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Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. It is widely used as a herb in Asian cuisine.

It has a
subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. It is commonly used in teas, soups,
and curries. It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in
African countries such as Togo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin
American countries such as Mexico. Lemongrass oil is used as apesticide and a preservative.
Research shows that lemongrass oil has antifungal properties.[1] Despite its ability to repel insects, its
oil is commonly used as a "lure" to attract honey bees. "Lemongrass works conveniently as well as the
pheromone created by the honeybee's nasonov gland, also known as attractant pheromones.
Because of this, lemongrass oil can be used as a lure when trapping swarms or attempting to draw the
attention of hived bees."[2]

Cymbopogon citratus from thePhilippines, where it is locally known astanglad

Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus and Cymbopogon winterianus) grows to about 2 m (about
6.5 ft) and has magenta colored base stems. These species are used for the production of citronella
oil, which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent especially mosquitoes[3] in insect sprays and
candles, and in aromatherapy, which is famous in Bintan Island, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Therefore, its origin is assumed to be Indonesia. The principal chemical constituents of
citronella, geraniol and citronellol, are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants and
soaps. Besides oil production, citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes, in tea and as a

Citronella is usually planted in home gardens to ward off insects such as whitefly adults. Its cultivation
enables growing some vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and broccoli), without
applying pesticides. Intercroppingshould include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the

Lemon grass oil, used as a pesticide and preservative, is put on the ancient palm-leaf
manuscripts found in India as a preservative. It is used at the Oriental Research Institute Mysore,
the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Association for the Preservation of the Saint Thomas Christian
Heritage in Kerala, and many other manuscript collections in India. The lemon grass oil also injects
natural fluidity into the brittle palm leaves, and the hydrophobic nature of the oil keeps the manuscripts
dry so that the text is not lost to decay due to humidity.

East Indian lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), also called Cochin grass or Malabar grass
(Malayalam: (inchippullu), is native to Cambodia, Vietnam,India, Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand,
while West Indian lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) is native to maritime Southeast Asia. It is known
as seraiin Malaysia and Brunei, serai or sereh in Indonesia, and tanglad in the Philippines. While both
can be used interchangeably, C. citratus is more suitable for cooking. In India, C. citratus is used both
as a medical herb and in perfumes. C. citratus is consumed as a tea for anxiety in Brazilian folk
medicine,[5] but a study in humans found no effect.[6] The tea caused a recurrence of contact
dermatitis in one case.[7]
Lemon grass is also known as gavati chaha (गवतत चहह) in the Marathi language (gavat =
grass; chaha = tea), and is used as an addition to tea, and in preparations such as kadha, which is a
traditional herbal 'soup' used against coughs, colds, etc. It has medicinal properties and is used
extensively in Ayurvedic medicine. It is supposed to help with relieving cough and nasal
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the
rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of
the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on small, deciduous trees.
The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples
have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by
European colonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures,
includingNorse, Greek and Christian traditions. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of
research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics.
Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, fresh eating and cider
production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily
from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be
controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means.

About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this
total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world
production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can
also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects
are thought to result from eating apples; however, two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins
found in the fruit.

The apple forms a tree that is small and deciduous, generally standing 1.8 to 4.6 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in
cultivation and up to 9.1 m (30 ft) in the wild. When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density is
determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark
green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides. [3]

Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves, and are produced on
spurs and some long shoots. The 3 to 4 cm (1.2 to 1.6 in) flowers are white with a pink tinge that
gradually fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central
flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; it opens first, and can develop a larger fruit. [3][4]

The fruit matures in autumn, and varieties exist with a wide range of sizes. Commercial growers aim to
produce an apple that is 7.0 to 8.3 cm (2.75 to 3.25 in) in diameter, due to market preference. Some
consumers, especially those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 5.7 cm (2.25 in) are
generally used for making juice and have little fresh market value. The skin of ripe apples is generally
red, yellow, green or pink, although many bi- or tri-colored varieties may be found. [5] The skin may also
be wholly or partly russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer
ofepicuticular wax,[6] The flesh is generally pale yellowish-white, [5] though pink or yellow flesh is also