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SCHOOL IN PROBABILITY

PROFESSOR

Ramos, Maricris R.

MARCH 2018

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title Page

Table of Contents

Situation

Plan of Action

Findings

Appendices

3

SITUATION

This study aimed to determine the performance of the grade six pupils

of Bantay Insik Integrated School in simple probability with the use of spinner

as manipulative material.

age, sex, and GPA; performances in the administered achievement test; and

achievement test and their variables; the difference between the control and

The tools for data analysis were mean, median, standard deviation,

skewness and kurtosis. On the other hand, the level of significances was

TBantay Insik, Sison, Pangasinan. There were three building inside the

campus that was being utilized to cater all students from preschool, grade

school and high school, and the facilities of the school were all well –

4

environment, inside and outside the classroom were all well – maintained that

females and have a GPA of Average (83-90); both the control and

achievement test with the a mean of 17.61 and 20.61, respectively; the

pupils in the experimental group rated the acceptability of the use of spinner

average range in their GPA; using spinner is more effective than the

the performance of the pupils in the probability was not influenced by their

5

traditional and with spinner; the pupils performance were not anyway

material.

possible. We are in a world where innovations are constant. Gone were the

days when a child sits on the bench and listens to his teacher delivers the

lots of tools in teaching and learning. When we teach according to the needs

6

and interest of the students, the happy result is marked improvement in their

continue to provide bases for and the guides for broader and more effective

individuals.

Pupils. The output of the study could direct pupils to focus on each

lesson that will enhance their thinking skills through the different

performances.

Parents. Result of the study will benefit them since they have children

who are recipients of the use of the method and eventually their children will

next research studies on the same work, especially those who are embarking

7

determining the Performance of the Grade Six pupils in Math after using

study are the selected Grade Six pupils of Bantay Insik Integrated School

during the Academic Year 2017-2018. The teaching session covered a period

of two days only. The study made use of evaluation containing forty (40)

items each. The lesson that was included in the learning is the Introduction to

This study was based from the significant theories related to “Active

passive learning, which has been the traditional mode of teaching for

targets of lectures and reading assignments, without, for the most part,

purpose is to compel the student to become part of the learning process – not

just the object of lectures or reading material. Games, by their very nature,

encourage active learning, as the student becomes the driver of the learning

8

and relationship for themselves”. Bruner advised that teachers must utilize

teachers can first have the numbers represented inactively (with blocks) and

then, iconically (in picture). Children can later on handle number concepts

without concrete objects and only with number sand number signs

(symbolic).

Secon

THROUGH A SERIES OF ILLUSTRATION ICONIC

d

SYMBOLIC

hence . . . increasing

difficulty

ICONIC

INCREASI

ABSTRAC

TION

NG

ENACTIVE

9

education. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children learn actively through

caregivers, peers and the culture at large were responsible for the

development of higher order thinking skills. That is why the researchers used

different participatory approaches for the activities yet still with the guidance

growth. Education is, not a preparation for life; education is life itself. In his

theories, he over emphasized the need of the teachers to give the pupils

something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is such a nature as to

the quality of mental process, not the production of correct answers, is the

“If you teach a person what to learn, you are preparing that person in

the past. If you teach how to learn, you are preparing that person in the

future” (Cyril Houle). Learning is more meaningful if teachers let the learners

10

perform a certain activity and not giving all the concepts they need.

Teachers are encouraged to discover new things. With this learning becomes

more meaningful. Dale believed that any and all of the approaches could and

education. Some school subjects are gone, things may change, time may

come and go, but Mathematics remains in the curriculum and in our daily life

(Torres, 2006).

arithmetic of whole numbers and rational numbers (with both decimal and

from the another, to estimate and approximate, to use graphs and other

2010).

incompetent. Internationally, the Philippines were one of the bottom five poor

11

a particular event will or will not happen. It is a number which ranges from 0

Nelson, 2004), quoted Pascal and Fermat developed the principles of the

professional gambler. The problem was to determine how the stakes should

be divided between two gamblers if they quit before the game was finished.

chance of winning the game at any given stage. The theory that originated in

instance, they roll dice to determine how often they will get 4, in 1 to 6

sample space. Soon, they will discover that it is very difficult to predict with

the kind of certainty what the outcome of the given roll will be; the results will

be better as the number of trials grows. The results for a low number of trials

are not good as the results of the larger one. Typically, Math curriculum

interpret, analyze, and display the data, and state the rule for the probability

Basics.htm).

12

Probability has become a topic in Math that has grown out of societal

remains a topic through high school and beyond. The collection and analysis

extremely important and useful. It takes the analysis of a great deal of data

Students learn better when play is integrated in the lesson (De Luna et

determining the chance that will occurs next. Bit in the simplest way,

used to show a possibility that an event will happen. It has three colors with

13

educational game that will arouse student’s interest to win a prize. These will

include learning activities and events rather than fixed documents such as

and Science Study (TIMMS, 2003) revealed low scores in Science and

country did not join the 2007, 2009 and 2010 and 2011 TIMMS). Corpuz et al.,

(2007) cited Aristotle who stated that “what we have to do to learn, we learn

by doing”.

materials for the learners to visualize the concept. The use of manipulative

further concept; to be clear to the learners it should take place in the mind as

is able guide the students to go through the conceptual, the concrete and the

Olbes et al., (2007) cited Godfrey (1994) who affirmed that an effective

14

and well prepared teacher has always played a vital role in instruction. She

Grade six pupils at Bantay Insik Integrated School during the academic year

2017–2018.

a. age,

b. gender, and

achievement test?

profile variables?

15

The study conducted by Pablico et al., (2014) the students gave the

achievement.

16

teachers should design their lesson that would allow creative learning

through the use of play; i. a., play must be integrated in the lesson.

Penaredondo et al., (2009) showed that there are many ways to effectively

school. The use of literature is yet another approach, teacher can use in

not be overused any more than it should be under used not every book is

meant for math. Books should not be twisted in order to suit math instruction

purposes. Penas et al., (2007) also mentioned that wide recognition of math

17

instead of assigning problem sets every day. She states that downfall to using

manipulative includes more time to set up, plan and clean up, but the

research shows they are engaging and research to the kinaesthetic learners

in the classroom. Finally, Iadipaolo gives link to the lesson that already

incorporated manipulative.

Studies with the use of manipulative have shown that there is a great

elementary grade classroom found out that it has been used as an aid to

manipulative in teaching the concepts which did not help in the learning of

decisions regarding the use of manipulative including when, why and how to

use these concrete objects to help them learn and their students think about

18

assist the teachers economically and also allow students interact that makes

them use their intellectual ability during learning and teaching processes.

PLAN OF ACTION

the study, data collecting tool, procedures and statistical treatment of the

Research Design:

research method were used in the analysis of the results in the tests. The

manipulative material.

the variance of the extraneous variables that may have an effect on the

the internal and external validity of the study. It is also extremely desirable

that any threats to internal and external validity be neutralized. In the perfect

19

world, all research would be accurate and powerful and in the real world, this

pattern of the study or the sequence `of steps on how this study was

conducted.

independent variable contains the profile of the Grade six pupils in terms of

age, gender, and grade point average (GPA) and the use of manipulative

Pupils in terms of:

a . Age;

b. Gender: and

c. Grade Point

Average (GPA)

Performance of the Grade

Use of Six Pupils in

Use Manipulative

use Achievement Test

Material

Approaches in Teaching

Lecture/Traditional

Method

20

The respondents of this study were the Grade Six Pupils of Bantay Insik

sampling in which elements are chosen based on purpose of the study. And to

address some of the issues arising with assignment bias and the allocation of

point average in the third trimester period. The researcher requested from

the subject teacher the GPA of the respondents, likewise the grade six pupils

Manipulative Material.

21

The study utilized a forty (40) item multiple choice test and a

development. The said test was developed by the researcher and validated

by math teacher, the result of the weighted mean is 4.07 with a descriptive

equivalent of valid , and were administered to the Grade Six pupils coming

questionnaire was administered to twenty (20) Grade Nine students who had

determine the indices of discrimination and difficulty. Only the easy average

and difficult items were retained to complete the twenty-four (24) items set

by the researcher.

2. Experimental and Control Group. This includes the group of

items. The test covers the topic in Probability during the third trimester

22

presented to the Principal, Dr. Eloisa V. Alvarez and to the adviser of the

pupils.

teaching. The teaching session lasted for one hour and thirty minutes which

1. The class was grouped into five (5) groups. Each group should have one

2. They have a draw lots to determine who will be the first (1 st) to fifth (5th)

3. The game start by spinning the wheel, which have three (3) different

colors and each color has different sizes. Each of them represents a

Difficult.

4. The blue color weights an easy question, yellow color weights an average

questions and the red color weights a difficult question. If a group answer

the easy question, the group will advance one (1) step forward. If the

group answer the average question, the group will have the chance to

decide if they advance one (1) step forward or they will choose to turn

23

back one of the opponent of the group or lose a turn one of their

automatically advance two (2) steps forward. If the group did not answer

5. The group should answer the questions to advance in the maze until they

get into the finish line. The first group to go in the finish line will declared

as the winner.

The GPA in third trimester period of the pupils was further interpreted

Range Descriptive Equivalent

75-82 Low

83-90 Average

91-99 High

To answer problem number two on the performance of the respondents

X

x

n

The mean rating used by the researcher for the pupils’ achievements

24

26.00 – 40.00 High

14.00 – 25.99 Average

0 – 13.99 Low

the manipulative material were describe using the five point Likert scale.

4.21 – 5.00 Very High (VH)

3.41 – 4.20 High (H)

2.61 – 3.40 Moderate (M)

1.81 – 2.60 Low (L)

1.00 – 1.80 Very Low (VL)

25

FINDINGS

This section presents the data about the profile of the respondents,

Table 1

Profile Variables

f % f % f %

Age 11 6 33.3 9 50.0 15 41.7

12 11 61.1 7 38.9 18 50.0

13 1 5.6 2 11.1 3 8.3

Gende

Male 6 33.3 6 33.3 12 33.3

r

Female 12 66.7 12 66.7 24 66.7

GPA Low 3 16.7 4 22.2 7 19.4

Average 15 83.3 14 77.8 29 80.6

High 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

d: Range Equivalent

75-82 Low

Age. Table 83-90 Average 1

91-99 High

shows that majority of the respondents from the control group (11 or 61.1 %)

26

are 12 years old while in the experimental group majority (9 or 50%) are 11

years old. This implies that the Grade six pupils at Mother Goose Special

School System, Inc., were dominated by those in the prescribed maturity for

males (33.3%). This implies that females dominated the male students.

%) got an average grade of (83-90). There are also respondents who obtained

low grades (75-82) which is (7 or 19.4%) but no one from the respondents got

a high grade. This implies that the respondents were average in their

item multiple choice. The highest score and lowest score obtained by the

group gained a highest score of 31 and a lowest score of 11. The mean scores

obtained by the control and experimental groups are 17.61 and 20.61

Table 2

Statistical Value

Statistical Measure Control Group, Experimental Group,

27

18 18

Number of Cases 18 18

Highest Possible 40 40

Score

Highest Score 26 31

Obtained

Lowest Score 7 11

Obtained

Mean Score 17.61 (average) 20.61 (average)

Median Score 17 21

Modal Score 14,15 19,21

Standard Deviation 5.315 4.203

Coefficient Skewness -0.163 0.050

Coefficient Kurtosis -0.827 2.293

d: Range Equivalent

26.00– High

40.00

14.00 – Average

25.99

0 – 13.99 Low

The table also reveals the standard deviation of the post test data of

the control and experimental groups which are 5.315 and 4.203, respectively.

less than the computed standard deviation (5.315) of the control group, this

implies that the scores obtained by the experimental group are less

dispersed.

below is presented.

28

Table 3

F % F % F %

25-40 (High) 0 0 1 6 1 3

15-24 (Average) 15 83 16 88 31 86

0-14 (Low) 3 17 1 6 4 11

It could be gleaned from the table that nobody from the control group got

experimental group one respondent got “High” score. Moreover, in the control

is also wise to note that three (3) respondents from the control group and one

hence it is effective.

skewness for the control group while in the experimental group reveals

positive skewness. It can be gleaned that in the control group there were

more scores which is higher than the mean while in the experimental group it

reveals that there were less scores which is higher than the mean.

29

platykurtic curve which implies that the distribution of the scores was

Result from the findings of Back (2015) states that manipulative had

manipulative is introduced.

30

respondents.

description of ‘Very High’ which indicated that the students gave the highest

Probability.

Specifically, the category that gained the highest mean with the same

development of the student’ (WM = 4.56) while the least are ‘The colors used

brings of the effective quality: the color scheme is distinct’ and ‘The materials

(WM = 4.11). This implies that the manipulative material is acceptable to use.

Table 4

Indicators WM DE

1. The presentation of the manipulative is clear: the

4.39 VH

individual components are identifiable.

2. The appearance of the manipulative contributed to the

enticing.

3. The colors used brings of the effective quality: the color

4.11 H

scheme is distinct.

4. The materials is suitable to the topic: the manipulative

4.11 H

is appropriate to the topic at hand.

5. The activities/presentation lead to interactive learning

4.39 VH

between the teacher and the students.

6. The learning activities provide the students with 4.17 H

31

skills.

7. Teaching the topic using the manipulative motivates the

4.50 VH

learners.

8. The manipulative material used contribute to the

4.56 VH

growth and development of the student.

9. The manipulative material contributes in developing the

4.28 VH

creativity and imaginative response among he students.

10.The manipulative material is responsive to the need and

Average Weighted Mean 4.35 VH

d: Range (DE)

4.21 – 5.00 Very High (VH)

3.41 – 4.20 High (H)

2.61 – 3.40 Moderate (M)

1.81 – 2.60 Low (L)

1.00 – 1.80 Very Low (VL)

Table 5

across Age

32

Source

Sum of Mean

of D F- Remark

Group Square Square Sig

Variatio f value s

s s

n

Between

Not

0.030 2 0.015

0.91

Groups

0.092 Significa

Within 1

3

Control 2.470 0.165

nt

Groups 5

1

Total 2.500

7

Between 0.000 2 0.000

Not

1.00

Groups

0.000 Signfican

Experiment Within 2.000 1 0.133

0

t

al Groups 5

Total 2 .000 1

It can be gleaned from the table above that in the control group

0.913 which is higher than the level of significance of 0.05 shows that the null

Michaeloudis (2001) that the age does not affect students’ performance.

33

Table 6

across Gender

Standar

Mean

Me d Error D t-

Group Sex N Differe Sig Remarks

an Differen f value

nce

ce

Male 6 1.67 Not

Fema 1 1.92 1 0.20

Control -0.250 0.188 -1.333 Significan

le 2 6 1

t

Male 6 2.17 Not

Experime Fema 1 1.92 1 0.15

0.250 0.165 1.515 Significan

ntal le 2 6 0

t

34

It can be gleaned from the table 6 that in the control group there is no

a significance value of 0.201 that is higher than 0.05 level of significance, the

Also the table shows that in the experimental group achievement test,

with a significance value of 0.150 which is higher than the 0.05 level of

performance of students across GPA. It can be gleaned from the table that in

higher than 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is confirmed which

35

Table 7

across GPA

Group Df F-value Sig Remarks

Variation Squares Squares

Between 0.100 1 0.100

Not

Groups 0.42

Control Within 2.400 16 0.150 0.667 Significa

6

Groups nt

Total 2.500 17

Between 0.321 1 0.321

Not

Experiment Groups 0.09

Within 1.679 16 0.105 3.064 Significa

al 9

Groups nt

Total 2.000 17

36

achievement performance.

Table 8

Standard

Mean t-

Mea Error d Remark

Group N Differenc valu Sig

n Differenc f s

e e

e

Control 1 17.6

Not

3 - 0.6

8 1

-3.000 1.597 Significa

Experiment 1 20.6

4 1.878 9

nt

al 8 1

37

Manipulative Material

Table 9

-0.070 negative low 0.782 Not Significant

shows that the correlation is negative which indicates that as one variable

38

achievement test and their profile variables; the difference between the

The tools for data analysis were mean, median, standard deviation,

skewness, and kurtosis. On the other hand, the level of significances was

Salient Findings

findings:

GPA of

Average (83-90).

performance during the achievement test with a mean of 17.61 and 20.61,

respectively.

39

CONCLUSIONS

drawn.

learning, feminine gender, and have low to average range in their GPA.

RECOMMENDATIONS

40

41

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS

Company

Quezon

City 2007

City 2007

Publishing

Quezon

City, 2006

42

B. JOURNAL

C. ONLINE

http://www.mathplayground.com/probability.html

http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10451.pdf

http://deepblua.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/42656/10649_2005_

Article_3228.pdf?sequence=1

http://joannabriggslibrary.org/index.php/jbisrir/article/view/1354/2113

VIRTUAL MANIPULATIVES

http://jmathpaga.com/JIMSProbabilitypaga.html

http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_186_g_2_t_5.html?open=activities

Spinner

43

http://nrich.maths.org/10461

APPENDIX A

Bantay Insik, Sison, Pangasinan

February 04,

2018

Ma’am,

Philippines and currently teaching at Bantay Insik Integrated School, am

conducting an action research entitled “Performance of Grade Six Pupils of

Bantay Insik Integrated School in Probability”, as a requirement in Social

Regards for Learning, one of my subjects in Masteral.

In line with this, I would like to seek permission from your good office

to allow me to conduct study on the grade six pupils.

Thank you and more power.

Researcher

Approved:

Principal II

44

APPENDIX B

BANTAY INSIK INTEGRATED SCHOOL

Bantay Insik, Sison, Pangasinan

YEAR & SECTION: _______ Age:______ Gender:_____ DATE: __________

a.

b. P(E) =

c. Both a and b

d. none of the above

long series of repeated trials.

a. Probability of an event c. Event

b. Experiment d. Set

particular event will or will not happen.

a. Sample space c. Event

b. Outcomes d. Probability

a. Chance c. Possibilities

b. Interpretation d. Uncertainty

5. A jar contains seven coins: 4 pennies, 1 nickel, and 2 dimes. You draw one

coin at random, what is the probability of drawing nickel? What’s the

probability of drawing a dime?

a. 1/7, 4/7 c. 2/7, 1/7

45

6.A card is drawn from a deck of 52 cards. What is the probability of drawing

a spade?

a. 1/52 c. 1/4

b. 1/3 d. 1/36

7. Justine and Dominic will run for the same position in the SGO election. If

the probability that Justine will win is ½, what is the probability that Dominic

win?

a. 1/2 c. 1

b. 3/4 d. 0

8.Janine has 7 oranges, 5 strawberries and 10 apples in the basket, find the

probability that Janine will get an apple?

5/11 c. 3/22

7/22 d. 5/22

black card?

a. 3/4 c. 1/2

b. 1/4 d. none of the above

10. I have P20-bill and a P50-bill pesos in my pocket, find the probability that

I will get 30 pesos in my pocket?

a. 1/2 c.3/4

b. 1/6 d. 0

11. Two coins are cast. What is the probability of obtaining a head and a tail?

a. 1/2 c.1/4

b. 3/4 d. 0

12. A box contains 10 red and 3 violet balls, find the probability that I will pick

a violet ball from the box?

a. 3/13 c. 3/14

b. 2/3 d. 1/13

13. If there are 4 choices for the answer in a question, what is the probability

that I will choose the correct one?

a. 1/4 c. 1/5

b. 3/4 d. 1/2

14. On a single toss of a pair of an honest dice, find the probability of getting

a sum of 4?

a. 1/6 c. 1/2

b. 3/8 d. 3/7

15. We roll two fair dice. What is the probability that the outcome is a sum of

7?

a. 1/16 c. 1/6

46

b. 1/36 d.1/3

16. Mary and Liza will run for class president. If the Probability that Mary will

run is 0.45, what is the probability that Liza will win?

a. 0.55 c. 0.56

b. 0.68 d. 0.45

17. Jun rolls 2 dice. The first die shows a 5. The second die rolls under his

desk and He cannot see it. Now, what is the probability that both dice show

5?

a. 1/36 c.9/36

b. 1/6 d. 1/3

18. Earl Darenz is asked to choose a day from a week. What is the probability

of choosing a day which starts with S?

a. 2/7 c. 1/7

b. 5/7 d.1

19. If a letter is chosen at random from the word PERSEVERANCE, what is the

probability that the letter chosen is A.

a. 5/12 c. 1/3

b. 2/3 d. 6/12

20. If one letter is chosen at random from the word TRUSTWORTHY, what is

the probability that the letter chosen is consonant?

a. 9/11 c. 7/11

b. 5/11 d. 8/11

a. 1/12 c.3/52

b. 1/13 d. 8/52

22. There are 20 marbles in a container: 4 are red, 5 are blue, and 11 are

yellow. What is the probability that a blue marble will be picked?

a. 1 c.1/3

b. 1/2 d. 1/4

23. If I have a 1 peso, 5 peso, and 10 peso coin on my pocket. What is the

probability that I will pick 25 cents?

a. 1 c. none

b. 2 d. All of the Above

24. The local weather forecaster said that there is a 20% chance of rain

tomorrow. What is the probability that it will not rain tomorrow?

a. 0.2 c. 20

b. 0.8 d. 80

25. The sides of a cube are numbered 1 to 6. If Jan Renz rolled the cube once,

what is the probability of rolling a composite number?

a. 2/3 c. 1/2

47

b. 3/4 d. 1/3

26. How many possible outcomes are there when a die is cast?

a. 5 c. 7

b. 6 d. 9

27. How many sample points are there in the event of drawing a heart from a

deck of 52 cards?

a. 13 c. 39

b. 26 d. 52

a. 6/365 c. 5/365

b. 7/365 d. 8/365

a. 1/12 c. 3/52

b. 1/13 d. 1/16

random for a field trip, what is the probability of selecting a female?

a. 1/3 c. 3/7

b. 4/9 d. 5/9

31. In a 500 ticket draw for an educational price, Ana’s name was written on

41 tickets. What is the probability that she would win?

a. 0.082 c.0.41

b. 0.122 d.0.82

32. There are 35 marbles in a box. 7 are pink, 13 are violet, 5 are yellow, 6

are white and 4 are blue.

What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be pink?

a.1/3 c. 1/5

b. 1/35 d. 1/7

33. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be

yellow and blue without replacement?

a. 9/35 c. 16/35

b. 1/7 d. 11/35

34. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be

violet and white without replacement?

a. 1/5 c. 9/35

b. 19/35 d. 6/7

35. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be

pink and white without replacement?

a. 12/35 c. 1/5

48

b. 17/35 d. 13/35

36. What is the probability that a marble which is taken from a box will be

pink, white and yellow without replacement?

a. 18/35 c. 4/7

b. 1/7 d. 2/7

complaints about domestic and international airlines from 2000:

Airlines # of Passengers # of

Complaints

Domestic 125, 000 4, 375

International 67, 000 1, 608

What’s the probability that a passenger will issue a complaint about service

on a domestic airline flight?

a. 0.043 c. 0.035

b. 0.024 d. None of the above

38. What’s the probability that a passenger will issue a complaint about

service on a international airline flight?

a. 0.035 c. 0.024

b. 0.065 d. None of the above

The table on the next page shows the result of a hypothetical survey

on a participation in sports activities by men and women. Those surveyed

answered yes to activities they had done at least twice the previous 12

months. Assume that the sample is representative of the overall population:

Men Women

Total 109, 059 115, 588

Baseball 12, 603 2, 974

Hunting 18,512 2, 343

Softball 11, 535 8, 541

Exercise walking 25, 146 46, 286

39. If you randomly select one woman, what’s the probability that she does

aerobics?

a. 0.034 c. 0.201

b. 0.169 d. 0.087

49

40. If you randomly select one man, what’s the probability that he DOESN’T

do exercise walking?

a. 0.231 c. 0.400

b. 0.660 d. 0.76

50

Answer key:

21.B

22.D

1. A

23.C

2. A

24.B

3. D

25.D

4. B

26.B

5. D

27.A

6. C

28.B

7. A

29.B

8. A

30.B

9. C

31.A

10.D

32.C

11.C

33.A

12.A

34.B

13.A

35.D

14.A

36.A

15.C

37.C

16.A

38.C

17.A

39.B

18.A

40.D

19.C

20.A

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

51

5, rate each item by making a check mark on the appropriate column using

the rating scale below.

Rating Scale:

5- Very High: The manipulative has fully attained all its purpose.

4- High: The manipulative has almost attained all its

purpose.

3- Moderate: The manipulative has somewhat attained all its

purpose.

2- Low: The manipulative has partly attained all its

purpose.

1- Very Low: The manipulative did not attain all its purpose.

Indicators 5 4 3 2 1

individual components are identifiable.

2. The appearance of the manipulative contributed to the

proper delivery of the topic: the manipulative is enticing.

3. The colors used brings out the creative quality: the color

scheme is distinct.

appropriate to the topic at hand.

between the teacher and the students.

opportunity for the development of competence and skills.

7. Teaching the topic using the manipulative motivates the

learners.

8. The manipulative material used contribute to the growth

and development of the student.

creativity and imaginative response among the students.

10. The manipulative material is responsive to the need and

demand in the learning of the subject matter: the topic

was fully understood.

52

APPENDIX E

(SPINNER)

Direction: Please read each statement in this questionnaire. In a scale of 1-5, rate

each item by making a check mark on the appropriate column using the rating scale

below.

Rating Scale:

5- Very High: the manipulative has fully attained all its purpose

4- High: the manipulative has almost attained all its purpose

3- Moderate: the manipulative has somewhat attained all its purpose

2- Low: the manipulative has partly attained all its purpose

1- Very Low: the manipulative did not attain all its purpose

1. The design of the Spinner contributes to the growth and

development of the students.

2. The Spinner helps to motivate the students in learning

Simple Probability.

3. The material used by the teacher is appropriate to develop

concept formation in Simple Probability.

4. The material used by the teacher relay information clearly

and effectively.

5. The Spinner is responsive to needs and demands of learning

the subject matter.

6. The Spinner is handy for teachers and students to handle it.

7. The Spinner is simple yet creative.

8. The Spinner is not confusing to the learners in learning the

53

9. The Spinner contributes in developing the creativity and

imaginative response among the students.

10. The Spinner minimizes student difficulty of understanding

concept of Simple Probability.

11. There is a readily available material to construct the model.

12. The lesson is presented in the right time at a right way.

13. The material help the teachers deliver the subject matter in a

better way or helping the learners to learn the Simple

Probability.

14. The material satisfied the need to know and encourage

imaginative response among users.

15. Correct facts or information is relayed for better learning

power.

16. The material is cost-effective thereby decrease the use of

media presentation for understanding Simple Probability.

Comments/Suggestions:___________________

______________________________________

Evaluated by:_____________________

Signature Over Printed

Name

Date:__________________________

APPENDIX F

ILLUSTRATION OF SPINNER

18 cm

15 cm

76 cm

18 cm

26 cm 37 cm

40 cm

54

THE WHEEL

46.5 cm

55

Space for

Rubber Rubber

the Wheel

Bottle Crown

Schematic diagram of the wheel and the shaft

Materials:

2 x 2 lumber Plywood

Tinner Nails

Driller Saw

PROCEDURE

76 cm long.

2. Nailed the lumber vertically in one of the longest side of the cut plywood

using the nail and the hammer.

56

3. Cut another two 37 cm long lumber and nailed the lumbers in the lower

part of the 76 cm lumber and connected to the edge of the cut plywood.

4. Cut 3.5 cm long lumber and make a hole in the centre using a driller and

connected to the middle part of the 76 cm long lumber using nails and

saw.

5. Then cut a 18 cm long aluminium tube and insert in the hole, it serves as

the shaft to connect the wheel.

the top of the 76 cm lumber and connect the arrow sign.

based paint.

8. In constructing the wheel of the spinner, we used the bilao with a radius

of 23.25 cm as the main wheel, we used the bilao in tracing a circle in the

plywood and we cut it by using a chisel, the cut circular plywood nailed in

the bilao.

9. After that we divided the circular plywood by nine (9) different angles,

three 45 degree angles, three 15 degree angles and three 60 degree

angles.

10. We make another two (2) circular plywood with 2.5 cm radius, one of the

circular plywood attached to the center of the front of the wheel and the

other one was attached in the center of the back of the wheel using the

nails.

11. Then we used a driller to make a hole in the center of the wheel. This hole

is made so that it can be connected to the stand of the spinner.

12. We painted the wheel by three (3) colors (red, yellow, and blue), for the

15 degree angles we painted it by red color, blue for the 45 degree angles

and yellow for the 60 degree angles. At the back of the wheel, we applied

a mahogany varnish.

13. Before inserting the wheel to the stand of the spinner, we cut a four (4)

pieces of 3.5 cm x 4.5 cm in a rubber slipper and make a hole in the

center.

14. We inserted one of the rubber in the aluminum tube and next we get a

two (2) pieces of bottle crown and make a hole in the center and inserted

again one of the bottle crown in the aluminum tuba. After that we

inserted the wheel and next we inserted the other piece of bottle crown

and the three 3.5 cm x 4.5 cm rubber.

15. And lastly we cut 48 cm x 4.5 cm plywood and in the top of this, we make

a hole. We inserted this in the aluminum tube and it serves as the lock

and it supports the weight.

57

EASY QUESTIONS:

a.

b. P(E)=

long series of repeated trials.

a.Probability of an event c. Event

b.Experiment d. Set

particular event will or will not happen.

a.Sample space c. Event

b.Outcomes d. Probability

a.Chance c. Possibilities

b.Interpretation d. Uncertainty

drawing a spade?

a. 1/52 c. 1/4

b. 1/3 d. 1/36

Justine and Dominic will run for the same position in the SGO election.

If the probability that Justine will win is ½, what is the probability that

Dominic win?

a. 1/2 c. 1

b. 3/4 d. 0

the probability that Janine will get an apple?

a. 5/11 c. 3/22

b. 7/22 d. 5/22

probability that I will choose the correct one?

a. ¼ c. 1/5

b. 3/4 d. 1/2

If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck, find the probability of drawing

a black card?

a. 3/4 c. 1/2

b. 1/4 d. none of the above

Mary and Liza will run for class president. If the Probability that Mary

will run is 0.45, what is the probability that Liza will win?

a. 0.55 c. 0.56

b. 0.68 d. 0.45

58

a. 1/12 c.3/52

b. 1/13 d. 8/52

There are 20 marbles in a container: 4 are red, 5 are blue, and 11 are

yellow. What is the probability that a blue marble will be picked?

a. 1 c.1/3

b. 1/2 d. 1/4

probability that I will pick 25 cents?

a. 1 c. none

b. 2 d. All of the Above

The local weather forecaster said that there is a 20% chance of rain

tomorrow. What is the probability that it will not rain tomorrow?

a. 0.2 c. 20

b. 0.8 d. 80

AVERAGE QUESTIONS:

A jar contains seven coins: 4 pennies, 1 nickel, and 2 dimes. You draw

one coin at random, what is the probability of drawing nickel? What’s

the probability of drawing a dime?

a. 1/7, 4/7 c. 2/7, 1/7

b. 4/7, 1/7 d. 1/7, 2/7

Two coins are cast. What is the probability of obtaining a head and a

tail?

a. 1/2 c.1/4

b. 3/4 d. 0

getting a sum of 4.

a. 1/6 c. 1/2

b. 3/8 d. 3/7

We roll two fair dice. What is the probability that the outcome is a sum

of 7?

a. 1/16 c. 1/6

b.1/36 d.1/3

A box contains 10 red and 3 violet balls; find the probability that I will

pick a violet ball from the box?

a. 3/13 c. 3/14

b. 2/3 d. 1/13

Jun rolls 2 dice. The first die shows a 5. The second die rolls under his

desk and He cannot see it. Now, what is the probability that both dice

show 5?

59

a. 1/36 c.9/36

b. 1/6 d. 1/3

probability of choosing a day which starts with S.

a. 2/7 c. 1/7

b. 5/7 d.1

the probability that the letter chosen is A.

a. 5/12 c. 1/3

b. 2/3 d. 6/12

the probability that the letter chosen is consonant?

a. 9/11 c. 7/11

b. 5/11 d. 8/11

a. 6/365 c. 5/365

b. 7/365 d. 8/365

a.1/12 c. 3/52

b. 1/13 d. 1/16

random for a field trip, what is the probability of selecting a female?

a.1/3 c. 3/7

b.4/9 d. 5/9

In a 500 ticket draw for an educational price, Ana’s name was written

on 41 tickets. What is the probability that she would win?

a. 0.082 c.0.41

b. 0.122 d.0.82

DIFFICULT QUESTIONS:

discussion?

half as many will play basketball the rest will play football. What is the

probability of those who will play football?

We roll two fair dice. What is the probability that the sum of the

outcomes equals exactly 7?

60

is a boy?

Jess and Diana compete for the dance contest, if they are six. What is

the probability that they will win the contest?

occurs?

Malou and Manilyn joined in the game trip to Jerusalem if they are 7 in

all, what is the probability that Malou?

a black card?

will get 30 pesos in my pocket?

random for a field trip, what is the probability of selecting a girl?

Supposed you tossed two fair coins once, how many possible outcomes

are there?

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