Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

Anatomy & Physiology

First Quarter
Rosarina L. David, RN MN

 Anatomy
a. Study of structure / morphology of the body and how body parts are organized
b. Means to dissect, cut apart, separate the parts of the body for study
c. Trying to identify

 Physiology
a. Study of the function of the body parts  what they do and how they do it
b. Major Goals of Physiology
i. Understand & predict body’s responses to stimuli (anything that illicits a response)
ii. Understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the
presence of a continually changing environment (both internal & external)
1. The coping system of the body

 Chemical
a. Chemical make-up determines structural & functional characteristics of organisms
b. Involves interaction among atoms and their combinations into molecules
c. i.e. Collagen molecules are strong rope-like fibers that give skin structural strength & flexibility. With
old age, the structure of collagen changes and the skin becomes more fragile and is torn more

 Cell
a. Basic living unit
b. Composed of organelles  molecules combine to form these small structures
i. Nucleus – contains hereditary information
ii. Mitochondria – manufactures ATP which is used by cells as a source of energy

 Tissue – group of similar cells & the material surrounding them

 Organ
a. Composed of two or more tissues
b. Perform one or more common functions
c. i.e. Urinary bladder, skin, stomach, eye, heart

 Organ System
a. Group of organs classified as a unit because of a common function or set of functions
b. Losing one organ will mean the loss of the organ system and its function
c. i.e. Urinary System
i. Kidney: produce urine
ii. Ureter: transports urine to urinary bladder
iii. Urinary bladder: stores urine
iv. Urethra: where urine passes to be eliminated

 Organism
a. Any living thing considered as a whole
b. Human organisms is a complex of organ systems that are mutually dependent on one another.
c. Losing one would mean he/she is no longer an organism.

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Organization
a. Condition in which the parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and interact to
perform specific functions
b. Parts cannot live without the other
c. Disruptions of this organized state can result in the loss of functions and death.

 Metabolism – ability to use energy to perform vital functions (i.e. growth, movement, and reproduction)

 Responsiveness / Irritability
a. Ability to sense changes in the environment and make adjustments that help maintain life
b. Disequilibrium (Internal/External)  Compensatory measure (organs)  Normal level
c. i.e. If body temperature increases in a hot environment, sweat glands produce sweat, which can
lower body temperature back towards normal level.

 Growth
a. Results in increase in size of all or part of the organism
b. Results from an increase in cell number, cell size, or the amount of substance surrounding cells
c. i.e. Bones become larger as the number of bone cells increase and they surround themselves with
bone matrix.
i. Growth stops once the epiphyseal plate has fused.
ii. Shrinking is caused by the loss of the bone matrix leading to the deformation of the spinal
cord  degenerative process that comes with aging
 Development
a. Change through time
b. Begins with fertilization and ends with death

 Reproduction – formation of new cells or new organisms

 Definition
a. Maintenance of the internal environment of the body within small ranges of deviation
b. Essential to survival
i. Many of the body’s system are concerned with maintaining this internal environment
ii. Imbalances = problems/illnesses
c. i.e. Blood sugar level, body temperature, heart rate, and the fluid environment of the cell
d. When homeostasis is maintained, the body is healthy
i. Vital Sign  part of routine examination of doctors during check-ups
1. Temperature
2. Respiratory rate
3. Pulse rate
4. Blood pressure
e. In a homeostatic system, the mechanism that triggers an automatic response that corrects the
situation is a variation outside of normal limits.

 Positive Feedback Mechanism

a. Initial stimulus further stimulates the response
b. Increase in function in response to a stimulus
i. i.e. After the first contraction during labor, the uterus continues to contract with more strength
and frequency
c. At times, this type of response is required to re-achieve homeostasis
i. i.e. During blood loss a chemical responsible for clot formation stimulates production of itself.
In this way a disruption of homeostasis is resolved through a positive feedback mechanism.
What prevents the entire vascular system from clotting? The clot formation process is self-
limiting. Eventually, the components needed to form a clot will be depleted in the damage
area and more clot materials can’t be formed.
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
d. At times, positive feedback mechanisms are not homeostatic and are rare in healthy individuals.
i. Deviation from the set point becomes even greater
ii. Creates a cycle leading away from homeostasis
iii. The more it creates a problem and in some cases, death
iv. i.e. Decrease in blood pressure
1. Decrease blood flow to the heart & cardiac muscles
2. Decrease in oxygen levels
3. Blood pressure decreases more
4. Cardiac abnormalities
5. Headaches, blackouts, etc.

 Negative Feedback Mechanism

a. Any deviation from the set of point is made smaller or resisted
b. Does not prevent variation within a normal range
c. i.e. Maintenance of Normal Blood Pressure
i. Responsible for moving blood from the heart to the tissues
ii. The blood supplies the tissue with oxygen and nutrients
iii. Removes waste products

 Components of Feedback Mechanisms

a. Receptor – watcher: monitor the value of a variable such as blood pressure
b. Control Center – gives signal: establishes the set point around which the variable is maintained (i.e.
c. Effector – does the solution: can change the value of the variable (i.e. heart)
d. i.e. Blood pressure  directly correlated with the contraction/beating of the heart
i. Receptors that monitor b/p are located within large vessels near the heart.
ii. If b/p increases, receptors detect this and send information to the control center in the brain.
iii. Control center (to the effector) causes heart rate to decrease, resulting in a decreased b/p.

 Definition: Refers to the body in the anatomic position regardless of its actual position
 Anatomical Position: Refers to a person standing erect with the face directed forward,
upper limbs hanging to the side, and palms facing forward
 Terminologies

Superior / The head is superior to the neck

Means the uppermost and
Cephalad / The thoracic cavity is superior to the
toward the head
Cranial abdominal cavity
Inferior / Lowermost or below or away The foot is inferior to the ankle
Caudal from the head The ankle is inferior to the knee
Anterior / The mammary gland is anterior on the
Means toward the front
Ventral chest wall
The vertebral column is posterior to the
Posterior /
Means to the back digestive tract
The esophagus is posterior to the trachea
Nearest to the midline of the Nose is in a medial position of the face
body Ulna is on the medial side of the forearm
Toward the side or away Ears are in a lateral position to the face
from the midline of the body The radius is lateral to the ulna
Near the point of attachment The elbow is proximal to the wrist
or origin The knee is proximal to the ankle
Closer to the trunk of the
body than other part
A way from the point of The wrist is distal to the elbow
attachment or origin The ankle is distal to the knee

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Upper Limb
a. Arm – extend from the shoulder to the elbow
b. Forearm – extends from the elbow to the wrist
c. Wrist
d. Hand

 Lower Limb
a. Thighs
b. Legs
c. Ankle
d. Foot

 Central Regions
a. Head
b. Neck
c. Trunk
i. Thorax (chest)
ii. Abdomen – region between the thorax and pelvis
iii. Pelvis – the inferior end if the trunk associated with the reproductive organ

 Quadrants
a. Subdivided superficially into 4 quadrants by two imaginary lines  one horizontal and one vertical
that intersects at the navel
b. i.e. The appendix is located in the right lower quadrant

 Regions
a. The abdomen is sometimes subdivided into 9 regions by 4 imaginary lines, 2 horizontal and 2
b. Used by clinicians as reference points for location the underlying organs

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Definition
a. Describes the body as having imaginary flat geometric
surfaces passing through it
b. Useful when describing dissections to look inside an
organ or body as a whole

 Midsagittal / Median Plane

a. Vertically divides the body through the midline into two equal left and right portions or halves

 Sagittal Plane
a. Any plane parallel to the midsagittal or median plane vertically dividing the body into unequal right
and left proportions
b. Not along the midline

 Horizontal / Transverse Plane

a. Dividing the body into superior and inferior portions

 Frontal / Coronal Plane

a. Divides the anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portion of the body at the right angle to the
sagittal plane

 Longitudinal Section
a. A cut through the long axis of the organ

 Viscera – organs of any cavity

 Dorsal Cavity
a. Contains organs of the Nervous System that
coordinate the body’s function
b. Divided into
i. Cranial Cavity – contains the brain
ii. Spinal Cavity – contains the spine

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Ventral Cavity
a. Contains organs that are involved in maintaining homeostasis
b. Divided into:
i. Thoracic Cavity – surrounded by the rib cage and contains the
1. Heart in a pericardial sac referred to as the pericardial cavity
2. Two lungs each covered by the pleural cavities
3. Mediastinum
a. Found between the two pleural cavities
b. Contains the heart, thymus gland, lymph and blood vessels, trachea,
esophagus, and nerves
ii. Diaphragm – separates the thoracic from the abdominopelvic cavity
iii. Abdominopelvic Cavity – covered by peritoneum cavities
1. Abdominal Cavity: kidneys, stomach, liver, gallbladder, small and large
intestine, spleen, pancreas
2. Pelvic Cavity: ovaries and uterus (women)

 Serous Membrane
a. Lines the trunk cavities and cover the organs of these cavities
b. Inner wall: visceral serous membrane
c. Outer wall: parietal serous membrane
d. The cavity or space between the visceral and parietal serous membrane is normally filled within a
lubricating fil of serous fluid produced by the membrane
e. Function: reduces friction and protects the organ

 Chemistry – scientific discipline concerned with the anatomic composition and structure of substance
and the reaction they undergo

 Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass // composes all living & nonliving things

 Mass – amount of matter in an object

 Weight – gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass

 Element
a. Substance whose atoms all contain the same number of protons and the same no. of electrons
i. Reason why elements are electrically neutral
b. Simplest type of matter having unique chemical properties
c. 118 elements in the periodic table
d. Each element has a different atom
e. i.e. Carbon – element found in all living things (where life is based from)

 Atom
a. Smallest particle of an element
b. Maintains all the characteristics of an element
c. Enters chemical reactions through their electrons
d. Composed of:
i. Protons – positively charged
ii. Neutrons – neutral charge / no charge
iii. Electrons – negatively charged  located at the outer shell allowing for bonding

 Atomic Theory
a. All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms
b. All atoms of a given element are similar to one another but different from the atom of another
c. Atoms of 2 or more elements combine to form new compounds
d. Chemical reactions involve the rearrangement, separation, or combination of atoms.
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
e. Atoms are never created or destroyed during chemical reactions.

 Organic Chemistry – studies the nature of carbon atom and its chemical reaction

 Isotopes
a. Same atomic number, different atomic mass
b. Same no. of protons & electrons but differ in no. of neutrons
c. Different kinds of atom of the same element

 Atomic Number
a. No. of protons in an atom
b. If protons = electrons then atomic number = electrons.

 Atomic Mass
a. Sum of protons and neutrons
b. Sum of electrons is so small that it is ignored  insignificant
c. i.e. He has 2 protons & 2 neutrons. Therefore, its atomic mass is 4.

 Four Major Elements in the Human Body – make up 96% of mass

a. Oxygen
b. Carbon
c. Hydrogen
d. Nitrogen

 Definition
a. Formed when the outermost electrons are transferred (gained or lost) or shared between atoms.
b. Takes place in the outer shell
c. Atoms combine chemically with one another by forming bonds to achieve stability.

 Ionic – formed when one atom gains electrons while the other atom loses electrons from its outer most
level or orbit

 Covalent – formed when atoms share electrons to fill their outer most level

 Hydrogen
a. Very weak bonds
b. Help hold water molecules together by forming a bridge between the negative oxygen atom of one
water molecule and the positive hydrogen atoms of another water molecule  intermolecular

 Molecules
a. Formed when two or more atoms chemically combine to form a structure that behaves as an
independent unit
b. Atoms that combine to form a molecule can be of the same type (i.e. 2 H atoms = H mol)

 Compounds – substance composed of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically
combined (i.e. NaCl or Sodium Chloride)

 Definition
a. Atoms, ions, molecules, or compounds interact either to form or to break substances.
b. Reactants - substance that enters a chemical reaction
c. Products - substance that results from the chemical reaction

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Synthesis Reaction: A + B  AB
a. When 2 or more reactants combine to form a larger and more complex product
b. i.e. Synthesis of the complex molecule of the human body from the basic building blocks obtained in
food and the synthesis of ATP

 Decomposition Reaction: AB  A + B
a. Reactants are broken down into smaller, less complex products
b. i.e.
i. Breaking of food molecule into basic building blocks
ii. Breakdown of ATP to ADP and phosphate group
A-P-P-P  A-P-P + p1
(ATP) (ADP) (Phosphate Group)

 Exchange Reaction: AB + CD  AC + BD
a. A combination of a decomposition reaction and a synthesis reaction
b. i.e. Reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to form table salt (NaCl) and
water (H2O)

 Reversible Reaction
a. Reaction can proceed from reactants to products and from product to reactants
b. When the rate of product formation is equal to the rate of reactant formation, the reaction is said to
be at equilibrium.

 Definition: Deals with substances without carbon (i.e. water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts)

 Acids
a. A proton donor
b. Because hydrogen atom without its electron is a proton, any substances that releases hydrogen ions
in water is an acid
c. Have sour taste
d. Can dissolve many metals or burn a hole in your rug
e. i.e. HCl in the stomach forms hydrogen ions (H+) and Chloride (Cl-) ion
i. Hydrochloric Acid production is an autonomic function. However, accumulation of HCl
without counter measures will lead to ulceration or a hole in the intestine.

 Base
a. A proton acceptor
b. Have bitter taste, slippery
c. i.e.
i. Hydroxides ionize and dissociate in water but the hydroxyl ion (OH-) and some carbons are
released. The ionization of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), commonly known as lye is an
example. (Lye – found in liquid detergents for cleaning bathrooms)
NaOH  Na + OH
(sodium) (cation) (hydroxyl ion)
ii. HCO3, an important base in blood is a weak base (Bicarbonate Ion  neutralizes acidosis)

 pH Scale
a. Indicates the H+ concentration of a solution
b. The scale ranges from 0 to 14.

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

Neutral solution H+ = OH- pH = 7.0
Acidic solution H+ > OH- pH < 7.0
Basic / Alkaline solution H+ < OH- pH > 7.0

c. pH number and the actual H+ concentration are inversely related  the lower the pH number, the
higher the H+ concentration

 Oxygen
a. An inorganic molecule containing of two Oxygen atom bounds together by a double covalent bond
b. 21% of the gas in the atmosphere
c. Required by humans in the final step of a series of chemical reaction in which energy is extracted
from food molecules  aerobic respiration

 Carbon dioxide
a. Produced when food molecules such as glucose are metabolized within the cells of the body
b. A metabolic byproduct  to the lungs  exhaled during respiration
c. If accumulated, it can lead to toxicity.

 Water
a. Most abundant inorganic compound in the body.
b. Accounts for about two-thirds of weight
c. Properties of Water
i. High heat capacity
1. Absorbs and releases large amount of heat before its temperature changes
2. Prevents the sudden changes in body temperature that might result from intense sun
exposure, chilling winter winds or internal events (i.e. vigorous muscle activity) that
liberates large amount of heat.
ii. Polarity / Solvent property – “Universal solvent”
1. Solvent – a liquid or gas in which smaller amounts of solutes can be dissolved or
2. Solution – results when the solute particles are exceedingly minute
3. Suspension – when the particles are fairly large.
iii. Protection / Cushioning – serves as a protective function and also an effective lubricant
(i.e. tears. CSF)
iv. Chemical reaction – most of the chemical reactions necessary for life do not take place
unless the reacting molecules are dissolved in water (i.e. NaCl, digestion of food)
v. Transport – many substances dissolve in water and can be moved from place to place as
the water moves (i.e. blood transport nutrients, gases and waste product within the body)

 Salt
a. An ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than the hydroxyl ion (OH)
b. Commonly found in the body, but the most plentiful salts are those containing calcium and
phosphorus, chiefly in bones and teeth.
c. Dissociation - salts easily separate into their ions when dissolved in body fluids
i. Occur easily because ions have already been formed
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
 Definition: study of carbon containing substances

 Carbohydrates
a. Includes sugars and starches, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
b. In most carbohydrates, for each carbon atom there are 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
c. Monosaccharides
i. Simple sugar, simplest CHO.
ii. Building blocks or CHO
iii. Glucose (blood sugar) – energy sources for the many of the body’s cells (i.e. molasses,
iv. Fructose (fruit sugar) – i.e. cherries
v. Galactose (milk sugar) – i.e. yogurt
d. Disaccharides
i. When two monosaccharides are joined by a covalent bond
ii. Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
iii. Sucrose (table sugar) = Glucose + Fructose
iv. Lactase = Glucose + Galactose
e. Polysaccharides
i. Consist of many monosaccharides bound in long chains
ii. Stored energy: Glycogen (animal), Starch (plant)
iii. Cellulose – important structural component of the plant cell wall
1. Humans cannot digest cellulose and is eliminated in the feces where the cellulose
fiber provides bulk.

 Lipids
a. Definition:
i. Substance that dissolve in a non-polar solvent (i.e. acetone or alcohol) but not in a polar
solvent such as water
ii. Composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
iii. Phosphorus and nitrogen – minor components of some lipids
iv. Enter the body in the form of fat-marbled meats, egg yolk milk products and oils.
v. Most abundant lipid in the body are triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids
1. Fats, phospholipids, eicosanoids and steroids
b. Fats
i. Important energy-storage molecule
ii. Also pad and insulate the body
iii. Building blocks of fats are glycerol and fatty acid.
iv. Glycerol
1. A 3-carbon molecule with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to each carbon atom and
fatty acid consist of a carbon chain with a carboxyl group attached to one end
a. A carboxyl group consist of both an oxygen atom and a hydroxyl attached to
a carbon atom.
b. The carboxyl group is responsible for the acidic nature of the molecules
because it releases H+ into solution.
v. Triglycerides or neutral fats
1. Most common type of fat molecule
2. Have three fatty acid bound to a glycerol molecule.
3. Fatty acid differs from one another according to the length and degree of saturation
of their carbon chains
4. Most naturally occurring fatty acid contains 14 to 18 carbon atoms
5. Saturated fatty acid – only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms
a. Sources of saturated fats include beef, pork, whole milk, cheese, butter,
eggs, coconut oil, and palm oil
6. Unsaturated fatty acid – carbon chain is if it has one or more double covalent
bonds that can occur anywhere along the carbon chain.

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

a. Mono-unsaturated fats – have one double covalent bond between carbon
and atom (i.e. olive and peanut oil)
b. Poly-unsaturated fats – such as safflower, sunflower, corn, and fish oils
have 2 or more covalent bond between carbon atoms
c. Unsaturated fats are the best type of fats in the diet because unlike
saturated fats, they do not contribute to the development of cardiovascular
vi. Trans fats – are considered unsaturated fats that have been chemically altered by the
addition of H atom
1. The process makes the fats more saturated and hence more solid and stable.
2. However the change in structure of these chemicals makes the consumption of trans
fats an even greater factor than saturated fats in the risk for cardiovascular disease
such as arteriosclerosis.
c. Phospholipids
i. Similar to triglycerides except that one of the fatty acids bound to the glycerol is replaced by
a molecule containing phosphorus
ii. Important structural components of a cell membrane.
iii. Eicoconoids
1. Group of important chemicals derived from fatty acid
2. Are made in most cells and are important regulatory molecule
3. Among their numerous effect is their role in the response of tissue injuries
4. Example:
a. Prostaglandins which have been implicated in regulating the secretions of
some hormones, blood clothing, reproductive functions and other processes.
b. Anti-inflammatory drug inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
d. Steroids
i. Made up of carbon atoms bound together into four ring like structures
ii. Example :
1. Cholesterol - an important steroid as other steroid molecules are synthesized from it
2. We ingest cholesterol in animal products such as meat, eggs, and cheese, and
some made by the liver , regardless of dietary intake
3. Has earned bad press because of its role in arteriosclerosis ,but it is essential to
human life
 Proteins
a. Contains Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen, and most have some sulfur.

b. Amino Acid
i. Building blocks of protein
ii. Which are amine group (-NH2) which give them a basic properties, and an acid group
(COOH) which allow them to act as acid
iii. All amino acid are identical except for a single group of atoms called the R-group
iv. There are 20 types of amino acid, 12 can be synthesized by human, the remaining 8 can be
obtained from the diet
v. Amino acid are joined together in chains to form large complex protein molecules that
contain from 50 to thousands of amino acid
vi. Because each type of amino acid has distinct properties, the sequence in which they are
bound together produces protein that vary widely both in structure and function.

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

c. Functions
i. Regulate the rate of chemical reaction
ii. Provides the framework of the many body tissues
iii. Responsible for muscle contraction
d. Enzyme
i. A protein catalyst that increases the rate at which chemical reaction proceeds without the
enzyme permanently being changed
ii. Increases the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy which is the
energy necessary to start a chemical reaction
iii. Lock and Key Model
1. This enzyme action, proposed earlier this century, proposed that the substrate was
simply drawn into a closely matching cleft on the enzyme molecule
2. Symbolic representation of the lock and key model of enzyme action.
a. A substrate is drawn into the active sites of the enzyme
b. The substrate shape must be compatible with the enzymes active site in
order to fit and be reacted upon.
c. The enzyme modifies the substrate. In this instance the substrate is broken
down, releasing two products.

 Nucleic Acid
a. They make up the genes (provide the basic blue print of life)
b. Determine what type of organism you will be, direct your growth and development by dictating
protein structure.
c. Nucleic acid, composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorous atom, are the
largest biological molecules in the body.
d. Building block: nucleotides
i. Nitrogen containing base
1. Adenine (A)
2. Guanine (G)
3. Cytosine (C)
4. Thymine (T)
5. Uracil (U)
ii. A pentose (5carbon) sugar
iii. A phosphate group
Strands Double strand (double helix) Single Nucleotide strand
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose
e. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
i. Genetic material is found within the cell nucleus (the control center of the cell)
ii. Fundamental roles
1. It replicates itself exactly before a cell divides thus, ensuring that the genetic
information in every cell is identical
2. It provides the instruction for building every protein in the body.
3. Long double chain of nucleotides. Its bases are A, G, T, C and its sugar, deoxyribose
4. Its two nucleotide chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases,
so that ladder like molecule is formed.
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
iii. Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules form the “upright” or backbone, of the ladder,
and each “rung” is formed by two joined bases
iv. Binding of the bases is very specific – they match with their complementary bases
1. A  T
2. G C
v. A base sequence of ATGA on one nucleotide chain would necessarily be bonded to the
complementary base sequence TACT on the other nucleotide strand
vi. The whole molecule is then coiled into a spiral staircase structure called a double helix.

f. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

i. Located outside the nucleus and can be considered the “molecular slave” of DNA: that is,
RNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA.
ii. Three major varieties of RNA exist
1. Messenger
a. Carries the information for building the protein from the DNA genes to the
ribosomes, the protein synthesizing site.
2. Ribosomal
3. Transfer RNA
a. Ferries amino acid to the ribosomes.
b. Forms part of the ribosomes, where it oversees the translation of the
message and binding together of amino acid to form the proteins.
iii. Each has a specific role to play in carrying out DNA’s instruction for building proteins.

 Cell Membrane
a. Also called plasma membrane or plasmalemma
b. Surrounds a cell
c. Separates intracellular material from extra cellular material
d. Selects substances that enters and leave the cell  Semi-permeable
e. Structure: Phospholipid bilayer following the Fluid-Mosaic Model (see picture)
f. Components:
i. Phospholipid
1. Hydrophilic (water-loving) – phosphate group
2. Hydrophobic (water-hating) – two fatty acid chains
3. Joined together by the glycerol
ii. Proteins
1. Integral proteins – embedded
2. Peripheral proteins – loosely bound on either side of the membrane
3. Protein projections vital for communication & recognition (glyco/lipo/nucleoprotein)

 Micro Villi
a. Particularly involved with the movement of large amounts of water and its dissolved solute
b. Accordion-like folds that increases surface area thereby increasing the amount of fluid absorbed.
c. i.e. some of the cells in the digestive tract have millions of folding to absorb water and the end
products of digested food.

 Cilia
a. Short hair like projections on the outer surface of the cell membrane.
b. Uses wave like motions to move substances across the surface of the cell.
c. i.e. Cilia are abundant on the cell that line the respiratory passages.
i. The cilia helps move mucous and traps dust and dirt toward the throat away from the lungs.
ii. Once in the throat, the mucus can be removed by coughing or swallowing the cilia
iii. Therefore, helps keep the respiratory passage clean and clear.
iv. Smoking damages the cilia and thus deprives the smoker of this benefit.

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Passive Transport
a. Requires no additional energy in the form of ATP
b. Causes water and dissolves substance to move without additional energy like a ball rolling downhill
i. Downward movement – The ball is at the top of the hill. Once released, the ball rolls
downward and it does not need to be pushed. It moves passively without any input of
c. Simple Diffusion
i. Movement of substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
ii. i.e A tablet of red dye is placed in a glass of water. The tablet dissolves and the dye moves
from an area where it is most concentrated (glass) to an area where it is less (glasses 2 and
3) concentrated. Diffusion continues until the dye is evenly distributed throughout the glass.
The point at which no further net diffusion occurs (glass 3) is called equilibrium
d. Facilitated Diffusion
i. A form of diffusion (movement from high to low concentration)
ii. Facilitated diffusion, along with solute pumping, requires carrier or helper molecules.
e. Osmosis
i. Special case of diffusion – diffusion of water from an area with more water to one with less.
The dissolve substance, however, does not move.
ii. Diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane
iii. Semi-permeable membrane - allows the passage of some substances while restricting the
passage of others.

 Filtration
a. Diffusion & Osmosis VS Filtration
i. Diffusion and osmosis: water and dissolve substances move across the membrane in
response to a difference in concentration
ii. Filtration: water and dissolve substances cross the membrane in response to difference in
b. Pressure pushes substance across the membrane.
i. i.e. A syringe can illustrate filtration. Syringe 1 is filled with water. If a force is applied to a
plunger, the water is pushed out through the needle. The water moves in response to a
pressure difference, with greater pressure at the plunger done at the tip of the needle. In the
2nd syringe, tiny holes are made in the sides of the barrel. When force is applied to the
plunger, water squirts out the sides of the syringe and out the tip of the needle.
c. Where does filtration occur in the body? The movement of fluid across the capillary wall can be
compared with the movement of water in the syringe with holes in its sides.
i. A capillary
1. Tiny vessel that contains blood
2. Composed of a thin layer of cells with many little pores
3. The pressure in the capillary pushes water and dissolve substances out of the blood
and through the pores in the capillary wall into the tissue spaces.

 Active Transport
a. Requires an input of energy in the form of ATP.
b. It is like the upward movement of a ball. For the ball to move uphill, it must be pushed therefore
requiring an input of energy.
c. Substances moved actively are usually unable to pass in the desired direction by diffusion.
i. Too large to pass through membrane channels
ii. May lack special protein carriers for their transport
iii. May not be able to dissolve in the fat core
iv. May have to move uphill, against their concentration gradient.

 Tonicity
a. Ability of solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell.
b. Application: Not all fluids can be given to a person: depends on situation.
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
c. Isotonic Solution
i. Has the same concentration as intracellular fluid
ii. Solute content outside the cell = inside the cell therefore there is no water movement
iii. “Iso” means same.
iv. i.e. Consider a red blood cell (RBC) placed in an isotonic solution. Because the solution is
isotonic, no net movement of water occurs and the cell neither gain nor loses water.
d. Hypotonic Solution – less solute, more water
i. If cell is hypotonic, water moves from the outside to the inside  dilation of cells.
ii. i.e. If a RBC is placed in pure water (a solution containing solute), then water moves into the
cell by osmosis (more water to less water). The pure water, being more dilute than the inside
of the cell, is said to be hypotonic. Hypotonic solution causes RBCs to burst, lyse, or dilate.
iii. This process is referred to as hemolysis. Because of hemolysis, pure water is not
administered intravenously.
iv. Administered for maintenance purposes
e. Hypertonic Solution – more solute, less water
i. i.e. If a RBC is placed within a very concentrated salt solution, water diffuses out of the RBC
into bathing solution, causing the RBC to shrink or crenate.
ii. Administered to a dehydrated person (i.e. diarrhea, vomited, etc.)

 Nucleus
a. The control center - controls the working of the entire cell.
b. Contains the genetic information and controls all protein synthesis.
c. Most adult cells have only one nucleus.
d. Surrounding the nucleus is a double layered nuclear membrane.
e. Nuclear membrane - contains large pores that allow the free movement of certain substance
between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
f. Nucleoplasm – fluid that fills the nucleus
i. Two other structures: the nucleolus and chromatin

 Nucleolus
a. Little nucleus
b. Synthesizes RNA and ribosomes that move through nuclear pores into the cytoplasm for protein
c. Chromatin
i. Composed mainly of strands of DNA (carriers of the genetic code) + Histone
ii. In dividing cell, chromatin strands coil tightly forming DNA-containing structures called a
double helix (chromosome?).

 Cytoplasm
a. Also called protoplasm
b. The liquid portion of the cell (gel in the cell but outside the nucleus)
c. Cytoplasm - the protoplasm outside the cell
d. Neoplasm - the protoplasm inside then nucleus
e. Main constituent: water
i. Has many different types of chemical compounds distributed among the water molecules.
ii. i.e. Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) and messenger RNA, enzymes, hormones, etc.
f. “Factory of the cell”- site of cellular activities
g. 3 Major Elements:
i. Cytosol - semitransparent fluid that suspends the other elements
ii. Organelles - metabolic machinery of the cell.
iii. Inclusion - chemical substance that may or may not be present (depends on cell type)

 Cytoplasmic Organelles
a. “Little organs”
b. Specialized cellular compartments performing its own job to maintain cell life

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Mitochondria
a. Usually depicted as tiny threadlike or sausage shape organelles, but in living cells they squirm,
lengthen, and change shape almost continuously.
b. Tiny slippery-shaped organelles
c. Has 2 layers:
i. Outer layer - smooth
ii. Inner layer - has many folds called cristae
1. Where most of the enzyme associated with ATP production is located
d. “Power house of the cell”- supplies most of the ATP
e. Metabolically “busy cells” like liver and muscle cells that use huge amount of ATP and have
hundreds of mitochondria.

 Ribosomes
a. Cytoplasmic organelles that are involved with protein synthesis
b. Tiny bilobed, dark bodies made up of proteins and one variety of RNA called ribosomal RNA.
c. Actual sites of protein synthesis in the cell

 Endoplasmic Reticulum
a. System of fluid like cisterns (tubules or canals) that coil and twist through the cytoplasm.
b. “Mini circulatory system” for the cells because it provides a network of channels for carrying
substances (primarily protein) for one part of the cell to another.
c. Two types:
i. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
1. Contains ribosomes along its surface
2. Rough, sandpaper-like appearance
3. It is primarily concerned with protein synthesis.
4. Protein synthesis along the RER is transported through the channels, and delivered
to the Golgi apparatus for further processing.
ii. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
1. No ribosomes along its surface
2. Involved primarily in the synthesis of lipids, steroids glycerides, and glycogen in
skeletal and liver cells.

 Golgi Apparatus
a. A series of flattened membranous sac
b. Protein synthesized along the RER are transported to the Golgi apparatus through channels formed
by the ER.
c. Puts the finishing touches on the protein.

 Lysosome
a. Membranous sacs containing powerful digestive enzymes.
b. Breaks down intracellular waste and debris, including damaged organelles  helps in cleaning
c. Lysosomal enzyme participates in the destruction of bacteria called Phagocytosis.
d. Breaks down contractile proteins of inactive muscles (i.e retired athletes experience a decrease in
muscle mass, as do chronically bedridden persons)
e. Impaired lysosomal function accounts for numerous pathological conditions referred to as lysosomal
storage disease.

 Peroxisome
a. Detoxifies various toxic molecules that enter the blood stream (i.e. alcohol)
b. A lot of peroxisomes in liver and kidney cells

 Cytoskeleton
a. Composed of threadlike structure called microfilaments and microtubules.
b. Helps maintain the shape of the cell
c. Assists the cell in various forms of cellular movement
d. Cellular movement - evident in muscles cells, which contain large numbers of microfilaments

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Centrioles
a. Paired rod shape and short micro tubular structure that form the spindle apparatus in a dividing cell.
b. Cells that have no centrioles are incapable of cell division such as neurons, red blood cell, skeletal
muscles, cardiac muscles
c. Centrosome - the cytoplasm surrounding the centrioles

 DNA Replication

 Transcription
a. Converting notes from one form (shorthand notes, audiotape recording) into another from (type
written letter)
b. Same information is transformed from one form or format to the other.
c. Process:
i. Involves the transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence into complimentary base
sequence of the mRNA.
ii. Three-base sequence specifying a particular amino acid:
1. DNA gene = triplet
2. mRNA = codons
iii. Thus if the (partial) sequence of DNA triplets is AAT-CGT-TCG, the related codons on
mRNA would be UUA-GCA-ACG

 Translation
a. A translator takes words in one language and restates them in another language.
b. Language of nucleic acids (base sequence) is translated into the language of proteins (amino acid
c. Translation a occurs in the cytoplasm and involves 3 varieties of RNA
d. Consist of the following events:
i. mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made on DNA template.
ii. mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosomes and translation begins.
iii. Correct amino acid attaches to each species of tRNA by an enzyme.
iv. Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by
binding via its anticodon to the codon.
v. As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, a new amino acid is added to the growing protein
vi. Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool, ready to be recharged with a new amino acid.

 Interphase – growth and DNA replication

a. First gap phase - during this phase, the cell carries out its normal activities and begins to make the
DNA and other substances necessary for cell division.
b. Phase S - during the S phase, the cell duplicates its chromosomes , thereby making enough DNA
for two identical cell
c. Second gap phase
i. This is the final preparatory phase for cell division. (mitosis)
ii. It includes the synthesis of other enzyme and other proteins needed for mitosis.
iii. At the end of G2 the cell enters mitotic phase.

 Mitosis
a. During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell divides into two cells in such a way that the nuclei of both cells
contain identical genetic information.
b. Consist of four phases:
i. Prophase
1. Chromosomes coil so tightly that they become under a light microscope.
2. Each chromosome pair is composed of two identical strands of DNA called
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
3. Each chromatid is attached at a point called the centromere. At the same time, two
pairs of centriole move to opposite poles of the nucleus.
4. Late in the prophase, the nuclear membrane disappears.
ii. Metaphase - During metaphase, the chromatids are aligned in a narrow central zone.
Spindle fibers connect the chromatids and centrioles.
iii. Anaphase - Centromeres split and the chromatids are pulled to opposite poles.
iv. Telophase
1. During Telophase, each new cell reverts to the interphase state: the nuclei reform,
the chromosomes uncoil, and the chromatin strands reappear.
2. Telophase and cytokinesis mark the end of mitosis.
3. Cytokinesis which begins in late anaphase, is the pinching of the cell membrane.
c. At the end of mitosis, the daughter cells have two choices:
i. They can enter G1 and repeat the cycle (and divide again)
ii. They can enter another phase called the G zero (G0).
iii. Cell in G0 “drop out” of the cycle and rest, they do not undergo into mitosis.
iv. Cells may reenter the cycle after days, weeks or years. The inability to stop cycling and enter
to G0 is a characteristic of cancer cell. Cancer cells constantly divide and proliferate.

 Meiosis
a. Cell division that occurs in gametes / sex cells
b. Each cell undergoes 2 consecutive divisions to produce 4 genetically different daughter cells.
i. A specialized diploid cell (2n) splits in half twice to produce 4 haploid (n – single set of
chromosomes) cells, each of which is genetically distinct from the others
1. Female: Primary oocytes
2. Male: Primary spermatocytes
ii. Reduction to haploid is important so that if fertilization occurs, sperm plus egg cell provide an
n number of chromosomes which reestablishes a 2n number.
iii. Extra chromosomal material is lethal to developing offspring.
c. Meiosis I
i. Prophase I
1. Centrosomes head towards the corners of the cell
2. Unspooling of microtubules
3. DNA clumps with proteins into chromosomes
4. Synapsis – each chromosome pairs up with its homologous pair
a. Because each chromosome is composed of 2 chromatids, the arrangement
is called a tetrad (tetra meaning 4).
b. Homologous Pairs – contain the same genes.
i. Homo meaning “same” and logos meaning “relation”
5. Crossover – homologous pairs cross over
6. Homologous Recombination – while tangled up, they trade sections of DNA
a. The sections that they’re trading are from the same location on each
chromosome (i.e. hair color for hair color, body odor for body odor) but
happens randomly for each chromosome (i.e. different sections)
b. Important for variation – a concept in natural selection which allows us to
change and adapt to our environment: through this recombination, we are
able to lose our bad gene combinations
7. The 23rd pair does not undergo crossover or recombination as they determine our
sex. If the pair is XX, then you’re female. If the pair is XY, then you’re male.
8. X does not crossover with Y during prophase because they are not homologous.
ii. Metaphase I –
1. Homologous chromosomes align at the center
2. Random assortment – random orientation of maternal and paternal chromosomes
iii. Anaphase I - Homologous pairs move apart to opposite sides of the cell
iv. Telophase I – nuclear membrane re-forms and nucleoli form
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
v. Crease forms between the two new cells called cleavage  move apart  separate
vi. Cytokinesis (cell movement) – separation of two new cells
d. At the end of Meiosis I, each chromosome still consists of two chromatids. The aim of Meiosis II
therefore is to pull the sister chromatids apart into separate single-strand chromosomes.
e. Meiosis II
i. Prophase II – each chromosome consists of two chromatids
ii. Metaphase II – homologous chromosomes align at the center
iii. Anaphase II – chromatids are pulled apart into separate single chromosomes
iv. Telophase II – new nuclei form and cells divide to form 4 daughter cells with haploid (n)
number of chromosomes

 Definition
a. Also called the epithelium
b. Helps form the skin and covers the entire outer surface of the body
c. Lines most of the inner cavity such as the mouth, respiratory tract, and reproductive tract
d. Functions:
i. Absorption & transport of substances across cell membrane
ii. Protection, filtration and secretion
e. Forms glands that secretes a variety of hormones and enzymes

 Characteristics
a. Forms continuous sheet
b. Cells fit snugly like tiles
c. Has 2 surfaces
i. 1 is unattached – outer skin or lining of the mouth
ii. Undersurface attached to the basement membrane
d. Has no blood supply of its own, it is avascular – for its nourishment depends on the underlying
connective tissue
i. That is why we don’t bleed when we shave

 Classification according to shape

Squamous Cuboidal Columnar

thin and flat like fish scales cube like and looks like a dice Tall and narrow looks like columns

also simple squamous epithelia also simple cuboidal epithelia also simple columnar epithelia

 Classification according to layers

a. Simple – single layers
i. Simple Epithelia – thin layer
1. They are concerned primarily with the movement or transport of various substances
across the membrane from one body compartment to another
ii. Simple Squamous epithelia
1. Single layer of squamous cell with an underlying basement membrane
2. Allows the rapid diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood
3. Lines walls of the capillaries and alveoli

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

iii. Simple Cuboidal epithelia
1. a single layer of cuboidal cell resting on the basement membrane
2. most often found in glands and in the kidney tubes where it functions in the
transport and secretion of various substances
iv. Simple Columnar epithelia
1. Tall, tightly packed cells line the entire length of the digestive tract and play a minor
role in the absorption of the final product of digestion
2. Lubricating mucus is produced by the goblet cell which are modified columnar

b. Stratified – two or more layers

i. Stratified Epithelia
1. Multi-layered (2 to 20 layers) and are therefore
stronger than simple epithelia
2. They perform protective function and are found in
tissue exposed to everyday wear and tear such as the
mouth, esophagus, and skin
3. Most widespread of the epithelial tissue

 Glandular Epithelia
a. Function: secretion
b. Made up of one or more cells that secretes a particular substance
c. Much of the glandular tissue is:

d. Types:
i. Exocrine Glands
1. Have ducts or tiny tubes into which the exocrine secretions are released before
reaching the body surface or body cavities.
a. Ducts - carry the exocrine secretions outside the body.
i. i.e. sweat flows from the sweat glands through ducts onto the surface
of the skin for evaporation
2. Include mucus, sweat, saliva, and digestive enzyme.
i. Endocrine Glands
1. Ductless glands
2. Secretes hormones directly into the blood such
a. i.e. Insulin – lowers blood glucose level by allowing us to utilize glucose and
convert it into energy (acts as a key)
Type I Diabetes/ Injection of insulin from
No insulin at birth
Juvenile Diabetes an outside source
Oral medication that
Type II Diabetes Maturation stimulates pancreas to
produce insulin

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Definition
a. Most abundant tissue
b. Widely distributed throughout the body
c. Found in blood, under the skin, in bone and around many organs
d. Connects or binds the body parts together
e. Vascular – has good blood supply

 Cell Composition
a. Fibroblast – cells found in loose and dense fibrous tissue
b. Chondroblast – found in cartilage
c. Osteoblast – found in the bone

 Loose connective tissue – contains fibers that are loosely arranged around the cell.
a. Areolar Tissue
i. Made up of collagen and elastin fibers in a gel-like intercellular matrix.
ii. Soft and surrounds, protects, and cushion many of the organs.
iii. Acts like “tissue glue” because it holds the organs in position.
b. Adipose Tissue - Composed primarily of adipocytes which are cells that stores fat.
i. Function of Fats
1. Serves as body reservoir of energy.
2. Assists in body temperature regulation
3. Acts as cushion. Example, a pad of fat behind the eyeball
4. Protects the eye from the hard bones of the eye socket
5. Protects some organ by anchoring them in place.
a. i.e the kidney has a layer of fatty tissue that helps hold it in place
c. Reticular Connective Tissue – type of tissue found in blood, lymph nodes, spleen & bone marrow

 Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue  skeletal system (bones)

a. Composed of fibroblast and an intercellular matrix that contain many collagen and elastic fibers.
b. Collagen is the main type of fiber in dense fibrous tissue.
c. Tendons - cordlike structures that attach muscles to bones.
d. Ligaments - cross joints and attach bones to each other.
e. Capsules - dense fiber also form tough capsules around certain organs such as the kidney and liver
f. Fascia
i. Forms bands, or sheets, of tissue
ii. covers muscles blood vessels and nerve
iii. Covers, supports, and anchors organs to nearby structures.

 Cartilage
a. Formed by chondroblasts that eventually mature into chondrocytes or cartilage cells
b. The chondroblasts secrete a protein-containing intercellular matrix that becomes firm, smooth and
c. Hyaline
i. Provides framework, support and protection.
ii. It is found in ends of long bone at joints
iii. Connects ribs to sternum, rings in trachea tract, nose
d. Fibrocartilage
i. Provide protection, cushion.
ii. It is found in intervertebral discs, pads in knee joint, pad between pubic bone
e. Elastic cartilage
i. Provides framework, support and protection
ii. Found in external ear and part of larynx
 Bone
a. AKA osseous
b. Immature bone cells are called osteoblasts.

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

i. Osteoblasts secrete an intercellular matrix that includes collagen, calcium, salts, and other
minerals.  As you age, this matrix is slowly lost, making the bones brittle & porous, and
prone to fractures & injuries.
ii. These collagen provides flexibility and strength
iii. The mineral containing matrix as a whole makes the bone tissue hard.
c. The hardness of the bone enables it to protect organs such as the brain and to support the weight of
the body for standing and moving.

 Blood and Lymph

a. Two types of connective tissue that have a liquid intercellular matrix
b. Blood consists of blood cells surrounded by a fluid matrix called plasma.

 Definition: make up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

 Neurons – nerve cell that transmits electrical signals to and from the brain and spinal cord.
a. 3 parts:
i. Dendrites- receive information from other neurons
ii. Cell body- contains the nucleus and is essential to the life of the cell
iii. Single axon- transmit information away from the cell body.

 Neuroglia – nerve cells that support and take care of the neurons.
a. The word glial means glue-like and refers to the ability of these cells to support, or stick together,
the vast network of neurons.

 Definition
a. Composed of cells that shorten, or contract.
b. They cause movement of a body part.
c. Composition: fibers not cells because cells are long and slender.

Skeletal Smooth Cardiac

Striated No striations / rough edges Interlinkages

 Skeletal Muscle - striated

a. Generally attached to bone.
b. Also called striated muscle because of the appearance of striations or stripes.
c. Moves the skeleton, maintain posture and stabilize joints.
 Smooth Muscle – unequal/rough edges
a. AKA visceral muscle
b. Found in the walls of viscera or organs  stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder.
c. It is also found in tubes such as the bronchioles and blood vessels.
d. The function of smooth muscle is related to the organ in which it is found.
i. i.e smooth muscle in the stomach helps smash and churn food (digestion), whereas the
smooth muscle in the urinary bladder helps expel urine.
 Cardiac Muscle – interlinkages (for fast and smooth flow of electrical impulses)
a. Found in the heart where it functions to pump blood into a vast network of blood vessels.
b. Long branching cells that fit together tightly at junctions
c. Promotes rapid conduction of coordinated electrical signals throughout the heart

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Regeneration
a. Replacement of tissue by cells that are identical to the original cell
b. Can occur only in tissues whose cells undergo mitosis such as the skin

 Fibrosis
a. Replacement of injured tissue by the formation of fibrous connective tissue or scar tissue
b. the fiber of scar tissue pull the edges of the wound together and strengthen the area

 Process
a. Fresh wound cut through the epithelium and underlying connective tissue and a clot forms
b. Approximately one week after the injury, a scab is present and epithelium is growing around the
wound.  Scab starts at the outer edge as it is superficial and not in the center because that is the
deepest part of the wound)
c. Approximately 2 weeks after the injury, the epithelium has grown completely into the wound and
fibroblast has formed granulation tissue
d. Approximately 1 month after the injury the wound has completely closed, the scab has been
sloughed and the granulation tissue is being replaced by new connective tissue.
i. For those with problems, a keloid could form  abnormality of the skin.

 Definition: thin sheet or layer of tissue that covers a structure or line a cavity and surrounds organ

 Classification
a. Epithelial membranes
i. Includes the cutaneous membrane (skin), the mucous membrane, and the serous
ii. Although called epithelial, these membranes contain both an epithelial sheet and an
underlying layer of connective tissues.
b. Cutaneous membranes  the only dry membrane
i. Skin
ii. Outer layer of skin (epidermis)  stratified squamous epithelium.
iii. Underlying layer (dermis)  fibrous connective tissue.
c. Mucous membrane
i. line all the body cavities that open to the exterior of the body
1. Digestive tract – mouth & anus: mucus allows food to move through the tract with
little friction
2. Urinary - urethra
3. Reproductive - genital
4. Respiratory tracts – nose & mouth
a. Secretes mucus to keep the membrane moist and also lubricates it to reduce
d. Serous membrane
i. Line the ventral cavities which are not open to the exterior of the body.
ii. Secretes a thin, watery, serous fluid which allows the membrane to slide past one another
with little fiction.
iii. Lines a cavity and then fold back onto the surface of the organs within that cavity. Thus, a
part of the membrane lines the wall of the cavity (like a paper wall) is the parietal layer and
the part of the membrane that covers the outside of an organ is the visceral.
iv. Types:
1. Pleurae
a. Are found in the thoracic cavity.
b. The parietal pleura line the wall of the thoracic cavity.
c. The viscera pleura covers each lungs
d. The space between the pleural layers is called pleural cavity
e. The membranes are lubricated with pleural fluid
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
2. Pericardium
a. Found in the thoracic cavity and partially surrounds the heart.
b. There is a parietal and visceral pericardium that offers sling like support to
the heart.
c. The space between the pericardial membranes is called the pericardial
d. the membranes are lubricated by pericardial fluid
3. Peritonium
a. Found within the abdominal cavity.
b. The parietal peritoneum lines its wall
c. The visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal organ.

 Physiology of the Integumentary System

a. Protection
i. Prevents water loss
1. Regulates fluids within the body
2. i.e. When we perspire, we do not get dehydrated.
ii. Prevents entry of microorganisms and other foreign substances.  without the skin, we are
prone to infection from multiple pathogens
iii. Protects underlying structures from its damaging effect.
1. i.e. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet light and protects underlying structures.
2. i.e. Melanin also absorbs the heat / cold from the environment.
iv. Hair provides protection in several ways:
1. The hair on the head acts an heat insulator
a. i.e. For those who are bald, they can easily feel hotness or coldness because
the skull is sensitive without hair due to it being highly vascularized.
2. Eyebrows keep sweat out of the eyes.
v. Aids in body heat loss or heat retention(controlled by the nervous system)
b. Sensation - has receptors that can detect pain, heat, cold and pressure
c. Vitamin D production - when skin is exposed to ultraviolet rays (from the sun), a precursor
molecule of vitamin D is formed.
i. Exposure to sun with bare skin is needed
ii. Done once day for 15-20 minutes
iii. Before 10am, the rays of the sun are beneficial. Beyond that, they are unhealthy & harmful.
d. Temperature Regulation  Homeostasis
i. Maintained at 37 centigrade.
ii. Rate of chemical reaction within the body can be increased or decreased by changes in body
e. Excretion
i. Removal of waste product from the body.
ii. i.e. Secretion of sweat is stimulated by high temperatures and by hormones.
1. Sweat contains urea, uric acid, and ammonia.

 Structure of the Skin

a. Epidermis
i. Avascular (gets its blood supply from the underlying connective tissue)
ii. Keratinocytes – cell composition of the epidermis
1. Produces keratin: fibrous protein that makes the epidermis a tough protective layer.
iii. Composed of 5 Layers of Strata / Bed sheets (arranged from the most superficial to deep)
1. Stratum Corneum  MOST IMPORTANT
a. Outermost layer / most superficial
b. Consists of dead squamous cells filled with the hard protein keratin.
c. 20 to 30 cell layers thick
d. Allows that layer to provide a durable “overcoat” for the body which protects
deeper cells from the hostile external environment.
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
2. Stratum Lucidum
a. Found only on the palms of the hands, fingertips, and the soles of the feet.
b. Layer of the epidermis in which cells first die because of their inability to get
nutrients and oxygen
3. Stratum Granulosum
a. This is the layer where part of keratin production occurs.
b. Keratin is a protein that is the main component of skin.
4. Stratum Spinosum - gives the skin strength as well as flexibility.  Thickest layer
a. Flexibility is impossible without the epidermis + dermis.
b. i.e. When a woman becomes pregnant, the skin is stretched. Whitish
discoloration appears which are called stretch marks. The skin will go back to
its normal state only after the first child.
5. Stratum Basale
a. Deepest layer
b. Produces melanocytes
c. Consists of cuboidal or columnar cells that undergo mitotic divisions about
every 19 days.
b. Dermis
i. Hide skin
ii. Strong, stretchy envelope that helps to hold the body together (i.e When you purchase
leather goods such as bags, belts, shoes, you are buying the treated dermis of animals.)
iii. It contains numerous collagen and elastin fibers surrounded by a gel like substance.
iv. Fibers makes the dermis strong and stretchable.
v. The dense connective tissue that makes up the dermis contains fibroblast, fat cells, and
macrophages.  cells specialized to fight diseases via Phagocytosis
vi. Has fewer fat cell and blood vessels
vii. Nerve endings, Hair follicles, smooth muscles, glands and lymphatic vessels
viii. Papillary Layer
1. Highly vascular
2. Contains nerve endings that respond to touch and temperature stimuli
3. Produces pattern for fingerprints

 Melanin
a. A pigment responsible for skin, hair, eye color
b. Most melanin molecules are brown to black pigment, but some are yellowish to reddish
c. Produced by melanocytes (found in the stratum basale)
d. Large amount of melanin  freckles, moles, genitalia, nipples
e. Melanin production is determined by genetic factor, exposure to light and hormones
f. Genetic factor are responsible for the amount of melanin produced in different races
g. Brown-skinned are more protected than white-skinned people against skin cancer

 Accessory Skin Structures (help skin perform integumentary function)

a. Hair
i. Found everywhere in the skin except the palms, soles, lips, nipples, parts of the genitalia and
the distal segments of the fingers and toes.
ii. Produced in cycles
iii. The loss of hair means normally means the hair is being replaced because the old hair falls
out of the hair follicle when the new hair begins to grow.
iv. Parts
1. Shaft
a. Protrudes above the surface of the skin
b. Visible on the epidermis
c. Cuticle - a single layer of overlapping cells; holds the hair in the hair follicle
d. Cortext / Bark - hard cortex; surrounds medulla (soft center)
e. Medulla
2. Arrector Pili Muscle – in order to warm the body up when cold, these muscles
contract to stand the hairs upright
Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9
3. Roots and hair bulb
a. Found below the surface of the skin.
b. Hair is produced in the hair bulb which rests on the dermal papillae
c. Blood vessels within the papillae supply the hair bulb with the nourishment
needed to produce the hair.
b. Sebaceous glands
i. Simple branched acinar glands
ii. Most are connected by a duct to the superficial part of the hair follicle
iii. They produce sebum
1. Oily rich substance rich in lipids
2. Function: lubricates hair and surface of the skin, prevents drying, protects the skin
against some bacteria.
iv. Hyperactive production of sebaceous glands can cause acne and seborrhea.
v. Types:
Eccrine / Merocrine Sweat Glands Apocrine Sweat Glands
Numerous Active at puberty  influence of sex
simple, coiled tubular glands hormones
Location Palm, sole, forehead Hair follicles  axillae & genitalia
Thick secretion rich in organic
substances (i.e. protein, fatty acids)
Secretion Water mostly with a few salt
Usually odorless unless bacteria is
present  body odor

c. Nails
i. A thin plate consisting of layers of dead stratum corneum cells
ii. Contain a very hard type of keratin.
iii. Parts:
1. Nail body – is the visible part
2. Nail root – embedded within the epidermis
a. Part of the nail covered by the skin.
b. The nail root and the nail body is attached to the nail bed which is the
proximal portion of the nail matrix.
3. Cuticle – part of the stratum corneum that extends onto the nail body.
4. Lacuna – whitish crescent shape area at the base of the nail.

– assess a patient by characteristics of skin

 Cyanosis
a. Bluish color caused by decreased blood oxygen which is an indication of
i. Impaired circulatory function: i.e. Blue babies have holes in their hearts therefore the
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood get mixed. This is a condition called Tetralogy of Fallot
wherein there are 4 cardiac abnormalities.
ii. Impaired respiratory function: i.e. Asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema (shortness of breath)
1. When a person is exposed to an allergen, the lumen of the bronchioles is narrowed
due to inflammation of the airway. Therefore there is inadequate oxygenation.
2. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. The airway becomes inflamed and
locked during anaphylactic shock which causes death.
3. Sometimes, there is a delayed reaction to allergens.

 Jaundice
a. Yellowish discoloration
b. Occurs when the liver is damaged by a disease such as viral hepatitis
c. i.e. Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway.

 Presence of problem elsewhere in the body:

a. Rashes – i.e. allergy, measles (eczema is not included)
b. Lesions – communicable diseases such as chicken pox or scabies  lack of personal hygiene

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9

 Partial Thickness / First Degree
a. Damaged area: epidermis (stratum basale remains viable)
i. Generation of the epidermis occurs from within the burn area as well as from the edges
ii. Do not peel off as it causes wounds or infections.
b. Characteristics:
i. Red and painful
ii. Slight edema (excess of watery fluid) or swelling
iii. Heal without scarring
c. i.e. Sunburn, exposure to hot object (when cooking), exposure to cold object (dry ice, frostbite)

 Second Degree
a. Damaged area: epidermis and dermis
b. Characteristics:
i. For dermal damage:
1. Redness, pain, edema
2. Blisters  do not pop or peel off as it introduces entry for pathogens
ii. For deep into the dermis:
1. Appear red, tan, or white
2. Can take several months to heal
3. Might scar

 Full Thickness / Third Degree

a. Damaged area: epidermis and dermis are completely damaged
b. Characteristics:
i. Appears white, tan, brown, black, or deep cherry red
ii. Painless – sensory receptors in the epidermis and dermis have been destroyed
iii. Recovery occurs from the edges of the burn wound.
iv. Takes a long time to heal unless a reconstructive surgery is done  skin grafting
c. First threat to life of a third degree burn is infection in the dermis.

 Rule of Nine
a. Total body surface area affected
b. Physicians use this to estimate the volume of fluid lost in a severely burned patient
c. Estimates the extent of burns
d. Total of 100%
i. Anterior and posterior head and neck = 9%
ii. Anterior and Posterior upper limbs = 18%
iii. Anterior and Posterior trunk = 36%
iv. Perineum = 1%
v. Anterior and Posterior lower limbs = 36%

 Treatment: Expose the burned area to lukewarm running water

Acne Impetigo Decubitus Ulcers / Bedsore

 Inflammation of the hair  A skin disease caused by  Develops from: bedridden or people
follicles and the Staphylococcus aureus confined to a wheel chair
sebaceous glands  Usually affects children  Weight of the body (in areas over bony
 Causative factors; producing small blisters projections: hip bone, sacral area, and
Hormones, sebum, containing pus and easily heels) compresses tissue and reduces
abnormal keratinization, ruptures to form a thick circulation.
Propionibacterium acne yellowish crust  personal  Could reach the bone and aggravate
hygiene the condition
 Treatment: Patient must be turned
frequently, use of ointments, massages

Bridgit Bichara 12HA-9