Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

Chapter # 1

FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPPLY
CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Introduction to Supply Chain Management

9/27/2018 1
Learning Objectives
 What is Supply Chain?

 Why Supply Chain Is Important?

 Supply chain entities, structure & flow

 Bullwhip Effect

 SCOR® model & its use

 Vertical versus horizontal integration

 Stages of supply chain management evolution

9/27/2018 2
What Is Supply Chain?

“Global network used to deliver products & services from raw materials
to end customers through an engineered flow of information, physical
distribution, and cash.”
APICS – 13th Edition

“Managing supply and demand, sourcing raw materials and parts,


manufacturing and assembly, warehousing and inventory tracking, order entry
and order management, distribution across all channels, and delivery to the
customer”
The Supply Chain Council

9/27/2018 3
What Is Supply Chain?

9/27/2018 4
9/27/2018 5
Why Supply Chain Is Important?

6
Supply Chain Entities

9/27/2018 7
Supply Chain Entities

9/27/2018 8
Supply Chain Entities
Supplier
 Provider of goods or services
 Supplies materials, energy, services, or components for producing a product
or service

Producer
 Receives services, materials, supplies, energy and components use to create
finish products

Customer
 Receives the shipments of finish products for their own use or for the final
consumer (B2B or B2C)

9/27/2018 9
Considerations for Supply
Chain Drivers
Driver Efficiency Responsiveness

Inventory Cost of holding Availability

Transportation Consolidation Speed

Facilities Consolidation / Proximity /


Dedicated Flexibility
Information What information is best suited for
each objective
9/27/2018 10
Supply Chain Structures

There are three main supply chain strategies

• Stable Supply Chain

• Reactive Supply Chain

• Efficient Reactive

9/27/2018 11
Supply Chain Structures
Stable Supply Chain
 Significant history of stability between supply & demand
 Focuses on execution, efficiencies and cost performance
 Simple connectivity technologies & little need for real-time information.

Example: Stable commodity product (Salt)

9/27/2018 12
Supply Chain Structures
Reactive Supply Chain
 Acts for fulfill demand from trade partners’ sales & marketing strategies
 Perceived as a cost center by all involved
 Needs minimal connectivity technologies & capital assets to respond demand
 Primary goal is to ensure the throughput at any cost

Example: Sports team apparel & Fashion Industry

9/27/2018 13
Supply Chain Structures
Efficient Reactive Supply Chain
 Supports competitive positioning by serving as an efficient, low-cost &
integrated unit
 Focuses on efficiency & cost management on the total delivered cost of FG
 Places greater importance on connectivity technologies & new equipment to
automate functions to reduce labor costs & improve capacity and
throughput

Example: Supermarket chain, E-Commerce, Real Time Data, VMI

9/27/2018 14
Supply Chain Flow
Information Flow

Return of Product Return of Product

Supplier Producer Customer

Primary Product Flow Primary Product Flow

Primary Cash Flow

Supplier – Producer – Customer are connected by Product, Information & Payment Flows

1. Flow of physical materials and services from suppliers through


intermediate entities to customers
2. Flow of Cash from customer through intermediate entities to supplier
3. Flow of Information back and forth along the chain
4. Reverse flow of products returned for replacement, repairs, recycling,
or disposal 9/27/2018 15
Supply Chain Management
“A River”

9/27/2018 16
Bullwhip / Whiplash Effect

9/27/2018 17
Supply Chain Operations
Reference Model (SCOR)®
 This model is developed & endorsed by nonprofit
organization, Supply Chain Council (SCC).

 This model is used as the cross-industry standard


diagnostic tool for supply chain management.

 Provides framework that links business processes,


metrics, best practices, and technology features in a
unified structure.

9/27/2018 18
Supply Chain Operations
Reference Model (SCOR)®
Assumptions
 Applies to All customer interactions from order entry through paid
invoice
 All product transactions (defined as physical materials and services,
including equipment, spare parts, bulk product and software etc
 All market interactions from understanding aggregate demand
through order fulfillment

SCOR® Model does not apply to


 Sales and Marketing
 Research and Technology Development
 Product Development
 Some elements of Post-Delivery customer support (But it does
include returns as fundamental process)
9/27/2018 19
Supply Chain Operations
Reference Model (SCOR)®

9/27/2018 20
9/27/2018
21
Vertical versus Horizontal
Integration
Vertical Integration
 Bringing supply chain inside one organization
 Ford motors pursued this strategy for their famous model T – Car.
 Solves the problem of who will design, plan, execute, monitor, and
control supply chain activities.
Ownership
Management
Marketing / Sales
Finance

Show Room Ford Customer

Distribution

Plant

Component Production

Raw material Extraction


9/27/2018 22
Vertical versus Horizontal
Integration
Horizontal (Lateral) Integration
 Achieve economies of scale
 Improve business focus & expertise
 Leverage communication and production competencies

Information Flow

Primary product flow Primary cash flows

9/27/2018 23
Evolution & History of SC
 Fragmentation  Consolidation (1960-1980): Everything was
disintegrated, but gradually consolidated

 Functional Integration (1990 – 2000): Concept of logistics


management were evolving

 Total Integration (2000 – present): Because of technological


advancement, now logistics has evolved as major part of Supply
Chain Management.

9/27/2018 24
Evolution of Supply Chain
Management
Stage 1 – Multiple Dysfunction

Lacks clear internal definitions and goals – No external links other than
transactional ones

Purchasing Marketing / Sales Customer


Supplier

Supplier Production Control Customer

Supplier Logistics Distribution Customer

Materials / Service Payments

9/27/2018 25
Evolution of Supply Chain
Management
Stage 2 – Semi-functional Enterprise

Improving efficiency, effectiveness, quality etc within functional areas – No


overlap / consulting in decision making from one department to another –
Department wise Maximising

Information

Supplier Customer
Production Marketing /
Purchasing Logistics Distribution
Control Sales
Supplier Customer

Materials / Payments
Service

Reverse product flow


9/27/2018 26
Evolution of Supply Chain
Management
Stage 3 – Integrated Enterprise
Breaks down silo walls and brings functional areas together in processes such as
Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP), CPFR (Collaborative, Planning, Forecasting
& Replenishment)– Company wide processes rather than individual functions – late
1980s to early 1990s. MRP(1950s) – MRPII(1960s) – ERP(1990s).

ERP

Supplier Customer
Production Marketing /
Purchasing Logistics Distribution
Control Sales
Supplier Customer

Materials / Service Payments

Reverse product flow


9/27/2018 27
Evolution of Supply Chain
Management
Stage 4 – Extended Enterprise

Integration of internal network with selected SCM partners’ internal


network to improve efficiency, quality of products / services.

Networked Information Flow

Suppliers’ Internal Customers’


Suppliers Customers
Suppliers Chain Customers

Materials / Service Payments

Reverse product flow


9/27/2018 28
Value Chain & Value Stream
Mapping
Value Chain
 The function within a company that add value to the
goods or services that the organization sells to customers
and for which it receives payments.

Value Stream Mapping


 Drawing the current production process/flow and then
attempting to draw the most effective production
process/flow.

9/27/2018 29
The Value Chain
( Product and Information flow?)
Support
Activities

Primary
Activities

Inbound logistics Materials receiving, storing, and distribution to manufacturing


premises
Operations Transforming inputs into finished products.
Outbound logistics Storing and distributing products
Marketing and Sales Promotions and sales force
Service Service to maintain or enhance product value
Corporate infrastructure Support of entire value chain, e.g. general management
planning,
financing, accounting, legal services, government affairs, and QM
Human resources management Recruiting, hiring, training, and development
Technology Development Improving product and manufacturing process
Procurement Purchasing input
9/27/2018 30
Accounting & Financial
Statement Basics
Cash-to-cash cycle time, “an indicator of how efficiently a
company manages its assets to improve the speed or turnover
of cash flows”

Spend Management, “managing purchases of goods and


services in a supply chain, including outsourcing and
procurement activities.”

Standard Cost, “the target costs of an operation, process, or


product, including direct material, direct labor, and overhead
charges.”

9/27/2018 31
Supply Chain Management
“Manufacturing Plant”
Raw
Materials,

Customers
Finished Inspection,
Suppliers

Receiving Parts, and


Goods Packaging,
and In-process Production
Ware- Ware- And
Inspection
Housing housing Shipping

Materials Management
Production Warehousing and Shipping
Purchasing
Control Inventory Control and Traffic

Physical materials flow


Information flow
9/27/2018 32
Sources: Supply Chain Logistics Management – Cooper et al
APICS – CSCP 13th Edition
Supply Chain Council
By: Yahya Rasheed Surya
9/27/2018 33