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PERFORMANCE OF GRADE SIX PUPILS OF BANTAY INSIK INTEGRATED

SCHOOL IN PROBABILITY

An Action Research Presented to

BENILDA NARCELLES, Ed.D

PROFESSOR

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

In Social Regards For Learning

Ramos, Maricris R.

MED General Science

Africa, Eunice Anne R.

MED General Science

MARCH 2018
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title Page

Table of Contents

Situation

Rationale of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Generation of Alternative Solution

Plan of Action

Findings

Presentation, Analysis and interpretation of Data

Appendices
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SITUATION

This study aimed to determine the performance of the grade six pupils

of Bantay Insik Integrated School in simple probability with the use of spinner

as manipulative material.

Specifically, the researcher sought the profile of the pupils in terms of

age, sex, and GPA; performances in the administered achievement test; and

the acceptability of the manipulative material as rated by the students; the

relationship of the respondents’ performances according to the administered

achievement test and their variables; the difference between the control and

experimental groups’ performances in the administered achievement test;

and the relationship of the respondents’ performance and their acceptability

in the use of the manipulative material.

The main instruments were achievement test, checklist for the

acceptability and appropriateness of the manipulative material.

The tools for data analysis were mean, median, standard deviation,

skewness and kurtosis. On the other hand, the level of significances was

established using the t-test and ANNOVA formula.

The school campus of Bantay Insik Integrated School was located at

TBantay Insik, Sison, Pangasinan. There were three building inside the

campus that was being utilized to cater all students from preschool, grade

school and high school, and the facilities of the school were all well –
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managed by the teachers and other school personnel. It is a recognized and

registered learning institution of the Department of Education. The learning

environment, inside and outside the classroom were all well – maintained that

can qualitatively offer a conducive and a healthy process for learning.

The findings were: Majority of the respondents were 11 years old,

females and have a GPA of Average (83-90); both the control and

experimental group obtained an average level of performance during the

achievement test with the a mean of 17.61 and 20.61, respectively; the

pupils in the experimental group rated the acceptability of the use of spinner

as a manipulative material in teaching the concept of simple probability got

to be Very High; there were no significant differences between the

performance of the pupils across their profile variables; between the

performances of the control and experimental groups; and there were no

significant relationship between the students’ performances and their

acceptability of the manipulative.

The researcher concluded that: the students were dominate by those in

their prescribed maturity of learning, feminine gender and have low to

average range in their GPA; using spinner is more effective than the

traditional method in teaching simple probability based on statistical

measures; dominant of the pupils were strongly convinced that the

manipulative material used contributed to their growth and development ;

the performance of the pupils in the probability was not influenced by their

biological classification , maturity and their class standing; the pupils’ s


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achievement ratings do not varied when taught by the researcher by both

traditional and with spinner; the pupils performance were not anyway

affected by their assessment in their acceptability on the manipulative

material.

The researchers’ recommendations are as follows: inclusion of other

relevant profile variables such as pupils’ parent occupation to further analyze

their performance in achievement test along with their acceptability;

enhancement of spinner as a manipulative material to minimize the difficulty

among pupils to understand the concept of simple probability; further study

in a larger and wider scope must be conducted to reinforce the relevance of

spinner as a manipulative material in teaching basic probability; fabrication

and utilization of other manipulative materials in teaching probability to

further enhance the analysis, capabilities and performance of the students;

lastly, workshops and seminars for teachers must be conducted o improve

and enforce the new trends in teaching.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

One of a teacher’s goals is to make the learning process as efficient as

possible. We are in a world where innovations are constant. Gone were the

days when a child sits on the bench and listens to his teacher delivers the

lesson. We are now at a time when technological innovations provide us with

lots of tools in teaching and learning. When we teach according to the needs
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and interest of the students, the happy result is marked improvement in their

academic achievement and attitudes toward learning. Teachers are

presented with varieties of teaching materials and appropriate teaching

strategies to cater the needs of every student in the classroom. They

continue to provide bases for and the guides for broader and more effective

answer for learning. Learning is the root of all these changes.

The dire need to supplement the existing methods employed in

teaching Probability is what the researcher wished to address. The result of

this study will intentionally benefit the following important groups of

individuals.

Pupils. The output of the study could direct pupils to focus on each

lesson that will enhance their thinking skills through the different

manipulative material such as Spinner. The established effect of this

manipulative material will enhance the students’ performances in

mathematics particularly on the topic simple probability.

Mathematics Teachers. The result of this study could help the

teachers develop other manipulative material that will enhance pupils’

performances.

Parents. Result of the study will benefit them since they have children

who are recipients of the use of the method and eventually their children will

be motivated to study and enjoy learning Mathematics.

Future Researchers. The study could serve as a reference for the

next research studies on the same work, especially those who are embarking

for more educational approaches and methods in teaching Mathematics.

This study focused on introducing the concept of probability and


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determining the Performance of the Grade Six pupils in Math after using

spinner as a manipulative material. The study is conducted through

experimental method using the Achievement Test. The respondents of the

study are the selected Grade Six pupils of Bantay Insik Integrated School

during the Academic Year 2017-2018. The teaching session covered a period

of two days only. The study made use of evaluation containing forty (40)

items each. The lesson that was included in the learning is the Introduction to

Probability (Simple Probability).

This study aimed to determine the performances of the Grade Six

pupils when manipulative material is used in teaching mathematics. In

connection, this section aims at identifying appropriate theory or principle

that lays the foundation of this study.

This study was based from the significant theories related to “Active

Learning”. The best way to define “active learning’ is to compare it with

passive learning, which has been the traditional mode of teaching for

thousands of years. Passive learning is loosely defined as students being

targets of lectures and reading assignments, without, for the most part,

taking any direct role in their own learning.

Active learning requires the student to engage in dynamic endeavors

such as role-playing, debate, and give-and-take discussion with peers. Its

purpose is to compel the student to become part of the learning process – not

just the object of lectures or reading material. Games, by their very nature,

encourage active learning, as the student becomes the driver of the learning

activity itself, instead of being a mere passenger.

According to Jerome Bruner, “Learners are encouraged to acquire facts


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and relationship for themselves”. Bruner advised that teachers must utilize

and bring together concrete, pictorial then symbolic activities to facilitate

learning. Before children can comprehend abstract mathematical operations,

teachers can first have the numbers represented inactively (with blocks) and

then, iconically (in picture). Children can later on handle number concepts

without concrete objects and only with number sand number signs

(symbolic).

This theory is so essential to the present study which brought the

researchers their way of how to implement the discussion appropriately.

Third THROUGH A SERIES OF SYMBOLS SYMBOLIC


Secon
THROUGH A SERIES OF ILLUSTRATION ICONIC
d

First THROUGH A SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS ENACTIVE

SYMBOLIC
hence . . . increasing

difficulty

ICONIC
INCREASI

ABSTRAC
TION
NG

ENACTIVE
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Figure 1: Bruner’s Three-Tiered Model of Learning

Source: Corpuz, Brenda and Paz Lucido. (2012). Educational Technology1.

Another psychologist named Lev Vygotsky proposed a seminal theory

that has gone on to become very influential, especially in the field of

education. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children learn actively through

hands-on experiences. His socio-cultural theory also suggested that parents,

caregivers, peers and the culture at large were responsible for the

development of higher order thinking skills. That is why the researchers used

different participatory approaches for the activities yet still with the guidance

of the other researchers.

John Dewey said that education is a social process. Education is

growth. Education is, not a preparation for life; education is life itself. In his

theories, he over emphasized the need of the teachers to give the pupils

something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is such a nature as to

demand thinking; learning naturally results. Instructors have to realize that

the quality of mental process, not the production of correct answers, is the

measure of educative growth something hardly less than a revolution in

teaching would be worked.

“If you teach a person what to learn, you are preparing that person in

the past. If you teach how to learn, you are preparing that person in the

future” (Cyril Houle). Learning is more meaningful if teachers let the learners
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perform a certain activity and not giving all the concepts they need.

In Dale’s Cone of Experiences, the first step is direct experience.

Teachers are encouraged to discover new things. With this learning becomes

more meaningful. Dale believed that any and all of the approaches could and

should be used, depending on the needs of the learner.

Mathematics is a vital component of total curriculum to all levels of

education. Some school subjects are gone, things may change, time may

come and go, but Mathematics remains in the curriculum and in our daily life

(Torres, 2006).

Mathematics is a changing body of knowledge rather than a set of

rules to be learned and practice. Learning mathematics is an active process

where a student gathers, discovers or creates knowledge through a

purposeful activity (Bagsange, 2011).

The goal of mathematics is to encourage the use of precise and

accurate thinking to solve problems. Educators require students to learn the

arithmetic of whole numbers and rational numbers (with both decimal and

fractional notation), to be able to measure it in standard units and convert

from the another, to estimate and approximate, to use graphs and other

methods of organizing and interpreting data to see patterns and trends, to

understand probabilistic ideas, the geometry of two and three dimensional

figures, and the place of functions in science and mathematics (Areola,

2010).

It cannot be denied the fact that Filipinos are still mathematically

incompetent. Internationally, the Philippines were one of the bottom five poor

achievers in Math and Science. According to the Math achievement test


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conducted by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies in

2003, Philippines belongs to the 41 st out of 43 countries while in 2010, it

ranked 36th in Mathematics out of 38 countries (Gonzalo, 2013).

Probability is a word related to chance. It measures the possibility that

a particular event will or will not happen. It is a number which ranges from 0

to 1. (Icutan et al., 2012)

In the book “Mathematics for Elementary Teachers” (Bennett, Jr. and

Nelson, 2004), quoted Pascal and Fermat developed the principles of the

subject in letters of the mathematical theory of probability. The initial

problem that started their investigation was posed by Chevalier de Mere, a

professional gambler. The problem was to determine how the stakes should

be divided between two gamblers if they quit before the game was finished.

The problem amounts to determine the probability of each player in having a

chance of winning the game at any given stage. The theory that originated in

a gambler’s dispute is now an essential tool in many disciplines. Inside the

classroom, students make predictions based on simple experiments. For

instance, they roll dice to determine how often they will get 4, in 1 to 6

sample space. Soon, they will discover that it is very difficult to predict with

the kind of certainty what the outcome of the given roll will be; the results will

be better as the number of trials grows. The results for a low number of trials

are not good as the results of the larger one. Typically, Math curriculum

requires students to conduct experiments, determine fairness, collect,

interpret, analyze, and display the data, and state the rule for the probability

of the outcome (http://math.about.com/od/probability /a/Probability-

Basics.htm).
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Probability has become a topic in Math that has grown out of societal

needs. The language of probability starts as early as kindergarten and

remains a topic through high school and beyond. The collection and analysis

of data have become extremely prevalent throughout the Math curriculum.

Students typically do experiments to analyze possible outcomes and to

calculate frequencies and relative frequencies because ‘predicting’ is

extremely important and useful. It takes the analysis of a great deal of data

to determine the probability of events and to do so as accurately as possible.

Learning becomes more interesting to students when they are exposed to

varied experiences and manipulative devices (Valdez, 2008).

Students learn better when play is integrated in the lesson (De Luna et

al., 2012). Probability is discovered because of gambling that is why it can be

introduced through play but it discouraged the students to be a gambler.

Abovementioned, the author stated in order to enhance their

appreciation on the rudiments of math, a larger variety of commercial games

should be considered by the teachers for purposes of using them as

supplements in class discussion.

In summary, probability introduces patterns, in random events in

determining the chance that will occurs next. Bit in the simplest way,

probability is the study of chance. The present study focused on the

utilization of the manipulative material, specifically the spinner in teaching

the concept simple probability. Spinner is a manipulative material that can be

used to show a possibility that an event will happen. It has three colors with

the corresponding level of difficulty indicated by the angle measurement.

Probability is a relatively new branch of mathematics, which started to study


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from the gambling games strategies. The researchers introduce an

educational game that will arouse student’s interest to win a prize. These will

include learning activities and events rather than fixed documents such as

laws, principles, and concepts (Corpuz et al., 2007).

According to Gonzalo (2013), the result of the Trends in Mathematics

and Science Study (TIMMS, 2003) revealed low scores in Science and

Mathematics of selected Grades 4 – 8 students from sample schools, the

country did not join the 2007, 2009 and 2010 and 2011 TIMMS). Corpuz et al.,

(2007) cited Aristotle who stated that “what we have to do to learn, we learn

by doing”.

Valdez (2008) was quoted by Penaredondo et al., (2009) as;

mathematics is best learned by doing. The teacher should use concrete

materials for the learners to visualize the concept. The use of manipulative

and visual imagery of the concept of presenting the lesson is reflective of

good mathematics teaching. Likewise, Lardizabal (1992) was cited by

Penaredondo et al., who stressed that for learner, to achieve maximum

learning, he must be active and be involved in any activities, and thus,

learning is minds-on-hands-on experiences of the students. As stresses in a

further concept; to be clear to the learners it should take place in the mind as

the learners learn and experience things themselves.

Learning becomes more interesting to students when they are exposed

to varied experiences and manipulative devices. It is critical that the teacher

is able guide the students to go through the conceptual, the concrete and the

symbolic which are involved in the learning of mathematics (Valdez, 2008).

Olbes et al., (2007) cited Godfrey (1994) who affirmed that an effective
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and well prepared teacher has always played a vital role in instruction. She

solicited total classroom participation through fun approaches as their warm-

up activity. Instruction concentrated on the use of various manipulation and

hands-on work to assist students in their problems solving as well as to

develop their ability to formulate their own problems and solutions.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aimed to determine the performance in the achievement

and the effectiveness of using Spinner in teaching Simple Probability among

Grade six pupils at Bantay Insik Integrated School during the academic year

2017–2018.

Specifically, the researcher sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of;

a. age,

b. gender, and

c. GPA? (Third trimester)

2. What is the respondents’ performance in the administered

achievement test?

3. What is the status of the manipulative material according to;

a. acceptability as rated by the students?

4. Is there a significant difference between the respondents’

performance according to the administered achievement test across their

profile variables?

5. Is there a significant difference between the control and

experimental group performance in the administered achievement test?


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6. Is there a significant relationship between the respondent’s

performance and their acceptability in the manipulative?

Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypotheses of the study were formulated in their null

form and tested at 0.05, level of significance stated as:

1. There is no significant difference between the respondents’

performances in the achievement test across their profile variables,

2. There is no significant difference between the control and

experimental group performance in the administered achievement test, and

3. There is no significant relationship between the respondent’s

performance and their acceptability in the manipulative.

GENERATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION

The study conducted by Pablico et al., (2014) the students gave the

highest regard on the manipulative material (Recreational Mathematics) used

in the discussion of the topic on probability.

In another study conducted by Vinluan (2005) showed that there is a

significant difference between the achievement of the student groups

exposed to traditional and non-traditional assessment tool. The students

exposed to traditional assessment tools bear satisfactory while those

exposed to non-traditional assessment tools had very satisfactory

achievement.
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The paper of De Luna et al., (2012) established that play contributed to

a greater students’ performance. Better learning ensued when play was

integrated in the lesson. Also recommended that for meaningful learning,

teachers should design their lesson that would allow creative learning

through the use of play; i. a., play must be integrated in the lesson.

The study substantiated by Andrada et al., (2006), as cited by

Penaredondo et al., (2009) showed that there are many ways to effectively

teach Mathematics. The use of hands on manipulative approach to

Mathematics is extremely valuable for children both in elementary and high

school. The use of literature is yet another approach, teacher can use in

providing their students with varied experience with Mathematics. It should

not be overused any more than it should be under used not every book is

meant for math. Books should not be twisted in order to suit math instruction

purposes. Penas et al., (2007) also mentioned that wide recognition of math

manipulative play a major role in the teaching and learning of Mathematics.

Carbonneau, Marley and Selig (2013) as cited by Back (2015) states

that meta-analysis comparison in the use of manipulative, or hands-on

practical apparatus in teaching mathematics, with teaching that relied only

on abstract mathematical symbols; found statistically significant evidence

that manipulative had small to moderate positive effect on learning.

Iadipaolo (2010) describe many ways manipulative can be used in the

Mathematics classroom in her article. Some suggestions include with

estimations techniques, measurement, ratio, probability and properties of

whole numbers. She explains on how manipulative can help increase

retention rate of information. A suggestion in this article is to give students a


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homework assignment to design a probability simulation using manipulative

instead of assigning problem sets every day. She states that downfall to using

manipulative includes more time to set up, plan and clean up, but the

research shows they are engaging and research to the kinaesthetic learners

in the classroom. Finally, Iadipaolo gives link to the lesson that already

incorporated manipulative.

Studies with the use of manipulative have shown that there is a great

effect to the performance of the students in Mathematics. Pennington (2004)

of California Lutheran University studied the use of manipulative in

elementary grade classroom found out that it has been used as an aid to

understand new concepts of skills being taught. Learners in the experimental

group struggled to understand the concept, developed a better

understanding of the lesson when the manipulative is introduced.

The study of Punchner et al., (2008) analyzed the use of manipulative

in mathematics lessons and found out that teachers misused the

manipulative in teaching the concepts which did not help in the learning of

the students. It was realized that teachers needed support in making

decisions regarding the use of manipulative including when, why and how to

use these concrete objects to help them learn and their students think about

mathematical ideas more closely. Also, opportunities to observe and have

firsthand experience allowing learning through explorations with concrete

objects as cited in Boggony et al., (2010).

The research of Onasanya and Omosewo (2011) revealed that there

was no significant difference in the performance of students taught with

improvised instructional. The use of improvised manipulative material was to


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assist the teachers economically and also allow students interact that makes

them use their intellectual ability during learning and teaching processes.

PLAN OF ACTION

Methods and Procedures

This chapter presents the description of the population and locale of

the study, data collecting tool, procedures and statistical treatment of the

gathered data used in this research.

Research Design:

The researcher adopted the experimental together with the descriptive

research design. The experimental method of research was used in analysis

of the implementation of the manipulative: spinner and the descriptive

research method were used in the analysis of the results in the tests. The

designs were deemed appropriate by the researcher to a certain the

performances of the grade six pupils in mathematics using the said

manipulative material.

According to Scott Brown as cited by Del Siegle, (2000) the main

function of the experimental research design is to control variance. Control

the variance of the extraneous variables that may have an effect on the

experimental outcomes. Experimental design should be developed to ensure

the internal and external validity of the study. It is also extremely desirable

that any threats to internal and external validity be neutralized. In the perfect
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world, all research would be accurate and powerful and in the real world, this

is rarely the casa.

Figure shows the conceptual paradigm of the study that serves as a

pattern of the study or the sequence `of steps on how this study was

conducted.

It shows the performance of Grade six pupils in probability. The

independent variable contains the profile of the Grade six pupils in terms of

age, gender, and grade point average (GPA) and the use of manipulative

material approaches in teaching lecture or traditional method.

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Profile of the Grade Six


Pupils in terms of:

a . Age;

b. Gender: and

c. Grade Point

Average (GPA)
Performance of the Grade
Use of Six Pupils in

Use Manipulative
use Achievement Test

Material

Approaches in Teaching
Lecture/Traditional

Method
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Figure 2: A Paradigm showing the Relationship between Independent

and Dependent Variable

Population and Locale of the Study:

The respondents of this study were the Grade Six Pupils of Bantay Insik

Integrated School who is enrolled for the academic year 2017-2018.

The respondents from the control and experimental groups comprised a

total of 36 students, respectively. Both experimental group and control group

consist of 18 students each, respectively. The experimental group was

subjected to the alternative method of instruction, which is the use of

manipulative material (spinner) in instruction while the control group was

taught by the conventional method or the lecture method.

The purposive random sampling was used. Purposive sampling is a

sampling in which elements are chosen based on purpose of the study. And to

address some of the issues arising with assignment bias and the allocation of

participants to groups, the respondents were chosen based on their grade

point average in the third trimester period. The researcher requested from

the subject teacher the GPA of the respondents, likewise the grade six pupils

who belonged to the Experimental Group rated the acceptability of the

Manipulative Material.
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Data Gathering Instrument:

The study utilized a forty (40) item multiple choice test and a

questionnaire checklist. A table of specification was prepared before the test

development. The said test was developed by the researcher and validated

by math teacher, the result of the weighted mean is 4.07 with a descriptive

equivalent of valid , and were administered to the Grade Six pupils coming

from Bantay Insik Integrated School. To validate the instrument, the

questionnaire was administered to twenty (20) Grade Nine students who had

finished the basic lessons in probability. Results were item analyzed to

determine the indices of discrimination and difficulty. Only the easy average

and difficult items were retained to complete the twenty-four (24) items set

by the researcher.

The data gathering instruments are hereby enumerated for the

different purposes needed in understanding the study.

1. Questionnaire Checklist. The questionnaire checklist was used to

determine the acceptability of the Manipulative Material in the

experimental group on its integration in their lesson. The questionnaire

consisted of 10 statements. It uses a five-point rating scale.


2. Experimental and Control Group. This includes the group of

students where the test is administered in such a way that it to assess

the performance of the students in probability which consisted of 40

items. The test covers the topic in Probability during the third trimester

period of school year 2017-2018. This test was administered to the

students after teaching the topic.


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Data Gathering Procedure:

Before the conduct of the survey, a letter of permission was secured

presented to the Principal, Dr. Eloisa V. Alvarez and to the adviser of the

pupils.

The researcher taught the lesson on simple probability to the

respondents. The alternative teaching method, i.e. the integration of

Manipulative Material in the discussion was integrated to the experimental

group; the control group received traditional or lecture method of the

teaching. The teaching session lasted for one hour and thirty minutes which

is the normal schedule in each subject area.

Mechanics of the Game

1. The class was grouped into five (5) groups. Each group should have one

representative to stand up in the maze.

2. They have a draw lots to determine who will be the first (1 st) to fifth (5th)

group that be the basis of the order in the game.

3. The game start by spinning the wheel, which have three (3) different

colors and each color has different sizes. Each of them represents a

question. And these questions are classified as Easy, Average and

Difficult.

4. The blue color weights an easy question, yellow color weights an average

questions and the red color weights a difficult question. If a group answer

the easy question, the group will advance one (1) step forward. If the

group answer the average question, the group will have the chance to

decide if they advance one (1) step forward or they will choose to turn
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back one of the opponent of the group or lose a turn one of their

opponent. And if they answer the difficult question, they will

automatically advance two (2) steps forward. If the group did not answer

any of the questions they will stay in their position.

5. The group should answer the questions to advance in the maze until they

get into the finish line. The first group to go in the finish line will declared

as the winner.

Statistical Treatment of Data:

Appropriate statistical tools were used to come up with valid and

credible interpretation of data.

To answer problem number one on the profile of the student-

respondents in terms of age, gender and GPA frequency counts and

percentages were used.

The GPA in third trimester period of the pupils was further interpreted

using the scale shown below:


Range Descriptive Equivalent
75-82 Low
83-90 Average
91-99 High
To answer problem number two on the performance of the respondents

in the achievement test administered to them, and problem number three on

the acceptability rated by the students in the use of a manipulative, average

weighted mean was used.

X 
x
n

The mean rating used by the researcher for the pupils’ achievements

was interpreted using the following scale:


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Mean Range Descriptive Equivalent


26.00 – 40.00 High
14.00 – 25.99 Average
0 – 13.99 Low

The mean ratings provided for the appropriateness and acceptability of

the manipulative material were describe using the five point Likert scale.

Mean Range Descriptive Equivalent (DE)


4.21 – 5.00 Very High (VH)
3.41 – 4.20 High (H)
2.61 – 3.40 Moderate (M)
1.81 – 2.60 Low (L)
1.00 – 1.80 Very Low (VL)

For Problem number four on the significant difference between

respondent’s performance across their profile variables, problem number five,

the significant difference between the performance of the control and

experimental group in the test administered to them, and problem number

six, the significant relationship between the respondent’s performance and

their acceptability in the use of manipulative where established using

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Software.


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FINDINGS

Results and Discussions

This chapter presents the tabulation, examination and elucidation of

the data gathered in relation to the problems raised in the study.

Profile of the Respondents

This section presents the data about the profile of the respondents,

their age, gender, and GPA.

Table 1

Distribution of the Respondents in terms of their Profile Variables

Control Group, 18 Experimental Group,18 Total, 36


Profile Variables
f % f % f %
Age 11 6 33.3 9 50.0 15 41.7
12 11 61.1 7 38.9 18 50.0
13 1 5.6 2 11.1 3 8.3
Gende
Male 6 33.3 6 33.3 12 33.3
r
Female 12 66.7 12 66.7 24 66.7
GPA Low 3 16.7 4 22.2 7 19.4
Average 15 83.3 14 77.8 29 80.6
High 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

Legen Mean Descriptive

d: Range Equivalent
75-82 Low
Age. Table 83-90 Average 1
91-99 High
shows that majority of the respondents from the control group (11 or 61.1 %)
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are 12 years old while in the experimental group majority (9 or 50%) are 11

years old. This implies that the Grade six pupils at Mother Goose Special

School System, Inc., were dominated by those in the prescribed maturity for

the level of Grade Six Pupils.

Gender. As presented in Table 1, there are more females (66.7%) than

males (33.3%). This implies that females dominated the male students.

GPA. As shown on the table, majority of the respondents (29 or 80.6

%) got an average grade of (83-90). There are also respondents who obtained

low grades (75-82) which is (7 or 19.4%) but no one from the respondents got

a high grade. This implies that the respondents were average in their

performance based on their GPA.

Performance of the Students

Table 2 shows the performance of the pupils in the achievement test.

The achievement test administered to the respondents consisted of 40

item multiple choice. The highest score and lowest score obtained by the

control group is 26 and 7, respectively. On the other hand, the experimental

group gained a highest score of 31 and a lowest score of 11. The mean scores

obtained by the control and experimental groups are 17.61 and 20.61

respectively. Both groups are described to be average in their performance in

the achievement test.

Table 2

Performance of the Students in the Achievement test

Statistical Value
Statistical Measure Control Group, Experimental Group,
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18 18

Number of Cases 18 18
Highest Possible 40 40

Score
Highest Score 26 31

Obtained
Lowest Score 7 11

Obtained
Mean Score 17.61 (average) 20.61 (average)
Median Score 17 21
Modal Score 14,15 19,21
Standard Deviation 5.315 4.203
Coefficient Skewness -0.163 0.050
Coefficient Kurtosis -0.827 2.293

Legen Mean Descriptive

d: Range Equivalent
26.00– High

40.00
14.00 – Average

25.99
0 – 13.99 Low

The table also reveals the standard deviation of the post test data of

the control and experimental groups which are 5.315 and 4.203, respectively.

Since the computed standard deviation ( 4.203) of the experimental group is

less than the computed standard deviation (5.315) of the control group, this

implies that the scores obtained by the experimental group are less

dispersed.

To further described the performance of the two groups, the table

below is presented.
28

Table 3

Distribution of the Respondent’s Scores

in the Achievement Test

Control Group Experimental Group Total

Score Interval n1=18 n2=18 n=36


F % F % F %
25-40 (High) 0 0 1 6 1 3
15-24 (Average) 15 83 16 88 31 86
0-14 (Low) 3 17 1 6 4 11

It could be gleaned from the table that nobody from the control group got

a score ranging from 25 to 40 which is described as “High” while in the

experimental group one respondent got “High” score. Moreover, in the control

group there are 15 respondents and 16 respondents from the experimental

group who obtained a score from 15 to 24 which is described as “Average”. It

is also wise to note that three (3) respondents from the control group and one

(1) respondent from the experimental group obtained a score from 0 to 14

which is described as “Low”. This indicates that the use of spinner as a

manipulative material enhanced the performance of the experimental group,

hence it is effective.

A graph was also presented below to further describe the performance

of the control and experimental groups. As shown by the computed value of

skewness as -0.163 and 0.050, respectively. The data reveals a negative

skewness for the control group while in the experimental group reveals

positive skewness. It can be gleaned that in the control group there were

more scores which is higher than the mean while in the experimental group it

reveals that there were less scores which is higher than the mean.
29

Figure 3: Skewness of the experimental and control groups

Furthermore, the computed kurtosis in the control group is -0.827 and

2.293 in the experimental group. This indicates that it is both is under

platykurtic curve which implies that the distribution of the scores was

dispersed. This implies that experimental group performed better than

control group based on statistical measures.

Result from the findings of Back (2015) states that manipulative had

small to moderate positive effect on learning. Likewise, Pennington (2004)

found out that learners in the experimental group struggled to understand

the concept, developed a better understanding of the lesson when

manipulative is introduced.

Status of the Manipulative Material

Table 4 shows the status of the manipulative material according to the

acceptability of the manipulative material as rated by the student


30

respondents.

Table 4 on the next page regard the experimental group’s overall

acceptability on the manipulative used garnered a AWM = 4.35 had a

description of ‘Very High’ which indicated that the students gave the highest

regard on the manipulative used in the discussion of the topic Simple

Probability.

Specifically, the category that gained the highest mean with the same

description is ‘The manipulative material used contribute to the growth and

development of the student’ (WM = 4.56) while the least are ‘The colors used

brings of the effective quality: the color scheme is distinct’ and ‘The materials

is suitable to the topic: the manipulative is appropriate to the topic at hand’

(WM = 4.11). This implies that the manipulative material is acceptable to use.

Table 4

Status of the Manipulative Material According to Acceptability as

Rated by the Students (n = 18)

Indicators WM DE
1. The presentation of the manipulative is clear: the
4.39 VH
individual components are identifiable.
2. The appearance of the manipulative contributed to the

proper delivery of the topic: the manipulative is 4.50 VH

enticing.
3. The colors used brings of the effective quality: the color
4.11 H
scheme is distinct.
4. The materials is suitable to the topic: the manipulative
4.11 H
is appropriate to the topic at hand.
5. The activities/presentation lead to interactive learning
4.39 VH
between the teacher and the students.
6. The learning activities provide the students with 4.17 H
31

opportunity for the development of competence and

skills.
7. Teaching the topic using the manipulative motivates the
4.50 VH
learners.
8. The manipulative material used contribute to the
4.56 VH
growth and development of the student.
9. The manipulative material contributes in developing the
4.28 VH
creativity and imaginative response among he students.
10.The manipulative material is responsive to the need and

demand in the learning of the subject matter: the topic 4.50 VH

was fully understood.


Average Weighted Mean 4.35 VH

Legen Mean Descriptive Equivalent

d: Range (DE)
4.21 – 5.00 Very High (VH)
3.41 – 4.20 High (H)
2.61 – 3.40 Moderate (M)
1.81 – 2.60 Low (L)
1.00 – 1.80 Very Low (VL)

The result confirmed the findings of Pennington (2004) that students in

the experimental group struggled to understand the concept, developed a

better understanding of the lesson when manipulative is introduced.

Difference in the Performance across Age

Table 5 shows the result of the analysis of variance on the difference in

the performance of students across age.

Table 5

ANOVA Results on the Difference in the Performance of the Students

across Age
32

Source
Sum of Mean
of D F- Remark
Group Square Square Sig
Variatio f value s
s s
n
Between
Not
0.030 2 0.015
0.91
Groups
0.092 Significa
Within 1
3
Control 2.470 0.165
nt
Groups 5
1
Total 2.500
7
Between 0.000 2 0.000
Not
1.00
Groups
0.000 Signfican
Experiment Within 2.000 1 0.133
0
t
al Groups 5
Total 2 .000 1

It can be gleaned from the table above that in the control group

the achievement test computed F-value is 0.092 with a significant value of

0.913 which is higher than the level of significance of 0.05 shows that the null

hypothesis confirmed which means that there is no significant difference

between the performance across age.

The same exist on the students’ performance in the experimental

group as the computed F-value of 0 with a significance value of 1 indicates.

Based from the result, it is indicated that the null hypothesis is

confirmed which means that there is no significant difference between the

performance of the students across age. Results from the findings of

Michaeloudis (2001) that the age does not affect students’ performance.
33

Difference in the Performance across Gender

Table 6 shows the result of t-test on the difference in the performance

of students across gender.

Table 6

t-Test Results on the Difference in the Performance of the Students

across Gender

Standar
Mean
Me d Error D t-
Group Sex N Differe Sig Remarks
an Differen f value
nce
ce
Male 6 1.67 Not
Fema 1 1.92 1 0.20
Control -0.250 0.188 -1.333 Significan
le 2 6 1
t
Male 6 2.17 Not
Experime Fema 1 1.92 1 0.15
0.250 0.165 1.515 Significan
ntal le 2 6 0
t
34

It can be gleaned from the table 6 that in the control group there is no

significant difference between the performance of the students across their

gender in achievement test as proven by the computed t value of -1.333 with

a significance value of 0.201 that is higher than 0.05 level of significance, the

null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference between

the performance of the students across their gender is hereby confirmed.

Also the table shows that in the experimental group achievement test,

it can also be seen that there is no significant difference in the performance

of students across their gender as proven by the computed t value of 1.515

with a significance value of 0.150 which is higher than the 0.05 level of

significance, the null hypothesis is again confirmed.

The result confirmed the findings of Michaeloudis (2001) that

performance of students does not affected by gender. However, such as

findings of the present study contradicts that of the findings of Ai (2002)

where it was found that gender significantly contributed to the difference in

Mathematics performance as measured by Mathematics Grade.

Difference in the Performance across GPA

Table 7 shows the result of analysis of variance on the difference in the

performance of students across GPA. It can be gleaned from the table that in

the control group there is no significant difference between the of

performance of the students across their GPA in achievement test as proven

by the computed F-value of 0.667 with a significance value of 0.426 that is

higher than 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is confirmed which

states that there is no significant difference between the performance of the


35

students across their GPA.

Table 7

ANOVA Results on the Difference in the Performance of the Students

across GPA

Source of Sum of Mean


Group Df F-value Sig Remarks
Variation Squares Squares
Between 0.100 1 0.100
Not
Groups 0.42
Control Within 2.400 16 0.150 0.667 Significa
6
Groups nt
Total 2.500 17
Between 0.321 1 0.321
Not
Experiment Groups 0.09
Within 1.679 16 0.105 3.064 Significa
al 9
Groups nt
Total 2.000 17
36

The same condition exist in the experimental group achievement test,

the computed F-value of 3.064 with a significance value of 0.099 indicates.

Based from the result, it is indicated that the null hypothesis is

confirmed which means that there is no significant difference between the

performance of students across GPA.

Difference between the Students’ Performance

Table 8 shows, t-Test results between control and experimental group

achievement performance.

Table 8

t-Test Results on the Difference in the Performance of the Control

and Experimental Group

Standard
Mean t-
Mea Error d Remark
Group N Differenc valu Sig
n Differenc f s
e e
e
Control 1 17.6
Not
3 - 0.6
8 1
-3.000 1.597 Significa
Experiment 1 20.6
4 1.878 9
nt
al 8 1

It shows that there is no significant difference between the

achievement test as proven by the mean difference of -3.00 and the

computed t value of -1.878. The computed t value has a significant value of

0.69 which is higher than the level of significance of 0.05.

The result confirmed the findings of Onasanya and Omosewo (2011)


37

there is no significant difference in the performance of students taught with

improvised instructional material. Contradict to the findings of Vinluan (2005)

that there is a significant difference between the achievement of the student

groups exposed to traditional and non-traditional assessment tool.

Relationship of the of Performance and Acceptability of the

Manipulative Material

Table 9 shows the relationship of the test performance and

acceptability the manipulative material.

Table 9

Relationship of the of Performance and Acceptability of the

Manipulative Material as Rated by the Students (n=18)

r-value Correlation Sig Remarks


-0.070 negative low 0.782 Not Significant

The computed r-value is -0.070 with significance value of 0.782. It

shows that the correlation is negative which indicates that as one variable

increases the other variable decreases. It implies that the students’

performances were not anyway affected by their assessment in the

acceptability of the manipulative material.

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS and INTEREPRETATION of DATA


38

The researcher sought the profile of the students in terms of age,

gender, and GPA; performances in the administered achievement test; the

acceptability of the manipulative material as rated by the students; the

relationship of the respondents’ performances according to the administered

achievement test and their profile variables; the difference between the

control and experimental groups’ performances in the administered

achievement test; and the relationship of the respondents’ performance and

their acceptability in the use of the manipulative material.

The main instruments were achievement test, checklists for the

acceptability and appropriateness of the manipulative material.

The tools for data analysis were mean, median, standard deviation,

skewness, and kurtosis. On the other hand, the level of significances was

established using the t-test and ANOVA formula.

Salient Findings

Based on the data gathered, the researcher gave the following

findings:

1. Majority of the respondents were 11 years old, females, and have a

GPA of

Average (83-90).

2. Both the control and experimental group obtained an average level of

performance during the achievement test with a mean of 17.61 and 20.61,

respectively.
39

3. Students in the experimental Group rated the acceptability on the use

of spinner as a manipulative material in teaching the concept of simple

probability got to be Very High.

4. There were no significant differences between the performances of the

students across their profile variables.

5. There were no significant differences between the performances of the

control and experimental group.

6. There were no significant relationship between the students’

performances and their acceptability of the manipulative.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were

drawn.

1. The students were dominated by those in their prescribed maturity of

learning, feminine gender, and have low to average range in their GPA.

2. Using spinner is more effective than the traditional method in teaching

simple probability based on statistical measures.

3. Dominant of the students was strongly convinced that the manipulative

material used contributed to their growth and development.

4. The performance of the students in probability was not influenced by

their biological classification, maturity and their class standing.

5. The students’ achievement ratings do not vary when taught by the

researcher by both traditional and with spinner.

6. The students’ performances were not anyway affected by their

assessment in their acceptability on the manipulative material.

RECOMMENDATIONS
40

As a direct result of this study and through a review of the conclusions

and findings, the following recommendations are presented:

1. Inclusion of other relevant profile variables such as pupils’ parent

occupation to further analyze their performance in achievement test along

with their acceptability is recommended.

2. Enhancement of spinner as a manipulative material to minimize the

difficulty among students to understand the concept simple probability.

3. Fabrication and utilization of other manipulative materials in teaching

probability to further enhance the analysis and capabilities and

performance of the students.

4. Workshops and seminars for mathematics teachers must be conducted to

improve and enforce the new trends in teaching.

5. Further study in a larger and wider scope must be conducted to validate

the result of this study.


41

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS

Acero, et al., Principles and Strategies of Teaching, Rex Printing

Company

Inc. Quezon City, 2000

Bennet Jr & Nelson, Mathematics for Elementary Teachers, 2004

Corpuz, Brenda et al., Curriculum Develoment, Lorimar Publishing Inc.

Quezon

City 2007

Corpuz, Brenda et al., Facilitating Learning, Lorimar Publishing Inc. Quezo

City 2007

Icutan, Sherelle Lou et al., Statistics with Probablity A Comprehensive

Approach, Jimczyville Publications # 16 Cocha St. Malabon City, 2012

Lucido, Paz & Corpuz, Brenda, Educational Technology 1, Lorimar

Publishing

Inc. Quezon City, 2012

Vega et al., Social Dimensions of Education, Lorimar Publishing Inc.

Quezon

City, 2006
42

B. JOURNAL

Johnsons (2005). Journal of Statistics Education 13(2)

Moscardini, L. (2009) Tools or Crutches: Apparatus as a sense-making

aid in mathematics teaching with children with moderate learning

difficulties. Support for Learning. 24(1): 35-41. Oxford: NASEN

S.A. Onasanya and E.O. Omosewo (2011) Effects of Improvised and

Standard Instructional Material on Secondary School Students’

Academic Performance in Physics in Illrin, Nigeria. Singapore Journal

Scientific Research, 1:68-76

C. ONLINE

http://www.mathplayground.com/probability.html

http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10451.pdf

http://deepblua.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/42656/10649_2005_

Article_3228.pdf?sequence=1

http://joannabriggslibrary.org/index.php/jbisrir/article/view/1354/2113

http://nrich.maths.org/10461 MANIPULATIVES IN THE PRIMARY CLASSROOM

http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=151 LEARNING MATHEMATICS WITH

VIRTUAL MANIPULATIVES

http://jmathpaga.com/JIMSProbabilitypaga.html

http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_186_g_2_t_5.html?open=activities

Spinner
43

http://nrich.maths.org/10461

http://www.acessmylibrary.com/com/coms2/summary 0286-35888184 ITEM

APPENDIX A

Bantay Insik Integrated School


Bantay Insik, Sison, Pangasinan

February 04,
2018

Ma’am,

I, the undersigned, MED. student of Panpacific University North


Philippines and currently teaching at Bantay Insik Integrated School, am
conducting an action research entitled “Performance of Grade Six Pupils of
Bantay Insik Integrated School in Probability”, as a requirement in Social
Regards for Learning, one of my subjects in Masteral.

In line with this, I would like to seek permission from your good office
to allow me to conduct study on the grade six pupils.

Your consideration on this matter is highly appreciated.


Thank you and more power.

Very truly yours,

RAMOS, MARICRIS, ROMERO


Researcher

Approved:

ELOISA V. ALVAREZ, Ed.D


Principal II
44

APPENDIX B
BANTAY INSIK INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Bantay Insik, Sison, Pangasinan

NAME: ___________________________ SCORE: _________


YEAR & SECTION: _______ Age:______ Gender:_____ DATE: __________

DIRECTION: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.

1. What is the formula in finding the probability of an event?


a.

b. P(E) =

c. Both a and b
d. none of the above

2. It is defined as the proportion of times a favorable event will occur in a


long series of repeated trials.
a. Probability of an event c. Event
b. Experiment d. Set

3. It is a word related to chance and it measures the possibility that a


particular event will or will not happen.
a. Sample space c. Event
b. Outcomes d. Probability

4. Which of the following does NOT belong to the group?


a. Chance c. Possibilities
b. Interpretation d. Uncertainty

5. A jar contains seven coins: 4 pennies, 1 nickel, and 2 dimes. You draw one
coin at random, what is the probability of drawing nickel? What’s the
probability of drawing a dime?
a. 1/7, 4/7 c. 2/7, 1/7
45

b. 4/7, 1/7 d. 1/7, 2/7

6.A card is drawn from a deck of 52 cards. What is the probability of drawing
a spade?
a. 1/52 c. 1/4
b. 1/3 d. 1/36

7. Justine and Dominic will run for the same position in the SGO election. If
the probability that Justine will win is ½, what is the probability that Dominic
win?
a. 1/2 c. 1
b. 3/4 d. 0

8.Janine has 7 oranges, 5 strawberries and 10 apples in the basket, find the
probability that Janine will get an apple?
5/11 c. 3/22
7/22 d. 5/22

9. If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck, find the probability of drawing a


black card?
a. 3/4 c. 1/2
b. 1/4 d. none of the above

10. I have P20-bill and a P50-bill pesos in my pocket, find the probability that
I will get 30 pesos in my pocket?
a. 1/2 c.3/4
b. 1/6 d. 0

11. Two coins are cast. What is the probability of obtaining a head and a tail?
a. 1/2 c.1/4
b. 3/4 d. 0

12. A box contains 10 red and 3 violet balls, find the probability that I will pick
a violet ball from the box?
a. 3/13 c. 3/14
b. 2/3 d. 1/13

13. If there are 4 choices for the answer in a question, what is the probability
that I will choose the correct one?
a. 1/4 c. 1/5
b. 3/4 d. 1/2

14. On a single toss of a pair of an honest dice, find the probability of getting
a sum of 4?
a. 1/6 c. 1/2
b. 3/8 d. 3/7

15. We roll two fair dice. What is the probability that the outcome is a sum of
7?
a. 1/16 c. 1/6
46

b. 1/36 d.1/3

16. Mary and Liza will run for class president. If the Probability that Mary will
run is 0.45, what is the probability that Liza will win?
a. 0.55 c. 0.56
b. 0.68 d. 0.45

17. Jun rolls 2 dice. The first die shows a 5. The second die rolls under his
desk and He cannot see it. Now, what is the probability that both dice show
5?
a. 1/36 c.9/36
b. 1/6 d. 1/3

18. Earl Darenz is asked to choose a day from a week. What is the probability
of choosing a day which starts with S?
a. 2/7 c. 1/7
b. 5/7 d.1

19. If a letter is chosen at random from the word PERSEVERANCE, what is the
probability that the letter chosen is A.
a. 5/12 c. 1/3
b. 2/3 d. 6/12

20. If one letter is chosen at random from the word TRUSTWORTHY, what is
the probability that the letter chosen is consonant?
a. 9/11 c. 7/11
b. 5/11 d. 8/11

21. What is the probability of getting an 8 from a deck of 52 cards?


a. 1/12 c.3/52
b. 1/13 d. 8/52

22. There are 20 marbles in a container: 4 are red, 5 are blue, and 11 are
yellow. What is the probability that a blue marble will be picked?
a. 1 c.1/3
b. 1/2 d. 1/4

23. If I have a 1 peso, 5 peso, and 10 peso coin on my pocket. What is the
probability that I will pick 25 cents?
a. 1 c. none
b. 2 d. All of the Above

24. The local weather forecaster said that there is a 20% chance of rain
tomorrow. What is the probability that it will not rain tomorrow?
a. 0.2 c. 20
b. 0.8 d. 80

25. The sides of a cube are numbered 1 to 6. If Jan Renz rolled the cube once,
what is the probability of rolling a composite number?
a. 2/3 c. 1/2
47

b. 3/4 d. 1/3

26. How many possible outcomes are there when a die is cast?
a. 5 c. 7
b. 6 d. 9

27. How many sample points are there in the event of drawing a heart from a
deck of 52 cards?
a. 13 c. 39
b. 26 d. 52

28. What is the probability that 31 days appeared in 2015 calendar?


a. 6/365 c. 5/365
b. 7/365 d. 8/365

29. From a deck of 52 cards, what is the probability of getting a club?


a. 1/12 c. 3/52
b. 1/13 d. 1/16

30. Of the 45 students in a class 25 are mala. If a student is selected at


random for a field trip, what is the probability of selecting a female?
a. 1/3 c. 3/7
b. 4/9 d. 5/9

31. In a 500 ticket draw for an educational price, Ana’s name was written on
41 tickets. What is the probability that she would win?
a. 0.082 c.0.41
b. 0.122 d.0.82

For items 32-36, please refer to the situation.

32. There are 35 marbles in a box. 7 are pink, 13 are violet, 5 are yellow, 6
are white and 4 are blue.
What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be pink?
a.1/3 c. 1/5
b. 1/35 d. 1/7

33. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be
yellow and blue without replacement?
a. 9/35 c. 16/35
b. 1/7 d. 11/35

34. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be
violet and white without replacement?
a. 1/5 c. 9/35
b. 19/35 d. 6/7

35. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be
pink and white without replacement?
a. 12/35 c. 1/5
48

b. 17/35 d. 13/35

36. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be
pink, white and yellow without replacement?
a. 18/35 c. 4/7
b. 1/7 d. 2/7

For questions 37-38 refer to the following information:

37. You may have the following hypothetical information on passenger


complaints about domestic and international airlines from 2000:
Airlines # of Passengers # of
Complaints
Domestic 125, 000 4, 375
International 67, 000 1, 608

What’s the probability that a passenger will issue a complaint about service
on a domestic airline flight?
a. 0.043 c. 0.035
b. 0.024 d. None of the above

38. What’s the probability that a passenger will issue a complaint about
service on a international airline flight?
a. 0.035 c. 0.024
b. 0.065 d. None of the above

Questions 39-40 refer to the following data.

The table on the next page shows the result of a hypothetical survey
on a participation in sports activities by men and women. Those surveyed
answered yes to activities they had done at least twice the previous 12
months. Assume that the sample is representative of the overall population:

Men Women
Total 109, 059 115, 588

Aerobic exercising 3, 717 19, 535


Baseball 12, 603 2, 974
Hunting 18,512 2, 343
Softball 11, 535 8, 541
Exercise walking 25, 146 46, 286

39. If you randomly select one woman, what’s the probability that she does
aerobics?
a. 0.034 c. 0.201
b. 0.169 d. 0.087
49

40. If you randomly select one man, what’s the probability that he DOESN’T
do exercise walking?
a. 0.231 c. 0.400
b. 0.660 d. 0.76
50

Answer key:
21.B
22.D
1. A
23.C
2. A
24.B
3. D
25.D
4. B
26.B
5. D
27.A
6. C
28.B
7. A
29.B
8. A
30.B
9. C
31.A
10.D
32.C
11.C
33.A
12.A
34.B
13.A
35.D
14.A
36.A
15.C
37.C
16.A
38.C
17.A
39.B
18.A
40.D
19.C
20.A

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

Acceptability of the Manipulative Material


51

Direction: Please read each statement in this questionnaire. In a scale of 1-


5, rate each item by making a check mark on the appropriate column using
the rating scale below.
Rating Scale:
5- Very High: The manipulative has fully attained all its purpose.
4- High: The manipulative has almost attained all its
purpose.
3- Moderate: The manipulative has somewhat attained all its
purpose.
2- Low: The manipulative has partly attained all its
purpose.
1- Very Low: The manipulative did not attain all its purpose.

Indicators 5 4 3 2 1

1. The presentation of the manipulative is clear: the


individual components are identifiable.
2. The appearance of the manipulative contributed to the
proper delivery of the topic: the manipulative is enticing.

3. The colors used brings out the creative quality: the color
scheme is distinct.

4. The material is suitable to the topic: the manipulative is


appropriate to the topic at hand.

5. The activities / presentation lead to interactive learning


between the teacher and the students.

6. The learning activities provide the students with


opportunity for the development of competence and skills.
7. Teaching the topic using the manipulative motivates the
learners.
8. The manipulative material used contribute to the growth
and development of the student.

9. The manipulative material contributes in developing the


creativity and imaginative response among the students.
10. The manipulative material is responsive to the need and
demand in the learning of the subject matter: the topic
was fully understood.
52

APPENDIX E

LEVEL OF APPROPRIATENESS OF THE MANUPULATIVE MATERIAL


(SPINNER)

Direction: Please read each statement in this questionnaire. In a scale of 1-5, rate
each item by making a check mark on the appropriate column using the rating scale
below.

Rating Scale:
5- Very High: the manipulative has fully attained all its purpose
4- High: the manipulative has almost attained all its purpose
3- Moderate: the manipulative has somewhat attained all its purpose
2- Low: the manipulative has partly attained all its purpose
1- Very Low: the manipulative did not attain all its purpose

LEVEL OF APPROPRIATENESS OF THE SPINNER 5 4 3 2 1


1. The design of the Spinner contributes to the growth and
development of the students.
2. The Spinner helps to motivate the students in learning
Simple Probability.
3. The material used by the teacher is appropriate to develop
concept formation in Simple Probability.
4. The material used by the teacher relay information clearly
and effectively.
5. The Spinner is responsive to needs and demands of learning
the subject matter.
6. The Spinner is handy for teachers and students to handle it.
7. The Spinner is simple yet creative.
8. The Spinner is not confusing to the learners in learning the
53

concept of Simple Probability.


9. The Spinner contributes in developing the creativity and
imaginative response among the students.
10. The Spinner minimizes student difficulty of understanding
concept of Simple Probability.
11. There is a readily available material to construct the model.
12. The lesson is presented in the right time at a right way.
13. The material help the teachers deliver the subject matter in a
better way or helping the learners to learn the Simple
Probability.
14. The material satisfied the need to know and encourage
imaginative response among users.
15. Correct facts or information is relayed for better learning
power.
16. The material is cost-effective thereby decrease the use of
media presentation for understanding Simple Probability.

Comments/Suggestions:___________________
______________________________________
Evaluated by:_____________________
Signature Over Printed
Name

Date:__________________________

APPENDIX F

ILLUSTRATION OF SPINNER

18 cm

15 cm

76 cm
18 cm

26 cm 37 cm
40 cm
54

Schematic diagram of frame

THE WHEEL

46.5 cm
55

Space for
Rubber Rubber
the Wheel

Bottle Crown
Schematic diagram of the wheel and the shaft

Materials:

 2 x 2 lumber  Plywood

 Tinner  Nails

 Paints (red, yellow, blue, white)  Aluminum tube

 Bilao  Used tarpaulin

 Used rubber slipper  Hammer

 Driller  Saw

 Katam  Paint brush

 Tansan  Rubber slipper

PROCEDURE

1. We cut the plywood by 26 cm x 40 cm using a saw and cut the lumber by


76 cm long.

2. Nailed the lumber vertically in one of the longest side of the cut plywood
using the nail and the hammer.
56

3. Cut another two 37 cm long lumber and nailed the lumbers in the lower
part of the 76 cm lumber and connected to the edge of the cut plywood.

4. Cut 3.5 cm long lumber and make a hole in the centre using a driller and
connected to the middle part of the 76 cm long lumber using nails and
saw.

5. Then cut a 18 cm long aluminium tube and insert in the hole, it serves as
the shaft to connect the wheel.

6. Cut another 18 cm x 3.5 cm on a plywood. Then connect horizontally to


the top of the 76 cm lumber and connect the arrow sign.

7. After constructing the stand of the spinner. We painted it by white water


based paint.

8. In constructing the wheel of the spinner, we used the bilao with a radius
of 23.25 cm as the main wheel, we used the bilao in tracing a circle in the
plywood and we cut it by using a chisel, the cut circular plywood nailed in
the bilao.

9. After that we divided the circular plywood by nine (9) different angles,
three 45 degree angles, three 15 degree angles and three 60 degree
angles.

10. We make another two (2) circular plywood with 2.5 cm radius, one of the
circular plywood attached to the center of the front of the wheel and the
other one was attached in the center of the back of the wheel using the
nails.

11. Then we used a driller to make a hole in the center of the wheel. This hole
is made so that it can be connected to the stand of the spinner.

12. We painted the wheel by three (3) colors (red, yellow, and blue), for the
15 degree angles we painted it by red color, blue for the 45 degree angles
and yellow for the 60 degree angles. At the back of the wheel, we applied
a mahogany varnish.

13. Before inserting the wheel to the stand of the spinner, we cut a four (4)
pieces of 3.5 cm x 4.5 cm in a rubber slipper and make a hole in the
center.

14. We inserted one of the rubber in the aluminum tube and next we get a
two (2) pieces of bottle crown and make a hole in the center and inserted
again one of the bottle crown in the aluminum tuba. After that we
inserted the wheel and next we inserted the other piece of bottle crown
and the three 3.5 cm x 4.5 cm rubber.

15. And lastly we cut 48 cm x 4.5 cm plywood and in the top of this, we make
a hole. We inserted this in the aluminum tube and it serves as the lock
and it supports the weight.

LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR GAME:


57

EASY QUESTIONS:

What is the formula in finding the probability of an event?


a.

b. P(E)=

It is defined as the proportion of times a favorable event will occur in a


long series of repeated trials.
a.Probability of an event c. Event
b.Experiment d. Set

It is a word related to chance and it measures the possibility that a


particular event will or will not happen.
a.Sample space c. Event
b.Outcomes d. Probability

Which of the following does NOT belong to the group?


a.Chance c. Possibilities
b.Interpretation d. Uncertainty

A card is drawn from a deck of 52 cards. What is the probability of


drawing a spade?
a. 1/52 c. 1/4
b. 1/3 d. 1/36

Justine and Dominic will run for the same position in the SGO election.
If the probability that Justine will win is ½, what is the probability that
Dominic win?
a. 1/2 c. 1
b. 3/4 d. 0

Janine has 7 oranges, 5 strawberries and 10 apples in the basket, find


the probability that Janine will get an apple?
a. 5/11 c. 3/22
b. 7/22 d. 5/22

If there are 4 choices for the answer in a question, what is the


probability that I will choose the correct one?
a. ¼ c. 1/5
b. 3/4 d. 1/2
If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck, find the probability of drawing
a black card?
a. 3/4 c. 1/2
b. 1/4 d. none of the above

Mary and Liza will run for class president. If the Probability that Mary
will run is 0.45, what is the probability that Liza will win?
a. 0.55 c. 0.56
b. 0.68 d. 0.45
58

What is the probability of getting an 8 from a deck of 52 cards?


a. 1/12 c.3/52
b. 1/13 d. 8/52

There are 20 marbles in a container: 4 are red, 5 are blue, and 11 are
yellow. What is the probability that a blue marble will be picked?
a. 1 c.1/3
b. 1/2 d. 1/4

If I have a 1 peso, 5 peso, and 10 peso coin on my pocket. What is the


probability that I will pick 25 cents?
a. 1 c. none
b. 2 d. All of the Above

The local weather forecaster said that there is a 20% chance of rain
tomorrow. What is the probability that it will not rain tomorrow?
a. 0.2 c. 20
b. 0.8 d. 80

AVERAGE QUESTIONS:

A jar contains seven coins: 4 pennies, 1 nickel, and 2 dimes. You draw
one coin at random, what is the probability of drawing nickel? What’s
the probability of drawing a dime?
a. 1/7, 4/7 c. 2/7, 1/7
b. 4/7, 1/7 d. 1/7, 2/7

Two coins are cast. What is the probability of obtaining a head and a
tail?
a. 1/2 c.1/4
b. 3/4 d. 0

On a single toss of a pair of an honest dice, find the probability of


getting a sum of 4.
a. 1/6 c. 1/2
b. 3/8 d. 3/7

We roll two fair dice. What is the probability that the outcome is a sum
of 7?
a. 1/16 c. 1/6
b.1/36 d.1/3

A box contains 10 red and 3 violet balls; find the probability that I will
pick a violet ball from the box?
a. 3/13 c. 3/14
b. 2/3 d. 1/13

Jun rolls 2 dice. The first die shows a 5. The second die rolls under his
desk and He cannot see it. Now, what is the probability that both dice
show 5?
59

a. 1/36 c.9/36
b. 1/6 d. 1/3

Earl Darenz is asked to choose a day from a week. What is the


probability of choosing a day which starts with S.
a. 2/7 c. 1/7
b. 5/7 d.1

If a letter is chosen at random from the word PERSEVERANCE, what is


the probability that the letter chosen is A.
a. 5/12 c. 1/3
b. 2/3 d. 6/12

If one letter is chosen at random from the word TRUSTWORTHY, what is


the probability that the letter chosen is consonant?
a. 9/11 c. 7/11
b. 5/11 d. 8/11

What is the probability that 31 days appeared in 2015 calendar?


a. 6/365 c. 5/365
b. 7/365 d. 8/365

From a deck of 52 cards, what is the probability of getting a club?


a.1/12 c. 3/52
b. 1/13 d. 1/16

Of the 45 students in a class 25 are mala. If a student is selected at


random for a field trip, what is the probability of selecting a female?
a.1/3 c. 3/7
b.4/9 d. 5/9

In a 500 ticket draw for an educational price, Ana’s name was written
on 41 tickets. What is the probability that she would win?
a. 0.082 c.0.41
b. 0.122 d.0.82

DIFFICULT QUESTIONS:

What is the ratio of the manipulative material that we use after


discussion?

A 10 people is going to play ball this weekend, 4 will play volleyball;


half as many will play basketball the rest will play football. What is the
probability of those who will play football?

A die is rolled, what is the probability that the result is one?

We roll two fair dice. What is the probability that the sum of the
outcomes equals exactly 7?
60

In a family of three children, what is the probability that a middle child


is a boy?

Jess and Diana compete for the dance contest, if they are six. What is
the probability that they will win the contest?

In a single toss of a balanced coin, find the probability that a head


occurs?

Malou and Manilyn joined in the game trip to Jerusalem if they are 7 in
all, what is the probability that Malou?

If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck, find the probability of drawing


a black card?

I have 20 pesos and 50 pesos in my pocket, find the probability that I


will get 30 pesos in my pocket?

Of the 45 students in a class 25 are boys. If a student is selected at


random for a field trip, what is the probability of selecting a girl?

Supposed you tossed two fair coins once, how many possible outcomes
are there?