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Appendix Cc Mathematical Topics CA Some ordinary differential equations and thei solutions C2 Expansions of functions in Taylor series ‘§C3 Differentiation of integrals the Leibniz formala) §C4_ Thegamma function §C5_ The hypesbolic functions SCS Theerrorfunction In this appendix we summarize information on mathematical topics (other than vectors and tensor) that ae useful in the study of transport phenomena §C.1_ SOME ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS We assemble here a short list of differential equations that arse frequently in transport phenomena. The readers assumed tobe familiar with these equations and how to solve them. The quantities, band care real constants and fand gare functions of x Equation Solution wy fe) ory Seay = Shae + C, © Be faye yrenngdlegie® 6) cr cosar + Cysinax (ory y= Cycoshay + Cysinhayor cr ecg cy) on w+ an es "Some wef reference bok on apis mathematics are M. Abram and LA. Seg ent of hho Furcos, Dover, New Yor 5 ping (1979; Mt Mp, rtry ie Eun and Ths Sao, Van Nostrand, Prem, N18) Tama, Engin Mathematics Handed ein, McGraw i, New York 957. §C2_ Expansions of Functions in Taylor Series 853 y~Steoher + Saoharor cise Sen Gen cre) Solve the equation + a1 + b=0, and pettheroots n= n ancin = m_ Then GF Aoand at eal and unequal Y= Gespen) + Gexpl cz (0)in, and n_aerealand equal ton, erga) (crm {Of n, and mare complex, Gyeonge + Cina) «u79 ye ffencarc, es a ffepeare, 9) ue fi [poeear scx +c, cr [Hees -cmxe~c, ray cu cu cu Y= Cx + Cor + Ca, where the mare the roots of the equation nin ~ Die ~ 2) + anda 1) +bn-+e= 0, provides that all roots are distinc, “Ing C14 ane C146 the decisions ato eather to se the exponent forms or he rigonomti or Ihyperbol) uncon ae usally made onthe basis of th boundary conditions on the probs or he symmetry properties ofthe soiton * Equaons CS ard C1 are solved by making the substation yx) = x and hen saving the resting equation for tn gs C18 oC, tmay be convenient or neces to change the ower its of the itegzals to some valve othe thn er. §C2_ EXPANSIONS OF FUNCTIONS IN TAYLOR SERIES In physical problems we often need to describe a function y(2) in the neighborhood of some point ¥ =. Then we expand the function y(2) in a "Taylor serie about the point roa w= tes (S| Jao (Jaw +3 (| aa