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f = n(RPM) p(NO OF POLES) / 120 ; GSR (GOV SPEED REG) = (nNL – Fluid Power: for piston & cylinders

rs * speed will depend Gas turbines


nRATED ) / nRATED = ( fNL - fRATED) / fRATED ; GD(GOV DROOP) = on flow rate; * force will depend on pressure; *stroke
∆f(HZ CHANGE) / ∆P(KW CHANGE) ; GSR X fRATED / PRATED = GSR X length will depend on volume swept; Force = P(press) x
nRATED / PRATED = ∆f / ∆P = GD ; P(KW) = P.F. X KVA A(area);
(INDUCTIVE LOAD) ; * If GD is same then both the genny will Hydraulic Pump formulae: (theoretical Flow rate) QP =
share added load equally when in parllel; * When vol swept in one rev x rpm = DP(DISPLACEMENT OR VOL SWEPT PER
parllel generators share load, the ∆f is always same. REV) nP(RPM OF P/P); (theoretical torque) = DP nP / 2 pi ;
Coz bus is same; * some places use GD to find ∆f if fnl Volumetric efficiency = ηPV = QP / DP nP; Mechanical
is given. * ∆P on bus will be same as sum of ∆P on all efficiency ηPT = DP PP(PUMP PRESS) / 2 pi TP (TORQUE); Overall
genny. * GSR is used when fNL is not given ∆f for llel efficiency ηPO = ηPT ηPV = Output power / Input Power;
Hydraulic Circuits
genny same * GD remains const for any loading Output Power = PP x QP = nP x TP 2 pi;
conditon for that genny.

Synchorscope: It is the device which gives the voltage


phase difference in between the incoming generator
and the main bus; The pointer will keep on rotating till
the IG and bus voltages are out of phase; If IG is slow
then pointer will rotate in slow marked direction and is Hydraulic Motor formulae: (theoretical Flow rate) QM =
IG is faster then the pointer will rotate in fast marked vol swept in one rev x rpm = DM(DISPLACEMENT OR VOL SWEPT
direction; Generally the IG is kept slightly faster before PER REV) nM(RPM OF MOTOR) ; (theoretical torque) = DM nP / 2
closing of ACB which connects IG to main bus; ACB is pi ; Volumetric efficiency = ηMV = DM nM / QM;
closed when the pointer is some degrees before the 0 Mechanical efficiency ηMT = 2 pi TM (TORQUE) / DM PM(motor
position since human reaction time is taken into PRESS); Overall efficiency ηMO = ηMT ηMV = Output power /
consideration; Once paralled the pointer will not rotate Input Power; Output Power = PM x QM=nMx TM 2 pi;
and stay in 0 position. Variable pump fixed motor(const torque,variable HP):

NpDp=nmDm; nm= NpDp/Dm(assuming no leakage), work


done per rev = Tm = Dm*Pm / (2*pi); output power by Meter in ckt: When the +ve load is acting on the
hydraulic motor Tmnm. cylinder and pushing cylinder inside; Meter out: over
Variable motor,fixed pump(const HP, variable torque): running or -ve load, pulling the cylinder out; Bleed off:
Bleed off excess fluid not needed by the working
cylinder. - less accurate in speed control of working
cylinder. - cooler & more efficient system
Resistance: R = RT + RAIR + RWAVE; R = c VS2; Effective
power is PE = R VS ; Propller Law: 1) delivered power is
proportional to the (shaft/prop speed)3. 2) Prop
torque is proportional (shaft/prop speed)2;
1 lit = 1000cc; 1cc = 1 ml = 10-3 lit; 1 cc = 10-6 m3; nm=
NpDp/Dm(assuming no leakage), work done per rev = Tm
= Dm*Pm / (2*pi); output power by hydraulic motor
Tmnm.
Piston extention Extension speed: QT = Qp + QR; Pump
flow: Qp = QT - QR ; QP = Ap VP EXT - ( Ap(AREA OF PISTON) -
AR(AREA OF PIST ROD) ) Vp EXT VEL; Extension Vel Vp = Qp / AR ;
Retract Vel Vp = QP / Ap - AR; Load Capacity extension =
P(PRESS) AR ; Load Capacity retract FR = P(PRESS) (Ap - AR);
Power = F(Force) V(velocity).
Open water propeller efficiency diagram
1.refrigeration systems: certain industrial applications require Propulsion power: Effective towing power PE = R Undervoltage protection: is as shown in the figure below Fluid power troubleshooting Troubleshooting means finding the
moderately low temperatures and they involve a lot big problem. The five general type of problems are:- 1. Pressure 2.
(RESISTANCE) Vs (SHIP SPEED). Hull efficiency ɳH = PE / Kp PT =
temperature range. This is difficult to achieve with the help of Flow 3. Leakage 4. Heat 5. Noise and vibration. Every problem
single compression refrigeration cycle. The solution is to use
RVS/TVA = (1-t (THRUST DEDUCTION COEFF))/(1-w (WAKE FRACTION)).
Thrust Power PT = T(THRUST) VA (SPEED OF ADVANCE). Open has at least 1 symptom, but the symptom is not the problem.
cascade system. Diagram down
Water Efficiency ɳo = PT / PO. Open Water Propeller Troubleshooting relates known symptoms with unknown
problems. The troubleshooting process: Service manual -
Power PO = 2 pi Q (TORQUE) np (prop revs). Relative Rotative
Service history - Initial inspection - List of symptoms - Basic
Efficiency ɳR = PO / PD. Propeller Delivered Power PD = 2
calculations - General problem statement - Specific problem
pi MD (TORQUE) np (PROP REVS) Shaft Efficiency ɳs = PD / Ps.
statements - Tests to accept/reject specific problem statement -
Shaft Power PS = 2 pi MS (TORQUE) np (PROP REVS). Gear box
Teardown for visual inspection and verification. chart Incorrect
efficiency ɳGB = Ps / PB Brake Power PB = 2 pi MB (TORQUE)
flow i) no flow 1)pump not receiving fluid A 2)pump drive motor
nE (ENGINE REVS). Effective Engine Efficiency ɳE = PB / Q. on working E 3)pump - drive coupling shear C 4)pump run in
1 is running generator give power & 2 is stationary generator
Heat Input = Q. Total Transmission Efficiency ɳTRM = ɳS opp dir G 5)Dir ctrl v/v in wrong position F 6)full flow passing
standy; Both generators are ∆ connected; By mistake if engg or
ɳGB. Total Propulsive Efficiency ɳ = ɳO ɳE ɳH = PE / PD. technician connect gen 2 to main line; voltage drop, short ckt & thru relief v/v D 7)pump damage C 8)Improper pump assembly
Propeller dimensionless thrust ratio KT = T / (ρ nP ^2 balckout; Protection against that by UV relay; Assume generator E; ii) low-flow: 1)Flow ctrl set too low D 2)Relef v/v set too low D
D^4); Propeller dimensionless torque ratio KQ = Q / (ρ running parellel and load sharing; when any 1 generator is 3)flow by-pass thru half open v/v E/F 4)Leakage B 5)Yoke
nP ^2 D^5); Advance Ratio J = VA / nP D; Open water running voltage is there; coil energised and contactors will be acutating device inoperative E 6)P/P RMP low H 7)worn
efficiency ɳO = J KT / 2 pi KQ. Thrust deduction coeff t = retained to provide power to main line; fault occur in generator,
components E. iii)Excess flow: 1)Flow ctrl too high D 2)yoke
voltage drop so spring will push contactor and separate the
(T-R) / T Wake fraction w = ( V – VA) / V. t typically 0.12 genny from main line; thus protection can be achieved. operating device inoperatve E 3)P/p RMP incorrect H 4)P/p size
– 0.3 & w typically 0.2 – 0.45. Theoretical speed VT = n Undercurrent relay: this is to protect genny from motoring. incorrect H Remedy: A - Any or all of the following: Replace dirty
(revs) p (pitch). Apperent Slip sA = (VT – VS) / VT. Real Slip sR filters. Clean clogged inlet line. Clean reservoir breather vent.
= (VT – VA) / VT. Revolutions are in rps; Shaft efficiency Fill reservoir to proper level. Overhaul or replace super-charge
Enthalpy h: change in heat dQ. Entropy T: Change in heat wrt t = typically 0.95 & gear box effciciency 0.9; Angle of P/p. B – rectify leaks & vent out air C – Check for damaged P/P
dh/dt. Two stage cycle are connected through heat exchanger in
propeller blade or attack angle tanθ = P(pitch) / 2 pi R. or its drive D – adjust E – Overhaul or replace F – Check solenoid
the middle. It serves as an evaporator for cycle A and condenser
for cycle B. Pitch ratio p = P(pitch) / D(dia); Circumferential velocity = v/v operations, manual v/v positions G – reverse rotation H –
Fuel cell technology: Challenges facing fuel cells in application: VA / 2 pi r nP; Hydrodynamic pitch angle tan β = VA / 2 replace incorrect units.
1) costs, compactness & weight: materials, component and pi r(RADIUS OF PROP) nP ; Direction control v/v: v/v is used to change the flow direction
manufact - volume related 2) Performance - efficiency, supply A&B, flow to either side cylin.
of intermittent/transient high peak loads, startup response, P from P/P, T return reservior.
power quality 3) Reliability & durability especially in 4/3 v/v 4-no of port, 3 position
challenging combat environments (eg. war-zones, high temp Flow control v/v: controls the flow rate of oil in the hyd system.
& humidity, dusty / dirty / contaminated) 4) Fueling Criteria for paralleling generators: The incoming generator and the amt of flow going to the cylinder to
requirements: (fuel type and storage–hydrogen not yet a the bus bar same voltage (AVR); Frequecy (speed) of the IG move the pstion up is controlled by the
commonly used fuel) 5 Interconnectivity & integration with same as bus bar; The IG voltage must be in phase with bus bar. flow control v/v. Flow can be adjusted
grid & other power generations / supply systems. Merits of 11 o clock synchroscope ACB close. V & Hz slightly higher than using the screw on the flow control v/v.
fuel cells: Clean, quiet, fuel-flexible, efficient, compact, Main engine operating envelope: the main bus. Gov droop once on load.
Pressure control v/v: to controll the pressure inside the system
inherently, modular, cheap, can be incorporated into flexible, AVR: Automatic voltage regulator for taking V droop
modular, distributed, interconnected integrated solutions, Counter balance v/v: It avoids the
inherently good part load efficiencies,direct energy decend of the vetrical cylinder due to
external weight. When there is pressure
conversion.
on the pump, the v/v will open against
the spring to relase oil back to tank. If
sudden pressure drop occurs the spring
will close the valve back. This will stop
Propeller to engine power transmission: the cylinder from moving due to weight
Governor Droop:GD is ∂HZ wrt ∂KW. Nominal value on governor Advantages of Hydraulics 1) Ease and accuracy of control: By
is 2%. Load up freq down; To up Hz we increase droop set on the use of simple levers and push buttons, the operator of a
generator; Droop link gets feed back for o/p shaft; Droop is hydraulic system can easily start, stop, speed up and slow down.
necessary for stable load sharing when paralleling gennny; 2) Multiplication of force: A fluid power system (without using
Graph Hz(y) vs KW(x); One intersection point gives common cumbersome gears, pulleys and levers) can multiply forces
frequency and that point load share. Some cases one gen on 0 simply and efficiently from a fraction of a pound, to several
droop and other on 2-3 droop can run in parallel only droop gen hundred tons of output. 3) Constant force and torque: Only
will change its frequency and load caried. fluid power systems are capable of providing a constant torque
or force regardless of speed changes. 4) Simple, safe and
economical: In general, hydraulic systems use fewer moving
parts in comparison with mechanical and electrical systems.
Thus they become simpler and easier to maintain. Disadv: oil
handling messy; High pressure so bursting injury; Fire hazard;
marine pollution.