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CHAP. 16, DIV.


1631.6 Time-history Analysis. SECTION 1632 — LATERAL FORCE ON ELEMENTS

1631.6.1 Time history. Time-history analysis shall be per- AND EQUIPMENT SUPPORTED BY STRUCTURES
formed with pairs of appropriate horizontal ground-motion time- 1632.1 General. Elements of structures and their attachments,
history components that shall be selected and scaled from not less permanent nonstructural components and their attachments, and
than three recorded events. Appropriate time histories shall have the attachments for permanent equipment supported by a structure
magnitudes, fault distances and source mechanisms that are con- shall be designed to resist the total design seismic forces pre-
sistent with those that control the design-basis earthquake (or scribed in Section 1632.2. Attachments for floor- or roof-mounted
maximum capable earthquake). Where three appropriate recorded equipment weighing less than 400 pounds (181 kg), and furniture
ground-motion time-history pairs are not available, appropriate need not be designed.
simulated ground-motion time-history pairs may be used to make
up the total number required. For each pair of horizontal ground- Attachments shall include anchorages and required bracing.
motion components, the square root of the sum of the squares Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be considered to
(SRSS) of the 5 percent-damped site-specific spectrum of the provide resistance to seismic forces.
scaled horizontal components shall be constructed. The motions When the structural failure of the lateral-force-resisting sys-
shall be scaled such that the average value of the SRSS spectra tems of nonrigid equipment would cause a life hazard, such sys-
does not fall below 1.4 times the 5 percent-damped spectrum of tems shall be designed to resist the seismic forces prescribed in
the design-basis earthquake for periods from 0.2T second to Section 1632.2.
1.5T seconds. Each pair of time histories shall be applied simulta- When permissible design strengths and other acceptance crite-
neously to the model considering torsional effects. ria are not contained in or referenced by this code, such criteria
shall be obtained from approved national standards subject to the
The parameter of interest shall be calculated for each time- approval of the building official.
history analysis. If three time-history analyses are performed, then
the maximum response of the parameter of interest shall be used 1632.2 Design for Total Lateral Force. The total design lateral
for design. If seven or more time-history analyses are performed, seismic force, Fp , shall be determined from the following formula:
then the average value of the response parameter of interest may F p  4.0 C a I p W p (32-1)
be used for design.
Alternatively, Fp may be calculated using the following for-
1631.6.2 Elastic time-history analysis. Elastic time history
shall conform to Sections 1631.1, 1631.2, 1631.3, 1631.5.2,
1631.5.4, 1631.5.5, 1631.5.6, 1631.5.7 and 1631.6.1. Response
ap Ca Ip
1 3
W p (32-2)
parameters from elastic time-history analysis shall be denoted as
Elastic Response Parameters. All elements shall be designed Except that:
using Strength Design. Elastic Response Parameters may be Fp shall not be less than 0.7Ca Ip Wp and
scaled in accordance with Section 1631.5.4. need not be more than 4Ca Ip Wp (32-3)
1631.6.3 Nonlinear time-history analysis.
hx is the element or component attachment elevation with
respect to grade. hx shall not be taken less than 0.0.
1631.6.3.1 Nonlinear time history. Nonlinear time-history
analysis shall meet the requirements of Section 1629.10, and time hr is the structure roof elevation with respect to grade.
histories shall be developed and results determined in accordance ap is the in-structure Component Amplification Factor that var-
with the requirements of Section 1631.6.1. Capacities and charac- ies from 1.0 to 2.5.
teristics of nonlinear elements shall be modeled consistent with A value for ap shall be selected from Table 16-O. Alternatively,
test data or substantiated analysis, considering the Importance this factor may be determined based on the dynamic properties or
Factor. The maximum inelastic response displacement shall not empirical data of the component and the structure that supports it.
be reduced and shall comply with Section 1630.10. The value shall not be taken less than 1.0.
Rp is the Component Response Modification Factor that shall
1631.6.3.2 Design review. When nonlinear time-history analysis be taken from Table 16-O, except that Rp for anchorages shall
is used to justify a structural design, a design review of the lateral- equal 1.5 for shallow expansion anchor bolts, shallow chemical
force-resisting system shall be performed by an independent engi- anchors or shallow cast-in-place anchors. Shallow anchors are
neering team, including persons licensed in the appropriate those with an embedment length-to-diameter ratio of less than 8.
disciplines and experienced in seismic analysis methods. The When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials, or by use
lateral-force-resisting system design review shall include, but not of adhesive, Rp shall equal 1.0.
be limited to, the following:
The design lateral forces determined using Formula (32-1) or
1. Reviewing the development of site-specific spectra and (32-2) shall be distributed in proportion to the mass distribution of
ground-motion time histories. the element or component.
Forces determined using Formula (32-1) or (32-2) shall be used
2. Reviewing the preliminary design of the lateral-force-resist- to design members and connections that transfer these forces to
ing system. the seismic-resisting systems. Members and connection design
shall use the load combinations and factors specified in Section
3. Reviewing the final design of the lateral-force-resisting sys-
1612.2 or 1612.3. The Reliability/Redundancy Factor, ρ, may be
tem and all supporting analyses.
taken equal to 1.0.
The engineer of record shall submit with the plans and calcula- For applicable forces and Component Response Modification
tions a statement by all members of the engineering team doing the Factors in connectors for exterior panels and diaphragms, refer to
review stating that the above review has been performed. Sections 1633.2.4, 1633.2.8 and 1633.2.9.