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NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY

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Fire Prevention Safty

CONTRACT NO. : POGC-84-801-244


PROJECT: SOUTH PARS GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT
PHASES 17&18
COMPANY: PARS OIL & GAS COMPANY
SITE: ASSALUYEH, IRAN

0 Issued for Comment OICO R.Akbarzade Y.Jalalat E.Harounian M.Davoodi

REV. DATE DESCRIPTION Originator Prepared Checked Approved Authorized

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Page Rev 0 Rev 1 Rev 2 Page Rev 0 Rev 1 Rev 2

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1. Purpose
2. Scope
3. Responsibilities
4. Combustion, Fire Classification and Heat Spread
5. Causes of Fire
6. Emergency Procedure
7. Fire Fighting Equipment
8. Training
9. Appendix

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1.0 Purpose
This procedure and guidance information has been developed to highlight fire hazards and the
precautions and suppression facilities necessary to prevent fires from occurring or spreading on
OIEC Project to prevent loss of life, serious injuries and damage to plant, equipment and structures.

2.0 Scope
This procedure is to be used by the all members of Project Management Team, Supervisors and
Subcontractors personnel. It is the responsibility of everyone to take all steps to plan their working
activities by preventing fire risks, not only in their areas of control, but also to continually be vigilant to
fire prevention in all other areas of the project and where provided, camp accommodation facilities.

3.0 Responsibilities
3.1 Site Manager is responsible to ensure:
• Provision of a written emergency plan encompassing all areas under control and supervision,
is prepared;
• To ensure that the working of this procedure are known and followed by personnel with
specified duties;
• To regularly monitor the application of this procedure;
• To provide whatever training is required for fire teams and fire wardens;
• To ensure that fire detection systems provided are adequate and that regular and routine
maintenance schedules are being followed.

3.2 HSE Manager is responsible to:


• To ensure that the working of this procedure are known and followed by personnel with
specified duties;
• To assist with the development of the written emergency plans;
• To regularly monitor the application of this procedure;
• To provide whatever training is required for fire teams and fire wardens;
• To ensure that fire detection systems provided are adequate and that regular and routine
maintenance schedules are being followed;
• To provide personnel tasked with checking and maintaining fire extinguishers.
• To arrange fire prevention and fire extinguisher training to other necessary persons working
on the project.

3.3 Administration Manager is responsible to ensure:


• Provision of a written emergency plan encompassing all areas under his control and
supervision, is prepared;
• That an appropriate number of office staff is assigned with the responsibility to act as fire
wardens, with the duties of marshalling and controlling the evacuation of premises. There
shall be a minimum number of two marshals for each muster point.
• That office staff(in particular new starts) are briefed and kept updated on fire and emergency

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response procedures including muster points;


• Maintenance of an inventory of flammable materials and control the usage to the minimum
required.
• Provision of lidded refuse containers for the safe disposal of aerosols which have contained
flammable materials.
• Ensuring that a clean desk policy is being adhered to and that materials are not allowed to
accumulate, by regular housekeeping and checks of the offices at the close of business.
• Daily checks of the office to ensure that walkways are not obstructed, carpet and other fittings
are secure, fire doors kept closed and that the means of escape are being maintained;
• Provision of metal filing cabinets for documents, stationary and other potentially combustible
items;
• Liaise with the electrical/instrumentation department for the inspection, testing and servicing
of fire alarms, smoke detection units etc.
• Provision of emergency doors illumination and signs.

3.4 Camp Boss is responsible to ensure that the following control measures are in place:
• Kitchen areas are a particular location for fire hazards and shall be monitored to ensure that
electrical and gas fittings are being turned off after use and do not present a fire hazard.
• Clear glass doors shall have the direction of opening e.g. Push/Pull and a warning strip
placed to prevent personnel running into them.
• Training in the use of fire extinguishers shall be given and signs displayed highlighting the
emergency procedures.
• Ensure that personnel are informed not to interfere with fire detection or firefighting
equipment;
• That a ‘NO SMOKING’ and ‘NO COOKING’ policy applies in the bedroom areas;
• Ensure that night security guards regular patrol the camp areas and ensure that fire has not
broken out; security lights are operable and identify any other potential area of risk.
• Liaise with the HSE Department and Administration Manager on all fire prevention matters.

3.5 Subcontractors shall ensure that the following control measures are in place:
• To ensure that the working of this procedure are known and followed by personnel with
specified duties.
• Workshops are maintained in a neat and tidy manner and that waste oil, rags and other
flammable materials are removed at the end of each shift or as necessary.
• Those workshop personnel are instructed on the use of fire extinguishers, raising the alarm
and fire hazards in the work place.
• Battery recharging will be conducted in well ventilated areas, with no smoking signs and fire
extinguishers in place.
• Areas around hot work type activities are kept free of combustibles.
• Welding and burning shall be screened and controlled to prevent fire risk and exposure to
personnel.
• Flammable liquids such as; gasoline, diesel etc. shall not be used for cleaning purpose.
• Provision of adequate storage areas that are located in places where exits, passageways and

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stairways are not adversely affected.


• Particular care to be taken when carrying out hot work operations in locations where
combustibles may be present. This will include precautions such as; inspection of the
surrounding area, removal of any combustible materials, protection by fire blankets and
provision of fire extinguishers.
• Compressed gas cylinders shall be shut off when not in use, stored and used in an upright
position, have their protective caps fitted when moving and transporting them.
• Compressed gas cylinders shall be kept clear of electrical equipment and cabling where they
may become part of an electrical circuit.
• Gas cylinders shall not be taken into confined spaces, and feed hoses and nozzles when
used in confined spaces shall be moved when not in use.
• Oxygen cylinders shall be kept free of oil and grease.
• Fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be clearly distinguishable in good condition and secured
properly.(Wire is not permitted)
• Cylinders shall be fitted with flash back arrestors.
• Fire extinguishers shall be available before hot work commences and persons trained in their
correct use.

3.6 Fire Fighting Supervisor is responsible to:


• Supervise and direct all firefighting brigade staffs and ensures that they carry-out their daily
routine jobs as well as report any emergency matters observed.
• Control the supervision of fire-fighting activities.
• Develop training scenarios and conduct drills to take in to consideration the various
emergencies that may occur either in the site area or camp areas and a minimum.
• Report to HSE manager directly in the events of an emergency on Site.
• Direct a dedicated fire-fighting team to carry out routine maintenance on all the firefighting
equipment.

4.0 Combustion, Fire Classification and Heat Spread


On every construction site, no matter how large or small the site is, there will always be the risk of
fire. By the very nature of the operations carried out – cutting, welding, the use of hazardous
substances – and the amount of combustible material used or stored on site, the recipe for fire is
always present.
As for all potential workplace problems, there is more than one way of tackling the situation:

• By preparing for and reacting to the situation when it occurs;


• By taking steps to prevent it happening in the first place.

Whatever the situation, all the Project management team, supervisors and contractors must make a
suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to health and safety of their employees whilst they are
at work, and of the risks to any person, not in their employ, but who may be affected by their actions.
These risk assessments are to identify any risks that may be inherent within any work process.
The problem of fire is no different from any other construction site problem, except that it has the

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power to destroy the workplace, people’s livelihoods and, in extreme cases, cause people to be hurt
and lives to be lost. To fully realize the effects that a fire can have and the need to reduce the risk of
it, the conditions for fire and its causes must be understood.

4.1 Combustion
Fire is a rapid chemical process in which oxygen combines with another substance and heat, light
and flame (a glowing mass of gas) is given off. The reaction is called combustion.
Before any fire can start, three components must be present; they form a structure known as the Fire
Triangle. If any one of those components is removed then the fire will go out.

a) Fuel
A fuel can be solid, liquid or gas, or some combination of them. In an industrial or commercial
environment, a fuel is likely to include the constructional materials and furnishing fabric of the building
as well as whatever materials are in use. Plastics, wood and composites all provide combustible
fuels.

b) Oxygen
Oxygen is usually supplied from the surrounding air and is the main source of ignition in most fires. A
fire may be enhanced by the presence of compressed air or pure oxygen, which may be released
from a broken supply line or a leaking cylinder. Some materials produce oxygen when they are
heated, e.g. peroxides and nitrates; during a fire they greatly increase the intensity of the fire hazard.

c) Heat or Ignition Source


There are two types of ignition source: naked flames (including sparks); and heated surfaces. Naked
flames feature in many work activities, e.g. space heaters, welding torches, blow-lamps, paint
strippers, ovens, and cigarettes/matches. Sparks can be created by electricity, e.g. by water in

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electrical equipment, overloaded electrical equipment, static electricity, a loose connection in a plug.
Non-electric sparks include those produced by welding, grinding or cutting-off.
Heated surfaces are present in radiant heaters, hot plates, electric bar fires, light bulbs, motors and
pressing irons.

Products of Combustion
Most fires produce heat, light, smoke (carbon and unburned fragments of material) and toxic gases
(e.g. carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide). To support combustion, the ratio of fuel to oxygen has to be
within certain limits and the source of ignition must be at a certain energy level. Smoke and toxic
gases are produced where incomplete combustion is taking place, i.e. where there is not enough
oxygen to react fully with the fuel.

4.2 Extinction

For combustion to occur and continue, the three elements of the fire triangle must be present. The
principle of fire extinction rests on the removal of one or more of those elements, i.e. ignition source,
fuel or oxygen. The methods used are:

• Starvation ( limiting the fuel)


Removal of the fuel or combustible material so that there is nothing left to burn.

• Smothering ( limiting oxygen supply)


Reduction or exclusion of the oxygen, by the smothering of the burning material; Foam, dry powder,
carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or fire blankets are all smothering agents which work by depriving the fire
of oxygen.

• Cooling (limiting ignition or heat)


Removal of the heat by the application of water to cool the burning material

4.3 Fire Classification

All fires can be placed into one of the following five categories:

Class A – Carbonaceous material; such as paper, cloth, wood, rubber.


Class B – Flammable liquid or liquefied solid; such as oil, fat, grease, paint and petrol.
Class C – Flammable gases or liquefied gases; propane, butane, hydrogen or acetylene.
Class D – Combustible metals, such as magnesium, sodium, phosphorus.
Electrical Fires – Any fire involving electrical apparatus or equipment.

Class A – carbonaceous material:


On the majority of building or construction sites, the following carbonaceous items are freely available
sources of fuel:

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• Cardboard, paper, cloth, etc.


• Wood
• Dirty rags, oily rags and clothes
• Packaging materials

If the occurred fire involving carbonaceous material, a hose-reel or a water extinguisher should be
used. The jet of water should be aimed at the base of the fire first, and then moved progressively
over all of the burning area. Always remove the material from the source of heat, if possible.

Class B – flammable liquids or liquefiable solids


Fires involving flammable liquids, such as:
• Petrol or diesel
• Oil
• Paraffin
• Paint
• Resin and adhesive

This type of fire should be dealt with using foam, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers, depending on
whether the fire is contained or flowing.

If the fire is contained, use a foam extinguisher with the jet of foam being directed at the back of the
container. This allows a blanket of foam to build up and spread across the surface of the burning
liquid.

If the fire is flowing, a dry powder extinguisher should be directed at the front edge of the fire, in an
attempt to separate the flames from the fuel.
The aim of using extinguishers in such a way is for the fire to be covered with a blanket of either foam
or dry powder. This will cut off the supply of air, and thus the oxygen, to the fire.

Once the blanket has been laid, do not disturb it in any way until the liquid has cooled. Any
reintroduction of air may cause the fire to re-ignite.

NEVER use water on any fire involving flammable liquid. The water will react violently with the
burning liquid and may well cause an explosion.

Class C – flammable gases or liquefied gases


Extreme caution is necessary when dealing with fires involving liquefied gases as there will always be
the danger of an explosion.

LPG expands at the rate of 274:1 so a leak of just 1 liter of liquid would produce a cloud of gas, if
diluted in air to the right concentration, large enough to fill a room 3 x 2 x 2 meters.
This would cause an explosive atmosphere and a very real danger of explosion.

If a fire occurs, call the fire brigade and attempt to turn the gas off at the cylinder. Turning off a valve

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in a pipeline away from the cylinder leaves the possibility of a further leak while pipeline become
involved in the fire. Never just extinguish the flame as this will allow gas to escape, expand, and build
into a gas cloud.

If it is not possible to turn off the gas at the cylinder valve, cool the cylinder with large quantities of
water, and continue to do so until the fire brigade arrives. Make sure that, whilst cooling the cylinder,
you are standing behind some form of substantial protection, such as a wall, in case the cylinder
should burst.

No attempt should be made to remove or cut off gas supplies if risks of personal injury are involved. If
any cylinder appears to be glowing, immediately evacuate all personnel from the area, and advise
your superiors.

IF IN DOUBT, DON'T...
If you are not sure whether you are able to deal with this kind of situation safely, evacuate the
immediate area and wait for the fire brigade to arrive.

These fires are best dealt with by the use of dry powder, vaporizing liquids (halon), foam or carbon
dioxide (Co2) extinguishers.

Class D – combustible metals


Fires of this type involve magnesium, sodium phosphorus, etc. and are best left to be dealt with by
trained personnel.

NEVER APPLY WATER TO ANY METAL FIRE. This will cause in an explosive reaction.

Specially formulated powders are available for use in controlling fire in metals but, as a last resort, if
no proprietary powder is available, DRY sand or earth may be applied to smother the burning area.
The proprietary powder should be carefully placed and not thrown onto the burning metal.
Throwing the powder will cause the burning material to be spread.

Be sure either to wear darkened safety glasses whilst attempting to cover the fire, or be sure to look
away from the extreme brightness. Failure to take these precautions could lead to damage of the
eyes.

Electrical fires
Fires involving electrical equipment can be dealt with using carbon dioxide (CO2) and dry powder.

Follow these simple rules for safety:


• Switch off the electricity supply, if possible, before commencing any fire fighting;
• Do not approach closer than 1 meter to any fire where the electrical supply has not been
switched off;
• Take care when using extinguishers on electrical fires in confined spaces. The fumes that are
produced can be toxic;

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• Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the best extinguishing medium as it will penetrate well into the
machine or its casing;
• In extinguishing electrical fires, direct the discharge from the extinguisher to one edge of the
fire and, with a sweeping movement, pass to the far edge until the fire has been extinguished.

Do not use water on any fire involving electrical equipment. YOU MAY BE ELECTROCUTED.

Electrical equipment used on building and construction or demolition sites sometimes incorporates
protective devices, designed to reduce the risk of overheating and fire.
Most fires in electrical equipment are due to misuse or neglect, where appliances have not been
properly maintained, or are being used for a purpose, or in a manner, for which they were not
designed.
A fuse larger than the appliance rating will negate the purpose of the fuse and render the appliance
potentially unsafe.
All staff should be properly trained so that they do not misuse equipment, and ensure that damaged
or defective equipment is reported, taken out of use and professionally repaired.

Other type of fire

Cooking ranges
Use foam, dry powder, carbon dioxide (CO2) or a fire blanket. Never move a burning saucepan or
chip pan from a cooker. The contents may splash over you and THEY WILL BURN YOU.

The correct types of fire extinguisher must be provided and kept close at hand, with a careful watch
being maintained for fire breaking out whilst work is in progress.

4.4 Heat Spread

Heat always travels from regions of high temperature to regions of lower temperature, no matter how
small is the difference. Fire can be spread in four ways:

• Conduction
• Convection
• Radiation
• Direct burning

Conduction is where heat is transmitted from one place to another, such as along a metal pipe or
other material, or through an adjacent door, wall, etc. This may well start a fire some distance away
from the original point. Metals are generally good conductors of heat.

Convection occurs only in liquids and gases. When a liquid or a gas is heated, it expands and
therefore becomes less dense. The lighter fluid rises, being displaced by colder and therefore denser
fluid. This in turn becomes heated and so a circulation is set up. Heat energy is carried throughout
the fluid by actual movement of molecules until a state of uniform temperature is reached. In a fire,

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convection can spread the fire to the upper storeys of a building due to hot gases rising up stairways.
Radiation is the transfer of heat from the source of a fire, directly to other materials nearby, which
will cause those materials to be raised to their ignition temperature and burn.

Direct burning is where burning materials reach other combustible materials and ignite them,
thereby adding further fuel to the fire.

Once started, a fire and its consequences can be disastrous. The prevention of a fire is far better
than having to control it.

5.0 Causes of Fire

Fire can start only when a source of ignition comes into contact with some combustible material
(which may be solid, liquid, gas or vapor). If all sources of ignition are brought under strict control, the
danger of fire will be greatly reduced. However, the control of sources of ignition must be coupled
with high standards of housekeeping; poor housekeeping is the greatest single cause of fire in
workplaces. A carelessly discarded cigarette end (an ignition source) thrown into a container of
combustible waste (poor housekeeping) often results in fire. The risk is higher in an area which is
infrequently used (e.g. stores).

5.1 Unattended Fires

No fire should be left unattended during working hours nor left smoldering or burning after work
ceased.

If fires are to be lit, they should be situated well away from any buildings, boundaries, roadways, fuel
stores or any other combustible materials or structures.

Most flammable liquids have vapors which are heavier than air, and these can easily spread over a
wide area completely unnoticed. When a fire is lit, vapors that have spread can ignite with explosive
force and lead to damage or injury some distance from the fire.

5.2 Smoking Restrictions

Carelessly discarded cigarette ends and matches cause many fires on building sites. Smoking should
be prohibited in any high risk area.

Trespassers start many fires on building and construction sites. Sites should, as far as possible, be
secured against intruders. In every case, combustible materials should be cleared on a regular basis
and not left lying around. Safety posters are a very good means of bringing these problems to
everyone’s attention.

With the exception of pre-designated areas where smoking could be allowed, a total ban should be
placed on smoking on site. Such a move would stop the accidental ignition of combustible or

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flammable materials by some carelessly discarded cigarette end. Areas should include carpenters’
shops; refuse disposal areas, storage areas containing combustible materials, flammable liquid
storage areas, and other areas where foam-based, plastic, fiberboard and timber materials are
stored.

Adequate NO SMOKING notices should be clearly displayed in these areas.

Smoking areas should be equipped with adequate fire-fighting equipment. Ashtrays or other
noncombustible containers should be provided to aid safe disposal of discarded smoking materials.

5.3 Flame, Heat and Spark-producing Equipment

Cutting and welding operations are the cause of many fires on building and construction sites.

Precautions must be taken where heat could be conducted onto other combustible materials. This
can often happen where steelwork or pipes pass through walls or floors.

Where this kind of operation is anticipated, it is essential that all combustible materials and liquids are
protected before any work is allowed to start. Special care should be taken when working with cutting
or welding equipment at raised levels. Any equipment or combustible items situated below cutting or
welding operations where there is a danger of sparks or fragments of hot metal dropping, should, if
possible, be removed or covered with fire-resisting material.

When working with welding, flame-cutting or grinding equipment, thorough checks should always be
made to ensure that nothing is left smoldering after the work is finished.

As an added precaution, always check into cavities, around eaves, behind studding and into other
voids after any hot work has been completed.

There may be the need for a hot work permit system to be introduced in some sensitive or potentially
high risk areas of the site (See Permit to Work, TOT-1718-999-9020-0013). It is essential that only
the proper use of equipment by trained and competent personnel is permitted.

5.4 Heating Appliances

The fire hazards from heating appliances arises when they are sited and installed incorrectly,
inadequately maintained or are not suitable for the intended use or location.

Fuel supplies for gas-fired appliances, especially propane or butane, should be kept secured outside
the building and piped in using fixed pipe work. Any flexible pipe-work should be kept as short as
possible, and used only for the final connections.

Oil heaters should never be moved or refilled while they are alight. Fires can occur if the heater is
dropped or knocked over accidentally whilst being moved or when fuel comes into contact with a

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lighted wick during refilling operations.

Combustible material should be kept well away from heaters and stoves. The practice of drying wet
clothing in front of fires should be prohibited. Care must be taken to see that newspapers or clothing
are not allowed to build up around such heaters.

Care must be taken also to ensure heaters are not used near liquid fuel cylinders. Heat applied to the
surface of such cylinders will cause the contents to pressurize and could trigger an explosion.

All heaters and stoves, including cookers and kettles, must be turned off at the end of the working
day. Electrical apparatus should be disconnected from the mains supply.

5.5 Material Storage

Badly stored materials can assist in the spread of a fire, prevent fire fighters from reaching the fire
source, and hinder the operation of sprinkler systems or other equipment.

Storage areas should be:


• Separate from other parts of the premises
• Accessible to fire fighters
• Large enough to allow clear spaces to be maintained around stacks of materials.
• Large enough so that sprinkler systems are not impeded by the close proximity of stored
materials. There should be a space of at least 0.6 meter below sprinkler heads.

Wherever possible, the stockpiling of flammable materials should be avoided, as quantity will
increase the risk of fire.

Waste disposal

All construction sites generate large quantities of rubbish and waste material which could be a fire
risk. Good housekeeping is essential, and rubbish or waste should be cleared from site on a regular
basis.

Skips and other waste disposal containers should not be placed adjacent to means of escape from
buildings or the site, but must be so positioned as to be readily available to vehicles contracted to
clear the accumulations of rubbish and waste material.

A good housekeeping policy should ensure that:


• Premises are kept clear of all kinds of refuse and waste.
• Contaminated rags should be placed in metal containers with fitting lids.
• Cupboards, spaces beneath conveyors, stairs, benches and gratings should be kept free from
rubbish.
• Work clothing should be kept away from sources of heat.

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5.6 Flammable Materials

Flammable materials such as paint, solvents, thinners, compressed gases, present a serious fire risk.
In particular, the handling of small quantities of flammable liquids causes many fires. It is essential
that:
• All flammable liquids are stored in detached, single-storey buildings of noncombustible
construction which are used for no other purpose.
• When in use in the workplace, flammable liquids should be kept to a minimum volume and
contained in appropriate receptacles with secure lids.
• Flammable materials should not be exposed to sources of ignition.

5.7 Machinery

Poorly maintained machines may cause fires, for example by bearings overheating through lack of
lubrication; mechanical overload may cause friction, as may the accumulation of dust.

A planned maintenance program should include the following points:


• Regular inspection of all machinery and equipment
• Checks on, in particular, cleanliness of machinery, proper lubrication of bearings and etc.

5.8 Electricity and Lighting

Inadequate safeguarding of lighting systems, along with inefficient maintenance, presents a


considerable fire risk. Electrical faults (faulty earths, loose connections, short circuits) are the cause
of many industrial fires.
All electrical equipment and systems should be maintained on a regular schedule.

6.0 Emergency Procedure

In the event of a fire occurring, it is essential that the alarm is raised as quickly as possible so that
workers can quickly and safely reach a place of safety. This can only be achieved by considering the
following steps.

6.1 Emergency Procedures

A means of detecting and warning of fire must be provided on all sites. Whistles, klaxons, manually or
electrically operated sounders may be suitable so long as they are clearly audible above background
noise in all areas and can be readily identified as being a fire alarm.

Written emergency procedures must be displayed in prominent locations and all employees trained.
An example of a set of fire instructions would include:
• Instructions for raising the alarm
• Instructions to report to the nearest assembly point

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• Information as to the whereabouts of the assembly point


• An indication of the locations of fire escape routes

6.2 Calling the Fire Brigade

If you discover a fire on site, make sure that everyone is aware of the situation and call the fire
brigade.

IN CASE OF FIRE – NO MATTER HOW SMALL, OR IF A FIRE IS SUSPECTED:


• Raise the alarm
• Call the fire brigade
• Evacuate the building, or the area in which you are working

Anyone can call the fire brigade when the alarm is heard, giving the full postal address of the site and
any prominent nearby landmark. It is better to tell the fire brigade more than once than not at all.

Arrangements must be made for visitors to be logged on and off a site, so that, in the case of any
emergency, they can be located quickly and conducted to a safe place.

6.3 Means of Escape

Adequate means of escape must be provided to enable all employees and visitors to reach a place of
safety if a fire occur.

In case of fire occur it will be obvious to all personnel where the danger lies and where and how they
can go to be safe. As part of emergency planning, dedicated escape routes should be decided on,
clearly signed and adequately lit. All directional signs should be clearly visible and kept unobstructed,
and should conform to the relevant regulations; (See HSE Warning Signs, Information Boards and
Barricades, TOT-1718-999-0017)

Such signs should be positioned at the point of a change of direction, whether laterally or vertically,
and should lead directly to the closest route to either the open air or to a place of safety, away from a
fire.

As part of procuring a satisfactory system of means of escape in buildings and warehouses, it may be
necessary to install a system of emergency lighting.

6.4 Emergency Lighting

The provision of emergency lighting should always be considered when assessing the fire safety
requirements for a construction site. This is particularly important where work is dependent upon
artificial lighting when natural light is not available or practical.

If the lighting circuits should fail, any standby emergency lighting system must clearly illuminate the

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following:
• Exits and directional signs
• Corridors and associated exits
• Changes in levels
• Any projections and protrusions, such as temporary partitioning, trestles, scaffolding, items of
plant and machinery, etc.
• Internal and external staircases, including ladders, particularly if these are essential to
evacuate the site

It may be necessary to amend the location and extent of the emergency lighting system as works
progress.
Emergency lighting, whether by battery or standby generator or a combination of both, should be
tested on a regular basis by a competent person in accordance with BS 5266 Part 1, 1988. Records
of tests of the emergency lighting equipment should be kept and must be available for inspection
when required.

6.5 Fire Emergency Drills

Fire drills on site and in site offices should be held on a regular basis, at not more than six monthly
intervals. They should take the form of an evacuation to ensure that everyone knows how to leave
the building quickly and safely if a fire occur.

The records of emergency drills shall be kept available.

7.0 Fire Fighting Equipment

7.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers

All personnel must be trained in the use of portable fire-fighting equipment.

Adequate numbers of suitable types of portable fire extinguisher must be provided and kept available
throughout the site.
Extinguishers in buildings must be located in conspicuous positions near exits on each floor. They
should be fixed to the wall with their carrying handles approximately 1 meter above the floor level.

Where this is not possible they should be fixed in position at floor level.

In the open they should be situated in red painted boxes raised 500 mm above ground level, with a
sign ‘FIRE POINT’ at a height readily seen above any obstructions.

As work progresses, the requirement and suitability of fire-fighting equipment must be continually
reviewed, and amended as necessary.

To protect distribution panels and items of electrical equipment, diesel equipment; appropriate

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extinguishers must be provided close to the equipment concerned.

On costly items of equipment or plant, the installation of Automatic Fire Detection and extinguishing
systems should be considered if there is a danger from fire.

All fire-fighting equipment must be maintained and inspected regularly, and all such inspections
recorded in the appropriate register.

7.2 Color of Fire Extinguishers

A new British Standard European Norm, BS EN 3 states that the body of all fire extinguishers should
be red in color with a panel, not more than 5% of the surface area of the extinguisher, fixed to the
extinguisher body denoting the extinguishing agent contained.

Whilst this is true for new extinguishers, the standard is not retrospective and there are, and will be
for a very long time, extinguishers which conform to the old standard with the recognized colors of
RED for water, CREAM for foam, etc.

Color coding by medium is intended to provide a means for rapid recognition of the type of
extinguisher, by trained persons, at the time when the extinguisher is needed for use.

Color coding by medium

Extinguishing medium Color

Water Signal red


Foam Pale cream
Carbon dioxide Black
Powder (all types) Blue

7.3 Toxic Vapors from Fire Extinguishers

The discharge of a carbon dioxide (CO2) or vaporizing liquid extinguisher in any small, enclosed or
confined space will reduce the percentage of oxygen in the air. Once an extinguisher has been
discharged, leave the area immediately. When it is safe to do so, thoroughly ventilate the area before
allowing anyone to re-enter. If re-entry is necessary before the gases have cleared, suitable
breathing apparatus should be worn.

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7.4 Use of Fire Extinguishers

• Never use a fire extinguisher as a prank or unless it is really necessary. Do not use
extinguishers as door-stops or move them from their allotted positions.
• Never let the fire gets between you and the door; you may get trapped as the fire develops.
When using an extinguisher to douse a fire, always stay between the fire and the way out. By
doing this you will be able to escape if anything goes wrong.
• Never use an extinguisher unless you have been properly trained and you think you can
handle the fire. If it is too big, or you are unsure of what to do, GET OUT and leave it to the
professionals.

7.5 Maintenance of Fire-Fighting Equipment

Fire extinguishers, hydrants and other fire protection equipment must be maintained and inspected
on a regular basis.

In particular; weekly and monthly checks should be carried out to ensure the following:
• All fire hydrants are clear of any obstruction and clearly marked.
• Suitable fire extinguishers are in place adjacent to the fire risks.
• Fire extinguishers are fully charged, undamaged, no signs of visible corrosion, clean from dirt
and hoses in good condition.

Maintenance should be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.


The record of inspection and maintenance shall be kept available.

7.6 Hose-Reels

Hose-reels linked into a constant water supply work either:


a) By opening a valve under the hose-reel drum before unrolling the hose and then turning
on the nozzle, or
b) Automatically turning on the supply as the hose-reel is unwound.

DO NOT USE A HOSE-REEL:


• On live electrical apparatus
• On any fire involving fat, oil, paint, etc.
• On any metal fire.

7.7 Fire Blankets

These are usually sufficient to deal with any small contained fire involving fat or oil.

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To extinguish such fires, always turn off the gas or electricity supply.

Pull the blanket from its container and wrap the corners of the blanket around your hands, making
sure that your hands and forearms are completely covered. Hold the blanket at chest level and gently
place it over the burning container to exclude the air from the fire. DO NOT THROW the blanket as
you may miss the burning container or cause it to spill. Leave the blanket in place until the container
has cooled down. Do not lift one corner to check if the fire is out as this may allow enough air in to
reignite the fire.

8.0 Training

There is both a legal requirement and a moral duty placed upon the management team and
contractors to ensure that personnel are conversant with fire procedures, and trained in the use of
fire-fighting equipment.

Training in the choice of, and correct way to use, the proper extinguisher is essential and should be
undertaken by all personnel.

It is very important that the right type of extinguisher is used on certain types of fire.
Details of which one to use on what are contained in Appendix A.

Attention should be given to the physical strength of persons who may have to use extinguishers.
Some extinguishers weigh up to 20 kg and may be positioned as high as 1 meter above the floor.

9.0 Appendix

• Appendix I – Fire Procedure


• Appendix II - Types of Portable Fire Extinguisher and What to Use Them On

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Appendix I – Fire Procedure

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Appendix II - Types of Portable Fire Extinguisher and What to Use Them On

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