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DESIGN OF GRID FOUNDATION:

Characteristic compressive strength for concrete is the ability of material or structure to carry the loads on
its surface without any crack or deflection. This ability is highly required to be analyzed whether external
loading is properly applied to be resisted by internal load involving by compressive strength of concrete
member in combination with steel reinforcement.
The purpose of the report was to redesign a grid foundation for a 2 floor of steel shelved containers as
shown in fig-1. Initial data was taken from the client. There is lack of information regarding soil
characteristics whereas minimum soil bearing capacity can be assumed. The aim of this calculation is to
show that the structural integrity of grid foundation to carry loads of two-floor container.

Existing foundation:
Grid foundation is comprised of tie beams are reinforced concrete 300x300mm and 3∅20𝑚𝑚 at top and
bottom fibers.

Fig-
1 grid foundation (tie beams)

Geotechnical data
There are no information regarding geotechnical perimeters to be utilized for equations of ultimate limit
state and serviceability limit state based on codes of practices. But, the foundation is evidently thought to
be constructed on very stiff soil layer. In consequence, the worst case scenario for soil bearing capacity
can be assumed which is to be 100 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 .

Line spring value= line bearing capacity / allowable settlement of the structures

Line bearing capacity= 100/( 1000)=0.1 𝑘𝑁/𝑚𝑚

allowable settlement of the structures = 20mm ( compare to table-2 in this report)

Line Spring value= 0.1/20= 0.005 𝑘𝑁/𝑚𝑚/mm

This value must be assigned in SAFE file as seen in the fig-2.


Fig-2 linear modulus of soil.

Action loads:
- Self –weight of containers = 5 tons = 50 𝑘𝑁 x2 floors= 100 𝑘𝑁
- Additional loads of furniture = 2 tons = 20 𝑘𝑁 x2 floors= 40 𝑘𝑁
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Total applied super dead loads = 140 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2
Areas of loading per cabinet = 12m x 8ft*0.3048m/ft= 29.25 𝑚2
Total applied Super dead Loads =140/29.25= 4.78 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 illustrated in fig-3
Total applied live loads table 4-1(ASCE07-10) =2 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 x2 floors = 4 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 illustrated in fig-4

Table-1 (screenshot of table 4-1 in ASCE07-10) for live loads


Fig-3 super dead loads on the foundation transferring from cabinets.

Fig-4 lie load on the foundation transferring from cabinets.

Load combination
Dead load of reinforced concrete beam is calculated by computer software =D
Super dead loads of container and furniture (4.87 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 ) =SD
Live load (4.0 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2 ) =L
Earthquake load =E

Fig-5 loading entry


According to ASCE07-10 clause 2.3.2 basic combination for ultimate limit states these equations have to
be applied in the software as seen in fig-6

1. 1.4D
2. 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(L or S or R)
3. 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S
4. 0.9D + 1.0E

Fig-6 load combination on the foundation ( ultimate limit states)


Maximum required steel reinforcement
After applying loads on the frame and combinations, different results are demonstrated for soil reaction,
settlement, shear capacity and steel reinforcement.
The main principle of the report is to check the compressive strength of concrete used for tie beams.
For this reason, cylindrical compressive strength value is 30 MPa (N/mm2) as seen in fig-7 according to
laboratory test report.

Fig-7 section properties of tie beams

The observations have been made from fig-8 that various steel amount provided to resist all transferred
loads from containers to existed foundation are adequate as well as compressive strength of concrete is
applicable to resist external loads.
It is noticeable that maximum steel reinforcement required to resist external loads, at top and bottom fiber
of reinforced concrete tie beams is 328mm2 and 350 mm2 respectively.

Fig-8 required reinforcement according to ultimate limit state


𝛢𝑠(𝑡𝑜𝑝)𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 328 𝑚𝑚2 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 𝛢𝑠(𝑡𝑜𝑝)𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 = 3∅20 = 3 ∗ 314 = 942𝑚𝑚2
𝛢𝑠(𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚)𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 350 𝑚𝑚2 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 𝛢𝑠(𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚)𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 = 3∅20 = 3 ∗ 314 = 942𝑚𝑚2
The foundation is safe for ultimate limit state

Checking for serviceability limit state:

The required principles for the safety, serviceability and durability of structures are recognized in many
codes such as Eurocode and ACI which they describe the basis for structural design element and ground
materials. Unfactored dead load, live load and super imposed dead load are summed then amount of soil
displacement of foundation is created as depicted in fig-9.

Fig-9 load pattern

Allowable settlement for low rise structures as mentioned in many codes of practices. According
to experiments were conducted by Skepton and MacDonald permissible settlement for footings
on sand as highlighted in table (2) is 30mm.

Table-2 ( screenshot of different soil settlement regarding Skempton and MacDonald)


While analytical outcomes of foundation as seen in fig- shows that maximum settlement in
foundation is 7mm

Fig-10 maximum settlement according to Skepton and MacDond

∆𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 7 𝑚𝑚 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 ∆𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 30𝑚𝑚

The foundation is safe for serviceability limit state

Conclusion:
Proper inspection of existing grid foundation components can help reduce the possibility of
structural failures. the model has been made by CSI-SAFE which is the ultimate tool for
designing concrete floor and foundation system. It has provided outcomes from serviceability
and ultimate limit state confirming that characteristic compressive strength and steel
reinforcement amount are adequate.