You are on page 1of 2



This fieldwork, we focused on laying of spiral curves and how to use a theodolite on curves and
chords. This fieldwork also has different formulas to memorize in getting the said curve. The spiral
curve is used to gradually change the curvature and super elevation of the road, thus called
transition curve. When transition curves are not provided, drivers tend to create their own
transition curves by moving laterally within their travel lane and sometimes the adjoining lane,
which is risky not only for them but also for other road users.

In this fieldwork, we are tasked to lay a spiral curve with the use of the transit and tape using the
method that we always used since the laying of our field work number one which is all about the
simple curve. The difference of this field work to the other fieldwork we’ve done is that, the spiral
curve is a curve to be layout in an existing curve; the existing curve could be a simple, compound,
or reverse which were also discussed in our previous discussion. We layout a spiral curve and
used our knowledge in simple curve and applied it. Back in Surveying 1, we were thought how to
manipulate each instrument especially in terms of reading the data given by the theodolite which
will be used in when using the deflection angle method.


Given the knowledge we learned in simple curves and compound curves, we applied the theories
and principles of the different curves using the deflection angle method. After we had layout this
so called spiral curve, I have now appreciated why some curving roads are sometimes sharp and
hard to maneuver it. It is because of the characteristic of the spiral curve base on the computed
values and the design made by the engineer. We are able to master the use of the instruments
needed in laying out a curve specifically the theodolite and the tape. We are also able to improve
and practice more the procedures and knowledge about the deflection angle method. In here,
the possible source of error is the correctness of the angle measured in the theodolite because
once the user diverts the measurement into minutes or even in seconds, it will have great effect
on the measured description of the whole curve. Since we did the fieldwork correctly, we only
have an error of less than one meter on each of the two chords. It is because we made sure that
every measurement that we made is accurate. Based on our experience in Surveying 2, there are
different kinds and variations of curves and the most basic of them all is a simple curve, hence
the term simple. Each fieldwork, we were introduced to a new kind of curve which basically have
the same concepts and principles of a simple curve.

Planimeters are used to measure areas on maps of any kind and scale, as well as plans,
blueprints or any scale drawing or plan. Non-digital planimeters feature a pole arm, tracer arm,
tracer magnifier, recording dial, and Vernier measuring wheel. For this fieldwork, we used
digital planimeters which are computerized and much easier to use than the non-digital one.
Before we started, we printed out a scaled map of Roxas City which is located in the province of
Capiz. Once we assembled the digital Planimeter, we were ready to determine the area of an
irregular area. This fieldwork was not that hard to accomplish since it is pretty straightforward.
A quick cursory tracing around the area to be measured to make sure that the measuring wheel
does not run over paper edges and that the area can be covered in one single continuous

In this fieldwork, it was different because we executed it indoors without any instruments
besides the planimeter. A planimeter is utilized to quantify the region of a regular shape, it is
finished by simply following the outer line of the area, starting from the center and to an edge
which will serve as a starting point. A planimeter was also introduced to us in my Hydrology
class wherein we can make use of a planimeter instead of solving manually the area which will
be used in computing the average rainfall over a catchment.

The level of exactness in the different operations of estimation with the Planimeter as
portrayed in this fieldwork was utilized. This fieldwork gave us the understanding of the general
idea of which the precision of Planimeter estimation at different circumstances to tell the
relative and real level of exactness. Generally, it is very difficult to determine the area of an
irregular plot. So, by the use of planimeter, we were able to determine the area of the irregular
region and it will give correct results in any scale whatsoever. the planimeter configuration is a
continuous function of the tracer position.


This fieldwork was probably the less time consuming out of all the fieldwork, but it took us time
to fully understand the procedure and the concepts of using the planimeter. The working region
can influence the precision of the trial esteem. Possible sources of error can be from the chance
that the surface is not leveled the roller in the planimeter. Additionally, if the testing subject is
not in great conditions the outcome will not be right. We did 3 trials for the area and calculated
the average area. The data on those 3 trials should be close to each other since the outline or
the boundary of the region is constant. A decent eye, steady hand and tolerance when tracing
the boundaries are most critical for good outcomes.