquide WOB since
Material development development Field test of SK-701 (V1) Compressor is running at Air Liquide WOB since

Compressor is running at Air Liquide WOB since 6 th of march 2009

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 56 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal – bone-dry Hydrogen applications Gas inert (N 2
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal – bone-dry Hydrogen applications Gas inert (N 2
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development goal – bone-dry Hydrogen applications Gas inert (N 2

Development goal – bone-dry Hydrogen applications

Gas
Gas

inert

(N 2 )

oxidizing (air, O 2 )

reducing reducing

(H (H

, , CH CH ) )

2 2

4 4

Humidity
Humidity

dry

wet

bone-dry bone-dry

Major focus for actual developments are on dry and bone-dry Hydrogen

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 57 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Material of the 1 s t
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Material of the 1 s t

Development of SK-801 (V2)

development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Material of the 1 s t approach   Density [g/cm

Material of the 1 st approach

 

Density [g/cm 3 ]

Modulus

k-factor* [10 -7 mm 3 /Nm]

 

Material

[MPa]

µ-factor*

M20070903-2

1,951

2254

0,6

0,05

SK 801

1,875

1778

0,1

0,03

CPI 184

1,826

1651

0,8

0,10

Material composition:

PTFE + thermoplastic polymer + carbon + lubricants

PTFE + thermoplastic polymer + carbon + lubricants Processed by using an optimized tool Processed by

Processed by using an optimized tool Processed by using optimized pressure and temperature profiles Compact material with a high density and a high modulus Characterization of tribological properties in progress

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 58 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Test runs at the compressor Exp.
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Test runs at the compressor Exp.

Development of SK-801 (V2)

Test runs at the compressor

Development of SK-801 (V2) Test runs at the compressor Exp. Packing Material Total wear p Suct

Exp.

Packing

Material

Total wear

p

Suct

Leakage

Gas

T d [°C]

no.

no.

[mm]

[bar]

[m

3 /h]

D15

1

SK 801

0,27

 

30

10,3

CH 4

- 91

D15

2

M20070903-2

0,21

 

30

3,1

CH 4

- 91

A18

1

SK 801

0,48

 

27

0,0

N

2

- 91

A18

2

M20070903-2

0,42

 

27

0,0

N

2

- 91

A19

1

CPI 184

0,30

 

32

2,0

N

2

- 92

A19

2

M20070903-2

0,33

 

32

2,0

N

2

- 92

B14

1

CPI 184

0,52

 

32

2,0

H

2

- 95

B14

2

M20070903-2

1,25

 

32

2,0

H

2

- 95

New STASSKOL material has similar wear under nitrogen Further developments are necessary Further testing under hydrogen is necessary Long runs are necessary

duration: 210 h geometry: 3/3tlg.

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 59 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Test of the 1 s t
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Test of the 1 s t

Development of SK-801 (V2)

development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Test of the 1 s t material at the oscillating

Test of the 1 st material at the oscillating tribometer

wear rates:

CPI-184:

k =

5 10 -7

M20070903-2:

k = 20 10 -7

unit:

mm 3 /Nm

1400 wear of the specimen vs. time 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 M20070903-2
1400
wear of the specimen vs. time
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
M20070903-2
600
CPI-184
500
400
300
200
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
wear [µm]

test duration [h]

Parameter:

• hydrogen gas

• velocity.: 2,7 m/sec

• pressure: 26 bar

• X20WC counter surface

• temperature: 100 °C

Further improvements are necessary in order to beat CPI-184

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 60 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating

Development of SK-801 (V2)

a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating tribometer

Parameter:

• Temperature: 120 °C

• Pressure: ~ 20 bar

• Test duration: 25 hrs

• Stroke: 130 mm

• Velocity: 2.7 m/sec

• Hydrogen gas (T d < - 50 °C)

• CSF: steel with TC coating

Material composition:

50 °C) • CSF: steel with TC coating Material composition: H20080620-1 H20080627-1 H20080620-3 H20080620-4

H20080620-1

H20080627-1

H20080620-3

H20080620-4

H20080620-5

H20080620-6

H20080620-7

H20080620-8

Filler A

Filler A

Filler A

Filler A

Filler B

Filler B

Filler B

Filler B

Lubricant A

Lubricant B

Lubricant C

Lubricant D

Lubricant A

Lubricant B

Lubricant C

Lubricant D

Wear Resistance is significantly based on Material Composition!

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 61 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Parameter: -6 1,6x10 • hydrogen gas
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Parameter: -6 1,6x10 • hydrogen gas
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) Parameter: -6 1,6x10 • hydrogen gas
Development of SK-801 (V2) Parameter: -6 1,6x10 • hydrogen gas -6 1,4x10 H20080620-1 • velocity.:
Development of SK-801 (V2)
Parameter:
-6
1,6x10
hydrogen gas
-6
1,4x10
H20080620-1
velocity.: 2,7 m/sec
H20080627-1
pressure: 26 bar
-6
1,2x10
H20080620-3
X20WC counter surface
H20080620-4
-6
wear rates of the
investigated materials
1,0x10
temperature: 100 °C
H20080620-5
H20080620-6
-7
8,0x10
H20080620-7
-7
H20080620-8
6,0x10
CPI-184
Comp. mat.
-7
4,0x10
0,50
-7
0,45
2,0x10
H20080620-1
0,40
H20080627-1
0,0
H20080620-3
0,35
H20080620-4
0,30
H20080620-5
H20080620-6
0,25
H20080620-7
0,20
H20080620-8
Comp.
CPI-184
0,15
mat.
0,10
friction coefficients
of the investigated materials
0,05
0,00
friction coefficient µ [a.u.]
wear rate [mm 3 /Nm]

Next step: test runs at the compressor under hydrogen gas

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 62 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Development of SK-801 (V2) a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating

Development of SK-801 (V2)

a) Test at the STASSKOL oscillating tribometer

Parameter:

• Temperature: 120 °C

• Pressure: ~ 20 bar

• Test duration: 50 hrs

• Stroke: 130 mm

• Velocity: 2.7 m/sec

• Hydrogen gas (T d = - 80 °C)

• CSF: steel with TC coating

Materials at the test:

°C) • CSF: steel with TC coating Materials at the test: SK801 Version 1 SK801 Version

SK801 Version 1

SK801 Version 2

Comp mat 1

Comp mat 2

Comp mat 3

Commercial

Newly developed

Commercial

Commercial

Commercial

STASSKOL

STASSKOL

Competitor

Competitor

Competitor

Highest wear resistance at SK801 Version 2

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 63 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Parameter: • hydrogen gas • • • • velocity.: 2.7
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Parameter: • hydrogen gas • • • • velocity.: 2.7
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Parameter: • hydrogen gas • • • • velocity.: 2.7

Parameter:

• hydrogen gas

velocity.: 2.7 m/sec

pressure: 20 bar

CSF: steel with TC coat.

temperature: 120 °C

Development of SK-801 (V2)

wear rates of the investigated materials RELIABILITY! friction coefficients of the investigated materials
wear rates of the
investigated materials
RELIABILITY!
friction coefficients
of the investigated materials

Better performance than Competitor materials / Actual: Compressor run

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 64 / 73

MaterialMaterial developmentdevelopment

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Roadmap 2. Long runs under service conditions at our test
⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Roadmap 2. Long runs under service conditions at our test

Roadmap

⇒ ⇒ Material Material development development Roadmap 2. Long runs under service conditions at our test

2. Long runs under service conditions at our test compressor

3. Tests in the field at selected customers

1. Further developments for the replacement of competitor materials

at selected customers 1. Further developments for the replacement of competitor materials Lan / 28.08.09 slide
at selected customers 1. Further developments for the replacement of competitor materials Lan / 28.08.09 slide
at selected customers 1. Further developments for the replacement of competitor materials Lan / 28.08.09 slide

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 65 / 73

OutlineOutline

⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing
⇒ ⇒ Outline Outline • New Materials: why, who and how? • Development of polymer processing

• New Materials: why, who and how?

• Development of polymer processing

• Development of polymer characterization

• Material development

• Material production at the STASSKOL site

characterization • Material development • Material production at the STASSKOL site Lan / 28.08.09 slide 66

Lan / 28.08.09 slide 66 / 73

MaterialMaterial productionproduction sitesite

⇒ ⇒ Material Material production production site site New building is planned only for production of
⇒ ⇒ Material Material production production site site New building is planned only for production of

New building is planned only for production of semi-finished products (bushings of sealing materials)

Two big advantages:

a) Independent from expensive material from competitors

b) Shorter delivery times

Mischraum (abgesaugt) 5,0 m Produktionshalle W 2 x 2 m WC Büro 4 x 4
Mischraum
(abgesaugt)
5,0 m
Produktionshalle
W
2 x 2 m
WC
Büro
4 x 4 m

Border (+ 3 m Space)

W 2 x 2 m WC Büro 4 x 4 m Border (+ 3 m Space)

8 m distance between buildings

Flaschenlager

Test bed

Prüfstand

m Border (+ 3 m Space) 8 m distance between buildings Flaschenlager Test bed Prüfstand Lan

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