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- Material

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biaxially so that each side increases in length by 0.5%. Assuming the deformation is

entirely elastic, what force is required to do this? What is the through-thickness

following this operation? (assume v =0.33)

672 N, 0.995 mm

Question 2:

Annealed copper has a proof stress of 0.2% 100MPa . Nine strips of annealed copper

were deformed plastically by being passed between a pair of rotating rollers so that the

strips were made thinner and longer. The resulting increases in length were, 1, 10, 20,

30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 100%, respectively. The diamond-pyramid hardness of each piece

was measured after rolling. The results were:

Nominal 0.01 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.0

strain

Hardness 423 606 756 870 957 1029 1080 1116 1170

MN/m2

(a) What is the mechanism responsible for the increase in hardness with increasing

deformation?

(b) Assuming the hardness value is 3 times the true stress; construct the curve of

nominal stress against nominal strain.

(c) Find the tensile strength of Cu. 228.7 MPa

(d) Estimate the strain at which tensile failure commences. 0.5

(e) Estimate the percentage reduction in cross sectional area at this strain (i.e. the one

in d). 33%

(f) Calculate the work required to initiate tensile failure in a cubic meter of annealed

Cu. 102 MJ/m3

(g) If the dislocation density in the sample with a nominal strain of 0.1 is 1014 /m2,

estimate the dislocation density in the sample with a nominal strain of 0.5.

5.6e14 1/m2

Question 3:

diameter 10-8 m and average centre to centre spacing of 6 x 10-8 m as measured on

the slip planes. Estimate the contribution of the dispersoid particles to the tensile

yield strength, y , of the alloy. 446 MPa

(b) The alloy is used for the compressor blades of a small turbine. Adiabatic heating

raises the temperature of the blades to 150oC and causes the particles to coarsen

slowly. After 1000 hrs the dispersoids have grown to a diameter of 5 x 10-8 m and

their spacing has increased to 30 x 10-8 m. Estimate the drop in yield strength.

298 MPa

Question 4:

A material is subjected to a stress state such that 1 3 2 2 3 . You find the material

starts to flow plastically when 2 140 MPa.

(a) What is the yield stress of the material in uniaxial tension? Use both the Tresca

and von Mises criteria to determine this. Tresca 280 MPa, Von Mises 252 MPa

(b) If a hydrostatic pressure of 60 MPa is applied, the stress state is given by:

1 m 3 2 m 2 3 m , where m =60 MPa.

What is the yield stress of the material under this stress state? No change

Question 5:

adhesive. The adhesive was stirred before

application, entraining air bubbles, which, under

pressure in forming the joint, deform to flat, penny-

shaped discs of diameter 2a = 2mm. If the beam has

the dimensions shown and epoxy has a fracture

toughness of 0.5 MPa.m½ calculate the maximum

load F that the beam can support. Assume that Y is

/ 2.

3Fl

Hint: for three point bending: max

2bt 2

1.89 kN

Question 6:

A pressurized pipe (made of low alloy steel) carrying stream in a power plant is subject to

both a constant stress m (due to the stream pressure in the pipe) and a fluctuating stress

(due to mechanical vibrations and pressure fluctuations). Under these conditions the

pipe will eventually fail by fatigue.

N f C , where C = 350MPa and a =0.09. Determine the fatigue life under the

a

following conditions:

(b) 100MPa, m 50MPa 2.5e5 cycles

(c) cycles alternate equally between conditions (a) and (b). 2.03e5 cycles

Assume the material has a yield-strength of 250 MPa and a tensile strength of 400 MPa.

Question 7:

An aircraft airframe has encountered an estimated 4 108 cycles at a stress range of 150

MPa. It is desired to extend the airframe life by another 4 108 cycles by reducing the

performance of the aircraft. Find the decrease in stress range necessary to achieve the

additional life. You may assume Miner’s rule to hold. In addition, the constants of

Basquin’s law are given as C=649MPa and a=0.073.

Decrease of 13 MPa

Question 8:

An alloy tie bar in a chemical plant has been designed to withstand a stress, , of 25

MPa at 620oC. Creep tests carried out on specimens of the alloy under these conditions

indicated a steady-state creep rate of 3.1 1012 s-1. In service it was found that, for 30

percent of the running time, the stress and temperature increased to 30 MPa and 650oC.

Calculate the average creep rate under service conditions. It may be assumed that the

alloy creeps according to the equation:

A 5 exp Q / RT

6.8e-12 /sec.

Question 9:

The creep mechanism map of Ni is shown below. If the operating conditions of a certain

product are similar to those of the shaded area on the diagram, identify the most effective

method(s) of increasing the creep life of this product.

In the present example diffusional creep is the dominant diffusion mechanism. Since

diffusion creep varies as 1/d2, we can improve the creep resistance by increasing the grain

size. We can also introduce grain boundary precipitates (e.g. carbides) the will pin the

grain boundaries and prevent the grain boundary sliding which accompanies diffusional

creep.

0.1

Ideal Strength

1 GPa

0.01

Plastic

100 MPa

0.001

Creep L.T.

Elastic

10 MPa Creep H.T.

0.0001

1 MPa

0.00001 Diffusional Flow

10-7/s

10-8/s

10-9/s

0.1 MPa Coble N.H.

0.000001

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

T / Tm

Question 10:

(a) Explain very briefly why foams make excellent materials for energy absorption.

(b) Porous Alumina has an elastic modulus of 60 GPa, while solid alumina has a density

of 400 GPa. Assuming that porous alumina could be treated as an isotropic open-cell

foam, estimate the relative density of porous alumina. 0.387

Question 11:

direction ( Z 0). The sheet is then stretched elastically in the x and y directions such

that x y .

(a) If the strain in the x direction is 0.5% and assuming that the material is isotropic with

E = 70 GPa and v = 0.3, calculate x , y and z . 673 MPa, 673 MPa, 403 MPa

(b) Calculate the % change in volume of the sheet for the stress state described in (a).

1%

Question 12:

The true-stress- true strain response of a metal alloy deformed into the plastic range is

described by:

T 150 T0.4 , where, the stress is in MPa.

Use the above expression to determine:

(a) The true and nominal (Engineering) strain in the alloy at the point of necking. 0.4

and 0.491

(b) The ultimate tensile stress. 69.7 MPa

(c) The true yield stress of a sample of the metal that is cold-worked to a true strain

of 0.2 prior to being tested. 78.8 MPa

(d) The elastic strain energy per unit volume stored in the material at the point of

necking (E = 200 GPa). 15.5 kJ/m3

Question 13:

(a) A steel plate with a through-thickness center crack of length 15 mm, fails when it

is subjected to a far-field stress of 350 MPa. What is the fracture toughness Kc of

this material? 53.7MPa.m½

(b) Steel has a tensile modulus E of 211 GPa. What is the toughness, Gc, of this

material? 13700 J/m2

(c) If the material has a tensile yield strength, y , of 500 MPa, what is largest defect

size for which the component would satisfy the yield-before-break condition.

3.7mm

[Hint: You may assume Y =1]

Question 14:

A pure metal with a body centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure is commercially

available in grain sizes of 10 m and 100 m .

(a) If the yield-stress of the sample with 100 m grain-size is 200 MPa, estimate the

yield-stress of the sample with 10 m grain size, assuming that the intrinsic strength

of the above metal is 50 MPa. 524 MPa

(b) Discuss the effect (if any) of grain refinement on the following material properties:

II. Ductile to brittle transition temperature. decreases

III. Creep rate. increases

Whenever possible, use equations and diagrams in your discussion. Clearly state any

assumptions that you are making.

Question 15:

(a) Draw a typical creep curve (strain vs. time) for a crystalline solid and mark on it

the steady-state creep regime. Describe the effects of temperature and applied

stress on the steady-state creep rate.

(b) The rate of steady-state diffusion creep in a Si3N4 ceramic tested at 1200oC is

given by:

SS A n

where A and n are constants. What is the theoretical value of n? If ss 10 10 / s

at 10 MPa, determine A. n= 1, A=10-17 /Pa.sec

(c) Creep failure is imminent when the total strain on the sample is approximately

0.01. Estimate the creep life if 1000 MPa. State your assumptions, and

explain whether or not your estimate is conservative. 106 sec, not conservative

(d) A sample of the above Si3N4 ceramic is loaded in tension at 1200oC to an initial

stress of 1000 MPa. How long does it take for the stress to relax to a value of 500

MPa if the total strain (plastic + elastic) is held constant? (E= 400 GPa). 2 days

Question 16:

This question is concerned with the plastic deformation of materials. Parts (a) and (b) are

independent of each other.

(a) If the true stress- true strain curve for a material is described by A n , where

Ann

A and n are constant, show that the tensile strength is given by: TS n ,

e

where e is the exponential function.

(b) The following yield criterion is being proposed to describe yielding under

multiaxial loading in metals:

1 2 3 K

where 1 , 2 and 3 are the principal stresses and K is a constant. Discuss whether

or not this is a valid yield criterion. Not valid.

Question 17:

that the modulus of the composite parallel to the fibers is 150 GPa. What volume

fraction of fibers would be needed? (Eepoxy = 5 GPa, Efiber = 450GPa) 0.326

(b) The above composite is loaded in tension parallel to the fibers. Separate tests on the

fibers show that they behave as a linear elastic solid up to the fracture point ( f =1.5

GPa), while the epoxy matrix shows limited plasticity with a yield strength of 25

MPa. On loading, will the composite fail first by yielding of the matrix or cracking

of the fibers? Cracking of the fibers

Question 18:

A B

U m n , m = 2, n = 10

r r

Given that the atoms form a stable molecule at a separation of 0.3 nm with an average

energy of -4 eV, calculate A and B. Also find the force required to break the molecule.

A= 0.45 eV.nm2, B= 5.9e-6 eV.nm10, Fmax = 14.9 eV/nm

Question 19:

Show, using a simple model, that the strain energy release per unit area of crack

extension is equal to :

2 a

E

Where is the applied stress, a is the half crack length and E is Young’s modulus. In

developing your model you may use approximations that yield a result correct to within a

factor of 2.

Question 20:

Steel plates with edge cracks of length 10 mm are tested first at room temperature and at -

80oC. At room temperature the plate fails by rapid facture when the far field stress is 350

MPa, while at -80oC the stress to cause rapid fracture is 200 MPa. What are the

toughness and fracture toughness values at both temperatures? Explain the trends shown

by the data. [E=210 GPa]. 18,300 J/m2 and 5,980 J/m2.

Question 21:

In order to test the strength of a ceramic, cylindrical specimens of length 25 mm and

diameter 5 mm are put into axial tension. The tensile stress, , which causes 50% of the

specimens to break is 120 MPa. Cylindrical ceramic components of length 50 mm and

diameter 11 mm are required to withstand an axial tensile stress, x, with a survival

probability of 99%. Given that m = 5, determine x. 32.6 MPa

Question 22:

When a fast-breeder reactor is shut down quickly, the temperature of the surface of a

number of components drops from 600oC to 400oC in less than a second. These

components are made of a stainless steel and have a thick section the bulk of which

remains at the higher temperature for several seconds. The low-cycle fatigue life of the

steel is described by:

N 1f / 2 pl 0.2

where Nf is the number of cycles to failure and pl is the plastic strain range. Estimate

the number of fast shut-downs the reactor can sustain before serious cracking or failure

will occur. [Hint: The thermal expansion coefficient of stainless steel is 1.2 10 5 / K ;

the yield strain at 400oC is 0.4 10 3 ]. 104 cycles

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