Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1

"point source" any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch,

channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. does not include
agricultural stormwater discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture​. ​Normal faults: dip slip fault in extension, hanging wall down. Reverse: hanging wall is up Strike slip: motion parallel to fault strike, no uplift, left lateral slip vs right lat slip, horizontal movement Shaded: where rocks are pushed (compression);
Unshaded: where rocks are pulled (tension) PT axes are opposite of beach balls; beach balls happen after earthquakes, PressureTensile axes are preexisting conditions ​ focals at three types of plate boundaries? Transform: Strike-Slip. Convergent: variety of orientations- including reverse faulting. Divergent:normal faulting
Results of compression / rock folding;Anticline: compressed, squished upwards; a large upfold or arch of layered rocks;Syncline: depression, goes down; a large downfold whose limbs are higher than its center.​ ​CCRs used to determine the relative age of igneous bodies or faults within the stratigraphic succession. Bc
deformation must have taken place after the affected sedimentary layers were deposited, they must be younger than the rocks they cut. If the intrusions or fault displacements are eroded and planed off at an unconformity and then overlain by younger sedimentary beds, we know that the intrusions or faults are older than the
younger strata. ​As the crust and mantle get deeper, the strength increase and the rocks become more ductile.​ ​At shallower depths deformation is often faulting, at deeper depths it is often folding. This is due to rocks often being brittle at shallow depths and more ductile at higher depths.​ ​Shield = the oldest rocks in a
continental craton; basement rocks that are exposed due to erosion; mainly consists of igneous and metamorphic rocks deposited during precambrian and archean eons Platform = low sedimentary rock surrounding a shield; formed from the buildup of different sediments from the erosion of the shield. Cold rocks​ ​Shield
rocks =Precambrian (4,600-541 million years ago) Platform rocks = Paleozoic (650-290 million years ago) Cordillera rocks = Mesozoic -Cenozoic (250 mya-present)​ ​Epeirogenic usually form from the subsidence of cooling lithosphere, the underlying weight of sediments or glaciers, and the thermal expansion of the crust
and the upwelling of underlying mantle plumes. Epeirogeny is the gradual downward and upward movements of broad regions of lithosphere without folding/ faulting. Downwards moving areas create very flat sediments. Upward movements cause lots of erosion and missing parts in sediment time record (defies law of
horizontality and can be treated as an unconformity)​ ​“Wilson” cycle? 1. Rifting within a supercontinent splits the continent 2.Passive margin-cooling and sediment accumulation while the seafloor spreads and ocean opens 3.Active margin volcanism and terrain accretion during subduction and ocean closure 4.Orogeny
during continent-continent collision that forms next supercontinent​ Orogeny is the process of forming elongated mountain belts along continents (orogens)Plate tectonics can create mountains through the folding and compression of the continental crust, as well as having magmatic addition to a mountain range through
subduction​ ​Core Mfield: Process of elimination: magnetic Field changes over time, plate tectonic too slow for earth to change magnetic field because it has to be actively created.seismic wave recordings across the Earth, discovered an outer core made of liquid iron.1st Reason: Scientists discovered that the geothermal
gradient of Earth was approx. 25ºC/km, so anything below 30 km is above the Curie Point; thus nothing can be permanently magnetized.2nd Reason: The strength of Earth’s magnetic field in most given areas on Earth varies through time, rather than being fixed like a common permanent magnet (note that
constantly-varying magnetic field is attributed in convection) Because these two reasons disprove the presence of a global permanent magnet as the source of the magnetic field, the magnetic field has been attributed to the active and constantly-convecting liquid iron outer core of the planet ​Extotic terrane: peices of buoyant
lithoshpere that is accreted onto another block of lithosphere (blocks of crust that seem completely out of place) Much of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, new england is formed from multiple accretions of exotic terranes. Lapetus Terrane and the Avalonia Microcontinent Terrane.The Franciscan formation indicates that
there must’ve been subduction of oceanic crust before the presence of San Andreas fault, for the rocks of the Franciscan melange are those of an accretionary wedge formed from the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. ​Transform faults are tectonically active, where plates move sidewards relative to one another. Fracture
zones are usually on the oceanic lithosphere near mid-ocean ridges, and they are not tectonically active. Note that whole plates move apart in oceanic ridges. Strike slip motion is present in mid-ocean ridges, where compressional stress on the rocks are usually directed away from the centre of spreading Fracture zone = used
to be an active transform fault, no longer any relative motion (not seismically active) ​Earthquake prediction attempts to ascribe a certain time, place and magnitude for a foreseeable earthquake; forecasting uses probability and statistics usually based in a wider span of time (% chances) As tension builds up in the rocks
along a fault, precursors to earthquakes may include (but are not limited to): changes in electrical resistivity of the rock; changes in rock porosity and permeability; increase in strain; foreshocks; animal behaviour; etc.Parkfield had recurring earthquakes every 20yrs. (6.0), no precursors to earthquake when it finally
happened (no electrical resistivity, changes in rock porosity, increase in strain) The increase in rock strain, the increase in seismic activity, the periodic recordings of earthquake events over time, the previous recurrence of earthquakes in a given area are used to create earthquake probability maps (mainly focusing on
historical data) ​Hayward fault, San Andreas Fault, Calaveras Fault ​The Elastic Rebound theory explains the earthquake cycle. During one earthquake cycle, the rocks along a fault build stress. The rocks deform elastically, and when the amount of stress is greater than the rocks’ strength, an earthquake happens, in which the
rocks rebound back to their prestressed position, only to build up stress again in the next cycle. ​P waves are the first ones seen, slinky motion (compressional body wave) (fastest) S waves are the second wave, first wave felt usually (transverse body wave); cannot travel through liquids Rayleigh waves are a type of surface
wave, vertical motion, slowest Love waves are a type of surface wave, sidewinding motion, slowest​ ​Magnitude of an earthquake releases unit of energy relative to the mag size Energy = approx. 32x per unit increment Frequency = 10x less likely to happen in a given year per unit increment ​Outer core = P waves Inner core
= S waves and P waves​ ​PKP = P wave; mantle, outer core, mantle PKIKP = P wave; mantle, outer core, inner core, outer core, mantle PP = P wave; bounces on lithosphere SS = S wave; bounces on lithosphere SKS = S wave; mantle, turns into P wave in outer core, mantle ScS = S wave; mantle, bounces off outer core
Eqlocate: Step 1: P waves and S waves travel at different rates, so the time intervals between their arrivals vary with location. Step 2: These varied time intervals are then placed on a travel-time graph, in which a general distance is approximated from each location. Step 3: These distances are then traced on a map circulary,
with the given seismograph at the centre of each circle. Step 4: The place where all the circles intersect is likely the approximate area of the earthquake ​Usually, with each respective layer (most notably the mantle), since the density of the rock increases, the velocity of the P wave also increases For S waves, the same thing
happens, yet S waves don’t exist in the outer core and there is a low velocity zone in the upper mantle, right below the Moho, since the rock drastically changes to partially-melted peridotite Moho = transition from crust to mantle Note that the upper part of the lower mantle contains a transition zone that abruptly increases
the velocity of the P and S waves. ​Heat flow varies based on the age of the lithosphere. As lithosphere on Earth’s surface gets older, the rocks continue to cool, causing them to become more dense and sink. Heat flow is usually high at and around mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys, for the rocks there are very young and are
in the process of cooling from lava.​ ​mass wasting: Steepness of slopes, nature of slope materials, water content, earthquakes, gravity Water can cause change in cohesion, or it can cause stability of structure to weaken, loss of water can be a slump, increased water can cause flows . planes of the weakness within the solid
material are lubricated, the friction between particles is lowered & the particles or larger aggregates can move past one another more easily so that material may start to flow like a fluid. This process is liquefaction.​Slide = A mostly consolidated mass of rock and/or debris that moves as more of less one unit down along a
planar surface; moderate to rapid velocity Slump = Unconsolidated mass of different blocks moving as one unit, usually along a curved basal surface (like a spoon), forming a scar on a slope, slow-moving Debris Flow = An unconsolidated, water-saturated mass movement (usually induced by rainfall) of material coarser
than sand, which travels at rather moderate speeds. ​tsunamis be generated without an earthquake? Turbidity currents from underwater landslides, volcano ​Darcy’s law:Equation that describes flow of water through porous medium aquifer vertical drop flow dist Q = K((h-h)/L) K = kpg/µ (hydraulic conductivity, proportional
to permeability) Q: volume of water, A: cross-sectional area of flow, K: permeability (hydraulic conductivity) distance/time, h: vertical drop, l: flow distance, h/l: dimensionless.​ ​Aquifer: unit of rock capable of storing and transmitting water in sufficient quantities to supply wells Aquiclude: impervious layers of relatively
non-porous rock that marks the underlying boundary of an aquifer ​Porosity decreases with depth because rocks deeper in (igneous/metamorphic) have their pore space created mostly by fractures, which has porosity values of 1-2%. Permeability increases as porosity increases, so there’s less permeability deeper in the earth
because pores are smaller and harder for fluids to go through. ​Mountains forms rain shadows, area of low precipitation on their downward slopes. Humid wind rise over high mountains cool & precipitates on the windward slope, lose much of the moisture by time they reach leeward (downward) slope. Air warms again as it
drop to lower elevation on the other side of the mountain. Since warm air holds more moisture, relative humidity declines, decreasing the likelihood of precipitation. ​Water moving through a confined aquifer—known as artesian flow—is under pressure. At any point in the aquifer, that pressure is equivalent to the weight of
all the water in the aquifer above that point. If we drill a well into a confined aquifer at a point where the elevation of the ground surface is lower than that of the water table in the recharge area, the water will flow out of the well under its own pressure. This is called an Artesian Well. ​Karst topography: Dissolution of
limestone by groundwater Prominent in areas where there are a lot of fractures in the limestone bedrock, a humid weather, and sufficient amount of acid in the rain. irregular, hilly type of terrain characterized by sinkholes, caves, and a lack of surface streams. Characteristics include: 1. A humid climate with abundant
vegetation (providing carbon dioxide–rich waters) 2. Extensively jointed limestone formations 3. Appreciable hydraulic gradients--It is ​formed​​ from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum ​consequences on the land surface from extracting groundwater faster than it is being
recharged:Subsidence,Land going under sea level,Saltwater intrusion; drying up of wells, reduction of water in streams and lakes, deterioration of water quality, increased pumping costs ​Discharge = The volume of water a stream carries at any given point in time. m3/s or ft3/s Competence = The size of particles that a
stream can carry at a given point in time; ​grain sizes​ ranging from large to small and include ​boulders​, rocks, ​pebbles​, ​sand​, ​silt​, and ​clay​ Capacity = The amount of load that a stream is able to carry at a given point in time ​Long profile shows the elevation of a river plotted against the distance from the river’s headwaters.
Up from dam: sediment deposited (shallower); down from dam: erosion (steeper). ​hows changes in the height (altitude) of the course of a river from its source to its mouth. A long profile is usually concave and the slope becomes more gentle towards the mouth of the river. Long profiles usually have irregularities such as
waterfalls or lakes. The long profile shows how a river’s gradient changes as it flows from its source to its mouth.*Rapids develop at knickpoints • High gradient downstream =>Erosion • Low gradient and low competence upstream =>Deposition ​In a meander: outer bend has faster waters (more erosion), inner bend has
slower waters (deposition occurs)​ ​oxbow lake: A narrow crescent-shaped lake formed when meandering bends grow closer and closer together and are then bypassed by a stream. Sediment is then deposited, cutting off the old path of the river and leaving a body of water​ ​100y flood: a flood that is likely to happen once
every 100 years (or has a 1% chance of happening in any given year). Due to human infrastructure (namely artificial levees) interfering with rivers and streams, the flow of water is constricted to one area, causing water to flow faster and deeper, even when the stream has the same discharge. This would cause problems
upstream and downstream from the levees. ​Wilson cycle - repeated rifting of continents with ocean basin. Repeated recollision and separation of continents ​As you go deeper, porosity goes down, density goes up ​Platforms - relatively undeformed/sediments are almost horizontal ​Long profile of a river - plot of elevation of
a stream bed vs. distance down the river ​Franciscan - combination of all rocks; a mixture of exotic terranes (geology term) an accretionary wedge formed from the subduction of oceanic lithosphere ​Epeirogeny - up and down motion of earth’s surface orogeny - side to side horizontal movement ​Vesicular bubbles - pores
not connected to each other which means low permeability ​Heat flow - hot where the crust is being stretched (like Nevada, volcanic hot spots, mid-ocean ridges), hot rocks brought to the surface (cool in shields)​ ​Anisotropy = has properties that are different in different directions (most geological structures are anisotropic
due to crystal structures); goes with seismic waves; isotropic = same values ​Liquefaction​ ​happens during an earthquake - waterlogged dirt is shaken up, causing houses/structures to sink underground -- secondary hazard of an earthquake ​Primary hazards of earthquakes are directly from ground movement itself; damage bc
movement ​pressure(primary) waves propagate through solids and fluids, shear(secondary) waves do not fluids ​MADE BY RONNIE MILLER