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Chapter 6: Quality Control and Six Sigma

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is NOT associated with descriptive statistics?


a) mean
b) standard deviation
c) range
d) proportion
e) measure of the distribution of data

Ans: d
Feedback: What is Statistical Process Control
Difficulty: moderate

2. What technique determines whether a batch of goods should be accepted or rejected?


a) Statistical process control
b) Acceptance sampling
c) Fishbone diagramming
d) Scatter plotting
e) Experimental design

Ans: b
Section Ref: What Is Statistical Quality Control?
Level: easy

3. What technique answers the question of whether the process is functioning properly or
not?
a) Fishbone diagramming
b) Acceptance sampling
c) Statistical process control
d) Scatter plotting
e) Experimental design

Ans: c
Section Ref: What Is Statistical Quality Control?
Level: easy

4. Statistical process control tools are used most frequently because


a) they are mathematically based
b) they are helpful in measuring and evaluating the quality of products
c) they are helpful in measuring and evaluating the customers’ needs
d) they are qualitative evaluation techniques
e) they provide a definitive ROI calculation

Ans: b
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control
Level: Moderate

5. Common causes of variation are also known as __________________________.


a) frequent
b) usual
c) inexpensive
d) ordinary
e) random

Ans: e
Section Ref: Sources of Variation: Common and Assignable Causes
Level: moderate

6. The range is an example of what?


a) Traditional statistical tools
b) Fishbone diagramming
c) Acceptance sampling
d) Experimental design
e) Statistical process control

Ans: a
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: easy

7. Variation in the production process leads to:


a) quality defects
b) process improvement opportunities
c) quality improvements
d) product consistency
e) service improvements

Ans: a
Feedback: What is Statistical Quality Control?
Difficulty: moderate

8. The standard deviation is an example of what?


a) Traditional statistical tools
b) Fishbone diagramming
c) Acceptance sampling
d) Experimental design
e) Statistical process control

Ans: a
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: easy

9. A process chart is a
a) graph that shows how the population was evaluated
b) graph of the population failures
c) graph that shows whether a sample of data falls within assignable causes
d) graph that show whether a sample falls within the common or normal range
e) table showing final inspection results

Ans: d
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

10. An x-bar chart is an example of what?


a) Traditional statistical tools
b) Fishbone diagramming
c) Acceptance sampling
d) Experimental design
e) Statistical process control

Ans: e
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: easy

11. For the standard normal distribution, how much confidence is provided within 2 standard
deviations above and below the mean?
a) 97.22%
b) 95.44%
c) 99.74%
d) 99.87%
e) 90.00%

Ans: b
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: hard
12. The A2 factor includes how many standard deviations of ranges?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 6

Ans: c
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

13. A p-chart is an example of what?


a) Traditional statistical tools
b) Fishbone diagramming
c) Acceptance sampling
d) Experimental design
e) Statistical process control

Ans: e
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy

14. P-charts are used to measure:


a) continuous variation
b) intermittent random variation
c) proportion of items in a sample that are defective
d) the count of defective parts
e) proportion of items in a sample that are good

Ans: c
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy

15. A c-chart is an example of what?


a) Traditional statistical tools
b) Fishbone diagramming
c) Acceptance sampling
d) Experimental design
e) Statistical process control

Ans: e
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy
16. An OC curve is an example of what?
a) Traditional statistical tools
b) Fishbone diagramming
c) Acceptance sampling
d) Experimental design
e) Statistical process control

Ans: c
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Level: easy

17. Causes of variation that can be identified and eliminated are called what?
a) Random
b) Assignable
c) Identifiable
d) Stochastic
e) Common

Ans: b
Section Ref: Sources of Variation: Common and Assignable Causes
Level: easy

18. All processes will have what type of variation?


a) Random
b) Assignable
c) Identifiable
d) Stochastic
e) Common

Ans: a
Section Ref: Sources of Variation: Common and Assignable Causes
Level: easy

19. What measures the central tendency of a set of data?


a) Coefficient of variation
b) Variance
c) Standard deviation
d) Mean
e) Range

Ans: d
Section Ref: Sources of Variation: Common and Assignable Causes
Level: easy
20. What measures the difference between the largest and smallest observations in a set
of data?
a) Range
b) Coefficient of variation
c) Coefficient of kurtosis
d) Coefficient of skewness
e) Standard deviation

Ans: a
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: easy

21. What measures symmetry of a distribution?


a) Range
b) Skewness
c) Standard deviation
d) Mean
e) Variance

Ans: b
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: moderate

22. Which of the following would imply that data observations are closely clustered
around the mean?
a) Small range and small standard deviation
b) Small range and large standard deviation
c) Large range and small standard deviation
d) Large range and large standard deviation
e) Neither range nor standard deviation has anything to do with ―clustering.‖

Ans: a
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: easy

23. What is a distribution called when the same number of observations are below the
mean as are above the mean?
b) Proportional
b) Equalized
c) Wholly Uniform
d) Balanced
e) Symmetric
Ans: e
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

24. What are the four most common control charts?


a) x-bar, R, p, c
b) x-bar, R, p, OC
c) x-bar, R, c, OC
d) x-bar, p, c, OC
e) R, p, c, OC

Ans: a
Section Ref: Control Charts For Variables
Level: easy

25. On a control chart, what separates common from assignable causes of variation?
a) x-bar lines
b) Control limits
c) Specification limits
d) Production limits
e) Mean divided by standard deviation

Ans: b
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

26. The center line of a control chart represents what?


a) Range
b) Standard deviation
c) Mean
d) Mean divided by standard deviation
e) Skewness

Ans: c
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: easy

27. What is the first step that should be taken if an observation falls below the lower
control limit on a control chart?
a) Recalibrate the machine
b) Perform a new process capability study
c) Try a larger standard deviation value
d) Search for assignable causes
e) Nothing—a low value is a ―good‖ thing

Ans: d
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: easy

28. Upper and lower control limits are usually set at how many standard deviations
from the mean?
a) 0.5
b) 1.0
c) 2.0
d) 3.0
e) 6.0

Ans: d
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

29. Assuming that data exhibit a normal distribution, control limits set at 3 standard
deviations from the mean capture how much common variation?
a) 50.00%
b) 80.00%
c) 95.44%
d) 99.74%
e) 99.99%

Ans: d
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

30. What is the probability of a Type I error for a control chart with limits set at 3
standard deviations from the mean?
a) 0.00%
b) 0.26%
c) 4.56%
d) 20.00%
e) 50.00%

Ans: b
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate
31. What is the term for the probability that a value falling outside the control limits is
still due to normal variation?
a) Type I error
b) Type II error
c) Normalization anomaly
d) Beta risk
e) Standard deviation irregularity

Ans: a
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

32. The different characteristics that can be measured by control charts can be divided
into what two groups?
a) Parameters and attributes
b) Variables and attributes
c) Variables and constraints
d) Variables and parameters
e) Attributes and constraints

Ans: b
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: easy

33. What is a control chart that monitors changes in the mean value of a process?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: a
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: easy

34. What is a control chart that monitors changes in the dispersion or variability of a
process?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: b
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: easy

35. What is a control chart that monitors the proportion of defects in a sample?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: c
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy

36. For which of the following would a control chart for attributes not be appropriate?
a) Number of nonfunctioning light bulbs
b) Proportion of broken eggs in a carton
c) Number of rotten apples
d) Number of complaints issued
e) Length of metal rods

Ans: e
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

37. What are the two types of control charts for attributes?
a) p and c
b) x-bar and p
c) x-bar and R
d) R and c
e) p and R

Ans: a
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy

38. What are the two types of control charts for variables?
a) p and c
b) x-bar and p
c) x-bar and R
d) R and c
e) p and R

Ans: c
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: easy

39. Consider a p-chart measuring the percentage of defective light bulbs. If the LCL is
.04 and a sample has 1% defects, what is the implication?
a) The process is in a state of control.
b) The process is out of control even though the variation is ―good.‖
c) The value of sigma must be increased.
d) The process has too many errors.
e) A calculation error must have occurred.

Ans: b
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

40. For a p-chart or c-chart, what is the implication of a negative value for the LCL?
a) A calculation error must have occurred.
b) The value of sigma must be reduced.
c) The process has too many errors.
d) The process is in a state of control.
e) The LCL can effectively be rounded up to 0.

Ans: e
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

41. What are preset ranges of acceptable quality characteristics?


b) Control limits.
b) Product specifications.
c) Six-sigma limits.
d) AQC limits.
e) R-chart limits.

Ans: b
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: easy

42. Product tolerances are often called


a) SPC
b) Product drawings
c) Product descriptions
d) Process capability
e) Product specifications
Ans: e
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: easy

43. What process width is typically used when computing the process capability index
Cp?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 6

Ans: e
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: easy

44. Setting up control charts to monitor whether a process is in control


a) guarantees process capability
b) guarantees process specifications
c) does not guarantee process capability
d) does not guarantee product specification
e) guarantees meeting client needs

Ans: c
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: easy

45. What is the formula for the process capability index Cp?
a) process width / specification width
b) specification width process width
c) specification width / Type I error
d) specification width / process width
e) specification width / 99.74%

Ans: d (CP = (USL – LSL)/6σ)


Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: easy

46. What process capability index (Cp) value implies that the process ―exceeds minimal
capability?‖
a) 0
b) < 1
c) = 1
d) > 1
e) 6

Ans: d
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: moderate

47. A process capability index (Cp) value of 1 means that what percent of products
produced will fall within the specification limits?
a) 0.26%
b) 90.00%
c) 95.44%
d) 99.74%
e) 100.00%

Ans: d
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: moderate

48. According to the textbook, the way to reduce the ppm defective is to
a) change product specifications
b) increase process capability
c) increase the number of inspection points.
d) employ more inspectors
e) increase process throughput

Ans: b
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: moderate

49. What is the relationship between Cp and Cpk?


a) Cp 2 Cpk
b) Cp Cpk
c) Cp Cpk
d) Cp 2Cpk
e) Cp Cpk 3

Ans: c
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: hard

50. Which company is known for coining the term ―six-sigma?‖


a) Ford Motor Company
b) Proctor and Gamble
c) IBM
d) Motorola Corporation
e) Hewlett-Packard

Ans: d
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

51. Six-sigma quality implies how many average defects per million?
a) 3.4
b) 6
c) 2600
d) 3
e) 6

Ans: a
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

52. What are the two aspects to implementing the six-sigma concept?
a) numerically controlled machines and inventory management
b) numerically controlled machines and people involvement
c) numerically controlled machines and technical tools
d) technical tools and people involvement
e) inventory management and technical tools

Ans: d
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: hard

53. In six-sigma programs, individuals who have extensive training in the use of technical tools
and are responsible for carrying out the implementation of six sigma are
____________________.
a) black belts
b) green belts
c) blue belts
d) red belts
e) white belts

Ans: a
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate
54. In six-sigma programs, individuals are given ____________________ titles that reflect their
skills in the six-sigma process.
a) Olympic medal
b) academic
c) martial arts
d) medieval jousting
e) boxing

Ans: c
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

55. The Six Sigma approach is organized around a_____ plan known as ______.
a) four step, PDAC
b) four step, DMAC
c) five step PDACR
d) five step DMAIC
e) five step, DMCRA

Ans: d
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

56. The person that comes from the top ranks of the organization and is responsible for providing
direction and overseeing all aspects of a six-sigma implementation process is called a
________________________.
a) general
b) admiral
c) director
d) producer
e) champion

Ans: e
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

57. When should 100% inspection be used?


a) Whenever attributes are being measured
b) When the expected cost of a defective item exceeds the cost of inspecting a unit
c) With destructive testing
d) When the cost of inspecting a unit exceeds the expected cost of a defective item
e) 100% inspection should never be used
Ans: b
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Level: moderate

58. What is a graph that shows the probability or chance of accepting a lot given various
proportions of defects in the lot?
a) S curve
b) Z-chart
c) OC curve
d) p-chart
e) R-chart

Ans: c
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Level: easy

59. Single sampling plan is when


a) a non-random sample is drawn from every lot.
b) a random sample is drawn from every lot.
c) a second lot is sampled due to the first sample inconclusive results.
d) only one time is tested.
e) a sample plan used once and discarded.

Ans: b
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Level: easy

60. According to the text, generally consumers are willing to accept what percent of
defects?
a) 1-2%
b) 2-3%
c) 3-4%
d) 4-5%
e) 5-6%

Ans: a
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Level: easy

61. Which of the following is the least important point to perform inspection?
a) Incoming materials
b) Prior to costly processing
c) Just after costly processing
d) Prior to bottleneck (limited machine capacity) processing
e) After the product is finished

Ans: c
Section Ref: Implications for Managers
Level: hard

62. What is the only service company to have won the Malcolm Baldrige National
Quality Award twice?
a) Marriott
b) Nordstrom Department Stores
c) Wal-Mart
d) Ritz-Carlton
e) Northwest Airlines

Ans: d
Section Ref: Statistical Quality Control In Services
Level: moderate

63. Suppose that you want to measure the percentage of candles that are cut longer than 9
inches. Which control chart would be appropriate?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: c
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: hard

64. What is the upper control limit for a c-chart if the total defects found over 20 samples
equals 150?
a) 7.5
b) 2.739
c) 15.72
d) 20
e) 30

Ans: c (UCL = Ċ + Z√Ċ = 150/20 + 3 * √(150/20) = 15.72)


Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate
65. Suppose that Matt wants to use a process control chart to monitor the number of
different types of mistakes that he makes when giving motivational speeches to student
groups. Which control chart would be most appropriate?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: d
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

66. Suppose that you have calculated the control limits for a p-chart to be the following:
LCL = 0.02 and UCL = 0.08.
Today you took 10 samples of 20 units each. The first nine samples each had one defect.
The last sample had zero defects. What can you conclude?
a) the process is out of control
b) the process is in a state of control
c) the last sample should be ignored because it was ―too good‖
d) you calculated the limits incorrectly because the LCL must be either negative or 0
e) the sample size must be increased

Ans: a
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: hard

67. Suppose that you want to monitor the variability in ounces of a process that fills beer
cans. Which control chart would be appropriate?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: b
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

68. What is the lower control limit for a c-chart if the average number of defects found
over 320 samples is equal to 16?
a) 6.584
b) 4
c) 20
d) 0
e) 12

Ans: b (LCL = Ċ - Z√Ċ = 16 + 3 * √(16) = 4)


Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

69. Each day for two workweeks (10 days total), George weighs 4 bags from that day’s
production. If the average of the means is 14 oz. and the average range is 0.4 oz., what is
the lower control limit for an x-bar chart for this process?
a) 13.7084 oz.
b) 13.8768 oz.
c) 14.2916 oz.
d) 12.8000 oz.
e) 13.5908 oz.

Ans: a (LCL = x-bar – A2*R-bar = 14 - .73*.4 = 13.708)


Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

70. If the upper control limit for a c-chart is 28 and the lower control limit is 4, what is
the average number of defects per sample?
a) 16
b) 12
c) 5.29
d) 7.29
e) 4

Ans: a (Ċ= (UCL-LCL)/2 + LCL = (28-4)/2 + 4 = 16)


Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

71. Suppose that you want to monitor the average ounces of a process that fills beer cans.
Which control chart would be appropriate?
a) x-bar chart
b) R-chart
c) p-chart
d) c-chart
e) OC chart

Ans: a
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate
72. What is the upper control limit for a c-chart if the total defects found over 200
samples equals 32?
a) 1.36
b) 13.75
c) 0.56
d) 25.00
e) 48.97

Ans: a (UCL = Ċ + Z√Ċ = 32/200 + 3 * √(32/200) = 1.36)


Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

73. Ritz-Carlton employees are empowered to spend up to how much money on the spot
to correct any customer complaint?
a) $25
b) $50
c) $100
d) $1000
e) $2000

Ans: e
Section Ref: Statistical Quality Control In Services
Level: hard

74. What program at Intel enforces the policy to make chips in the same way at all
facilities?
a) ―make-same‖
b) ―copy-exactly‖
c) ―duplicate-same‖
d) ―duplicate-exactly‖
e) ―one-size-fits-all‖

Ans: b
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control
Level: hard

True/False

1 Descriptive statistics are used to describe quality characteristics and relationships.

Ans: True
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control
Level: moderate
2. Statistical quality control is a subset of statistical process control.

Ans: False
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control
Level: moderate

3. Acceptance sampling occurs after the product has been produced.

Ans: True
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control
Level: moderate

4. An important task in quality control is to find out the range of natural random variation
in a process.

Ans: True
Section Ref. Sources of Variation: Common and Assignable Causes
Level: moderate

5. The standard deviation measures the difference between the largest and smallest
observations in a set of data.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: easy

6. The range of a data set is always non-negative.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: moderate

7. A small range and large standard deviation imply that data observations are closely
clustered around the mean.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: easy
8. A skewed distribution implies that assignable causes of variation may be present.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Descriptive Statistics
Level: moderate

9. A process that is in control has no variation.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

10. A process can be considered in a state of control even if one observation is 1.75
standard deviations above the mean.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

11. Upper and lower control limits are usually set at 6 standard deviations from the
mean.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

12. Increasing the number of standard deviations on which control chart limits are based
will decrease the Type I error.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

13. A variable is a product characteristic that has a discrete value and can be counted.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: easy
14. A control chart y-axis represents the quality characteristic that is being monitored.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

15. The weight of a bag of sugar is an example of a variable.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: easy

16. The A2 factor includes two standard deviations of ranges.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

17. Given a sample size of 2, the lower limit for the R-chart is 0.

Ans: True
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: hard

18. A p-chart monitors the number of defects per unit.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy

19. Suppose that you have created control charts to measure the length of candles. The
process is in a state of control if either the x-bar chart is in control or the R-chart is in
control.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate
20. A p-chart is used when we can compute only the number of defects but not the total
sample size.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: easy

21. Product specifications are preset, whereas control limits are computed after observing
data.
Ans: True
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

22. Another way to construct the control limits for variables is to use the standard
deviation as an estimate of variability of the process.

Ans: False
Section Ref. Control Charts for Variables.
Level: Hard

23. In six-sigma programs, individuals are given academic titles that reflect their skills in the six-
sigma process.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

24. The person that comes from the top ranks of the organization and is responsible for providing
direction and overseeing all aspects of a six-sigma implementation process is called a general.

Ans: False
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: moderate

Essay

1. What are the three broad categories of statistical quality control?


Ans: traditional statistical tools, acceptance sampling, statistical process control
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control?
Level: easy

2. Define acceptance sampling.

Ans: a technique that determines whether a batch of goods should be accepted or rejected
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control?
Level: moderate

3. Define statistical process control.

Ans: a technique that answers the question of whether the process is functioning properly
or not
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control?
Level: moderate

4. Define control limits.

Ans: On a control chart, they separate common from assignable causes of variation.
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

5. Define attribute (as a product characteristic).

Ans: a product characteristic that has a discrete value and can be counted
Section Ref: Statistical Process Control Methods
Level: moderate

6. What is an R-chart?

Ans: a control chart that monitors changes in the dispersion or variability of a process
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

7. What is a p-chart?

Ans: a control chart that monitors the proportion of defects in a sample


Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

8. What is a c-chart?

Ans: a control chart that monitors the number of defects per unit
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

9. Describe the two aspects to implementing the six-sigma concept.

Ans: The first is the use of technical tools to identify and eliminate causes of quality
problems. These tools include statistical quality control, cause-and-effect diagrams, flow
charts, and Pareto analysis. In six-sigma programs the use of these tools is integrated
throughout the entire organizational system. The second aspect is people involvement. In
six-sigma all employees have the training to use technical tools and are responsible for
rooting out quality problems. Employees are given martial arts titles that reflect their skills
in the six-sigma process.
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: hard

10. Describe the difference between black belts and green belts in a six-sigma implementation.

Ans: Black belts are individuals who have extensive training in the use of technical tools and
are responsible for carrying out the implementation of six sigma. They are experienced
individuals that oversee the measuring, analyzing, process controlling, and improving. They
achieve this by acting as coaches, team leaders, and facilitators of the process of continuous
improvement. Green belts, on the other hand, are individuals who have sufficient training in
technical tools to serve on teams or on small individual projects.
Section Ref: Six Sigma Quality
Level: hard

11. Describe why service organizations have tended to lag manufacturing organization in
the application of SQC.

Ans: The primary reason is that statistical quality control requires measurement, and it is
difficult to measure the quality of a service. Another issue that complicates quality
control in service organizations is that the service is often consumed during the
production process. The customer is often present during service delivery and there is
little time to improve quality.
Section Ref: Statistical Quality Control In Services
Difficulty: moderate
12. Describe how finance is associated with SQC.

Ans: Finance is an integral part of the statistical quality control process because it is
responsible for placing financial values on SQC efforts.
Section Ref: Statistical Quality Control (SQC) Across the Organization
Level: Hard

Problems

1. Mrs. Crabapple has a class with three students, and she has had four quizzes so far this
semester. She has created control charts to determine if the variation in students’ scores
from quiz to quiz is exhibiting only natural variation. Each of the quiz scores is shown

The upper and lower control limits for the R chart are 93.95 and 0, respectively.

Quiz Bart Lisa Nelson


1 75 100 50
2 62 82 72
3 90 90 90
4 60 86 10

Is the process in a state of control?

Ans: Yes (X-Bar = ∑scores/n Bart = (75+62+90+60)/4 = 71.75; Lisa =


(100+82+90+86)/4 = 89.5; Nelson = (50+72+90+10)/4= 55.5 all means fall within X-bar
chart ranges: R-bar = ∑Upper – lower/N; Bart = 90 – 60 = 30; Lisa = 100 – 82 = 18;
Nelson = 90-10 = 80; all individual ranges fall within the R-bar limits)
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

2. Twenty samples of n = 200 were taken by an operator at a workstation in a production


process. The number of defective items in each sample was recorded as follows.

Number Number
Sample of Defects Sample of Defects
1 12 11 16
2 18 12 15
3 10 13 13
4 15 14 16
5 16 15 18
6 19 16 17
7 17 17 18
8 12 18 20
9 11 19 21
10 14 20 22

Management wants to develop a p-chart using 3-sigma limits. What are the control
limits?

Ans: UCL = 0.137,


(p-bar = ∑#defects/∑N =
12+18+10+15+16+19+17+12+11+14+16+15+13+16+18+1+18+20+21+22)/(20*200) =
.08;
σp=√[p-bar*(1-p-bar)]/n = √[.08*(1-.08)]/200 = .019
UCL = p-bar + Z σp = .08 + 3 * .019 =0.137
LCL = 0.023, p-bar - Z σp = .08 - 3 * .019 = 0.0225)
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: hard

3. Cans of soup are supposed to weigh exactly 16 oz. Inspectors want to develop process
control charts. They take eight samples of five boxes and weigh them. They obtain the
following data:

Sample Mean Range


1 15.2 1.8
2 14.6 0.7
3 16.5 0.5
4 18.1 0.4
5 13.2 0.2
6 16.0 0.4
7 15.9 0.5
8 14.8 0.9

(a) What is the upper control limit for the x-bar chart?
(b) What is the lower control limit for the x-bar chart?
(c) What is the upper control limit for the R chart?
(d) What is the lower control limit for the R chart?
(e) Is the process in a state of control?

Ans: (a) 15.93, (x-double bar = ∑x-bar/N =


(15.2+14.6+16.5+18.1+13.2+16.0+15.9+14.8)/8 = 15.5375; R-bar = ∑R/N =
(1.8+0.7+0.5+0.4+0.2+0.4+0.5+0.9)/8 = 0.675;
UCL = x-double bar + A2*R-bar = 15.5375 + .58*0.675 = 15.929)
(b) 15.15, (LCL = x-double bar - A2*R-bar = 15.5375 + .58*.0675 = 15.146)
(c) 1.42, (UCL = D4*R-bar = 2.11 * 0.675 = 1.424)
(d) 0.00, (LCL = D3*R-bar = 0 * 0.675 = 0)
(e) No
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: hard
4. Inspectors want to develop process control charts to measure the weight of crates of
wood. Data (in pounds) from three samples are:

Sample Crate 1 Crate 2 Crate 3 Crate 4


1 18 38 22 26
2 26 30 28 20
3 26 26 26 26

(a) What is the upper control limit for the R chart?


(b) What is the lower control limit for the R chart?
(c) What is the upper control limit for the x-bar chart?
(d) What is the lower control limit for the x-bar chart?
(e) Is the process in a state of control? If not, why not?

Ans: (a) 20.56, R-bar = ∑R/N = (8 + 12 + 6 + 6)/4 = 8; UCL = D4*R-bar = 2.57 * 8 =


20.56)
(b) 0.0, (LCL = D3*R-bar = 0 * 8 = 0)
(c) 34.2, (x-double bar = ∑x-bar/N = (23.3+31.3+25.3+24)/4 = 26;
UCL = x-double bar + A2*R-bar = 26 + 1.02 * 8 = 34.16
(d) 17.8, (LCL = x-double bar - A2*R-bar = 26 – 1.02 * 8 = 17.84
(e) Yes
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: hard

5. Eight samples of n = 50 were taken by an operator at a workstation in a production


process. The number of defective items in each sample was recorded as follows.

Number
of
Sample Defects
1 10
2 0
3 12
4 8
5 10
6 16
7 14
8 10

(a) Management wants to develop a p-chart. What are the control limits?
(b) Is the process in a state of control?

Ans: (a) LCL = 0.0302, (p-bar = ∑total defects/ ∑total observations =


(10+0+12+8+10+16+14+10)/(8*50) = .2; σp = √[p-bar*(1-p-bar)]/n = √[.2*(1-.2)]/50 =
.0566;
LCL = p-bar -Z * σp = 0.2 - 3*0.0566 = .0302)
UCL = 0.3698, (UCL = p-bar +Z * σp = 0.2 + 3*0.0566 = .0.3698)
(b) No (Sample 2)
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: hard

6. Suppose a process has been monitored daily for the last ten days and the number of
machine failures each day was noted. The results follow:

Day Number: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of Failures: 8 9 6 10 12 4 9 11 9 12

Compute control limits for a c-chart that monitors the average number of machine
failures per day. Is the process in a state of control?

Ans: UCL = 18, (Ċ= ∑failures/#observations = (8+9+6+10+12+4+9+11+9+12)/10 = 9;


UCL = Ċ + Z√Ċ = 9 + 3* √9 = 18)
LCL = 0, (LCL = Ċ - Z√Ċ = 9 - 3* √9 = 0)
Yes, the process is in control
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: moderate

7. If the average range is 4.0 inches and the sample size is 18, compute the upper and
lower limits for an R chart.

Ans: UCL = 6.44, (UCL = D4 * R-bar = 1.61 * 4 = 6.44)


LCL = 1.56(LCL = D3 * R-bar = 0.39 * 4 = 1.56)
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Level: moderate

8. Cholesterol Palace is a fast-food restaurant. Management was concerned with errors in


filling orders at its drive-up window. It hired several undercover quality inspectors to
randomly place 100 orders while the process seemed to be in control. The completed
orders were then checked for accuracy. The following table shows the results of the
survey:

Defect Frequency
Incomplete, shorted order 12
Unordered items dispensed 2
Wrong product dispensed 14
Wrong toppings 14
Wrong size drink 2
Drink lid not sealed 17
No drinking straw with soft drink order 0
No napkins 18
Far too many condiment packets 65
No salt with sandwich or fries order 10
Wrong change 3
Other 12
(a) Use these data to estimate the average number of defects per order and determine the
three-sigma control limits for a c-chart.
(b) A quality inspector just used the drive-up window and now checks her order. Her
cheeseburger has mustard on it although she ordered it without ketchup or mustard.
Three handfuls of ketchup and mustard packets are in the sack, but no napkins. And hot
coffee has spilled because the lid wasn’t properly sealed. Is the drive-up process in
control?

Ans: (a) average defects per order = 1.69, (Ċ= ∑failures/#observations =


(12+2+14+14+2+17+0+18+65+10+3+12)/100 = 1.69)
UCL = 5.59, (UCL = Ċ + Z√Ċ = 1.69 + 3* √1.69 = 5.59)
LCL = 2.21 (or 0), (LCL = Ċ - Z√Ċ = 1.69 - 3* √1.69 = -2.21)
(b) Yes, the process is in control, despite producing an order with four glaring
errors
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Level: hard

9. Johnson Enterprises sells no-spill syrup in bottles. Management is evaluating four


different machines with standard deviations of .006, .01, .022, and .04 ounces for
Machines A, B, C, and D, respectively. The specification limits 11.95 and 12.05 ounces.
Which machines should receive more detailed evaluation, i.e. which are statistically
―capable?‖

Ans: A and B ( CP = (USL – LSL)/6σ; Machine A = (12.05 - 11.95)/6*0.006 = 2.78;


Machine B =(12.05 - 11.95)/6*0.01 = 1.67; Machine C = (12.05 - 11.95)/6*0.022 =
0.7575; Machine D = (12.05 - 11.95)/6*0.04 = 0.417)
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: moderate

10. Julia has been assigned to develop a new product design specifications.
Manufacturing has stated that the system must have a capability index of 1.2 when the
product standard deviation is 1.3. What is the specification range limits?

Ans: 9.36 CP = (USL – LSL)/6σ; (USL-LSL) = CP * 6σ = 1.2*6*1.3 = 9.36Section Ref:


Process Capability
Level: easy

11. Compute the Cpk measure of process capability for the following machine and
interpret the findings. What value would you have obtained with the Cp measure?

Upper spec limit = 100 feet


Lower spec limit = 99.5 feet
Process = 99.8 feet
Process = .08 feet
Ans: Cpk = 0 .83 so the process is not capable, (CPK = min [(USL – μ)/3σ; (μ - LSL)/3σ];
[(100-99.8)/3*.08 = 0.833; (99.8 – 99.5)/3*.08= 1.25)
Cp = 1.04, implying a capable process (CP = (USL – LSL)/6σ = (100 – 99.5)/(6*.08)
= 1.04)
Section Ref: Process Capability
Level: moderate

12. Joel’s fresh flower processing plant processes 2000 flowers in a lot. For quality
control they use a sample size of 10 flowers. Joel has established a probability of
accepting a given lot as 99.74% with a proportion of defective items, in a lot, of .05.
What is the AOQ?

Ans: 4.96% AOQ = (Pac)p[(N-n)/N] = .9974*.05*[(2000-10)/2000] = .0496


Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Level: moderate

Short Answer

1. What is the formula for the sample standard deviation? ________________________

N
(x j x )2
j 1
Ans: x
N
Section Ref: What is Statistical Quality Control?
Difficulty: moderate

2. What is the formula for the sample standard deviation of a variable measured as a
fraction or probability? ________________________

p(1 p)
Ans: p
n
Section Ref: Control Charts for Attributes
Difficulty: hard

3. What is the formula for an x-bar chart's control limits? ________________________

x x
Ans: One of : UCL x x 3 LCL x x 3 LCLx x A2 R UCLx x A2 R
n n
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Difficulty: hard

4. What is the formula for an x-bar chart's center line? ________________________

j 1Xj
Ans: x
N
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Difficulty: moderate

5. What is the formula for an R chart's center line? ________________________

n
Ans: R R/N
1
Section Ref: Control Charts for Variables
Difficulty: hard

6. What is the formula for the basic capability index? ________________________

Ans: CP = Specification width/process width = )USL-LSL)/6σ


Section Ref: Process Capability
Difficulty: moderate

7. Six sigma programs strive to set control limits at ________________________

Ans: the centerline plus or minus 6 .


Section Ref: Process Capability
Difficulty: easy

8. Consumers willingly accept defects if ________________________

Ans: they are not more than the acceptable quality level.
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Difficulty: moderate
9. The probability of shipping a lot or batch of products whose proportion of defective
items is greater than LTPD is called consumer's risk because
________________________

Ans: they pay the cost of discovering defects and seeking repairs or replacements.
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Difficulty: hard

10. The probability of rejecting a lot or batch of products whose proportion of defective
items is not greater than AQL is called producer's risk because
________________________

Ans: They discard products that consumers would accept, thereby wasting the resources
that went into the batch or lot.
Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Difficulty: hard

11. The computed AOQ provides a sense of the _____ _____ ____ of the product

Ans: overall outgoing quality


Section Ref: Acceptance Sampling
Difficulty: moderate

12. Two areas of operations management that are particularly affected by the decision to
increase the level of quality and reduce the number of product defects are ____ and ___
___

Answer: product, process design


Section Ref; Statistical Quality Control (SQC) Within OM: How it All Fits Together.
Difficulty: hard