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# LAB 2: TANGENT METHOD

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The second laboratory session focused on the application of tangent method. The equipment used
was the Liquid Flow Process Control Training System Model: WF922, and was set to single
loop. Figure 1.1 shows the equipment used for this experiment

Figure 1.1: Liquid Flow Process Control Training System Model: AP922
Figure 1.2 below shows the conventional analysis for dead time (Td) and response rate (RR).

## ΔPV = PVf - PVi

The dead time, Td is the period of time from the start of open loop test (MVi) to the cross-
section between the tangent line and the initial steady state baseline.

The time constant, Tc is measured from the intersection of the initial steady state baseline
and the tangent line to the intersection of final steady state baseline and tangent line.

## Method 1: Tangent and Point

Thre time constant, Tc is estimated from the intersection of the initial steady state
baseline and the tangent line to the time (T63.2%) when the process reached 63.2% (PV63.2%) of the
final steady state baseline.

Mathematically,

Tc = T63.2% - Td

## PV63.2% = PVi + 0.632ΔPV

Method 1: Two-Point

The time constant is estimated by multiplying 1.5 to the time between the time for the
process to reach 28.3% (T28.3%) and to the time for the process to reach 63.2% (T63.2%), where

1.1 PROCEDURE

## 2. Graph of PV vs MV was plotted

3. Points acquired were connected, values obtained were used for calculation

4. The tangent method is used to determine the values of dead time, Td and time constant, Tc
1.3 CONCLUSION

The experiment that was carried out by using the Liquid Flow Process Control Training
System Model: WF922. From the results obtained, the value of Tc is 12.5s and 16.2s for Tangent
and Point method and Two-point method respectively with the error percentage of 22.84%.