Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 242

PRODUCTION OF DIMETHYLETHER

AL MAHDI ABDULKAREEM
IBRAHIM ASSAD
MUKHELED AHMED
MURTADH SABEEH
SHAMS HASSAN

A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement


for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering Department


Engineering College
University of Basrah
Iraq

2016-2017
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project report is based on my original work except
for citations and quotations which been duly acknowledge.

Signature :

Name : AL MAHDI ABDUL KAREEM


IBRAHIM ASSAD
MUKHELED AHMED
MURTADH SABEEH
SHAMS HASSAN

Date :

ii
APPROVAL FOR SUBMISSION

I certify that this report entitled “PRODUCTION OF DIMETHYLETHER”


was prepared by IBRAHIM ASSAD, AL MAHDI ABDUL KAREEM,
SHAMS HASSAN, MUKHELED AHMED and MURTADH SABEEH has
met the required for standard for submission in partial fulfilment of the
requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Chemical Engineering
at University of Basrah.

Approved by

Signature :

Supervisor :

Date :

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My efforts bore fruit with the successful completion of this project. However,
there are many others who share the reward of this effort simply because it
would never have been this good without their help.
I extend my sincere gratitude to my teammates who worked on this project
with me and all other colleagues who have helped me wherever and whenever
I got stuck and for being patient with me even at the toughest hours. Each of
you played a very crucial role in the development of this project.
My special thanks to Dr. Ali N. Khalaf, the supervisor of this project for
trusting that I could do this project and stand up to his expectations. It was all
your trust in me that led me to think beyond what I thought I was capable of
doing.
I express my gratitude to all those who have directly or indirectly helped me
to make this project. I also wish to thank my parents who have always
supported me and appreciated my work wholeheartedly and been my
inspiration.

iv
PRODUCTION OF DIMETHYLETHER

ABSTRACT

In this project, direct synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol over an


amorphous alumina catalyst treated with 10.2% silica. A methanol conversion
of about 80% is achieved in the reactor.
This method is chosen because total investment needed for putting up the
direct plant is more expensive than indirect plant and that strongly indicate
that the indirect plant is more profitable than the direct plant.

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................II

APPROVAL FOR SUBMISSION .............................................................. III

ABSTRACT..................................................................................................... V

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................. VI

Chapter

1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 2
1.1 Historical Background ..................................................................................................... 2

1.2 Chemical and Physical Properties ................................................................................... 3

1.3 Type of Manufacturing Process ....................................................................................... 7

1.4 Choose the method of manufacture ............................................................................... 10

1.5 General Uses .................................................................................................................. 15

1.6 Safety, Hazards and Environmental Aspects ........................................................ 16

2 MATERIAL BALANCE ......................................................................... 17


Basis..................................................................................................................................... 18

Flowsheet ............................................................................................................................. 18

Material Balance on Reactor ............................................................................................... 19

Material Balance on Distillation 1 ....................................................................................... 21

Material Balance on Distillation 2 ....................................................................................... 24

Material Balance on Mixer .................................................................................................. 25

Overall Process Material Balance........................................................................................ 26

Stream Conditions ............................................................................................................... 27

vi
3 ENERGY BALANCE .............................................................................. 27
Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 1 ................................................................................. 28

Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 2 ................................................................................. 30

Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 3 ................................................................................. 34

Energy Balance on Reactor ................................................................................................. 38

Energy Balance on Distillation 1 ......................................................................................... 40

Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 4 ................................................................................. 49

Energy Balance on Distillation 2 ......................................................................................... 52

Overall Process Energy Balance.......................................................................................... 59

Stream Conditions ............................................................................................................... 60

4 PROCESS DESIGN ................................................................................. 61


Design Heat Exchanger 1 .................................................................................................... 62

Design Heat Exchanger 2 .................................................................................................... 70

Design Heat Exchanger 3 .................................................................................................... 78

Design Reactor .................................................................................................................... 83

Design Distillation 1 ............................................................................................................ 87

Design Condenser for Distillation 1 .................................................................................. 101

Design Reboiler for Distillation 1 ..................................................................................... 109

Design Heat Exchanger 4 .................................................................................................. 114

Design Distillation 2 .......................................................................................................... 122

Design Condenser for Distillation 2 .................................................................................. 135

Design Reboiler for Distillation 2 ..................................................................................... 143

5 MECHANICAL DESIGN ..................................................................... 148


Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 1............................................................................... 149

Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 2............................................................................... 157

Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 3............................................................................... 164


vii
Mechanical Design Reactor ............................................................................................... 171

Mechanical Design Distillation 1 ...................................................................................... 176

Mechanical Design Condenser for Distillation 1 .............................................................. 187

Mechanical Design Reboiler for Distillation 1 .................................................................. 194

Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 4............................................................................... 201

Mechanical Design Distillation 2 ...................................................................................... 208

Mechanical Design Condenser for Distillation 2 .............................................................. 219

Mechanical Design Reboiler for Distillation 2 .................................................................. 226

6 REFERENCES ....................................................................................... 233

viii
Chapter One
Introduction
Introduction
1.1 Historical Background

Dimethyl ether has been employed since 1966 as propellant in aerosols, painting
areas, cosmetics and agriculture, replacing chlorine and fluorine—based
compounds, which are noxious to the environment. The vast application of DME is
associated with its characteristics, mostly to the fact of being practically harmless to
human health and the environment.

In 1995, at a congress promoted by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),


held in Detroit/USA, the properties of DME were disclosed for the first time, which
pointed out this compound as a multipurpose fuel and as a promising raw material
for the chemical industry. Since then, several companies, universities and research
centers have invested in technological development in this area, aiming at making
the insertion of this compound feasible into the world energy matrix and also as a
chemical industry input.

What Is DME?

Dimethyl ether (DME) is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3,
simplified to C2H6O and the simplest of all ethers

2
1.2 Chemical and Physical Properties

Dimethyl ether (DME, methoxymethane), Mr 46.07, is a colorless, almost odorless


gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and has the following physical
properties:

Molecular weight 46.07


Boiling point at 0.1 Mpa − 24.8 ◦C
Melting point −141 ◦C
Critical pressure 5.28 MPa
Critical temperature 400.29 K
Critical density 269.9 kg/m3
Heat of combustion (gas) 31.75 MJ/kg
Heat of formation −183 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (at −24 ◦C) 2.26 kJ kg−1 K−1
Heat of vaporization (at −20 ◦C) 410.2 kJ/kg
Auto ignition temperature 235 ◦C
Explosive limits 3.0 – 17 vol % in air
Flash point − 41 ◦C
Relative density (gaseous, air = 1) 1.59
Surface tension (liquid) 0.0125 N/m
Viscosity
Gaseous 0.0091 mPa ·s [2]
Liquid 0.11 mPa ·s

Vapor pressure
T(C) −20 −10 0 10 20 50
p(MPa)
measured 0.124 0.184 0.266 0.375 0.512 1.149
calculated 0.114 0.185 0.267 0.374 0.512 1.152

3
Density of liquid dimethyl ether
Temperature Density Temperature Density
[K] [kg/m3] [K] [kg/m3]
153 856.247 315.76 687.205
159.26 850.54 322.02 679.417
165.52 844.788 328.28 671.475
171.78 838.989 334.54 663.369
178.04 833.142 340.8 655.085
184.3 827.244 347.06 646.609
190.56 821.295 353.32 637.924
196.82 815.292 359.58 629.011
203.08 809.234 365.84 619.848
209.34 803.117 372.1 610.41
215.6 796.94 378.36 600.666
221.86 790.7 384.62 590.581
228.12 784.395 390.88 580.11
234.38 778.022 397.14 569.201
240.64 771.577 403.4 557.788
246.9 765.058 409.66 545.787
253.16 758.461 415.92 533.088
259.42 751.782 422.18 519.545
265.68 745.018 428.44 504.954
271.94 738.164 434.7 489.017
278.2 731.215 440.96 471.268
284.46 724.166 447.22 450.909
290.72 717.011 453.48 426.343
296.98 709.745 459.74 393.351
303.24 702.36 466 321.795
309.5 694.85

4
Constant pressure heat capacity of gas
Cp,gas Temperature Cp,gas Temperature
(J/mol*K) (K) (J/mol*K) (K)
42.27 100 136.7 1000
48.99 150 142.69 1100
54.47 200 147.89 1200
62.56 273.15 152.41 1300
65.57 ± 0.08 298.15 156.35 1400
65.8 300 159.77 1500
78.68 400 166.57 1750
91.36 500 171.5 2000
102.86 600 175.15 2250
113.03 700 177.91 2500
121.99 800 180.03 2750
129.84 900 181.7 3000

Constant pressure heat capacity of liquid

Cp,liquid Temperature
(J/mol*K) (K)
102.3 14-240

Enthalpy of vaporization

ΔvapH Temperature
(kJ/mol) (K)
22.6 183. - 265.
22.8 180. - 249.
21.2 293. - 360.
21.1 349. - 400.
22.2 241. - 303.

Antoine Equation Parameters

log10(P) = A − (B / (T + C))
P = vapor pressure (bar)
T = temperature (K)

Temperature (K) A B C
194.93 - 248.24 4.11475 894.669 -30.604

5
6
1.3 Type of Manufacturing Process
1.3.1- Direct and Indirect production process
A- One a step process:
In the one-step process (direct production process), DME is produced directly from
the syngas in one single reactor where a bifunctional catalyst supports both the
methanol formation and the methanol dehydration according to the following
reactions scheme

Methanol formation: CO + 2H2 ↔ CH3OH DHo = – 90.4 kJ/mol

Water-gas shift: CO + H2O ↔ CO2 + H2 DHo = – 41.0 kJ/mol

Methanol dehydration: 2CH3OH ↔ CH3OCH3 + H2O DHo = -23.0 kJ/mol

Overall reaction: 3CO + 3H2 ↔ CH3OCH3 + CO2 DHo = -258.3 kJ/mol

The syngas is produced by means of a natural gas steam reforming or coal/petroleum


residues gasification and, after the DME synthesis reactor, a purification unit, able to
separate the DME from water and methanol in a double distillation stage is needed. The
following figure shows a diagram of the one-step process.

7
B- Two-steps process
In the two steps (indirect) process, either use pure methanol or formation of
methanol from syngas, then DME production from methanol. The figure illustrates
the block diagram of this architecture.

1.3.2 DME production from renewable energies


The reactants of the DME synthesis process can be produced from renewable
energy as biomass, solar and wind. By this way, the DME is a sort of liquid energy
vector, able to store the renewable energy in a easily dispensable, easy applicable
and high-energy density fuel.
Starting from biomasses as energy crops, agro-residue, forest residue, etc., a
gasification process can be applied to generate a syngas stream to be fed to one-
step or two-steps DME synthesis process. On the other hand, if the starting biomass
is an organic trash, manure or sewage, an anaerobic digestion + pyrolysis system
can be applied to generate the CO and H2 stream.

8
The hydrogen stream in the syngas mixture can be generated by an electrolyze
supplied by electricity produced from renewable power plants as photovoltaics and
wind farms and then mixed with CO/CO2. By this way, the renewable energy is
“stored” in the DME, which, being a liquid fuel, can be easily distributed, stored
and used, differently from the hydrogen itself which has a series of unsolved
issues related to the distribution and storage. The following scheme shows a
conceptual layout of the DME production from solar/biomass energy.

1.3.3 DME production as a CO2 valorization process


Instead of the syngas, a CO2-rich feedstock can be supplied to the DME
production process, thus converting the CO2 in a high added value product. By
this process, the CO2, which is the main Greenhouse gas (GHG), is not emitted
but is converted into a fuel which can be burned releasing again the carbon
dioxide.
Such a configuration is less developed than the conventional syngas-fueled
process, but many research efforts are devoted to improve its performance since it
would allow both the production of DME and the reduction of GHG emissions, thus
reducing the carbon footprint of DME synthesis.
CO2 presence in the reactor environment leads to two main issues:

• CO2-rich feedstock influences the active state of the catalyst for methanol
synthesis, reducing the rate of formation of methanol.
• CO2 promotes the reverse Water Gas shift reaction, thus producing H2O
and inhibiting the methanol dehydration.

The research is focused mainly on the development of new catalyst, tailored for
CO2-rich mixture conversion, and of selective membranes able to remove water
from the reaction environment, promoting the methanol dehydration reaction and
the DME production.

9
1.4 Choose the method of manufacture
The method of choice is indirect method and that because total investment needed
for putting up the direct plant is more expensive than indirect plant and that strongly
indicate that the indirect plant is more profitable than the direct plant.

1.4.1 Basis

The block diagram for DME production from methanol is shown in the in Figure
below. The raw material is methanol. Methanol arrives at the plant at 25°C and 1bar.
Methanol dehydration takes place in the fixed-bed reactor and then DME as final
product is purified in separation unit. Producing 3000 metric tons per day of 99.5%
purity DME is the target of our project. The other consideration in this project is
maximizing the energy recovery by using partial heat integration in the plant.

Block diagram

10
1.4.2 Process description
1.4.2.1 Flowsheet
A PFD of the process is shown in Figure below and the belonging stream pressure are given
in table page 13. The essential operations in the process are the preheating of the raw
material (nearly pure methanol), dehydration of methanol to form DME, product separation
and methanol separation and recycle.

Production of DME from Methanol

Methanol as a liquid pumped up to 15.5 bar. The stream 2 preheated with streams 14 and 7.
After preheating the stream 4 combined with Stream 17, methanol recycle stream. Stream 5
is then sent into heat exchanger E-03 where it is heated to a temperature of 250°C before
sending to the fixed-bed reactor, R-01, to form DME. The reaction is slightly exothermic and
the reaction products are heated to approximately 375°C before leaving the reactor. The
reactor effluent is cooled in E-02 and then throttled to 10.4 bar before entering T-01. Here,
the dimethyl ether is separated from the other components as distillate, Stream DME. The
bottom product, Stream 10, is throttled to 7.4 bar and sent to T-02 where the methanol are
separated from the waste components. The waste components exit as the bottoms stream,
Stream 14. Methanol exits the column as a distillate, Stream 13. This stream is then pumped
up to 15.5 bar and recycled back to mix with methanol, Stream 16 in mixer MIX-01.

11
1.4.2.2 Process Concepts

The production of DME is via the catalytic dehydration of methanol over an


amorphous alumina catalyst treated with 10.2% silica. A methanol conversion of
about 80% is achieved in the reactor. DME is produced by the following reaction:

2CH3OH CH3OCH3 + H2O

The reaction is equilibrium limited. Based on the catalyst and reaction kinetics,
the reactor must operate at 15 bar. The reactor operates adiabatically, and, since
the reaction is exothermic, the reactor effluent temperature will be above 250°C.

Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Configuration


The reaction taking place is mildly exothermic with a standard heat of reaction:

Hreac(25°C) = -11770 kJ/kmol

The equilibrium constant for this reaction at three different temperatures is


given in table below.

T Kp
200°C 34.1
300°C 12.4
400°C 6.21

The corresponding equilibrium conversions for pure methanol feed over the
above temperature range are greater than 83%. This reaction is kinetically
controlled at the conditions used in this process.
In the temperature range of normal operation, there are no significant side
reactions. The reactor is kinetically controlled in the temperature range of normal
operation. Above 250°C, the rate equation is given below (Bondiera and
Naccache, 1991):
12
Where
k0 = 1.21×106 kmol/(m3reactor.h.kPa)
Ea = 80.48 kJ/mol
Pmethanol = partial pressure of methanol (kPa)

Significant catalyst deactivation occurs at temperatures above 400°C, and the


reactor should be designed so that this temperature is not exceeded anywhere
in the reactor. Since the DME reaction is not highly exothermic, the proper
temperatures can be maintained by preheating the feed to no more than 250°C
and running the reactor adiabatically.

13
1.4.3 Stream Pressure

Conditions Methanol 2 3 4 5 6 7
Pressure (bar) 1 15.5 15.2 14.9 14.9 14.7 14.7

Conditions 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Pressure (bar) 14.4 10.4 10.4 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3

Conditions 15 16 DME Water


Pressure (bar) 7.3 15.5 10.3 7.3

14
1.5 General Uses
Industry Uses

1. As an intermediate in the preparation and manufacturing of other basic organic


chemicals.
2. As a catalyst in industrial polymerization processes.
3. As an alternative fuel.
4. As a foam expansion agent.

Consumer Uses

1. Adhesives and Sealants.


2. Air Care Products.
3. Automotive Care Products.
4. Cleaning and Furnishing Care Products.
5. Lubricants and Greases.
6. Paints and Coatings.
7. Personal Care Products.
8. Foam in a can.
9. Topical skin cooling sprays.
10. Over the counter treatments.
11. Hairspray.
12. Sun screen.
13. Variety of other personal care and household products where its water solubility
and strong solvency properties add value.

Main DME application


15
1.6 Safety, Hazards and Environmental Aspects

1.6.1 Health Hazard

1. Flammable - 4th degree, Reactive - 1st degree.


2. Inhalation produces some anesthesia, blurring of vision, headache, intoxication,
loss of consciousness. Liquid or concentrated vapor irritates eyes. Contact of liquid
with skin may cause frostbite.

1.6.2 Fire Hazard

1. Extremely Flammable
2. Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode. Vapors are heavier than air and may
travel long distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
3. Mixture of gas & air are explosion.

1.6.3 Environmental

1. Slightly toxic to aquatic organisms.


2. Not readily biodegradable.
3. Persistent in the atmosphere. It is expected to rapidly volatilize from aquatic and
soil compartments.
4. Not expected to bio accumulate.

16
Chapter Two
Material Balance

17
Basis
Feed Methanol 99% purity
Product DME 99.5% purity

Flowsheet

18
Material Balance on Reactor

2 CH3OH ↔ CH3OCH3 + H2O


ton kg
Product = 3000 = 125000
year hr
kmol
= 2717.3913
hr

Reactor
species symbols initial change
effluence
Methanol M FM0 -FMO X FM=FMO(1-X)
H2O H FH0 +1/2 FMO X FH=FMO(θH+1/2X)
DME D ─ +1/2 FMO X FD=FMO(θD+1/2X)

𝑦𝐻0 0.01
𝜃𝐻 = = = 0.0101
𝑦𝑀0 0.99
θD=0

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹𝐷 = 2717.3913
ℎ𝑟
19
𝐹𝐷 2717.3913 𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹𝑀0 = = = 6793.4783
1 0.4 ℎ𝑟
𝑥
2

𝐹𝐻0
𝜃𝐻 = ⟹ 𝐹𝐻0 = 𝜃𝐻 ∗ 𝐹𝑀0
𝐹𝑀0

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹𝐻0 = 0.0101 ∗ 6793.4783 = 68.6141
ℎ𝑟

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹𝐻 = 6793.4783 (0.0101 + 0.4) = 2786.0054
ℎ𝑟

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹𝑀 = 6793.4783 (1 − 0.8) = 1358.6957
ℎ𝑟

In 6 Out 7
Compound Molar flow Mass flow Molar flow Mass flow
Composition Composition
(Kmol/hr) (Kg/hr) (Kmol/hr) (Kg/hr)
Methanol 0.99 6793.4783 217391.3056 0.198 1358.6957 43478.2624
Water 0.01 68.6141 1235.0538 0.405 2786.0054 50148.0972
DME 0 0 0 0.396 2717.3913 124999.9998
Total 1 6862.0924 218626.3594 1 6862.0924 218626.3594

20
Material Balance on Distillation 1

K[at 153.7°c and


Compound α i/m
10.4 bar]
H.K Methanol 1.429 1
Water 0.5023 0.3515
L.K DME 7.282 5.096

Recovery of DME= 99.9%


Recovery of Methanol=99%
𝑑𝐷
ŋ𝐷 = = 0.999
𝑓𝐷
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑑𝐷 = ŋ𝐷 ∗ 𝑓𝐷 = 2717.388
ℎ𝑟
𝑓𝐷 = 𝑑𝐷 + 𝑏𝐷

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑏𝐷 = 2.717 ∗ 10−4 (Neglected in bottom)
ℎ𝑟

21
𝑛𝐿𝑘(1 − ℎ𝑛𝑘)
𝐿𝑛 [ ]
𝑛ℎ𝑘(1 − 𝑛𝐿𝑘)
𝑁𝑚 =
𝐿𝑛 𝛼𝐿𝑘

0.999(1 − 0.01)
𝐿𝑛 [ ]
0.01(1 − 0.999)
=
𝐿𝑛(5.096)
Nm= 7.063

𝑛𝑚
(𝛼𝑤/𝑚 ∗ ŋ𝑚)
ŋ𝑤 = 𝑛𝑚
(1 + (𝛼𝑤/𝑚 − 1) ∗ ŋ𝑚

(0.3515)7.063 ∗ 0.01
=
1 + [(0.3515)7.063 − 1] ∗ 0.01

ŋ𝑤 = 6.27 ∗ 10−6 (Water neglected in top)

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑑𝐷 = 2717.3913
ℎ𝑟
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑑𝑚 = 0.01 ∗ 1358.6957 = 13.5869
ℎ𝑟

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
∑𝑑𝑖 = 2730.9782
ℎ𝑟

22
𝑑𝐷
𝑋𝐷 = = 0.995
𝑓𝐷

𝑥𝑚
𝑋𝑚 = = 0.05
𝑓𝑚

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑏𝑚 = 𝑓𝑚 − 𝑑𝑚 = 1358.6957 − 13.5869 = 1345.1088
ℎ𝑟
𝑏𝑤 = 𝑓𝑤 − 𝑑𝑤 = 2786.0054

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
∑𝑏𝑖 = 4131.1142
ℎ𝑟

𝑋𝑚 = 0.3256
𝑋𝑤 = 0.6744

23
Material Balance on Distillation 2

O.M.B
𝐹 = 𝐷 + 𝑊 ⟹ 𝐷 = 4131.1141 − 𝑊
𝑀. 𝐵 𝑜𝑛 𝐻2𝑂
𝐹 𝑥𝑓 = 𝐷 𝑥𝑑 + 𝑊 𝑥𝑤
4131.1141 ∗ 0.6744 = (4131.1141 − 𝑤) ∗ 0.01 + 0.95𝑤
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑊 = 2919.9066
ℎ𝑟
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐷 = 1211.2074
ℎ𝑟

24
Material Balance on Mixer

𝑛16 + 𝑛4 = 𝑛5
𝑛4 = 6862.0924 − 1211.2074

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑛4 = 5650.885
ℎ𝑟

25
Overall Process Material Balance

𝒌𝒎𝒐𝒍 𝑲𝒈 𝒌𝒎𝒐𝒍 𝑲𝒈
Stream Molar In ( ) Mass In ( ) Stream Molar In ( ) Mass In ( )
𝒉𝒓 𝒉𝒓 𝒉𝒓 𝒉𝒓

Methanol 5650.885 180037.1961 DME 2730.978257 125434.7824

Water 2919.906743 54602.5092

Total 5650.885 180037.1961 5650.885 180037.2916

26
Stream Conditions

Conditions Methanol 2 3 4 5 6 7

Pressure (bar) 1 15.5 15.2 14.9 14.9 14.7 14.7


𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆
Molar Flow ( ) 5650.885 5650.885 5650.885 5650.885 6862.0924 6862.0924 6862.0924
𝒉
𝑲𝒈
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 ) 180037.1961 180037.1961 180037.1961 180037.1961 218626.3594 218626.3594 218626.3594

Composition

Methanol 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.198

H2O 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.405

DME 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.396

Conditions 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Pressure (bar) 14.4 10.4 10.4 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3


𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆
Molar Flow ( ) 6862.0924 6862.0924 4131.1141 4131.1141 4131.1141 1211.2074 2919.9067
𝒉
𝑲𝒈
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 ) 218626.3594 218626.3594 93191.5770 93191.5770 93191.5770 38589.0678 54602.5092

Composition

Methanol 0.198 0.198 0.3256 0.3256 0.3256 0.99 0.05

H2O 0.405 0.405 0.6744 0.6744 0.6744 0.01 0.95

DME 0.396 0.396 0 0 0 0 0

Conditions 15 16 DME Water

Pressure (bar) 7.3 15.5 10.3 7.3


𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆
Molar Flow ( ) 1211.2074 1211.2074 2730.9783 2919.9067
𝒉
𝑲𝒈
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 ) 38589.0678 38589.0678 125434.7824 54602.5092

Composition

Methanol 0.99 0.99 0.005 0.05

H2O 0.01 0.01 0 0.95

DME 0 0 0.995 0

27
Chapter Three
Energy Balance
Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 1

(Stream 2-3)
Conditions 2 3
Temperature (C) 25 50
Pressure (bar) 15.5 15.2
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 5650.885 5650.885
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 180037.1961 180037.1961
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.99 0.99
H2O 0.01 0.01
DME 0 0

323.15

𝑄=n ∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
298.15

𝐶𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = (0.99 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.01 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 )

Cp Eq. for liquid from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 170

Cpi = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + C4T3 + C5T4


𝑇2
𝐶2 2 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + (𝑇2 − 𝑇12 ) + (𝑇23 − 𝑇13 )
𝑇1 2 3
𝐶4 𝐶5
+ (𝑇24 − 𝑇14 ) + (𝑇25 − 𝑇15 )
4 5

𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) liquid page 163
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 105800 -362.23 0.9379 0 0
Water 276370 -2090.1 8.125 -0.01412 9.3701*10-6

28
323.15
2093676.744 𝐾𝑗
∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = = 2093.677
1000 𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙. 𝐾
298.15

𝑄 = 5650.885 ∗ 2093.677
𝐾𝑗
Q = 11831126.51
ℎ𝑟

(Stream 14-Water)
From Energy Balance on Distillation 2 page 52
Temperature for Stream 14 = 163.52 C

Conditions 14 Water
Temperature (C) 163.52 ?
Pressure (bar) 7.4 7.4
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 2919.9067 2919.9067
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 54602.5092 54602.5092
Mass Flow ( )
𝒉
Composition
Methanol 0.05 0.05
H2O 0.95 0.95
DME 0 0

𝑇𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝑄=n ∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
436.67
𝑇𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

−11734191.37 = 2873.561 ∗ ∫ [(0.05 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.95 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 )] dT


436.67

By trial and error


TWater = 114.5 C

29
Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 2

(Stream 7-8)
Conditions 7 8 9
Temperature (C) 357.08 ? ?
Pressure (bar) 14.7 14.4 10.4
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 6862.0924 6862.0924 6862.0924
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 218626.3594 218626.3594 218626.3594
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.198 0.198 0.198
H2O 0.405 0.405 0.405
DME 0.396 0.396 0.396

From Energy Balance on Reactor page 38


Temperature for Stream 7 = 377 C
To find T8 we must first find T9 which it feed Distillation 1 (T-01) at
saturated vapor and 10.4 bar
To find temperature at saturated vapor (Tdew)

10.4 ∗ 760
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = = 7800.642 𝑚𝑚ℎ𝑔
1.01325
Antoine Equation

From Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 7th Edition


page 682 Antoine Equation Parameters (P in mmHg, T in °C)
Compound A B C
Methanol 8.08097 1582.27 239.7
Water 8.14019 1810.94 244.485
DME 7.10736 946.89 248.645

𝑃𝑖
𝐾𝑖 =
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

30
At T=153.78 C
compound y PT K Y/K
Methanol 0.198 7800.642 1.429132 0.138546
Water 0.405 7800.642 0.502357 0.8062
DME 0.396 7800.642 7.282536 0.054377
sum= 0.999122

T9=153.78 C
To find T8

Energy balance on valve


𝑄 − 𝑊 = ∆𝐻 + ∆𝐾𝑒 + ∆𝐸𝑒
For adiabatic, no work, no kinetic or potential energy
∆𝐻 = 0
𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 0
𝑇8 426.93

𝑛 ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = 𝑛 ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
298.15 298.15

From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 298,413


Cp (14.4 bar) Cp (160C, 10.4 bar)
Compound
KJ/(mole.K) KJ/(mole.K)
Methanol 0.11029 0.11477
Water 0.076628 0.078438
DME 0.069959 0.070706

𝐾𝐽
𝐶𝑝(14.4 𝑏𝑎𝑟)𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = 0.08057
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒. 𝐾

31
𝐾𝐽
𝐶𝑝(160 𝐶,10.4 𝑏𝑎𝑟)𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = 0.08249
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒. 𝐾

0.08057 ∗ (𝑇8 − 298.15) = 0.08453 ∗ 128.78


T8 = 160.1 C

Back to heat exchanger


433.15

𝑄=n ∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
650.40

𝐶𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (0.198 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.405 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 ) + (0.396 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝐷 )

Cp Eq. for gas from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 181

𝑇2
𝐶3 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + 𝐶2 ∗ 𝐶3 [coth ( ) − coth ( )] + 𝐶4
𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1
𝐶5 𝐶5
∗ 𝐶5 [tanh ( ) − tanh ( )]
𝑇2 𝑇1

𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) gas page 176
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 39250 87900 1916.5 53650 896.7
Water 33363 26790 2610.5 8896 1169
DME 51480 144200 1603.4 77400 725.4

440.95
𝐾𝑗
∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = −6631.299
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙. 𝐾
630.23

𝑄 = 6862.0924 ∗ −6631.299
𝐾𝑗
𝑄 = −45504590.91
ℎ𝑟
32
(Stream 3-4)
Conditions 3 4
Temperature (C) 50 ?
Pressure (bar) 15.2 14.9
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 5650.885 5650.885
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 180037.1961 180037.1961
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.99 0.99
H2O 0.01 0.01
DME 0 0
𝑇4

𝑄=n ∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
323.15

𝐶𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = (0.99 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.01 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 )

Cp Eq. for liquid from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 170
Cpi = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + C4T3 + C5T4

𝑇2
𝐶2 2 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + (𝑇2 − 𝑇12 ) + (𝑇23 − 𝑇13 )
𝑇1 2 3
𝐶4 4 𝐶5
+ (𝑇2 − 𝑇14 ) + (𝑇25 − 𝑇15 )
4 5
𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) liquid page
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
163
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 105800 -362.23 0.9379 0 0
Water 276370 -2090.1 8.125 -0.01412 9.3701*10-6

𝑇4

45504590.91 = 5650.885 ∗ ∫ [(099 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.01 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 )] dT


323.15

By trial and error T4 = 131.7 C

33
Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 3

Conditions 5 6
Temperature (C) ? 250
Pressure (bar) 14.9 14.7
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 8275.645 8275.645
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 244070.288 244070.288
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.8209 0.8209
H2O 0.1791 0.1791
DME 0 0

To find T5 we must find temperature of mixing so energy balance on


Mixer
Conditions 4 16 5
Temperature (C) 131.7 125.75 ?
Pressure (bar) 14.9 15.5 14.9
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 5604.586 2671.059 8275.645
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 179171.044 64898.963 244070.288
Mass Flow ( )
𝒉
Composition
Methanol 0.99 0.4498 0.8209
H2O 0.01 0.5502 0.1791
DME 0 0 0

𝑄 − 𝑊 = ∆𝐻 + ∆𝐾𝑒 + ∆𝐸𝑒
For adiabatic, no work, no kinetic or potential energy
∆𝐻 = 0
𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐻𝑖𝑛
Final Temperature of Mixed Fluids

𝑛4 𝐶𝑝4 𝑇5 + 𝑛17 𝐶𝑝17 𝑇5 = 𝑛4 𝐶𝑝4 𝑇4 + 𝑛17 𝐶𝑝16 𝑇17

(𝑛4 𝐶𝑝4 𝑇4 + 𝑛17 𝐶𝑝17 𝑇17 )


𝑇5 =
(𝑛4 𝐶𝑝4 + 𝑛17 𝐶𝑝17 )
34
𝐶𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖

Component cp l J/(mol K)

Methanol 79.5

Water 75.46

T5= 130 C
Back to heat exchanger
Using Clausius-Clapeyron Equation to find boiling point for mixture

Tb for methanol at 14.9 bar = 148 C


Tb for Water at 14.9 bar = 197 C

𝑇𝑏𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 ∗ 𝑇𝑏𝑖 = (0.99 ∗ 148) + (0.01 ∗ 197) = 148.49 𝐶

Then

421.64 523.15

𝑄 = n[ ∫ Cp (𝐿)𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT + Δ𝐻𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 + ∫ Cp (𝑉)𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT]


402.97 421.64

35
𝐶𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = (0.99 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.01 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 )

Cp Eq. for liquid from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 170
Cpi = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + C4T3 + C5T4

𝑇2
𝐶2 2 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + (𝑇2 − 𝑇12 ) + (𝑇23 − 𝑇13 )
𝑇1 2 3
𝐶4 4 𝐶5
+ (𝑇2 − 𝑇14 ) + (𝑇25 − 𝑇15 )
4 5
𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) liquid page 163
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 105800 -362.23 0.9379 0 0
Water 276370 -2090.1 8.125 -0.01412 9.3701*10-6

421.64
𝐾𝑗
∫ Cp (𝐿)𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = 2157.431
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙. 𝐾
402.97

𝐾𝑗
Δ𝐻𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑀𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 = 27769.984
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐾𝑗
Δ𝐻𝑣𝑎𝑝 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 38319.749
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙

Δ𝐻𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (0.99 ∗ 27769.95) + (0.01 ∗ 38319.75)


𝐾𝑗
= 27875.482
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙

36
Cp Eq. for gas from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 181

𝑇2
𝐶3 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + 𝐶2 ∗ 𝐶3 [coth ( ) − coth ( )] + 𝐶4
𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1
𝐶5 𝐶5
∗ 𝐶5 [tanh ( ) − tanh ( )]
𝑇2 𝑇1

𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) gas page 176
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 39250 87900 1916.5 53650 896.7
Water 33363 26790 2610.5 8896 1169

523.15
𝐾𝑗
∫ Cp (𝑉)𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = 2500.1039
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
421.64

𝑄 = 6862.0924 ∗ [2157.431 + 27875.482 + 2500.1039]

𝐾𝑗
𝑄 = 223244568.7
ℎ𝑟
𝑀𝑗
= 223244.569
ℎ𝑟

37
Energy Balance on Reactor
Conditions 6 7
Temperature (C) 250 ?
Pressure (bar) 14.7 14.7
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 6862.0924 6862.0924
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 218626.3594 218626.3594
Mass Flow ( )
𝒉
Composition
Methanol 0.99 0.198
H2O 0.01 0.405
DME 0 0.396

General Energy Balance on Reactor


𝑄 − 𝑊𝑠 = Δ𝐻 + Δ𝐸𝑃 + Δ𝐸𝐾
For steady state, adiabatic, no change elevation and no work on system
Δ𝐻 = 𝑄 = 0

Δ𝐻 = 𝜉 ∗ 𝛥𝐻𝑟𝜊 + [∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡 ∗ 𝐻𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡 ] − [∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑖𝑛 ∗ 𝐻𝑖𝑖𝑛 ]

𝑥 ∗ 𝑛6𝑚𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0.8 ∗ 6793.477 𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙


𝜉= = = 2717.391
−(−𝜗𝑚𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 ) −(−2) ℎ𝑟

𝑘𝐽
𝛥𝐻𝑟𝜊 = −11770
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑇𝑖𝑛
∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑖𝑛 ∗ 𝐻𝑖𝑖𝑛 = ∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑖𝑛 ∗ ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 𝑑𝑇
𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓

523.15 523.15 523.15


∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑖𝑛 ∗ ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 𝑑𝑇 = (𝑛𝑚 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 𝑑𝑇) + (𝑛𝑤 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 𝑑𝑇)
298 298 298

38
Cp Eq. for gas from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 181

𝑇2
𝐶3 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + 𝐶2 ∗ 𝐶3 [coth ( ) − coth ( )] + 𝐶4
𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1
𝐶5 𝐶5
∗ 𝐶5 [tanh ( ) − tanh ( )]
𝑇2 𝑇1
𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) gas page 176
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 39250 87900 1916.5 53650 896.7
Water 33363 26790 2610.5 8896 1169
DME 51480 144200 1603.4 77400 725.4

523.15
𝑗
∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑖𝑛 ∗ ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 𝑑𝑇 = 75026360466
298 ℎ𝑟
𝑗
𝜉 ∗ 𝛥𝐻𝑟𝜊 = 2717.391 ∗ (−11770 ∗ 103 ) = −31983692070
ℎ𝑟

𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡
∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡 ∗ 𝐻𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡 = ∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑑𝑇
𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓

𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡


∑ 𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑑𝑇 = 𝑛𝑚 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 + 𝑛𝑤 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 + 𝑛𝐷 ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝐷
𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓 298 298 298

By substitute in general equation


−75026360466 − 31983692070
𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡
+ [1358.6957 ∗ ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 + 2786.0054 ∗ ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 + 2717.3913 ∗ ∫ 𝐶𝑝𝐷 ] = 0
298 298 298

By trial and error: Tout=377 C

39
Energy Balance on Distillation 1

Conditions 9 10 DME
Temperature (C) 160.1 ? ?
Pressure (bar) 10.4 10.4 10.3
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 8275.645 5544.598 2731.046
Molar Flow ( )
𝒉
𝑲𝒈 244070.288 118635.708 125436.945
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.1642 0.2426 0.005
H 2O 0.5075 0.7574 0
DME 0.3283 0 0.995

Distillation Temperature Profile calculation

10.4 ∗ 760
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = = 7800.642 𝑚𝑚ℎ𝑔
1.01325

Antoine Equation

40
From Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 7th Edition
page 682 Antoine Equation Parameters (P in mmHg, T in °C)
Compound A B C
Methanol 8.08097 1582.27 239.7
Water 8.14019 1810.94 244.485
DME 7.10736 946.89 248.645

-The Overhead vapor


Tbub Calculation for liquid product

𝑿
∑ =𝟏
𝑲

Let T=46.1 C

1582.27
𝑃𝑚 = 108.08097−239.7+46.1 = 350.249 𝑚𝑚ℎ𝑔

𝑃𝐷𝑀𝐸 = 7845.357 𝑚𝑚ℎ𝑔

𝑃𝑚
𝐾𝑚 = = 0.0449
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑃𝐷𝑀𝐸
𝐾𝐷𝑀𝐸 = = 1.0057
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

41
compound x P K K*X
Methanol 0.005 350.2492 0.0449 0.000225
DME 0.995 7845.357 1.005732 1.000704
Sum= 1.000928

⸫ Tbub=46.1 C

Tdew Calculation for Vapor

∑𝑿 ∗ 𝑲 = 𝟏

Let T=49.68 C
compound y P K y/K
Methanol 0.005 410.3837218 7800.6415 0.052608971
DME 0.995 8577.206979 7800.6415 1.099551489
Sum= 0.999955247

⸫ Tdew=49.68 C

42
The Bottom
Tbub Calculation for liquid product in Bottom

Let T=162.86 C
compound x P K K*X
Methanol 0.3256 13708.14 1.75731 0.57218
Water 0.6744 4949.076 0.634445 0.42787
Sum= 1.000049

⸫ Tbub=162.86 C

Tdew Calculation for Vapor in Bottom

Let T= 172 C
compound y P K y/K
Methanol 0.3256 16723.63 2.143879 0.151874
Water 0.6744 6196.611 0.794372 0.848973
sum= 1.000504892

⸫ Tdew=172 C

⸫ TDME=46.1 C
T10=162.86 C

43
Condenser and Reboiler duty Calculation
To calculate condenser duty first must Find Reflux ratio by use
Underwood method

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝐹𝑖
∑ =1−𝑞
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜙
q At saturated vapor = 0
𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝐹𝑖
∑ =1
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜙

𝐾𝑖
Compound K (153.78 C) 𝛼𝑖 =
𝐾𝑀
LK Methanol 1.429132 1
Water 0.502357 0.358
HK DME 7.282536 4.795

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝐹𝑖
∑ , 𝜙= 3.1365
Compound xfi 𝛼 𝛼𝑖 −𝜙

Methanol 0.198 1 -0.09267


Water 0.405 0.351512 -0.0522
DME 0.396 5.095777 1.144929
1.000052754

𝛼𝑖 𝑥𝑑𝑖
𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 + 1 = ∑
𝛼𝑖 − 𝜙
1 ∗ 0.005 4.795 ∗ 0.995
𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = + −1
0.005 − 3.1365 0.995 − 3.1365
𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1.87
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.5𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 2.812
𝐿
𝑅= ⇒𝐿 =𝑅∗𝐷
𝐷
kmol
𝐿 = 7678.5782
hr
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑉 = 𝐿 + 𝐷 = 10409.5564
ℎ𝑟
44
For total condenser
𝑇𝑏𝑢𝑏

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = 𝑉 (𝜆 + ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT)


𝑇𝑑𝑒𝑤

Latent heat of evaporation at 49 C from Perry's Chemical Engineers’


Handbook page 145,146
compound λ (Kj/Kmol)
Methanol 36418
Water 40680
DME 16907

T boiling point for mixture = 48.92C

From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp page 163, 176


Cp Liquid (j/Kmol.K)
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 105800 -362.23 0.9379 0 0
Water 276370 -2090.1 8.125 -0.01412 9.37E-06
DME 110100 -157.47 0.51853 0 0
Cp Gas (j/Kmol.K)
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 39250 87900 1916.5 53650 896.7
Water 33363 26790 2610.5 8896 1169
DME 51480 144200 1603.4 77400 725.4

For liquid
𝑇2
𝐶2 2 𝐶3 𝐶4
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + (𝑇2 − 𝑇12 ) + (𝑇23 − 𝑇13 ) + (𝑇24 − 𝑇14 )
𝑇1 2 3 4
𝐶5 5
+ (𝑇2 − 𝑇15 )
5

45
For gas
𝑇2
𝐶3 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + 𝐶2 ∗ 𝐶3 [coth ( ) − coth ( )] + 𝐶4
𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1
𝐶5 𝐶5
∗ 𝐶5 [tanh ( ) − tanh ( )]
𝑇2 𝑇1

319.23 322.075 319.23

∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = ∫ Cpg 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT + ∫ Cpl 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT


322.83 322.83 322.075

𝑇2

∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖
𝑇1

319.23
𝑘𝑗
∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = −126.862 − 320.479 = −447.34
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
322.83

𝐾𝑗
𝜆𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝜆𝑖 = −177013682.8
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = 10409.55 (−177013682.8 − 447.34)

𝐾𝑗
𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = −181670304.9
ℎ𝑟

𝑀𝑗
𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = −181670.305
ℎ𝑟
46
Reboiler Heat Duty Calculation
Reboiler Heat Duty can be calculate from Energy balance on Distillation
Column
The kinetic and potential energy of the process streams will be small and
can be neglected.

Inputs: reboiler heat input Qr + feed sensible heat Hf.


Outputs: condenser cooling Qc + top and bottom product sensible heats
Hd + Hw

𝑄𝑟 + 𝐻𝑓 = 𝐻𝑑 + 𝐻𝑤 + 𝑄𝑐

T Boiling point of feed at 10.4bar = 119.8 C

392.985 426.93

𝐻𝑓 = 6862.0924 [ ∫ Cp𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT + 𝜆𝑚𝑖𝑥 + ∫ Cp𝑔 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT]


273.15 392.985

𝑀𝑗
𝐻𝑓 = 285384.074
ℎ𝑟

47
436.01
𝑀𝑗
𝐻𝑑 = 2730.9783 [ ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT] = 13705.625
ℎ𝑟
273.15

319.23
𝑀𝑗
𝐻𝑤 = 4131.1141 [ ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT] = 55852.374
ℎ𝑟
273.15

𝑄𝑟 = 𝐻𝑑 + 𝐻𝑤 + 𝑄𝑐 − 𝐻𝑓

𝑄𝑟 = 13705.625 + 55852.374 + 181670.305 − 285384.074

𝑀𝑗
𝑄𝑟 = 34155.770
ℎ𝑟

48
Energy Balance on Heat Exchanger 4

Conditions 10 11 12
Temperature (C) 162.86 ? 139
Pressure (bar) 10.4 7.4 7.4
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 5544.598 5544.598 5544.598
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 118635.708 118635.708 118635.708
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.2426 0.2426 0.2426
H 2O 0.7574 0.7574 0.7574
DME 0 0 0

Energy balance on valve


𝑄 − 𝑊 = ∆𝐻 + ∆𝐾𝑒 + ∆𝐸𝑒
For adiabatic, no work, no kinetic or potential energy
∆𝐻 = 0
𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 0
436.01 𝑇11

𝑛 ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = 𝑛 ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
298.15 298.15

49
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 298, 413
Cp (162C, 10.4 bar) Cp (7.4 bar)
Compound
KJ/(mole.K) KJ/(mole.K)
Methanol 0.27588 0.29260
Water 0.13319 0.14127

𝐾𝐽
𝐶𝑝(167.04𝐶,10.4 𝑏𝑎𝑟)𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = 0.08982
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒. 𝐾

𝐾𝐽
𝐶𝑝(7.4 𝑏𝑎𝑟)𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = 0.09527
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒. 𝐾

0.08982 ∗ 137.86 = 0.09527 ∗ (𝑇9 − 298.15)


T11 = 154.98 C

For Heat exchanger


412.15

𝑄=n ∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT
428.13

𝐶𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖 = (0.3256 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑚 ) + (0.6744 ∗ 𝐶𝑝𝑤 )

Cp Eq. for liquid from Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook page 170

Cpi = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + C4T3 + C5T4

50
𝑇2
𝐶2 2 𝐶3 𝐶4
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + (𝑇2 − 𝑇12 ) + (𝑇23 − 𝑇13 ) + (𝑇24 − 𝑇14 )
𝑇1 2 3 4
𝐶5 5
+ (𝑇2 − 𝑇15 )
5

𝑗
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp ( ) liquid page
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙.𝐾
163
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 105800 -362.23 0.9379 0 0
Water 276370 -2090.1 8.125 -0.01412 9.3701*10-6

412.15
𝐾𝑗
∫ Cp𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT = −1455.957
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙. 𝐾
428.13

𝑄 = 4131.1141 ∗ −1455.957

𝐾𝑗
Q = −6014726.334
ℎ𝑟

51
Energy Balance on Distillation 2

Conditions 12 13 14
Temperature (C) 139 ? ?
Pressure (bar) 7.4 7.3 7.3
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 4131.1141 1211.2074 2919.9067
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
𝑲𝒈 93191.5770 38589.0678 54602.5092
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 )
Composition
Methanol 0.3256 0.99 0.05
H 2O 0.6744 0.01 0.95
DME 0 0 0

Distillation Temperature Profile calculation


7.3 ∗ 760
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = = 5475.450 𝑚𝑚ℎ𝑔
1.01325
Antoine Equation

52
From Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 7th Edition
page 682 Antoine Equation Parameters (P in mmHg, T in °C)
Compound A B C
Methanol 7.9701 1521.23 234
Water 8.14019 1810.94 244.485
DME 7.10736 946.89 248.645

The Overhead vapor


Tbub Calculation for liquid product

Let T= 125.75C

compound x P K K*X
Methanol 0.99 5514.299 1.007095 0.997024
DME 0.01 1773.478 0.323896 0.003239
sum= 1.000263

⸫ Tbub=125.75C

Tdew Calculation for Vapor


Let T=126.25 C
compound y P K y/K
Methanol 0.99 5590.521 1.021016 0.969623
DME 0.01 1801.055 0.328933 0.030401
sum= 1.000024

⸫ Tdew=126.25 C

53
The Bottom
Tbub Calculation for liquid product in Bottom

Let T=163.52 C
compound x P K K*X
Methanol 0.05 13909.88472 2.540409281 0.127020464
Water 0.95 5031.458236 0.918912231 0.872966619
sum= 0.999987

⸫ Tbub=163.52 C

Tdew Calculation for Vapor in Bottom


Let T= 165.6 C
compound y P K y/K
Methanol 0.05 14565.65677 2.660175148 0.018795755
Water 0.95 5300.358344 0.968022367 0.981382282
sum= 1.000178

⸫ Tdew=165.6 C

⸫ T13=142.95 C
T14=163.52 C

54
Condenser and Reboiler duty Calculation
To calculate condenser duty first must Find Reflux ratio by use
Underwood and Fenske equation

𝐾𝑖
Compound K (139 C) 𝛼𝑖 =
𝐾𝑤
Methanol 1.423363 2.977613
Water 0.478021 1

1 𝑥𝑑 𝛼(1 − 𝑥𝑑)
𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = [ − ]
𝛼 − 1 𝑥𝑓 1 − 𝑥𝑓

1 0.99 2.978(0.01)
𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = [ − ]
2.978 − 1 0.3256 0.6744

𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1.515

𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 1.5𝑅𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 2.27

𝐿
𝑅= ⇒𝐿 =𝑅∗𝐷
𝐷

kmol
𝐿 = 2752.748
hr

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑉 = 𝐿 + 𝐷 = 3963.958
ℎ𝑟

55
For total condenser
𝑇𝑏𝑢𝑏

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = 𝑉 (𝜆 + ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT)


𝑇𝑑𝑒𝑤

Latent heat of evaporation At 126 C from Perry's Chemical Engineers’


Handbook page 145,146
compound λ (Kj/Kmol)
Methanol 36418
Water 40680

𝐾𝑗
𝜆 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝜆𝑖 = −36433.254
𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑇𝑏𝑢𝑏

Term [ ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT] Is too small and can be neglected


𝑇𝑑𝑒𝑤

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = 𝑉 𝜆

𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = 3963.958 (−36433.254)

𝑀𝑗
𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟 = −144558.638
ℎ𝑟

56
From Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook Cp page 163, 176
Cp Liquid (j/Kmol.K)
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 105800 -362.23 0.9379 0 0
Water 276370 -2090.1 8.125 -0.01412 9.37E-06
DME 110100 -157.47 0.51853 0 0
Cp Gas (j/Kmol.K)
Compound C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Methanol 39250 87900 1916.5 53650 896.7
Water 33363 26790 2610.5 8896 1169
DME 51480 144200 1603.4 77400 725.4

For liquid
𝑇2
𝐶2 2 𝐶3 𝐶4
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + (𝑇2 − 𝑇12 ) + (𝑇23 − 𝑇13 ) + (𝑇24 − 𝑇14 )
𝑇1 2 3 4
𝐶5 5
+ (𝑇2 − 𝑇15 )
5

For gas
𝑇2
𝐶3 𝐶3
∫ Cp dT = 𝐶1 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) + 𝐶2 ∗ 𝐶3 [coth ( ) − coth ( )] + 𝐶4
𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1
𝐶5 𝐶5
∗ 𝐶5 [tanh ( ) − tanh ( )]
𝑇2 𝑇1

57
Reboiler Heat Duty Calculation
From Energy balance on Distillation Column
𝑄𝑟 + 𝐻𝑓 = 𝐻𝑑 + 𝐻𝑤 + 𝑄𝑐

412.15
𝑀𝑗
𝐻𝑓 = 4131.1141 [ ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT] = 18648.394
ℎ𝑟
273.15

398.89
𝑀𝑗
𝐻𝑑 = 1211.2074 [ ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT] = 13869.388
ℎ𝑟
273.15

436.67
𝑀𝑗
𝐻𝑤 = 2919.9067 [ ∫ Cp 𝑚𝑖𝑥 dT] = 36845.083
ℎ𝑟
273.15

𝑄𝑟 = 𝐻𝑑 + 𝐻𝑤 + 𝑄𝑐 − 𝐻𝑓

𝑀𝑗
𝑄𝑟 = 112492.560
ℎ𝑟

58
Overall Process Energy Balance

In (Mj/hr) Out (Mj/hr)


Heat exchanger 3 224792.4361 DME 13705.62477
Distillation 1 Reboiler 34155.77003 Water 36845.08316
Distillation 2 Reboiler 112492.5605 Heat exchanger 4 6014.726334
Methanol 11831.126 Distillation 1 Condenser 181670.3049
Distillation 2 Condenser 144558.6381
Total 383271.8926 Total 382794.3773

59
Stream Conditions

Conditions Methanol 2 3 4 5 6 7

Temperature (C) 25 25 50 131.7 130 250 377

Pressure (bar) 1 15.5 15.2 14.9 14.9 14.7 14.7


𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆
Molar Flow ( ) 5650.885 5650.885 5650.885 5650.885 6862.0924 6862.0924 6862.0924
𝒉
𝑲𝒈
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 ) 180037.1961 180037.1961 180037.1961 180037.1961 218626.3594 218626.3594 218626.3594

Composition

Methanol 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.198

H2O 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.405

DME 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.396

Conditions 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Temperature (C) 160.1 153.78 162.86 154.98 139 125.7 163.52

Pressure (bar) 14.4 10.4 10.4 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3


𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆
Molar Flow ( ) 6862.0924 6862.0924 4131.1141 4131.1141 4131.1141 1211.2074 2919.9067
𝒉
𝑲𝒈
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 ) 218626.3594 218626.3594 93191.5770 93191.5770 93191.5770 38589.0678 54602.5092

Composition

Methanol 0.198 0.198 0.3256 0.3256 0.3256 0.99 0.05

H2O 0.405 0.405 0.6744 0.6744 0.6744 0.01 0.95

DME 0.396 0.396 0 0 0 0 0

Conditions 15 16 DME Water

Temperature (C) 125.7 125.7 46.1 114.5

Pressure (bar) 7.3 15.5 10.3 7.3


𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆
Molar Flow ( ) 1211.2074 1211.2074 2730.9783 2919.9067
𝒉
𝑲𝒈
Mass Flow ( 𝒉 ) 38589.0678 38589.0678 125434.7824 54602.5092

Composition

Methanol 0.99 0.99 0.005 0.05

H2O 0.01 0.01 0 0.95

DME 0 0 0.995 0

60
Chapter Four
Process Design

61
Design Heat Exchanger 1
Shell Steam Tube
163.5 Temp. in, °C 25
114.5 Temp. out, °C 50
15.2 Pressure (bar) 15.2
𝐾𝑔
180037.196 Mass Flow ( ℎ𝑟 ) 54602.5
3286.424 Q, kW 3286.424
Composition
0 Methanol 0.99
1 H2O 0.01
0 DME 0

Choose horizontal Heat Exchanger 1 shell, 2 tube passes, counter current


flow.

54602.5 𝑘𝑔
𝑚𝑤 = 101.578
3600 𝑠
(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) − (𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (49.68 − 37) − (46.1 − 25)
∆𝑇𝑚 = =
(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) (49.68 − 37)
(𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (46.1 − 25)
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) (49.68 − 46.1)
𝑅= = = 0.298
(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (37 − 25)
To calculate corrected logarithmic mean temperature (Ft) for 1 shell, 2
passes, from Figure 12.19 page 657 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

62
From Figure 12.19 Ft = 0.99
𝑊
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 700
𝑚2 𝐶
Choose standard dimension for stainless steel tube of heat exchanger
From Table 12.3 page 645 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

Tube outside dimeter 25 mm


Wall thickness 2 mm
Tube length 1.83m

𝑄 3286.424
𝐴= = = 46.942 𝑚2
𝐹𝑡 𝑈 ∆𝑇𝑚 0.99 ∗ 700 ∗ 101.02

Surface area of one tube= 𝜋 𝑑 𝑙 = 25 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 1.83 ∗ 𝜋 = 0.1436 𝑚2

46.942
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = = 327
0.1436

Use square pitch,


Pt = 1.25 ∗ 25 𝑚𝑚 = 31.25 𝑚𝑚
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
Tube bundle diameter 𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1

From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6


For 2 passes
K1=0.156, n1=2.291
1
327 2.291
𝐷𝑏 = 25 ( ) = 704𝑚𝑚
0.156

Number of tube in center row


𝐷𝑏 327
𝑁𝑟 = = = 23
𝑃𝑡 31.25

63
Tube-Side Coefficient
25 + 50
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = = 37.5 °𝐶
2

Viscosity for mixture 0.000462 pa.s


Density for mixture 778 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.201 w/m.k

180037.196 𝑚³
Q= = 0.0645
3600 ∗ 778 𝑆

𝜋
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (23 ∗ 10−3 )² = 0.000145 𝑚2
4
327
number of tube for 2 passes = = 163.5
2
area per pass=163.5*0.000145=0.06785
𝑄 0.0645 𝑚
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = = 0.95
𝐴 0.06785 𝑠

Tube-side heat transfer coefficient

𝜌𝑢𝑑 778 ∗ 0.95 ∗ 23 ∗ 0.001


𝑅𝑒 = = = 36795
𝜇 0.000462

𝐶𝑝 ∗ 𝜇 2.682 ∗ 1000 ∗ 0.000462


𝑃𝑟 = = = 6.2
𝐾 0.201

64
from Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6
𝑗𝑓 = 0.0034
-0.14
𝜇
N𝑢𝑑 = 𝑗ℎ 𝑅𝑒 𝑝𝑟⅓ ( )
𝜇𝑤

N𝑢𝑑 = 0.0034 ∗ 36795 ∗ 6.2⅓ = 225


𝑁𝑢𝑑∗𝑘 225.787∗0.2013
hi= = = 1976.556w/m2 ͦC
𝑑𝑖 23∗0.001

Fouling factors: as neither fluid is heavily fouling, use 5000 W/m2 ºC for
mixture in tube side and use 3000 W/m2 ºC for water in shell side
Kw=45 W/m °C for stainless steel

65
Shell-Side Coefficient
Use pull-through floating head, no need for close clearance.
Select baffle spacing (lB) = shell diameter, 45 per cent cut.
From Figure 12.10 page 646, clearance = 94 mm.
Ds= 704+94= 798 mm
𝐷𝑠 798
lB= = = 159.6𝑚𝑚
5 5

114.5 + 163.5
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = = 139 °𝐶
2
Physical properties at 139 °𝐶 From Perry's Chemical Engineers’
Handbook

Viscosity for water 0.000195 pa.s


Density for water 928 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.686 w/m.k

Use Kern’s method to make an approximate estimate.

Cross-flow Area

(31.25 − 25)
𝐴𝑠 = ∗ 798 ∗ 159.5 ∗ 10−6 = 0.0318 𝑚2
31.25
Mass flow-rate, based on inlet conditions
54602.509 𝑘𝑔
𝐺𝑠 = = 476.3535
3600 ∗ 0.0318 𝑠 𝑚2
𝐺𝑠 476.3535 𝑚
𝑢𝑠 = = = 0.5134
𝜌𝑤 928 𝑠

Equivalent diameter, de=


12.7
𝑑𝑒 = (31.252 − 0.785 ∗ 252 ) = 17.75 𝑚𝑚
50

66
𝐺𝑠 𝑑𝑒 476.3535 ∗ 17.75 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 43369.09
𝜇 0.000195
𝐶𝑝∗𝜇 4.2∗1000∗0.000195
𝑃𝑟 = = = 1.193
𝐾 0.686

From Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6


𝑗𝑓 = 0.002
0.14
𝜇
N𝑢𝑑 = 𝑗ℎ 𝑅𝑒 𝑝𝑟⅓ ( )
𝜇𝑤
𝜇 0.14
( ) =1
𝜇𝑤

N𝑢𝑑 = 0.002 ∗ 43369.09 ∗ 1.193⅓ = 91.96


𝑁𝑢𝑑∗𝑘 91.96∗0.686
ho= = = 3553.244 W/m2 ºC
𝑑𝑒 17.75∗0.001

Mean temperature difference =163.5-114.5= 49 ͦ C


𝑈 700
Across water film= ∗ ∆𝑇 = ∗ 49 = 9.6 ͦC
ℎ𝑜 3553.244

Mean wall temperature=163.5-9.6= 153.9 ͦ C


𝜇
( ) = 0.98
𝜇𝑤

67
Overall Coefficient

25
1 1 1 25 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 25 1 25 1
= + + 23 + ∗ + ∗
𝑈0 3553.244 5000 2 ∗ 45 23 3000 23 1976

𝑊
𝑈0 = 705
𝑚2 °𝐶
Same as assumed, firm up design
Shell-side pressure drop
Take pressure drop as 50 per cent of that calculated using the inlet flow;
neglect viscosity correction.

798 1.83 928 ∗ 0.51342


∆𝑃𝑠 = [8 ∗ 0.002 ∗ ( )( ) ] = 1.008 𝐾𝑝𝑎
17.75 159.6 2
= 0.144𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

Tube-side pressure drop


Neglect viscosity correction

1.83 778 ∗ 0.952


∆𝑃𝑡 = 2 [8 ∗ 0.0034 ∗ ( ) + 2.5] = 3.257 𝐾𝑝𝑎
23 ∗ 10−3 2
= 0.467 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

68
Summary

Tube outside diameter 25 mm


Tube length 1.83 m
Wall thickness 2 mm
Number of passes 2
Overall coefficient (Uo) 700 W/m² °C
Heat transfer area 49.942 m²
Area for Tube 0.1436 m²
Number of Tube 327
Use square pitch (pt) 31.25 mm
Tube bundle diameter (Db) 704 mm
Number of tubes in center row (Nr) 23
Shell diameter 798 mm
Shell-side Pressure drop 0.144 psi
Tube-side Pressure drop 0.467 psi

69
Design Heat Exchanger 2
Shell Steam Tube
377 Temp. in, °C 50
160.1 Temp. out, °C 131.7
14.7 Pressure (bar) 14.4
𝐾𝑔
218626.36 Mass Flow ( ) 180037.196
ℎ𝑟
12640 Q, kW 12640
Composition
0.198 Methanol 0.99
0.396 H2O 0.01
0.405 DME 0

Choose horizontal Heat Exchanger 1 shell, 2 tube passes, counter current


flow.

(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) − (𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (377 − 131.7) − (160.1 − 50)


∆𝑇𝑚 = =
(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) (377 − 131.7)
(𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (160.1 − 50)
= 168 ͦ𝐶
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) (377 − 160.1)
𝑅= = = 2.6
(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (131.7 − 50)

(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (131.7 − 50)


𝑆= = = 0.24
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (377 − 50)
To calculate corrected logarithmic mean temperature (Ft) for 1 shell, 2
passes, from Figure 12.19 page 657 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

70
From Figure 12.19 Ft = 0.92
𝑊
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 670
𝑚2 𝐶
Choose standard dimension for stainless steel tube of heat exchanger
From Table 12.3 page 645 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

Tube outside dimeter 20 mm


Wall thickness 2 mm
Tube length 1.83m

𝑄 12640.16 ∗ 1000
𝐴= = = 121.5𝑚2
𝐹𝑡 𝑈 ∆𝑇𝑚 0.92 ∗ 670 ∗ 168.76

Surface area of one tube= 𝜋 𝑑 𝑙 = 20 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 1.83 ∗ 𝜋 = 0.114924 𝑚2

121.5
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = = 1057
0.114924

Use square pitch,


Pt = 1.25 ∗ 20 𝑚𝑚 = 25 𝑚𝑚
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
Tube bundle diameter 𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1

From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6


For 2 passes
K1=0.156, n1=2.291
1
1057 2.291
𝐷𝑏 = 20 ( ) = 940𝑚𝑚
0.156

Number of tube in center row


𝐷𝑏 1057
𝑁𝑟 = = = 38
𝑃𝑡 25

71
Tube-Side Coefficient
131.7 + 50
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = = 90.85 °𝐶
2

Viscosity for mixture 0.000275 pa.s


Density for mixture 721.367 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.1856 w/m.k

180037.196 𝑚³
Q= = 0.0693
3600 ∗ 721.367 𝑆

𝜋
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (18 ∗ 10−3 )² = 0.00025434 𝑚2
4
1057
number of tube for 2 passes = = 529
2
area per pass=529*0.00025434=0.1344
𝑄 0.0693 𝑚
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = = 0.5156
𝐴 0.1344 𝑠

Tube-side heat transfer coefficient

𝜌𝑢𝑑 721.367 ∗ 0.5156 ∗ 18 ∗ 0.001


𝑅𝑒 = = = 24341
𝜇 0.000275

𝐶𝑝 ∗ 𝜇 3.09 ∗ 1000 ∗ 0.000275


𝑃𝑟 = = = 4.579
𝐾 0.1856

72
from Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6
𝑗𝑓 = 0.0038
-0.14
𝜇
N𝑢𝑑 = 𝑗ℎ 𝑅𝑒 𝑝𝑟⅓ ( )
𝜇𝑤

N𝑢𝑑 = 0.0038 ∗ 24341 ∗ 4.579⅓ = 152.82


𝑁𝑢𝑑∗𝑘 152.82∗0.1856
hi= = = 1575.74 w/m2 ͦC
𝑑𝑖 18∗0.001

Fouling factors: as neither fluid is heavily fouling, use 5000 W/m2 ºC for
mixture in tube side and use 3000 W/m2 ºC for water in shell side
Kw=45 W/m °C for stainless steel

73
Shell-Side Coefficient
Use pull-through floating head, no need for close clearance.
Select baffle spacing (lB) = shell diameter, 45 per cent cut.
From Figure 12.10 page 646, clearance = 94 mm.
Ds= 895+95= 990 mm
𝐷𝑠 1035
lB= = = 207𝑚𝑚
5 5

377 + 160.1
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = = 268.55 °𝐶
2
Physical properties at 268.55 °𝐶 From Perry's Chemical Engineers’
Handbook

Viscosity for water 0.00013 pa.s


Density for water 656 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.264 w/m.k

Use Kern’s method to make an approximate estimate.

Cross-flow Area

(25 − 20)
𝐴𝑠 = ∗ 1035 ∗ 207 ∗ 10−6 = 0.04287 𝑚2
25
Mass flow-rate, based on inlet conditions
218626.36 𝑘𝑔
𝐺𝑠 = = 1416.56
3600 ∗ 0.04287 𝑠 𝑚2
𝐺𝑠 1416.56 𝑚
𝑢𝑠 = = = 2.158
𝜌 656 𝑠

Equivalent diameter, de=


12.7
𝑑𝑒 = (252 − 0.785 ∗ 202 ) = 14.2 𝑚𝑚
20

74
𝐺𝑠 𝑑𝑒 1416.56 ∗ 14.2 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 15458
𝜇 0.00013
𝐶𝑝∗𝜇 0.959∗1000∗0.00013
𝑃𝑟 = = = 0.47
𝐾 0.264

From Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6


𝑗𝑓 = 0.002
𝜇
N𝑢𝑑 = 𝑗ℎ 𝑅𝑒 𝑝𝑟⅓ ( )
𝜇𝑤
𝜇
( ) =1
𝜇𝑤

N𝑢𝑑 = 0.002 ∗ 15458 ∗ 0.47⅓ = 289.62


𝑁𝑢𝑑∗𝑘 289.62∗0.264
ho= = = 5390.49 W/m2 ºC
𝑑𝑒 14.2∗0.001

Mean temperature difference =377-160.1= 216.9 ͦ C


𝑈 670
Across water film= ∗ ∆𝑇 = ∗ 216.9 = 26.9 ͦC
ℎ𝑜 5390.49

Mean wall temperature=377-26.9= 350.1 ͦ C


𝜇
( ) = 0.97
𝜇𝑤

75
Overall Coefficient

20
1 1 1 25 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 20 1 20
= + + 18 + ∗ +
𝑈0 5390.49 5000 2 ∗ 45 18 3000 18
1

1575.74

𝑊
𝑈0 = 673
𝑚2 °𝐶
Same as assumed, firm up design
Shell-side pressure drop
Take pressure drop as 50 per cent of that calculated using the inlet flow;
neglect viscosity correction.

1038 1.83 656.347 ∗ 2.1582


∆𝑃𝑠 = [8 ∗ 0.0024 ∗ ( )( ) ] = 18.9 𝐾𝑝𝑎
14.2 207 2
= 2.7𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.
Tube-side pressure drop
Neglect viscosity correction

1.83 721.367 ∗ 0.515652


∆𝑃𝑡 = 2 [8 ∗ 0.0038 ∗ ( ) + 2.5]
18 ∗ 10−3 2
= 1.0722 𝐾𝑝𝑎
= 0.153 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

76
Summary

Tube outside diameter 20 mm


Tube length 1.83 m
Wall thickness 2 mm
Number of passes 2
Overall coefficient (Uo) 670 W/m² °C
Heat transfer area 121.5 m²
Area for Tube 0.1149 m²
Number of Tube 327
Use square pitch (pt) 25 mm
Tube bundle diameter (Db) 940 mm
Number of tubes in center row (Nr) 38
Shell diameter 1035 mm
Shell-side Pressure drop 2.7 psi
Tube-side Pressure drop 0.153 psi

77
Design Heat Exchanger 3
Select kettle type. Physical properties of Methanol and Water at pressure
14.7 bar:

Q(w)= 62012380.19
TBP M(°c)= 154.303
TBP W(°c)= 198
XW= 0.01
XM= 0.99
Mwt= 32.04
Mwt(w)= 18
P in(bar)= 14.7
Pcw(bar)= 220.8885
P cM(bar)= 79.54013

The boiling point of mixture = TBP M(°C) * XM + TBP (°C)*XW


=154.303*0.99 + 198*0.01
= 154.73997 °C
Mean temperature difference; both sides isothermal, steam saturation
temperature at (40 bar) from steam table is (250 °C):

∆Tm = Saturated steam temperature - The boiling point of mixture


=250 - 154.73997 = 95.26003 °C

From table 12.1 page 637, assume over all heat transfer = 1182 (W/m2
°C)

𝑄 62012380.19
Area (outside) required (A) = =
∆Tm∗U 95.26003∗1182

=702.23 m²

Inside diameter(di) 0.036 mm


Outside diameter(do) 0.038mm
Length of Tube 4.88 m

78
𝐴
Number of tube =
𝜋∗Length of Tube∗Outside diameter

702.23
= = 1205.99 ≅1206
𝜋∗0.03∗4.88

Use tringle pitch arrangement, pitch = 1.25 * do


=1.25* 38 = 47.5 mm
Tube bundle diameter
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1
From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
For 2 passes:
K1= 0.319
n1=2.142
1
1206 2.142
𝐷𝑏 = 38 ( ) = 1778.2 mm
0.319

Use Mostinski’s equation ; heat flux, based on estimated area,

𝑄 62012380.2
= =88.3 kw/m²
𝐴 702.23

Pc of mix = Pc M *XM + Pc W * XW = 79.5403 * 0.99 + 220.88 * 0.01


=80.95 bar

79
14.7 0.17 14.7 1.2
hnb =104(80.95)0.69 (88308)0.7 [1.8( ) + 4( ) +
80.95 80.95
14.7 10
10( ) [
80.95

= 11646.04 W/m² °C

38
1 1 1 38 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 38 1 38 1
= + + 36 + ∗ + ∗
𝑈0 111646.04 2500 2 ∗ 59 36 5000 36 8000

𝑈0 = 1181.92 W/m² °C
Check maximum allowable heat flux, use Mostinski’s method

14.7 0.35 14.7 0.9


𝑞𝑐 = 3.67 * 104 (80.95)( ) [1 − ( )] = 136538.9898
80.95 80.95
w/m²
Applying a factor of 0.7, maximum flux should not exceed 136538.9898 *
0.7 =95577.29288 W/m². Actual flux of 88308.3 W/m² is well below
maximum allowable.

Layout
From tube sheet layout Db =2176.533 mm
Take shell diameter as twice bundle diameter
Ds= 2 *1778.2 = 3556.664 mm

Take liquid level as 2300 mm from base,


Freeboard = 3556.664 - 2300 = 1.256 mm

80
From sketch, width at liquid level = 3330 mm

surface area of liquid = 3330 * 4880= 1298.08 mm²

32.04 ∗ 0.99 + 0.01 ∗ 18 273 14.7


𝜌𝑣 = ∗ ∗
22.4 (154.74 + 273) 1
𝑘𝑔
= 13.61 3
𝑚
218626.4 1 1
Velocity of vapor = ∗ ∗ = 0.344 𝑚/𝑠
3600 1298.08 13.61

Maximum velocity:
Find density of Methanol from J. Phys Chem. Ref. Data, vol 16 No. 4,
1987 page 801

a 54.566 c 513.16
b 0.233211 d 0.2088175

81
𝑎 54.466
ρM = 𝑑
= 0.2088175
𝑏1+(1−𝑇/𝑐) 0.2332111+(1−403/513.6)
𝑘𝑔
= 665.7 3
𝑚

From Berry’s chemical Engineering 8th edition page 2-96 ρw=945.9


kg/m³

ρ mix =0.01 * 945.9+ 0.99 *665.7 = 668.502 kg/m³

ρ mix−ρv 668.502−13.61 0.5


u=0.2∗ [ ] =0.2 ∗ [ ] =1.39 m/s
ρv 13.61

So, actual velocity is well below maximum allowable velocity. A smaller


shell diameter could be considered.

Summary

Number of tubes 1206


Diameter of bundle (m) 1.778
Diameter of shell (m) 3.556
Heat Transfer Area (m) 702.226
Liquid Level (m) 2.3
Freeboard (m) 1.256
Velocity of Vapor (m/s) 0.343

82
Design Reactor

Conditions 6 7
Temperature (C) 250 373
Pressure (bar) 14.7 14.7
𝑲𝒎𝒐𝒍𝒆 6862.0924 6862.0924
Molar Flow ( 𝒉
)
Other information
Type of reactor Packed bed reactor
Working Condition Adiabatic reactor
𝑱
E( ) 80400
𝒎𝒐𝒍
𝒌𝒈
Density of catalyst (𝒎𝟑) 1770

The amount the catalyst


𝑊 𝑋 𝑑𝑥
= ∫0 (1)
𝐹𝐴ᶱ −𝑟𝐴

1 1
𝐴↔ 𝐵 + 𝐶
2 2

r(A) = K1 CA2 − K2 CB Cc (𝟐)

𝑃 ∗ 𝑦𝑎 14.7 ∗ 105 ∗ 0.99 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙


𝐶𝐴0 = = = 0.0002692
𝑅𝑇 8314 ∗ 650 𝑚3

𝐶𝐴 = 𝐶𝐴0 (1 − 𝑋) = 0.0002692(1 − 𝑋) (𝟑)


𝑋 𝑋
𝐶𝐵 = 𝐶𝐴0 (Ѳ𝐵 + ) = 0.0002692 (0.01 + ) (𝟒)
2 2
𝑋 𝑋
𝐶𝐶 = 𝐶𝐴0 (Ѳ𝑐 + ) = 0.0002692 ( ) (𝟓)
2 2

−80400
( )
𝐾1 = 5.26 ∗ 109 𝑒 𝑅𝑇 (𝟔)

83
𝐾𝑝523 ∆𝐻𝑟 1 1
𝐿𝑛 ( ) = (− )∗( − )
𝐾𝑝473 𝑅 473 523

𝐾𝑝523 11770 1 1
𝐿𝑛 ( ) = (− )∗ ( − )
34.1 8314 473 523

𝐾𝑝523 = 34.09
𝑘1
𝐾2 = (𝟕)
𝑘𝑝

−∆𝐻𝑟. 𝑋
𝑇 = 𝑇𝑜 +
∑ᶲ𝐶𝑝𝑖
substance ᶲ 𝐶𝑝𝑖
A 1 19.038 + 0.09146𝑇 − 1.218 ∗ 10−5 𝑇 2 −
8.034 ∗ 10−9 𝑇 3
B 0.01 29.163 + 0.01449𝑇 − 0.202 ∗ 10−5 𝑇 2
C 0 17.01 + 0.179𝑇 − 5.2 ∗ 10−5 𝑇 2 − 1.9 ∗
10−9 𝑇 3

−(−11770) 𝑋
𝑇 = 650 +
62.3906
𝑇 = 650 + 188.65 𝑋 (𝟖)
Substation (8) in (6) , Substation in (7)

−9.6704
𝐾2 = 154297447.9 𝑒 (𝟗)
650 + 188.65𝑥
Substation (9)(6)(3)(4)(5) in (2) then (2) in (1)
0.8
w dx
=∫ 9.6704
FAo
0 e−650+188.65x ∗ [(381.18 − 38.18x)2 − (6.2507 ∗ 10−9 𝑥 + 3.1253 ∗ 10−7 𝑥 2 )]

Solve by Simpsons Rule


84
x Fx
0 6.985* 10^-6
0.1333 7.1719* 10^-6
0.2660 7.3663 *10^-6
0.3999 7.5691*10^-6
0.5333 7.7807*10^-6
0.6666 8.0016*10^-6
0.8 8.2324*10^-6

0.8

∫ fx= ∗ (𝐹0 + 𝐹6 + 4(𝐹1 + 𝐹3 + 𝐹5) + 2(𝐹2 + 𝐹4))
0 3
0.1333
=
3
∗ (6.985 ∗ 10−6 + 8.2324 ∗ 10−6
+ 4(7.1719 ∗ 10−6 + 7.5691 ∗ 10−6 + 8.0016 ∗ 10−6 )
+ 2( 17.3663 ∗ 10−6 + 7.7807 ∗ 10−6 )) = 6.4

𝑊 = 6.4 ∗ 𝐹𝐴𝑂 = 6.4 ∗ 6862.0924 = 44123 𝑘𝑔

Volume of catalyst
𝑤
𝑉= = 24.85 𝑚3
𝑝

Volume of Reactor
𝑊 44123
𝑉𝑅 = = = 49.85 𝑚3
𝑝(1 − 𝑒) 1770 ∗ (1 − 0.5)

3.14 2
𝑉= 𝑑 𝐿
4

𝐿 3
=
𝐷 2
𝐿 = 5.25𝑚 𝑑 = 3.5𝑚
85
Summary

Catalyst Weight 4.4 ton


Catalyst Volume 24.85 m3
Reactor Volume 49.85 m3
Reactor Length 5.25 m
Reactor Diameter 3.5 m

86
Design Distillation 1
From Material and Energy balance

Rmin 1.87
Nmin 7.063
R 2.812
Ln, Kmol/hr 7678.578
Vn, Kmol/hr 10409.556
Lm, Kmol/hr 14540.6704
Vm, Kmol/hr 10409.5563

𝑅 2.813
= = 0.7377
𝑅 + 1 3.813

𝑅𝑚 1.87
= = 0.65156
𝑅𝑚 + 1 2.87
From Figure 11.11 Chemical engineering vol. 6 page 524

7.063
𝑁= = 11.578 ≈ 12 𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒
0.61
87
Column Efficiency
𝐸 = 51 − 32.5 𝐿𝑜𝑔(𝛼𝑎 𝜇𝑎 )
𝜇𝑎 = mixture viscosity
From Perry’s Chemical Engineers Handbook, 8th Edition
𝜇𝑎 = 7.38 ∗ 10−5 𝑝𝑎. 𝑠
𝛼𝑎 = volatility of Light Key component
𝛼𝑎 = 5.096 From M.B chapter 2 page 20
𝐸 = 51 − 32.5 𝐿𝑜𝑔(7.38 ∗ 10−5 ∗ 5.096)
Overall efficiency E =0.63
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
𝐸=
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
12 − 1
0.63 = ⇒ 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 = 17.46
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
𝑁 ≈ 18 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒

Top section diameter

𝐿𝑛 𝜌𝑣
𝐹𝐿 = √
𝑉𝑛 𝜌𝐿

T, K 319.1
R 8.314
P, bar 10.3
ρL, Kg/m3 682.869

𝑃 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥
𝜌𝑣 =
𝑅𝑇
𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (32 ∗ 0.005) + (46.07 ∗ 0.995) = 45.999 ∗ 10−3
𝑚𝑜𝑙
10.3 ∗ 105 ∗ 45.999 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = = 17.808 3
8.314 ∗ 319.1 𝑚

88
7678.578 17.808
𝐹𝐿 = √ = 0.1191
10409.556 682.869

Take spacing plate (Lt) = 0.5 m

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (−0.171 𝐿𝑡 2 + 0.27 𝐿𝑡 − 0.047)√
𝜌𝑣

𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (−0.171 (0.5)2 + 0.27(0.5) − 0.047) ∗ 6.111153


𝑚
= 0.2765
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑓 = 𝐾1 √
𝜌𝑣

From figure 11.27 chemical engineering vol. 6 page 568

𝐾1 = 0.082
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 = 0.5011
𝑠

89
𝑈𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.85 ∗ 𝑈𝑓
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.425
𝑠𝑒𝑐

4 𝑢𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚 = √
𝜋 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 ∗ 𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥

4 ∗ 0.452
𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚 = √
𝜋 ∗ 17.808 ∗ 0.2768

𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛 = 0.604 𝑚

Bottom Section Diameter

𝐿𝑚 𝜌𝑣
𝐹𝐿 = √
𝑉𝑚 𝜌𝐿

T, K 435.86
R 8.314
P, bar 10.3
ρL, Kg/m3 813.98

𝑃 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥
𝜌𝑣 =
𝑅𝑇
𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (32 ∗ 0.3356) + (16 ∗ 0.6744) = 21.209 ∗ 10−3
𝑚𝑜𝑙
10.3 ∗ 105 ∗ 21.209 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = = 6.087 3
8.314 ∗ 435.86 𝑚

𝐹𝐿 = 0.12079
Take spacing plate (Lt) = 0.5 m

90
𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (−0.171 (0.5)2 + 0.27(0.5) − 0.047) ∗ √
𝜌𝑣
𝑚
= 0.5213
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑓 = 𝐾1 √
𝜌𝑣

From figure 11.27 chemical engineering vol. 6 page 568

𝐾1 = 0.082
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 = 0.9792
𝑠
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.85 ∗ 𝑈𝑓 = 0.83232
𝑠𝑒𝑐

4 𝑢𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 4 ∗ 0.452
𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚 = √ =√ = 0.7 𝑚
𝜋 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 ∗ 𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝜋 ∗ 17.808 ∗ 0.2768

91
Column Height
1. Actual No. of stage N=18
2. Safety factor = 0.1 ∗ 18 = 1.8
3. 1 plate for reboiler = 2
Total stage 18 + 2 + 1 = 21 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠

Column Height = 0.5 ∗ 21 = 10.5 ≈ 11

Maximum volumetric flow rate

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑉𝑚 = 𝐷(1 + 𝑅) = 47699
ℎ𝑟

𝑉𝑚 ∗ 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 476499 ∗ 21.209 ∗ 0.001 𝑚3


𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 = = = 0.4612
3600 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 3600 ∗ 6.08 𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑉𝑚 ∗ 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 476499 ∗ 45.999 ∗ 0.001 𝑚3


𝑇𝑜𝑝 = = = 0.341
3600 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 3600 ∗ 17.808 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Provisional plate design


Column Diameter 𝐷𝑐 = 0.678 ≈ 0.7 𝑚
𝜋
Column Area = 𝑑 2 = 0.4 𝑚2
4

At 12 percent of Area
𝐴 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑟 = 0.12 ∗ 0.4 = 0.048 𝑚2 = 𝐴𝑑
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴𝑐 − 𝐴𝑑 = 0.352 𝑚2 = 𝐴𝑁
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴𝑐 − 2𝐴𝑑 = 0.304 𝑚2 = 𝐴𝑎
Hole Area Ah ⇒ take 10 percent from Aa as first trial
𝐴ℎ = 0.1 ∗ 0.304 = 0.0304 𝑚2
92
Weir Length
From figure 11.31 from Chemical engineering vol. 6 page 573

𝐴𝑑
∗ 100% = 12
𝐴𝑐
𝐿𝑤
From the figure ⇒ = 0.77 ⟹ 𝐿𝑤 = 0.539 𝑚
𝐷𝑐

Plate thickness = 55 mm
Hole diameter = 5 mm =dh
The weir height = 50 mm = hw

93
Check Weeping
𝐿𝑚 ×𝑀𝑤𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑥
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 (𝐿𝑤) =
3600
14540.6704 ∗ 21.209 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑔
= = 0.08566
3600 𝑠
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 (𝑙𝑤) = 70 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝑘𝑔
= 0.7 ∗ 0.08566 = 0.059
𝑠𝑒𝑐

2 2
𝐿𝑤 3 0.08566 3
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 [ ] = 750 [ ]
𝜌𝑙 × 𝑙𝑤 813.98 ∗ 0.059
= 2.524 𝑚𝑚 𝐿𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
2 2
𝑙𝑤 3 0.059 3
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 [ ] = 750 [ ]
𝜌𝑙 × 𝐿𝑤 813.98 ∗ 0.08566
= 1.968 𝑚𝑚 𝐿𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑

At minimum rate
ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 50 + 1.968 = 51.968 𝑚𝑚
From figure. (11.30) From chemical engineering vol. 6 page 571

94
𝐾2 = 30.1

[𝐾2 − 0.9 (25.4 − 𝑑ℎ )]


Minimum vapor velocity = 𝑈ℎ^ = 1
(𝜌𝑣)2
[30.1 − 0.9 (25.4 − 5 )] 𝑚
= 1 = 4.75
𝑠
(6.087)2

𝑀𝑖𝑛. 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝐴𝑎
0.6 ×0.4612 𝑚
= = 9.55
0.0304 𝑠

Plate Pressure Drop

Dry plate drop


Maximum vapor velocity through holes

0.461 𝑚
𝑈ℎ^ = = 15.17
0.0304 𝑠

From Figure 11.34 Chemical engineering vol. 6 page 576

95
𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘 5 𝑚𝑚
= = 1 𝑚𝑚
𝐻𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 5 𝑚𝑚

𝐴ℎ 𝐴ℎ 0.0304
≈ 𝑎𝑡 100 𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 = = 10
𝐴𝑝 𝐴𝑎 0.304

𝐶𝑜 = 0.84

96
pressure drop through dry plate

2
𝑈ℎ^ 𝜌𝑣 15.17 2 6.087
ℎ𝑑 = 51 [ ] . = 51 [ ] = 124.38 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝐶0 𝜌𝑙 0.84 813.98

Residual head

12.5 ×103 12.5 ∗ 103


ℎ𝑟 = = = 15.35
𝜌𝑙 813.98

Total plate Pressure drop


ℎ𝑡 = ℎ𝑑 + (ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤) + ℎ𝑟
ℎ𝑡 = 124.38 + 51.968 + 15.35 = 191.698 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑

Down comer Liquid Beak up


Down comer pressure loss
Take ℎ𝑎𝑝 = ℎ𝑤 − 10 = 40 𝑚𝑚

Area under apron, 𝐴𝑎𝑝 = ℎ𝑎𝑝 ∗ 𝑙𝑤 = 40 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 0.539 = 0.0215 𝑚2


2 2
𝐿𝑤𝑑 0.08566 −6
ℎ𝑑𝑐 = 166 [ ] = 166 [ ] = 4.168 ∗ 10
𝜌𝑙 ×𝐴𝑚 813.98 ∗ 0.0215

97
Back up in down comer

ℎ𝑏 = (ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤) + ℎ𝑡 + ℎ𝑑𝑐


ℎ𝑏 = 51.968 + 191.698 + 4.168 ∗ 10−6 = 0.24366 𝑚
1
0.24366 < (𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 + 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡)
2
So, tray spacing is acceptable.

Check Residence time


𝐴𝑑 ×ℎ𝑏𝑐 × 𝜌𝑙 4.168 ∗ 10−5 ∗ 0.24366 ∗ 813.98
𝑡𝑟 = = = 3.912 𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝐿𝑤𝑑 0.08566

Perforated Area

From figure 11.32 from chemical engineering vol. 6 page 574

𝐿𝑤
= 0.77 ⟹ Ө𝑐 = 99˚
𝐷𝑐
98
Angle subtended at plate edge by imperforated strip = 180-99 = 81˚
81
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ, 𝑢𝑛𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠 = (0.7– 50×10−3 )𝜋
180
= 0.91 𝑚

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠 = ℎ𝑤 ∗ 0.91 = 50 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 0.91


= 0.049 𝑚2

Ө𝑐
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒 = (𝐷𝑐 − ℎ𝑤) sin ( )
2
99
= (0.7 − 50 ∗ 10^ − 3 ) sin ( ) = 0.494 𝑚
2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑠 = 2(𝐿𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 ∗ ℎ𝑤) = 2(0.494 ∗ 50 𝑥10−3 )


= 0.0494 𝑚2

Total Area of perforated


𝐴𝑝 = 𝐴𝑎 − 𝐴. 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝 − 𝐴𝑒𝑟𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒
= 0.304 − 0.049 − 0.0494 = 0.205 𝑚2

𝐴ℎ 0.0304
= = 0.148
𝐴𝑝 0.205

From figure 11.33 from chemical engineering vol. 6 page 575

99
𝐿𝑝
= 2.61 satisfacory
𝑑ℎ

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 = 𝜋𝑑 2 = 𝜋(5 ∗ 10−3 )2 = 1.964 ∗ 10−5 𝑚


𝐴ℎ 0.0304
𝑁𝑜 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 = = = 1548
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 1.964 ∗ 105
Summary

Total plate 21
Column diameter 0.7 m
Column Height 11 m
Hole size 5 mm
Hole pitch 12.5 mm
Active holes 1548
Turn down 70% max rate
Plate material Mild steel
Down comer material Mild steel
Plate spacing 0.5 m
Plate pressure drop 124.38 mm liq.
Plate thickness 55 mm

100
Design Condenser for Distillation 1
Shell Steam Tube
49.68 Temp. in, °C 25
46.1 Temp. out, °C 37
10.4 Pressure (bar) 10.4
𝑲𝒈
478110.9267 Mass Flow ( ) 478110.9267
𝒔
5046.397358 Q, kW 5046.397358
Composition
0.005 Methanol 0
0 H2O 1
0.995 DME 0

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑤 𝑐𝑝 𝑤 ∆𝑇
5046.397 𝑘𝑔
𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 = = 101.578
(37 − 25) ∗ 4.18 𝑠

𝑊
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 538
𝑚2 𝐶
Choose horizontal Heat Exchanger 1 shell, 4 tube passes.
To calculate corrected logarithmic mean temperature (Ft) for 1 shell, 4
passes, from Figure 12.19 page 657 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

101
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) (49.68 − 46.1)
𝑅= = = 0.298
(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (37 − 25)

(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (37 − 25)


𝑆= = = 0.486
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (49.68 − 25)
From Figure 12.19 Ft = 0.97

Choose standard dimension for stainless steel tube of heat exchanger


from Table 12.3 page 645 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
Tube outside dimeter 50 mm
Wall thickness 2 mm
Tube length 3.66 m

(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) − (𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (49.68 − 37) − (46.1 − 25)


∆𝑇𝑚 = =
(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) (49.68 − 37)
𝐿𝑛 𝐿𝑛
(𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (46.1 − 25)
∆𝑇𝑚 = 16.5 °𝐶
𝑄 5046.397358
𝐴= = = 583.12 𝑚2
𝐹𝑡 𝑈 ∆𝑇𝑚 0.97 ∗ 538 ∗ 16.5

Surface area of one tube= 𝜋 𝑑 𝑙 = 50 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 3.66 ∗ 𝜋 = 0.5746 𝑚2

583.12
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = = 1015
0.5746

Use square pitch, Pt = 1.25 ∗ 50 𝑚𝑚 = 62.5 𝑚𝑚


Tube bundle diameter
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1
From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
For 4 passes
K1=0.158, n1=2.263

102
1
1015 2.263
𝐷𝑏 = 50 ( ) = 2408 𝑚𝑚
0.158

Number of tube in center row


𝐷𝑏 2408
𝑁𝑟 = = = 39
𝑃𝑡 62.5

Shell-Side Coefficient
Estimate tube wall temperature Tw:
𝑊
assume condensing coefficient of 1704
𝑚2 °𝐶

Mean temperature
49.68 + 46.1
𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 (𝑇𝑠 ) = = 47.89 °𝐶
2
25 + 37
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 − 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 (𝑇𝑡 ) = = 31 °𝐶
2
(𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑤 ) 𝑈𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 = (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑡 ) 𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙
(47.89 − 𝑇𝑤 ) 1704 = (47.89 − 31) 538
𝑇𝑤 = 42.56 °𝐶
42.56 + 47.89
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 = = 45.2 °𝐶
2
Physical properties at 45.2 °𝐶 From Perry's Chemical Engineers’
Handbook

Viscosity for liquid 0.000674 pa.s


Density for liquid 620.82 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.581 w/m.k

Vapour density at mean temperature


45.93 273 10.4 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = ∗ ∗ = 18.4 3
22.4 (45.2 + 273) 1 𝑚

103
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 478110.9267 𝑘𝑔
𝛤ℎ = = = 0.0358
𝐿 𝑁𝑡 3.66 ∗ 1015 𝑠𝑚

2
Average number of tubes in a vertical tube row, 𝑁𝑟 = ∗ 39 = 26
3
1
620.82(620.82 − 18.4) 3

1
ℎ𝑐 = 0.95 ∗ 0.581 ∗ [ ] ∗ 26 6
0.000674 ∗ 0.0358
𝑊
ℎ𝑐 = 1704.42
𝑚2 °𝐶
Same as assumed so no need to correction

Tube-Side Coefficient
𝜋 1015
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (48 ∗ 10−3 ) ∗ = 0.459 𝑚2
4 4
Density of water at 31ºC =992.48 kg/m3
𝐺 101.578 𝑚
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = = 0.223
𝜌 𝐴 992.48 ∗ 0.459 𝑠
Tube-side heat transfer coefficient

4200(1.35 + 0.02 ∗ 31) ∗ 0.2230.8 𝑊


ℎ𝑖 = = 1148.66
480.2 𝑚2 °𝐶

Fouling factors: as neither fluid is heavily fouling, use 6000 W/m2 ºC for
each side
Kw=45 W/m °C for stainless steel

104
Overall Coefficient

50
1 1 1 50 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 50 1 50
= + + 48 + ∗ +
𝑈0 1704.42 6000 2 ∗ 45 48 6000 48
1

1148.66
𝑊
𝑈0 = 538.64 2
𝑚 °𝐶
Same as assumed, firm up design

Shell-side pressure drop


Use pull-through floating head, no need for close clearance.
Select baffle spacing (lB) = shell diameter, 45 per cent cut.
From Figure 12.10 page 646, clearance = 110 mm.

𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 𝑖. 𝑑. (𝐷𝑠 ) = 110 + 2408 = 2518 𝑚𝑚


Use Kern’s method to make an approximate estimate.

Cross-flow Area

(62.5 − 50)
𝐴𝑠 = ∗ 2518 ∗ 2518 ∗ 10−6 = 1.27 𝑚2
62.5
Mass flow-rate, based on inlet conditions
478110.9267 𝑘𝑔
𝐺𝑠 = = 104.767
3600 ∗ 1.27 𝑠 𝑚2

Equivalent diameter, de=


12.7
𝑑𝑒 = (62.52 − 0.785 ∗ 502 ) = 49.37 𝑚𝑚
50
105
Vapour viscosity = 9.10*10-06 pa.s
𝐺𝑠 𝑑𝑒 104.767 ∗ 49.37 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 568406.057
𝜇 9.10 ∗ 10−06

From Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6

𝑗𝑓 = 0.018
𝐺𝑠 104.767 𝑚
𝑢𝑠 = = = 3.49
𝜌𝑣 30.1 𝑠
Take pressure drop as 50 per cent of that calculated using the inlet flow;
neglect viscosity correction.

1 2518 3.66 30.1 ∗ 3.492


∆𝑃𝑠 = [8 ∗ 0.018 ∗ ( )( ) ] = 0.98 𝐾𝑝𝑎
2 49.37 2.518 2
= 0.14 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

106
Tube-side pressure drop
Viscosity of water= 0.0008 pa.s
𝜌𝑢𝑑 992.48 ∗ 0.223 ∗ 48 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 13196.69
𝜇 0.0008

From Figure 12.24 page 668 Chemical engineering Vol 6

𝑗𝑓 = 0.0045
Neglect viscosity correction

3.66 992.48 ∗ 0.2232


∆𝑃𝑡 = 4 [8 ∗ 0.0045 ∗ ( ) + 2.5] = 1.04 𝐾𝑝𝑎
48 ∗ 10−3 2
= 0.15 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

107
Summary

Tube outside diameter 50 mm


Tube length 3.66 m
Wall thickness 2 mm
Number of passes 4
Overall coefficient (Uo) 538.642 W/m² °C
Heat transfer area 583.1221 m²
Area for Tube 0.57462 m²
Number of Tube 1015
Use square pitch (pt) 62.5 mm
Tube bundle diameter (Db) 2408 mm
Number of tubes in center row (Nr) 39
Shell diameter 2518 mm
Shell-side Pressure drop 0.14 psi
Tube-side Pressure drop 0.15 psi

108
Design Reboiler for Distillation 1

Select kettle type. Physical properties of Methanol and Water at pressure


10.4 bar from perry chemical engineering:

Q(w)= 9487714
TBP M(°c)= 139
TBP W(°c)= 198
XW= 0.7574
XM= 0.2426
Mwt= 32.04
Mwt(w)= 18
P in(bar)= 10.7
Pcw(bar)= 220.8885
P cM(bar)= 79.54013
The boiling point of mixture = TBP
M(°C) * XM + TBP (°C)*XW

=139*0.2426 + 198*0.7574
= 170.81°C

Mean temperature difference; both sides isothermal, steam saturation


temperature at (40 bar) from steam table is (250 °C):

∆Tm = Saturated steam temperature - The boiling point of mixture

=250 – 170.81 = 79.189 °C


From table 12.1 page 637, assume over all heat transfer = 1096 (W/m2
°C)
𝑄 9487714
Area (outside) required (A) = =
∆Tm∗U 79.189∗1095

=109.61m ²

109
Inside diameter(di) 26.4 mm
Outside diameter(do) 30 mm
Length of Tube 4.88 m

𝐴
Number of tube =
𝜋∗Length of Tube∗Outside diameter
109.61
=𝜋∗0.03∗4.88 = 237.45 ≅238
Use Mostinski’s equation ; heat flux, based on estimated area,

𝑄 9487714
= =86.5538 kw/m²
𝐴 109.61
Pc of mix = Pc M *XM + Pc W * XW = 79.5403 * 0.2426 + 220.88 *
0.7574=186.6 bar

10.4 0.17 10.4 1.2


hnb =104(186.6 )0.69 (81817.62)0.7 [1.8( ) + 4( ) +
186.6 186.6
10.4 10
10( ) [
186.6

= 12935.59 W/m² °C

110
30
1 1 1 30 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 30 1 30
= + + 26.4 + ∗ +
𝑈0 12935.59 2500 2 ∗ 59.9 26.4 3000 26.4
1

8000
𝑈0 =1095.308 W/m² °C
Check maximum allowable heat flux, use Mostinski’s method

10.4 10.4
𝑞𝑐 = 3.67 * 104 (186.5974)( )0.35 [1 − ( )]0.9
186.5974 186.5974

=236.7559 kw/m²
Applying a factor of 0.7, maximum flux should not exceed 236.7559 ∗
kW
0.7 = 165.7299 . Actual flux of 86.81762 kW/m² is well below
m2
maximum allowable.

Layout
Use square pitch arrangement, pitch = 1.5 * do
=1.5 * 30 = 45 mm
Tube bundle diameter
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1
From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
For 1 passes:
K1= 0.215
n1=2.027

111
1
239 2.027
𝐷𝑏 = 30 ( ) = 951.51 mm
0.215

Take shell diameter as twice bundle diameter


Ds= 2 * 953.51 = 1902.73 mm
Take liquid level as 1450 mm from base,
Freeboard = 1902.73- 1450 = 452.73 mm

From sketch, width at liquid level =1670 mm


surface area of liquid = 1670* 4880= 7.076 mm²

32.04∗02426+0.7574∗18 273 14.7


𝜌𝑣 = ∗ (162+273) ∗
22.4 1
𝑘𝑔
8.936=
𝑚3
218626.4 1 1
Velocity of vapor = ∗ ∗ = 0.9604 𝑚/𝑠
3600 37.076 8.936

112
Maximum velocity
Find density of Methanol from J. Phys Chem. Ref. Data, vol 16 No. 4,
1987 page 801
a 54.566 c 513.16
b 0.233211 d 0.2088175

𝑎 54.466
ρM=
1+(1−𝑇/𝑐)𝑑
= 0.2088175
𝑏 0.2332111+(1−(435/513.6)

=618.82 kg/m³
From Berry’s chemical Engineering 8th edition page 2-96 ρw=903.6
kg/m³
ρ mix =0.7574* 903.6+ 0.2426*618.82 = 834.5134 kg/m³

ρ mix−ρv 834.5134−8.936 0.5


u=0.2∗ [ ] =0.2 ∗ [ ] =1.923 m/s
ρv 8.936

So, actual velocity is well below maximum allowable velocity. A smaller


shell diameter could be considered.

Summary

Number of tubes 238


Diameter of bundle (m) 0.95
Diameter of shell (m) 1.902
Heat Transfer Area (m) 109.12
Liquid Level (m) 1.45
Freeboard (m) 0.45
Velocity of Vapor (m/s) 0.96

113
Design Heat Exchanger 4
Shell Steam Tube
25 Temp. in, °C 154.98
60 Temp. out, °C 139
7.4 Pressure (bar) 7.4
𝐾𝑔
93191.577 Mass Flow ( ) 40916
ℎ𝑟
1670 Q, kW 1670
Composition
0 Methanol 0.336
1 H2O 0.664
0 DME 0

Choose horizontal Heat Exchanger 1 shell, 2 tube passes, counter current


flow.

(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) − (𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (154.98 − 60) − (139 − 25)


∆𝑇𝑚 = =
(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) (154.98 − 60)
(𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (139 − 25)
= 104 ͦ𝐶
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) (25 − 60)
𝑅= = = 2.19
(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (139 − 154.98)

(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (139 − 154.98)


𝑆= = = 0.122
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 ) (25 − 154.98)
To calculate corrected logarithmic mean temperature (Ft) for 1 shell, 2
passes, from Figure 12.19 page 657 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

114
From Figure 12.19 Ft = 0.97
𝑊
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 755
𝑚2 𝐶
Choose standard dimension for stainless steel tube of heat exchanger
From Table 12.3 page 645 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

Tube outside dimeter 30 mm


Wall thickness 2 mm
Tube length 1.83m

𝑄 1670 ∗ 1000
𝐴= = = 21.8𝑚2
𝐹𝑡 𝑈 ∆𝑇𝑚 0.97 ∗ 670 ∗ 168.76

Surface area of one tube= 𝜋 𝑑 𝑙 = 30 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 1.83 ∗ 𝜋 = 0.172 𝑚2

21.8
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = = 127
0.172

Use square pitch,


Pt = 1.25 ∗ 30 𝑚𝑚 = 37.5 𝑚𝑚
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
Tube bundle diameter 𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1

From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6


For 2 passes
K1=0.156, n1=2.291
1
127 2.291
𝐷𝑏 = 20 ( ) = 559𝑚𝑚
0.156

2408

Number of tube in center row


𝐷𝑏 559
𝑁𝑟 = = = 15
𝑃𝑡 37.5
115
Tube-Side Coefficient
154.98 + 139
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = = 147 °𝐶
2

Viscosity for mixture 0.000186 pa.s


Density for mixture 829 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.47798 w/m.k

93191.577 𝑚³
Q= = 0.0312
3600 ∗ 829 𝑆

𝜋
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (28 ∗ 10−3 )² = 0.000615 𝑚2
4
127
number of tube for 2 passes = = 64
2
area per pass=54*0.000615=0.039
𝑄 0.0312 𝑚
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = = 0.8
𝐴 0.039 𝑠

Tube-side heat transfer coefficient

𝜌𝑢𝑑 829 ∗ 0.8 ∗ 28 ∗ 0.001


𝑅𝑒 = = = 99717
𝜇 0.000168

𝐶𝑝 ∗ 𝜇 4 ∗ 1000 ∗ 0.000168
𝑃𝑟 = = =2
𝐾 0.47798

116
from Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6
𝑗𝑓 = 0.0028
-0.14
𝜇
N𝑢𝑑 = 𝑗ℎ 𝑅𝑒 𝑝𝑟⅓ ( )
𝜇𝑤

N𝑢𝑑 = 0.0028 ∗ 99717 ∗ 2⅓ = 323


𝑁𝑢𝑑∗𝑘 323∗0.47798
hi= = = 5515.597w/m2 ͦC
𝑑𝑖 28∗0.001

Fouling factors: as neither fluid is heavily fouling, use 5000 W/m2 ºC for
mixture in tube side and use 3000 W/m2 ºC for water in shell side
Kw=45 W/m °C for stainless steel

117
Shell-Side Coefficient
Use pull-through floating head, no need for close clearance.
Select baffle spacing (lB) = shell diameter, 45 per cent cut.
From Figure 12.10 page 646, clearance = 94 mm.
Ds= 559+95= 654 mm
𝐷𝑠 654
lB= = = 131𝑚𝑚
5 5

25 + 60
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = = 42.5 °𝐶
2
Physical properties at 268.55 °𝐶 From Perry's Chemical Engineers’
Handbook

Viscosity for water 0.000642 pa.s


Density for water 987 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.629 w/m.k

Use Kern’s method to make an approximate estimate.

Cross-flow Area

(37.5 − 30)
𝐴𝑠 = ∗ 654 ∗ 131 ∗ 10−6 = 0.02568 𝑚2
30
Mass flow-rate, based on inlet conditions
40916 𝑘𝑔
𝐺𝑠 = = 442.57
3600 ∗ 0.02568 𝑠 𝑚2
𝐺𝑠 442.57 𝑚
𝑢𝑠 = = = 0.449
𝜌 987 𝑠

Equivalent diameter, de=


12.7
𝑑𝑒 = (37.52 − 0.785 ∗ 302 ) = 21.3015 𝑚𝑚
30
𝐺𝑠 𝑑𝑒 442.571 ∗ 21.3015 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 14683
𝜇 0.000642
118
𝐶𝑝∗𝜇 4.18∗1000∗0.000642
𝑃𝑟 = = = 4.287
𝐾 0.629

From Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6


𝑗𝑓 = 0.0026
𝜇
N𝑢𝑑 = 𝑗ℎ 𝑅𝑒 𝑝𝑟⅓ ( )
𝜇𝑤
𝜇
( ) =1
𝜇𝑤

N𝑢𝑑 = 0.0026 ∗ 14683 ∗ 4.287⅓ = 61.7


𝑁𝑢𝑑∗𝑘 61.7∗0.629
ho= = = 1822 W/m2 ºC
𝑑𝑒 21.3015∗0.001

Mean temperature difference =60-25= 35 ͦ C


𝑈 755
Across water film= ∗ ∆𝑇 = ∗ 35 = 14 ͦC
ℎ𝑜 1822

Mean wall temperature=60-14= 48 ͦ C


𝜇
( ) = 0.96
𝜇𝑤

119
Overall Coefficient

30
1 1 1 30 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 30 1 30 1
= + + 28 + ∗ + ∗
𝑈0 1822 5000 2 ∗ 45 28 3000 28 5515.597

𝑊
𝑈0 = 755.7
𝑚2 °𝐶
Same as assumed, firm up design
Shell-side pressure drop
Take pressure drop as 50 per cent of that calculated using the inlet flow;
neglect viscosity correction.

654 1.83 987 ∗ 0.4492


∆𝑃𝑠 = [8 ∗ 0.0026 ∗ ( )( ) ] = 0.88 𝐾𝑝𝑎
21.3 131 2
= 0.127 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.
Tube-side pressure drop
Neglect viscosity correction

1.83 829 ∗ 0.7992


∆𝑃𝑡 = 2 [8 ∗ 0.0028 ∗ ( ) + 2.5]
28 ∗ 10−3 2
= 1.994 𝐾𝑝𝑎
= 0.2859 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

120
Summary

Tube outside diameter 30 mm


Tube length 1.83 m
Wall thickness 2 mm
Number of passes 2
Overall coefficient (Uo) 755 W/m² °C
Heat transfer area 21.8 m²
Area for Tube 0.172 m²
Number of Tube 127
Use square pitch (pt) 37.5 mm
Tube bundle diameter (Db) 559 mm
Number of tubes in center row (Nr) 15
Shell diameter 654 mm
Shell-side Pressure drop 0.127 psi
Tube-side Pressure drop 0.2859 psi

121
Design Distillation 2
From Material and Energy balance

Rmin 1.515
Nmin 7.6314
R 2.72
Ln, Kmol/hr 2752.784
Vn, Kmol/hr 3963.958
Lm, Kmol/hr 6883.8981
Vm, Kmol/hr 3963.9915

𝑅 2.27
= = 0.6941
𝑅 + 1 3.27

𝑅𝑚 1.515
= = 0.6023
𝑅𝑚 + 1 2.515
From Figure 11.11 Chemical engineering vol. 6 page 524

6.3124
𝑁= = 10.69 ≈ 11 𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒
0.5.9
122
Column Efficiency
𝐸 = 51 − 32.5 𝐿𝑜𝑔(𝛼𝑎 𝜇𝑎 )
𝜇𝑎 = mixture viscosity
From Perry’s Chemical Engineers Handbook, 8th Edition
𝜇𝑎 = 1.97 ∗ 10−4 𝑝𝑎. 𝑠
𝛼𝑎 = volatility of Light Key component
𝛼𝑎 = 2.977613 From M.B chapter 2 page 20
𝐸 = 51 − 32.5 𝐿𝑜𝑔(1.97 ∗ 10−4 ∗ 2.977613)
Overall efficiency E =0.61
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
𝐸=
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
11 − 1
0.63 = ⇒ 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 = 16.39
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠
𝑁 ≈ 17 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒

Top section diameter

𝐿𝑛 𝜌𝑣
𝐹𝐿 = √
𝑉𝑛 𝜌𝐿

T, K 398.7
R 8.314
P, bar 7.3
ρL, Kg/m3 678.64

𝑃 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥
𝜌𝑣 =
𝑅𝑇
𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (32 ∗ 0.99) + (18 ∗ 0.01) = 31.86 ∗ 10−3
𝑚𝑜𝑙
7.3 ∗ 105 ∗ 31.86 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = = 7.0163 3
8.314 ∗ 398.7 𝑚

123
2752.784 7.0163
𝐹𝐿 = √ = 0.0706
3963.958 678.64

Take spacing plate (Lt) = 0.5 m

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (−0.171 𝐿𝑡 2 + 0.27 𝐿𝑡 − 0.047)√
𝜌𝑣

𝑚
𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (−0.171 (0.5)2 + 0.27(0.5) − 0.047) ∗ 9.7838 = 0.2765
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑓 = 𝐾1 √
𝜌𝑣

From figure 11.27 chemical engineering vol. 6 page 568

𝐾1 = 0.073
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 = 0.7142
𝑠

124
𝑈𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.85 ∗ 𝑈𝑓
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.6070
𝑠𝑒𝑐

4 𝑢𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚 = √
𝜋 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 ∗ 𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥

4 ∗ 0.6070
𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚 = √
𝜋 ∗ 7.0163 ∗ 0.4427

𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛 = 0.693 𝑚

Bottom Section Diameter

𝐿𝑚 𝜌𝑣
𝐹𝐿 = √
𝑉𝑚 𝜌𝐿

T, K 436.52
R 8.314
P, bar 7.3
ρL, Kg/m3 881.45

𝑃 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥
𝜌𝑣 =
𝑅𝑇
𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (32 ∗ 0.05) + (18 ∗ 0.95) = 18.7 ∗ 10−3
𝑚𝑜𝑙
7.3 ∗ 105 ∗ 18.7 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = = 3.7614 3
8.314 ∗ 436.52 𝑚

𝐹𝐿 = 0.1134
Take spacing plate (Lt) = 0.5 m

125
𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (−0.171 (0.5)2 + 0.27(0.5) − 0.047) ∗ √
𝜌𝑣
𝑚
= 0.6912
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣
𝑈𝑓 = 𝐾1 √
𝜌𝑣

From figure 11.27 chemical engineering vol. 6 page 568

𝐾1 = 0.083
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 = 1.261
𝑠
𝑚
𝑈𝑓 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.85 ∗ 𝑈𝑓 = 1.0718
𝑠𝑒𝑐

4 𝑢𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 4 ∗ 1.0618
𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚 = √ =√ = 0.72 𝑚
𝜋 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 ∗ 𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝜋 ∗ 3.7614 ∗ 0.6912

126
Column Height
1. Actual No. of stage N=17
2. Safety factor = 0.1 ∗ 18 = 1.7 = 2
3. 1 plate for reboiler = 2
Total stage 17 + 2 + 1 = 20 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠

Column Height = 0.5 ∗ 21 = 10 m


Maximum volumetric flow rate

𝐾𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑉𝑚 = 𝐷(1 + 𝑅) = 3960.6481
ℎ𝑟

𝑉𝑚 ∗ 𝑀𝑤𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑥 3960.6481 ∗ 31.86 ∗ 0.001 𝑚3


𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 = = = 0.4995
3600 ∗ 𝜌𝑣 3600 ∗ 7.0163 𝑠𝑒𝑐

Provisional plate design


Column Diameter 𝐷𝑐 = 0.72 𝑚
𝜋
Column Area = 𝑑 2 = 0.407 𝑚2
4

At 12 percent of Area
𝐴 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑟 = 0.12 ∗ 0.407 = 0.0488 𝑚2 = 𝐴𝑑
𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴𝑐 − 𝐴𝑑 = 0.358 𝑚2 = 𝐴𝑁
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴𝑐 − 2𝐴𝑑 = 0.3094 𝑚2 = 𝐴𝑎
Hole Area Ah ⇒ take 10 percent from Aa as first trial
𝐴ℎ = 0.1 ∗ 0.304 = 0.03094 𝑚2

127
Weir Length
From figure 11.31 from Chemical engineering vol. 6 page 573

𝐴𝑑
∗ 100% = 11.1
𝐴𝑐
𝐿𝑤
From the figure ⇒ = 0.78 ⟹ 𝐿𝑤 = 0.561 𝑚
𝐷𝑐

Plate thickness = 55 mm
Hole diameter = 5 mm =dh
The weir height = 50 mm = hw

Check Weeping

𝐿𝑚 ×𝑀𝑤𝑡 𝑚𝑖𝑥
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 (𝐿𝑤) =
3600
6883.89881 ∗ 18.7 ∗ 10−3 𝑘𝑔
= = 0.0357
3600 𝑠
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 (𝑙𝑤) = 70 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝑘𝑔
= 0.7 ∗ 0.0357 = 0.0249
𝑠𝑒𝑐
128
2 2
𝐿𝑤 3 0.0357 3
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 [ ] = 750 [ ]
𝜌𝑙 × 𝑙𝑤 881.45 ∗ 0.561
= 1.3 𝑚𝑚 𝐿𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
2 2
𝑙𝑤 3 0.0249 3
𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 750 [ ] = 750 [ ]
𝜌𝑙 × 𝐿𝑤 881.45 ∗ 0.51
= 1.022 𝑚𝑚 𝐿𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑

At minimum rate
ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤 = 50 + 1.022 = 51.022 𝑚𝑚
From figure. (11.30) From chemical engineering vol. 6 page 571

𝐾2 = 30

[𝐾2 − 0.9 (25.4 − 𝑑ℎ )]


Minimum vapor velocity = 𝑈ℎ^ = 1
(𝜌𝑣)2
[30 − 0.9 (25.4 − 5 )] 𝑚
= 1 = 4.75
𝑠
(3.7614)2

129
𝑀𝑖𝑛. 𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝐴𝑎
0.61 ×0.4995 𝑚
= = 9.84
0.03094 𝑠

Plate Pressure Drop

Dry plate drop


Maximum vapor velocity through holes

0.4995 𝑚
𝑈ℎ^ = = 16.14
0.03094 𝑠

From Figure 11.34 Chemical engineering vol. 6 page 576

130
𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘 5 𝑚𝑚
= = 1 𝑚𝑚
𝐻𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 5 𝑚𝑚

𝐴ℎ 𝐴ℎ 0.03094
≈ 𝑎𝑡 100 𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 = = 10
𝐴𝑝 𝐴𝑎 0.3094

𝐶𝑜 = 0.84

pressure drop through dry plate

2
𝑈ℎ 𝜌𝑣 16.14 2 3.7614
ℎ𝑑 = 51 [ ] . = 51 [ ] = 80.34 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝐶0 𝜌𝑙 0.84 881.45

Residual head

12.5 ×103 12.5 ∗ 103


ℎ𝑟 = = = 14.18
𝜌𝑙 881.45

Total plate Pressure drop


ℎ𝑡 = ℎ𝑑 + (ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤) + ℎ𝑟
ℎ𝑡 = 80.34 + 51.022 + 14.18 = 145.542 𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑

Down comer Liquid Beak up


Down comer pressure loss
Take ℎ𝑎𝑝 = ℎ𝑤 − 10 = 40 𝑚𝑚

Area under apron, 𝐴𝑎𝑝 = ℎ𝑎𝑝 ∗ 𝑙𝑤 = 40 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 0.561 = 0.0225 𝑚2


𝐿𝑤𝑑 2 0.0357 2
ℎ𝑑𝑐 = 166 [
𝜌𝑙 ×𝐴𝑚
] = 166 [881.45∗0.0224] = 5.42 ∗ 10−4 mm

131
Back up in down comer

ℎ𝑏 = (ℎ𝑤 + ℎ𝑜𝑤) + ℎ𝑡 + ℎ𝑑𝑐


ℎ𝑏 = 51.022 + 145.542 + 5.42 ∗ 10−7 = 0.196564 𝑚
1
0.24366 < (𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 + 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑟 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡)
2
So, tray spacing is acceptable.

Check Residence time


𝐴𝑑 ×ℎ𝑏𝑐 × 𝜌𝑙 5.42 ∗ 10−4 ∗ 0.196564 ∗ 881.45
𝑡𝑟 = = = 3.63 𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝐿𝑤𝑑 0.0357

Perforated Area

From figure 11.32 from chemical engineering vol. 6 page 574

𝐿𝑤
= 0.779 ⟹ Ө𝑐 = 99.1˚
𝐷𝑐
132
Angle subtended at plate edge by imperforated strip = 180-99.1 = 80.9˚
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ, 𝑢𝑛𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠
80.9
= (0.72– 50×10−3 )𝜋 = 0.94 𝑚
180

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠 = ℎ𝑤 ∗ 0.94 = 50 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 0.94


= 0.0472 𝑚2

Ө𝑐
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒 = (𝐷𝑐 − ℎ𝑤) sin ( )
2
99.1
= (0.72 − 50 ∗ 10^ − 3 ) sin ( ) = 0.509 𝑚
2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑠 = 2(𝐿𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 ∗ ℎ𝑤) = 2(0.509 ∗ 50 𝑥10−3 )


= 0.0509 𝑚2

Total Area of perforated


𝐴𝑝 = 𝐴𝑎 − 𝐴. 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝 − 𝐴𝑒𝑟𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑒
= 0.3094 − 0.0472 − 0.0509 = 0.2113 𝑚2

𝐴ℎ 0.03094
= = 0.146
𝐴𝑝 0.2113

From figure 11.33 from chemical engineering vol. 6 page 575

133
𝐿𝑝
= 2.58 satisfacory
𝑑ℎ

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 = 𝜋𝑑 2 = 𝜋(5 ∗ 10−3 )2 = 1.964 ∗ 10−5 𝑚


𝐴ℎ 0.03094
𝑁𝑜 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 = = = 1576
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 1.964 ∗ 105
Summary

Total plate 20
Column diameter 0.72 m
Column Height 10 m
Hole size 5 mm
Hole pitch 12.5 mm
Active holes 1576
Turn down 70% max rate
Plate material Mild steel
Down comer material Mild steel
Plate spacing 0.5 m
Plate pressure drop 80.34 mm liq.
Plate thickness 55 mm

134
Design Condenser for Distillation 2
Shell Steam Tube
126.25 Temp. in, °C 25
125.75 Temp. out, °C 80
7.4 Pressure (bar) 7.4
𝑲𝒈
126291.7019 Mass Flow ( ) 126291.7019
𝒔
40155.17725 Q, kW 40155.17725
Composition
0.01 Methanol 0
0.99 H2O 1
0 DME 0

𝑄 = 𝑚𝑤 𝑐𝑝 𝑤 ∆𝑇
40155.17725 𝑘𝑔
𝐶𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 = = 176.35
(80 − 25) ∗ 4.18 𝑠

𝑊
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 742
𝑚2 𝐶
Choose horizontal Heat Exchanger 1 shell, 8 tube passes.
To calculate corrected logarithmic mean temperature (Ft) for 1 shell, 4
passes, from Figure 12.19 page 657 Chemical Engineering Vol 6

135
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡 )
𝑅= = 0.009
(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 )

(𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 )


𝑆= = 0.54
(𝑇ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛 )
From Figure 12.19 Ft = 0.99

Choose standard dimension for stainless steel tube of heat exchanger


from Table 12.3 page 645 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
Tube outside dimeter 50 mm
Wall thickness 2 mm
Tube length 4.88 m

(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) − (𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (126.25 − 80) − (125.75 − 25)


∆𝑇𝑚 = =
(𝑇1 − 𝑡2 ) (126.25 − 80)
𝐿𝑛 𝐿𝑛
(𝑇2 − 𝑡1 ) (125.75 − 25)
∆𝑇𝑚 = 69.99 °𝐶
𝑄 40155.17725
𝐴= = = 773.86 𝑚2
𝐹𝑡 𝑈 ∆𝑇𝑚 0.99 ∗ 742 ∗ 69.99

Surface area of one tube= 𝜋 𝑑 𝑙 = 50 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 4.88 ∗ 𝜋 = 0.766 𝑚2

773.86
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = = 1010
0.766

Use square pitch, Pt = 1.25 ∗ 50 𝑚𝑚 = 62.5 𝑚𝑚


Tube bundle diameter
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1
From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
For 8 passes
K1=0.0331, n1=2.643

136
1
1010 2.643
𝐷𝑏 = 50 ( ) = 2487 𝑚𝑚
0.0331

Number of tube in center row


𝐷𝑏 2487
𝑁𝑟 = = = 40
𝑃𝑡 62.5

Shell-Side Coefficient
Estimate tube wall temperature Tw:
𝑊
assume condensing coefficient of 1403
𝑚2 °𝐶

Mean temperature
126.25 + 125.75
𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 (𝑇𝑠 ) = = 126 °𝐶
2
25 + 80
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 − 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 (𝑇𝑡 ) = = 52.5 °𝐶
2
(𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑤 ) 𝑈𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 = (𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝑡 ) 𝑈𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙
(126 − 𝑇𝑤 ) 1704 = (126 − 52.5) 538
𝑇𝑤 = 87.12 °𝐶
126 + 87.12
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 = = 106.56 °𝐶
2
Physical properties at 106.56 °𝐶 From Perry's Chemical Engineers’
Handbook

Viscosity for liquid 0.000245 pa.s


Density for liquid 702.708 kg/m3
Thermal conductivity 0.182 w/m.k

Vapour density at mean temperature


31.86 273 7.4 𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = ∗ ∗ = 7.57 3
22.4 (106.56 + 273) 1 𝑚

137
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 126291.7019 𝑘𝑔
𝛤ℎ = = = 0.007
𝐿 𝑁𝑡 4.88 ∗ 1010 𝑠𝑚

2
Average number of tubes in a vertical tube row, 𝑁𝑟 = ∗ 40 = 27
3
1
702.708(702.708 − 7.57) 3

1
ℎ𝑐 = 0.95 ∗ 0.182 ∗ [ ] ∗ 27 6
0.000245 ∗ 0.007
𝑊
ℎ𝑐 = 1403.16
𝑚2 °𝐶
Same as assumed so no need to correction

Tube-Side Coefficient
𝜋 1010
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = (48 ∗ 10−3 ) ∗ = 0.228 𝑚2
4 8
Density of water at 31ºC =993.34 kg/m3
𝐺 176.351 𝑚
𝑇𝑢𝑏𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = = 0.785
𝜌 𝐴 993.34 ∗ 0.228 𝑠
Tube-side heat transfer coefficient

4200(1.35 + 0.02 ∗ 52.5) ∗ 0.7850.8 𝑊


ℎ𝑖 = = 3830.6
480.2 𝑚2 °𝐶

Fouling factors: as neither fluid is heavily fouling, use 6000 W/m2 ºC for
each side
Kw=45 W/m °C for stainless steel

138
Overall Coefficient

50
1 1 1 50 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 50 1 50 1
= + + 48 + ∗ + ∗
𝑈0 1403.16 6000 2 ∗ 45 48 6000 48 3830.6
𝑊
𝑈0 = 742.0786
𝑚2 °𝐶
Same as assumed, firm up design

Shell-side pressure drop


Use pull-through floating head, no need for close clearance.
Select baffle spacing (lB) = shell diameter, 45 per cent cut.
From Figure 12.10 page 646, clearance = 110.8 mm.

𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 𝑖. 𝑑. (𝐷𝑠 ) = 110.8 + 2487 = 2598 𝑚𝑚


Use Kern’s method to make an approximate estimate.

Cross-flow Area

(62.5 − 50)
𝐴𝑠 = ∗ 2598 ∗ 2598 ∗ 10−6 = 1.35 𝑚2
62.5
Mass flow-rate, based on inlet conditions
126291.7019 𝑘𝑔
𝐺𝑠 = = 25.98
3600 ∗ 1.35 𝑠 𝑚2

Equivalent diameter, de=


12.7
𝑑𝑒 = (62.52 − 0.785
50
∗ 502 )
= 49.37 𝑚𝑚
139
Vapour viscosity = 1.31*10-06 pa.s
𝐺𝑠 𝑑𝑒 25.98 ∗ 49.37 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 97930.995
𝜇 1.31 ∗ 10−06

From Figure 12.30 page 674 Chemical engineering Vol 6

𝑗𝑓 = 0.024
𝐺𝑠 25.98 𝑚
𝑢𝑠 = = = 3.43
𝜌𝑣 7.57 𝑠
Take pressure drop as 50 per cent of that calculated using the inlet flow;
neglect viscosity correction.

1 2598 4.88 7.57 ∗ 3.432


∆𝑃𝑠 = [8 ∗ 0.024 ∗ ( )( ) ] = 0.42 𝐾𝑝𝑎
2 49.37 2.598 2
= 0.06 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Negligible; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

140
Tube-side pressure drop
Viscosity of water= 0.00054 pa.s
𝜌𝑢𝑑 993.34 ∗ 0.785 ∗ 48 ∗ 10−3
𝑅𝑒 = = = 68971.406
𝜇 0.00054

From Figure 12.24 page 668 Chemical engineering Vol 6

𝑗𝑓 = 0.0033
Neglect viscosity correction

4.88 993.34 ∗ 0.7852


∆𝑃𝑡 = 8 [8 ∗ 0.0033 ∗ ( ) + 2.5] = 25.1 𝐾𝑝𝑎
48 ∗ 10−3 2
= 3.65 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Acceptable; more sophisticated method of calculation not justified.

141
Summary

Tube outside diameter 50 mm


Tube length 4.88 m
Wall thickness 2 mm
Number of passes 8
Overall coefficient (Uo) 742 W/m² °C
Heat transfer area 773.863 m²
Area for Tube 0.76616 m²
Number of Tube 1010
Use square pitch (pt) 62.5 mm
Tube bundle diameter (Db) 2487 mm
Number of tubes in center row (Nr) 40
Sell diameter 2598 mm
Shell-side Pressure drop 0.06 psi
Tube-side Pressure drop 3.65 psi

142
Design Reboiler for Distillation 2

Select kettle type. Physical properties of Methanol and Water at pressure


7.3 bar from perry chemical engineering:

Q(w)= 31247933
TBP M(°c)= 125.6
TBP W(°c)= 167
XW= 0.95
XM= 0.05
Mwt= 32.04
Mwt(w)= 18
P in(bar)= 7.3
Pcw(bar)= 220.8885
P cM(bar)= 79.54013

The boiling point of mixture = TBP M(°C) * XM + TBP (°C)*XW

=125.6*0.05+ 167*0.95
= 164.93 °C

Mean temperature difference; both sides isothermal, steam saturation


temperature at (40 bar) from steam table is (250 °C):

∆Tm = Saturated steam temperature - The boiling point of mixture

=250 – 164.93= 85.07 °C

From table 12.1 page 637, assume over all heat transfer = 1101 (W/m2
°C)
𝑄 31247933
Area (outside) required (A) = =
∆Tm∗U 85.93∗1101

=333.624 m ²

143
Inside diameter(di) 25 mm
Outside diameter(do) 30 mm
Length of Tube 4.88 m

𝐴
Number of tube =
𝜋∗Length of Tube∗Outside diameter
333.624
=𝜋∗0.03∗4.88 = 737.84 ≅ 738

Use Mostinski’s equation ; heat flux, based on estimated area,


𝑄 31247933
= =93.66207 kw/m²
𝐴 333.624

Pc of mix = Pc M *XM + Pc W * XW = 79.5403 * 0.05 + 220.88 * 0.95


=213.8211 bar

7.3
hnb =104(213.8211 )0.69 (93662.07)0.7 [1.8( )0.17 +
213.8211
7.3 7.3
4( )1.2 + 10( )10 [
213.8211 213.8211

= 13790.81 W/m² °C

30
1 1 1 30 ∗ 10−3 ∗ ( ) 50 1 50 1
= + + 25 + ∗ + ∗
𝑈0 13790.81 2500 2 ∗ 59 38 3000 38 8000

𝑈0 =1101.089 W/m² °C
144
Check maximum allowable heat flux, use Mostinski’s method

7.3 7.3
𝑞𝑐 = 3.67 * 104 (213.8211 )( )0.35 [1 − ( )]0.9
213.8211 213.8211

=233.230 kw/m²

Applying a factor of 0.7, maximum flux should not exceed 233.230 * 0.7
= 163.261 kW/m². Actual flux of 93.66207 kW/m² is well below
maximum allowable.

Layout
Use square pitch arrangement, pitch = 1.5 * do
=1.5 * 30 = 45 mm
Tube bundle diameter
1
𝑁𝑡 𝑛1
𝐷𝑏 = 𝑑0 ( )
𝐾1
From Table 12.4 page 649 Chemical Engineering Vol 6
For 2 passes:
K1= 0.156
n1=2.291
1
738 2.291
𝐷𝑏 = 30 ( ) = 1205.465 mm
0.156

145
Take shell diameter as twice bundle diameter
Ds= 2 * 1205.465 = 2410.931 mm
Take liquid level as 1800 mm from base,
Freeboard = 2410.931 - 1800 = 610.931 mm

From sketch, width at liquid level =2680 mm


surface area of liquid = 2680* 4880/2 = 6.432mm²

32.04∗02426+0.7574∗18 273 14.7


𝜌𝑣 = ∗ (163.52+273) ∗
22.4 1
𝑘𝑔
7.847=
𝑚3

218626.4 1 1
Velocity of vapor = ∗ ∗ = 0.0323 𝑚/𝑠
3600 6.432 7.847

146
Maximum velocity

Find density of Methanol from J. Phys Chem. Ref. Data, vol 16 No. 4,
1987 page 801
a 54.566 c 513.16
b 0.233211 d 0.2088175

𝑎 54.466
ρM=
1+(1−𝑇/𝑐)𝑑
= 0.2088175
𝑏 0.2332111+(1−(436.52/513.6)

=616.34 kg/m³
From Berry’s chemical Engineering 8th edition page 2-96 ρw=903.6
kg/m³
ρ mix =0.95* 903.6+ 0.05*616.34 =890.18 kg/m³

ρ mix−ρv 890.18−7.487 0.5


u=0.2∗ [ ] =0.2 ∗ [ ] = 2.17 m/s
ρv 7.487
So, actual velocity is well below maximum allowable velocity. A smaller
shell diameter could be considered.

Summary

Number of tubes 738


Diameter of bundle (m) 1.2
Diameter of shell (m) 2.4
Heat Transfer Area (m) 333.63
Liquid Level (m) 1.8
Freeboard (m) 0.06
Velocity of Vapor (m/s) 0.032

147
Chapter Five
Mechanical Design

148
Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 1
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 15.2
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 163.5-114.5
Tube temperature °C 25 – 50
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 798
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 23, 25
Number of tubes 327
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 15.2 ∗ 1.1 = 16.72𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.672 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 50 C.
From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 140 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 1.672 ∗ 798
𝑒= = = 10.998 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 140 − 1.672
add corrosion allowance 10.998 + 2 = 12.998
say 13 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=798

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

149
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 47.88 𝑚𝑚

1 798
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 47.88

1.672 ∗ 798 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 8.358
2 ∗ 140 + 1.672(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 8.358 + 2 = 10.358
say 11 mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
798 + 10.358
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 0.810 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 0.810(3.66 + 0.8 ∗ 2.533) ∗ 10.358
= 6770.4 𝑁 = 6.67 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.0252 − 0.0232
= 798 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14
4
= 18.85612 𝑁

150
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 327 ∗ (0.025)2 = 0.16 𝑚
4
𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 0.399 𝑚
𝑊 = (928 ∗ 0.339 ∗ +778 ∗ 0.16) ∗ 9.81 = 1885.612 𝑁 = 1.8 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 3.66 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
1.7328 𝑚3
weight = 1.7328 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2198.439 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 4397 𝑁 = 4 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 6.77
Pipes 1.885
Liquid 4
Insulation 2.198
Total 15 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 0.399 + (75 + 15) ∗ 0.001
= 0.883 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 0.883 = 1134.072
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 1134.072
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 0.8832 = 445.144 𝑁𝑚
2 2

151
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.672 ∗ 0.798 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 25.67
4𝑡 4 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.672 ∗ 0.798 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 51.343
2𝑡 2 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 15000 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.45 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(798 + 15) ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 798 + 2 ∗ 15 = 823.986 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (823.9864 − 7984 ) = 1.33 ∗ 109 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 445.15 ∗ 103 798 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 15) = ∓0.138
𝐼𝑣 2 1.33 ∗ 109 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 25.67 − 0.45 + 0.138 = 25.422
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 25.67 − 0.45 − 0.138 = 25.1467
𝑚𝑚2

152
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.

25.422 25.1467

51.343 51.343

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
51.343 − 25.146 = 26.197
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

153
Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 0.798 m choose the design that fit that diameter
from fig 13.26

0.8 50 0.58 0.15 0.7 0.29 0.225 0.095 8 5 20 25

Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

154
Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering
Vol. 6 page 866
D for shell = 17.75 mm

10 17.75 75 12 28 35 2 4 11 50 26

D for tube side = 25 mm

20 25 90 14 32 50 2 4 11 65 38

155
Summary

Shell thickness 13 mm
Head thickness 11 mm
Total weight 15 KN
Loading fx 1139 N/m
Pressure stress σL 25.67 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 51.343 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 0.45 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.138 N/mm2
The greatest difference 26.197
σz (upwind) 25.422 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 25.1467 N/mm2

156
Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 2
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 14.7
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 377-160.1
Tube temperature °C 50-131.7
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 1035
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 20,18
Number of tubes 1057
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 14.7 ∗ 1.1 = 16.17 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.617 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 50 C.
From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 110 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 1.617 ∗ 1035
𝑒= = = 13.55 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 110 − 1.617
add corrosion allowance 13.55 + 2 = 15.55
say 16 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=1035

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

157
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 62.1 𝑚𝑚

1 1035
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 62.1

1.617 ∗ 1035 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 13.315
2 ∗ 110 + 1.617(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 13.315 + 2 = 15.315
say 17mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
1035 + 15
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 1.05 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 1.05(3.66 + 0.8 ∗ 1.05) ∗ 15
= 11307.53 𝑁 = 11.307 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.022 − 0.0182
= 1057 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14
4
= 4825.273 𝑁 = 4.825𝐾𝑁

158
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 1057 ∗ (0.02)2 = 0.3318 𝑚²
4
𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 0.509 𝑚²
𝑊 = (656 ∗ 0.509 + 721 ∗ 0.3318) ∗ 9.81 = 5737.974 𝑁 = 5.737 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 3.66 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
1.7328 𝑚3
weight = 1.7328 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2198.439 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 4397 𝑁 = 4 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 11.307
Pipes 4.825
Liquid 5.737
Insulation 2.198
Total 24 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 1.035 + (75 + 15) ∗ 10−3 =
1.126 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 1.126 = 1140.7
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 1140.7
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 1.1262 = 912.587 𝑁𝑚
2 2

159
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.617 ∗ 1.035 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 26.907
4𝑡 4 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.617 ∗ 1.035 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 53.813
2𝑡 2 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 24000 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.469 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(1035 + 15)15 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 1035 + 2 ∗ 15 = 1066 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (10664 − 10354 ) = 3.46 ∗ 109 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 912.587 ∗ 103 1035 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 15) = ∓0.1405
𝐼𝑣 2 4.66 ∗ 1010 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 26.905 − 0.469 + 0.1405 = 26.577
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 26.905 − 0.469 − 0.1405 = 26.2967
𝑚𝑚2

160
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.
26.577 26.2967

53.813
53.813

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
53.813 − 26.29667 = 27.516
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 2.6 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

161
1.035 90 0.68 0.15 0.91 0.39 0.31 0.095 11 8 20 25

Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866
162
D for shell = 14.2 mm

8 14.2 65 12 20 30 2 4 11 45 20

D for tube side = 20 mm

15 20 80 12 28 40 2 4 11 50 26

Summary

Shell thickness 16 mm
Head thickness 16 mm
Total weight 24 KN
Loading 1140.7 N/m
Pressure stress σL 26.906 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 53.813 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 0.469 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.1405 N/mm2
The greater difference 27.516
σz (upwind) 26.577 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 26.2967 N/mm2

163
Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 3
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 14.7
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 250-130
Tube temperature °C 300-155
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 4321.7
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 30,38
Number of tubes 1205
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 14.7 ∗ 1.1 = 16.17 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.617 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 250 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 110 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 1.617 ∗ 4321.7
𝑒= = = 34.25𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 110 − 1.617
add corrosion allowance 34.25 + 2 = 36.25
say 37 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=3556

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

164
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 216 𝑚𝑚

1 3556
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 216

1.617 ∗ 3556 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 46.3
2 ∗ 110 + 1.617(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 46.3 + 2 = 48.3
say 49 mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
3556 + 38
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 3.63 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 3.63(4.88 + 0.8 ∗ 3.63) ∗ 38
= 280147.0 𝑁 = 28 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.0382 − 0.0362
= 872 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14
4
= 10721.17 𝑁 = 11 𝐾𝑁

165
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 1206 ∗ (0.038)2 = 1.37 𝑚²
4

𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 8.8𝑚


𝑊 = (665.7 ∗ 8.8 + 5.15 ∗ 1.37) ∗ 9.81 = 57580.4 𝑁
= 58 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 4.88 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 = 2 𝑚3
weight = 2.3 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2931.25 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 5863𝑁 = 6 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 280
Pipes 11
Liquid 58
Insulation 6
Total 354 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 3.556 + (75 + 38) ∗ 10−3 =
3.713 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 3.556 = 4752.8
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 4752.8
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 3.7132 = 32764.36 𝑁𝑚
2 2

166
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.617 ∗ 3556 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 29
4𝑡 4 ∗ 38 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.617 ∗ 3556 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 76.32
2𝑡 2 ∗ 38 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 360 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.81 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(3556 + 38)38 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 3556 + 2 ∗ 38 = 3676.3 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (3676.34 − 35564 ) = 3.55 ∗ 1011 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 32764.3 ∗ 103 3556 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 38) = ∓0.17
𝐼𝑣 2 3.55 ∗ 1011 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 29 − 0.81 + 0.17 = 28.35
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 29 − 0.81 − 0.17 = 28.01
𝑚𝑚2

167
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.

28.35 28.01

76.3 76.3

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
91.6 − 44.62 = 46.99
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 2.6 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

168
Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866

169
D for shell = 107.01 mm

D for tube side = 83.43 mm

Summary

Shell thickness 38 mm
Head thickness 59 mm
Total weight 514 KN
Loading 5863 N/m
Pressure stress σL 45.8 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 91.62 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σH 0.98 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.2 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 45.03 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 44.63 N/mm2

170
Mechanical Design Reactor
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 14.7
Material Carbon Steel
Catalyst weight, kg 44123
Operating Temperature °C 250-377
Diameter, m 3.5
Height, m 5.25
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = (14.7 − 1) ∗ 1.1 = 15.07𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.507 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 400 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 70 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 1.507 ∗ 3.5 ∗ 1000
𝑒= = = 38.084 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 70 − 1.507

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 3.5 + 2 ∗ (38.08 + 75) 0.001 =
= 3.7 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 3.7 = 4769.48
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 4769.48
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 5.252 = 445.144 𝑁𝑚
2 2

171
Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = 2 + 0.038 = 2.038 𝑚

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 2.038 (5.25 + 0.8 ∗ 2.038) ∗ 38.084
= 138.4 𝐾𝑁

Weight of catalyst:
= 44123 𝐾𝑔 ∗ 9.81 = 432.84 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 ∗ 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗ 9.81
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 3.14 ∗ 3.5 ∗ 5.25 ∗ 75 ∗ 0.001 = 4.3273 𝑚3
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 4.3273 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 5.51 𝐾𝑁 ∗ 2 = 11.02 𝐾𝑁

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 = 44123𝐾𝑔 ∗ 9.81 = 432.84 𝐾𝑁

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 𝑊𝑣 + 𝑊𝑐 + 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑠


138.4 + 11.02 + 432.84 = 582.26 𝐾𝑁

172
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.502 ∗ 3.5 ∗ 1000 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 345
4𝑡 4 ∗ 38.084 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.502 ∗ 3.5 ∗ 1000 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 69.018
2𝑡 2 ∗ 38.084 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 582.26
𝜎𝑤 = =
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14 ∗ (3500 + 38.084)38.084
= 1.37 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 3500 + 2 ∗ 38.084 = 3576.16 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 4 4
4.14(3576.162 − 35002 )
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷0 − 𝐷𝑖 ) = = 3.486 ∗ 1010 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

3500
𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 387336 ( + 38.084) 𝑁
𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ 2 = ∓198.6
𝐼𝑣 2 3.486 ∗ 1010 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 345 + 1.37 + 198.6 = 544.97
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 1.37 + 345 − 198 .6 = 147.74
𝑚𝑚2
173
Check elastic stability (buckling):

𝑡
𝜎 𝑐 = 2 ∗ 10000 ∗ ( )
𝐷𝑜
38.084 𝑁
= 2 ∗ 10000 ( ) == 366.86
2076.16 𝑚𝑚2
𝑁
𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎 𝑤 + 𝜎 𝑏 = 1.37 + 198.6 = 199.97
𝑚𝑚2

Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866
D = 83.43 mm

174
Summary

Shell thickness 38.084 mm


Total weight 582.26 KN
Loading fx 445.144 N/m
Pressure stress σL 345 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 69.018 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 1.37 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 198.6 N/mm2
The greatest difference 199.97
σz (upwind) 544.97 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 147.74 N/mm2

175
Mechanical Design Distillation 1
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 10.4
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Diameter, m 0.7
Length of column, m 11
Insulation thickness, mm 75
corrosion allowance mm 2

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 10.4 ∗ 1.1 = 11.4 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.14 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 200 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 135 N/mm2
Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di= 0.7 m

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 0.042 𝑚

1 0.07
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 0.042

1.14 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 103 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 5.21 𝑚𝑚
2 ∗ 135 + 1.14(1.77 − 0.2)

176
add corrosion allowance 5.21 + 2 ≈ 7 𝑚𝑚
Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.15 for distillation column
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = 0.7 + 14 ∗ 10−3 = 0.714 𝑚

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.15 ∗ 0.734(11 + 0.8 ∗ 0.714) ∗ 14 = 32818 𝑁
= 32.818 𝐾𝑁
𝜋 𝜋
𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑑 2 = 0.72 = 0.384 𝑚2
4 4
𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 1.2 ∗ 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 1.2 ∗ 0.384 = 0.46 𝐾𝑁
21 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑣𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 21 ∗ 0.46 = 10 𝐾𝑁
Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation = 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 11 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
1.81 𝑚3
weight = 1.7328 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2309 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 4618 𝑁 = 4.618 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 32.818
Plate 10
Insulation 4.618
Total 47.436 KN

177
Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 0.7 + 2(18.2 + 75) ∗ 10−3 =
0.793 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 0.793 = 1124
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 1124
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 112 = 61425.408 𝑁𝑚
2 2

Analysis of stresses
As a first trial, divide the column into five sections (courses), with the
thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 10.2, 12.2, 14.2, 16.2, 18.2 mm
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.14 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 11
4𝑡 4 ∗ 18.2 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.14 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 22
2𝑡 2 ∗ 18.2 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 110325
𝜎𝑤 = =
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(2518 + 18.2)18.2
𝑁
= 1.15 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 700 + 2 ∗ 18.2 = 736.4 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (736.44 − 7004 ) = 1.27 ∗ 109 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

178
𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 61425 ∗ 103 700 𝑁
𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 18.2) = ∓17.75
𝐼𝑣 2 1.27 ∗ 109 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:


𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏

𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 11 − 1.15 + 17.75 = 27.6
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 11 − 1.15 − 17.75 = −7.9
𝑚𝑚2

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and


σH.

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side

𝑁
22 + 7.9 = 29.1
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

179
Design of Skirt support

-Straight cylindrical skirt (𝜃𝑠 = 90 ) of plain carbon steel


-Design stress (f) 135 N/mm2
- Young’s models (E) 200.000 N/mm2 at ambient temp.
-The max. dead weight load on skirt will occur when the vessel is full of
water
𝜋
Approx. weight = ×(0.7)2 ×11×1000 ×9.81 = 41528.63𝑁
4
= 41.53 𝐾𝑁

𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 47.618 𝐾𝑁

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 41.52863 + 47.618 = 89.1466 𝐾𝑁

𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 1.150 𝐾𝑁/𝑚


𝑊
Bending moment as loads 𝑀𝑥 = 𝑋2
2

532
𝑀𝑠 (𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡 ) = 1.150× = 4614.785 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚
0.7

Bending stress in the Skirt

4 𝑀𝑠 4 ×4614.786 ×103 ×103 N


𝜎𝑏𝑠 = = = 624.64
𝜋 (𝐷𝑆 + 𝑡𝑠 )𝑡𝑠 𝐷𝑠 𝜋 (700+18.2 )700 ×18.2 mm2

The dead weight stress in skirt

𝑊
𝜎𝑤𝑠 =
𝜋( 𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )𝑡𝑠

41.52863 × 103 𝑁
𝜎𝑤𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡) = = 1.11
𝜋 (700+18.2)18.2 𝑚𝑚2

47.436 × 103 𝑁
𝜎𝑤𝑠 (𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔) = = 1.15
𝜋 (700+18.2)18.2 𝑚𝑚2

180
Note: the (test) condition is with the vessel full of water for the
hydraulic. The weight of liquid on plates has been counted twice.

𝜎𝑠 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 ) = 𝜎𝑏𝑠 + 𝜎𝑤𝑠


𝑁
Max. 𝜎𝑠^ (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) = 624.64 + 1.011 = 625.651
𝑚𝑚2

𝜎𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒 ) = 𝜎𝑏𝑠 − 𝜎𝑤𝑠


𝑁
Max. 𝜎𝑠^ (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒) = 625.651 − 1.150 = 623.49
𝑚𝑚2

Take the joint factor j as 0.85

Critical for design

σ^s (tensile) > 𝑓𝑠 𝐽 sin 𝜃

623.49 > 0.85 ×0.135 𝑠𝑖𝑛 90

623.49 > 115

𝑡
𝜎𝑠^ (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) > 0.125 E ( 𝑠 ) sin 𝜃
𝐷𝑆
18
598.21 > 0.125 ×200 ,000 ( ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 90
700
625.615 > 650

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for Correction, gives a design thick.

181
Base ring and anchor bolts

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥. 𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = (0.2 + 0.7) = 0.9 𝑚


𝐶𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 = 0.9 ∗ 1000 ∗ 𝜋 = 900 𝜋

Number of bolts required, at min. recommended

900𝜋
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 = = 4.71
600

Closest multiple of 4 = 5 bolts.

𝑁
𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 125
𝑚𝑚2

𝑀𝑠 = 4614.785 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚

Take w= operating Vale = 195.73 KN

1 4𝑀𝑠
𝐴𝑏 = [ − 𝑊]
𝑁𝑏 . 𝐹𝑏 𝐷𝑏
1 4 ×4614.785 ×103
= [ − 47.436 × 103 ]
5×125 0.9
= 32740.35

32740.35 ×4
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = √ = 102.08 𝑚𝑚
𝜋

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

4𝑀𝑠 𝑊 4×4614.785×103 47.436×103


𝐹𝑏 = [ + =
] [ + ]
𝜋𝐷𝑠2 𝜋. 𝐷𝑠 𝜋(0.7)2 𝜋. (0.7)
𝑁
= 1201.86 ∗ 104
𝑚

182
Taking the bearing pressure at 5 N/mm2
The min. weight of the base ring is

𝐹𝑏 1 1201.86×103
𝐿𝑏 = × 3= = 240.372𝑚𝑚
𝐹𝑐 10 5 × 103

3
Skirt angle 𝜃𝑠 = tan−1 (1 ) = 69.02
(3−0.7)
2
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑠 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (69.02) = 0.933

This term has little effect on the design criteria

-Assume bolt circle dia. = 3.2 m


Take number of bolts as 16
𝜋 ×3.2 ×103
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 = = 623 𝑚𝑚 satisfactory
16

1 4 ×4614.785 × 103
𝐴𝑏 = [ − 47.436×103 ] = 5721.045 ×103 𝑚𝑚2
16 ×125 3.2

From figure 13.30 in chemical engineering vol. 6 page 852

183
Bolt size = M64 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root diameter = 2680

4614.785×103 47.436×103 𝑘𝑁
𝐹𝑏 = [ + ] = 640
𝜋(3)2 𝜋. (3) 𝑚

640 ×103
𝐿𝑏 = = 128 𝑚𝑚
5 × 103

This is the Min. width required: actual width will depend on the chair
design.

= 𝐿𝑟 + 𝑡𝑠 + 50 𝑚𝑚
𝐿𝑟 = 152 ⟹ 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 13.30

= 152 + 18.2 + 50 = 220.2 𝑚𝑚

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation

640 × 103 𝑁
𝑓𝑐, = = 2.9
220.2 × 103 𝑚𝑚2

3 𝑓𝑐,
𝑡𝑏 = 𝐿𝑟 × √
𝑓𝑟

𝑓𝑟 = 140 𝑚𝑚 ⟹ 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 13.30


3× 2.9
𝑡𝑏 = 152 × √ = 38 𝑚𝑚
140

Chair diameter from figure 13.30 for bolt size M64

Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

184
Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering
Vol. 6 page 866
D for Feed = 83.43 mm

D for Distillate = 107.01 mm

D for Bottom = 146.4 mm

185
Summary

Head thickness 7 mm
Total weight 47.436 KN
Loading 1124 N/m
Pressure stress σL 11 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 22 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 1.15 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 17.75 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 27.6 N/mm2
σz (downwind) −7.9 N/mm2
Bending stress in the Skirt σws (operating) 1.15 N/mm2
Number of bolts required 5
Skirt angle 69.02
Bolt size (Fig 13.30) M64

186
Mechanical Design Condenser for Distillation 1
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 10.4
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 49.68 - 46.1
Tube temperature °C 25 - 37
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 2518
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 50, 52
Number of tubes 1015
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 10.4 ∗ 1.1 = 11.4 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.14 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 50 C.
From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 165 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 1.14 ∗ 2518
𝑒= = = 12.73 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 165 − 1.14
add corrosion allowance 12.73 + 2 = 14.73
say 15 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=2.518

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

187
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 151.08 𝑚𝑚

1 2518
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 151.08

1.14 ∗ 2518 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 15.37
2 ∗ 165 + 1.14(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 15.37 + 2 = 17.37
say 17 mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
2518 + 15
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 2.533 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 2.533(3.66 + 0.8 ∗ 2.533) ∗ 15
= 54993.464 𝑁 = 55 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.0522 − 0.052
= 1015 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14
4
= 12437.396 𝑁 = 12 𝐾𝑁

188
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 1015 ∗ (0.052)2 = 2.15 𝑚
4
𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 2.82 𝑚
𝑊 = (1000 ∗ 2.82 + 627 ∗ 2.15) ∗ 9.81 = 38497.35 𝑁 = 38 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 3.66 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
1.7328 𝑚3
weight = 1.7328 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2198.439 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 4397 𝑁 = 4 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 55
Pipes 12
Liquid 38
Insulation 4
Total 110 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 2.518 + (75 + 15) ∗ 10−3 =
2.608 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 2.608 = 3337.897
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 3337.897
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 2.6082 = 11349.3 𝑁𝑚
2 2

189
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.14 ∗ 2.518 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 48.88
4𝑡 4 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.14 ∗ 2.518 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 97.77
2𝑡 2 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 110325 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.94 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(2518 + 15)15 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 2518 + 2 ∗ 15 = 2547.5 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (2547.54 − 25184 ) = 4.66 ∗ 1010 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 11349.3 ∗ 103 2518 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 15) = ∓0.31
𝐼𝑣 2 4.66 ∗ 1010 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 48.88 − 0.94 + 0.31 = 48.25
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 48.88 − 0.94 − 0.31 = 47.63
𝑚𝑚2

190
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
97.77 − 47.63 = 50.13
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 2.6 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

191
Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866
192
D for shell = 107.01 mm

D for tube side = 83.43 mm

Summary

Shell thickness 15 mm
Head thickness 17 mm
Total weight 110 KN
Loading 3337.897 N/m
Pressure stress σL 48.88 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 97.77 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 0.94 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.31 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 48.25 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 47.63 N/mm2

193
Mechanical Design Reboiler for Distillation 1
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 10.4
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 172-162.86
Tube temperature °C 250-171
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 1907
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 28,30
Number of tubes 237
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 10.4 ∗ 1.1 = 11.44 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 1.144 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 250 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 105 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 1.144 ∗ 1907
𝑒= = = 26.7 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 105 − 1.144
add corrosion allowance 26.7 + 2 = 28.7
say 29 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=1907

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

194
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 114.42 𝑚𝑚

1 1907
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 114.42

1.144 ∗ 1907 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 18.24
2 ∗ 104 + 1.144(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 18.24 + 2 = 20.24
say 21 mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
1907 + 29
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 1.9 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 1.9(4.88 + 0.8 ∗ 1.6) ∗ 29 = 92668.2 𝑁
= 93 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.032 − 0.0282
= 237 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14 = 1651.352𝑁
4
= 1.6 𝐾𝑁

195
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 237 ∗ (0.03)2 = 0.167 𝑚²
4

𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 2.69𝑚


𝑊 = (617.6 ∗ 2.69 + 4.47 ∗ 0.167) ∗ 9.81 = 16288.94 𝑁
= 16 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 4.88 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 = 2.3 𝑚3
weight = 2.3 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2931.25 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 5863𝑁 = 6 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 93
Pipes 2
Liquid 16
Insulation 6
Total 116 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 1.907 + (75 + 29) ∗ 10−3 =
2.011 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 2.011 = 2573.734
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 2573.734
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 2.0112 = 5202.9 𝑁𝑚
2 2

196
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.144 ∗ 1907 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 18.9
4𝑡 4 ∗ 29 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 1.144 ∗ 1907 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 37.96
2𝑡 2 ∗ 29 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 116 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.667 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(1907 + 29)29 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 1907 + 2 ∗ 29 = 1964 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (19644 − 19074 ) = 4 ∗ 1010 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 5202.85 ∗ 103 1907 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 29) = ∓0.12
𝐼𝑣 2 4 ∗ 1010 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 28.9 − 0.667 + 0.12 = 28.46
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 28.9 − 0.667 − 0.12 = 28.2
𝑚𝑚2

197
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.

28.46 28.2

37.9 37.9

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
37.9 − 28.2 = 9.76
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 1.9 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

198
Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866

199
D for shell = 146.4 mm

D for tube side = 83.43 mm

Summary

Shell thickness 29 mm
Head thickness 21 mm
Total weight 116 KN
Loading 5863 N/m
Pressure stress σL 28.9 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 37.96 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σH 0.667 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.12 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 28.46 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 28.2 N/mm2

200
Mechanical Design Heat Exchanger 4
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 7.4
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 25-60
Tube temperature °C 154.498-139
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 654
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 28,30
Number of tubes 654
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 7.4 ∗ 1.1 = 8.14 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 0.814 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 42 C.
From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 165 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 0.814 ∗ 654
𝑒= = = 4.525 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 165 − 0.814
add corrosion allowance 4.525 + 2 = 6.525
say 7 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=654

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

201
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 39.24 𝑚𝑚

1 654
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 39.24

0.814 ∗ 654 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 2.845
2 ∗ 165 + 0.814(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 2.845 + 2 = 4.845
say 5mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
654 + 15
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 0.66 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 0.66(3.66 + 0.8 ∗ 0.66) ∗ 15 = 2634.734𝑁
= 2.634 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.032 − 0.0282
= 654 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14 = 445.934 𝑁
4
= 0.445𝐾𝑁

202
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 654 ∗ (0.03)2 = 0.335 𝑚²
4
𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 0.2905 𝑚²
𝑊 = (987 ∗ 0.2905 + 829 ∗ 0.335) ∗ 9.81 = 2800.625 𝑁 = 2.8 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 3.66 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
1.7328 𝑚3
weight = 1.7328 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2198.439 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 4397 𝑁 = 4 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 2.634
Pipes 0.4459
Liquid 2.8
Insulation 2.198
Total 8.08 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 0.654 + (75 + 15) ∗ 10−3 =
0.736 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 0.736 = 941.472
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 941.472
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 0.7362 = 254.666 𝑁𝑚
2 2

203
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.814 ∗ 654 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 20.396
4𝑡 4 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.814 ∗ 654 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 40.792
2𝑡 2 ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 8080 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.59 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(654 + 15) ∗ 15 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 654 + 2 ∗ 15 = 667 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (6774 − 6544 ) = 3.64 ∗ 108 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 254.666 ∗ 103 654 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 15) = ∓0.233
𝐼𝑣 2 3.64 ∗ 108 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 20.396 − 0.597 + 0.233 = 20.03
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 20.396 − 0.597 − 0.233 = 19.567
𝑚𝑚2

204
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.
20.03 19.567

40.792
40.792

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
40.972 − 19.567 = 21.226
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 2.6 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

205
0.654 35 0.48 0.15 0.55 0.24 0.19 0.095 6 5 20 25

Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866
206
D for shell = 21.3 mm

15 21.3 80 12 20 40 2 4 11 55 30

D for tube side = 30 mm

25 30 100 14 35 60 2 4 11 75 42

Summary

Shell thickness 7 mm
Head thickness 5 mm
Total weight 8.08 KN
Loading fx 941.4 N/m
Pressure stress σL 20.396 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 40.792 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 0.597 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.2336 N/mm2
The greater difference 21.226
σz (upwind) 20.03 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 19.565 N/mm2

207
Mechanical Design Distillation 2
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 7.3
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Diameter, m 0.71
Length of column, m 10
Insulation thickness, mm 75
corrosion allowance mm 2

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 7.3 ∗ 1.1 = 8.03 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 0.803 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 200 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 135 N/mm2
Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di= 0.72 m

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 0.0432 𝑚

1 0.072
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 0.0432

0.803 ∗ 0.72 ∗ 103 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 3.77 𝑚𝑚
2 ∗ 135 + 0.803(1.77 − 0.2)

208
add corrosion allowance 3.77 + 2 ≈ 6 𝑚𝑚

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.15 for distillation column
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = 0.72 + 14 ∗ 10−3 = 0.734 𝑚

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.15 ∗ 0.734(10 + 0.8 ∗ 0.734) ∗ 14 = 30027 𝑁
= 32.818 𝐾𝑁
𝜋 𝜋
𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑑 2 = 0.722 = 0.4 𝑚2
4 4
𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 1.2 ∗ 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 1.2 ∗ 0.4 = 0.48 𝐾𝑁
20 𝑠𝑖𝑒𝑣𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 = 20 ∗ 0.48 = 10 𝐾𝑁
Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation = 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 0.72 ∗ 10 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
1.69 𝑚3
weight = 1.69 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2156 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 4312 𝑁 = 4.312 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 30.027
Plate 10
Insulation 4.312
Total 44.339 KN

209
Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 0.72 + 2(14 + 75) ∗ 10−3 =
0.809 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 0.809 = 1035
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 1035
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 102 = 51776 𝑁𝑚
2 2

Analysis of stresses
As a first trial, divide the column into five sections (courses), with the
thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 10, 12, 14 mm
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.803 ∗ 0.72 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 10.3
4𝑡 4 ∗ 14 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 10.803 ∗ 0.72 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 20.64
2𝑡 2 ∗ 14 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 30027
𝜎𝑤 = = = 0.93 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(730 + 14)14

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 720 + 2 ∗ 14 = 748 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (7484 − 7204 ) = 1.06 ∗ 109 𝑚𝑚4
64 64
𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 51776 ∗ 103 720 𝑁
𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 14) = ∓18.34
𝐼𝑣 2 1.06 ∗ 109 2 𝑚𝑚2

210
The resultant longitudinal stress is:
𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏

𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 10.3 − 0.93 + 18.34 = 27.7
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 10.3 − 0.93 + 18.34 = −8.9
𝑚𝑚2

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and


σH.

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
20.6 + 8.9 = 29.5
𝑚𝑚2

well below the maximum allowable design stress

211
Design of Skirt support

-Straight cylindrical skirt (𝜃𝑠 = 90 ) of plain carbon steel


-Design stress (f) 135 N/mm2
- Young’s models (E) 200.000 N/mm2 at ambient temp.
-The max. dead weight load on skirt will occur when the vessel is full of
water
𝜋
Approx. weight = ×(0.72)2 ×11×1000 ×9.81 = 33941.45𝑁
4
= 39.941

𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 44.312 𝐾𝑁

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 39.941 + 44.312 = 84.253 𝐾𝑁

𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 1.150 𝐾𝑁/𝑚


𝑊
Bending moment as loads 𝑀𝑥 = 𝑋2
2

532
𝑀𝑠 (𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑟𝑡 ) = 1.150× = 4486.59 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚
0.72

Bending stress in the Skirt

4 𝑀𝑠 4 ×4686.59 ×103 ×103 N


𝜎𝑏𝑠 = = = 597.55
𝜋 (𝐷𝑆 + 𝑡𝑠 )𝑡𝑠 𝐷𝑠 𝜋 (720+18 )720 ×18 mm2

The dead weight stress in skirt

𝑊
𝜎𝑤𝑠 =
𝜋( 𝐷𝑠 + 𝑡𝑠 )𝑡𝑠

39.941 × 103 𝑁
𝜎𝑤𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡) = = 0.957
𝜋 (720+18)18 𝑚𝑚2

44.339 × 103 𝑁
𝜎𝑤𝑠 (𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔) = = 1.06
𝜋 (720+18)18 𝑚𝑚2

212
Note: the (test) condition is with the vessel full of water for the
hydraulic. The weight of liquid on plates has been counted twice.

𝜎𝑠 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 ) = 𝜎𝑏𝑠 + 𝜎𝑤𝑠


𝑁
Max. 𝜎𝑠^ (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) = 597.55 + 0.957 = 598.21
𝑚𝑚2

𝜎𝑠 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒 ) = 𝜎𝑏𝑠 − 𝜎𝑤𝑠


𝑁
Max. 𝜎𝑠^ (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒) = 597.55 − 1.06 = 596.49
𝑚𝑚2

Take the joint factor j as 0.85

Critical for design

σ^s (tensile) > 𝑓𝑠 𝐽 sin 𝜃

596.49 > 0.85 ×0.135 𝑠𝑖𝑛 90

596.49 > 115

𝑡
𝜎𝑠^ (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒) > 0.125 E ( 𝑠 ) sin 𝜃
𝐷𝑆
18
598.21 > 0.125 ×200 ,000 ( ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 90
720
598.21 > 625

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for Correction, gives a design thick.

213
Base ring and anchor bolts

𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥. 𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = (0.2 + 0.72) = 0.92 𝑚


𝐶𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 = 0.92 ∗ 1000 ∗ 𝜋 = 920 𝜋

Number of bolts required, at min. recommended

920𝜋
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 = = 4.81
600

Closest multiple of 4 = 5 bolts.

𝑁
𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 125
𝑚𝑚2

𝑀𝑠 = 4486.95 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚

Take w= operating Vale = 195.73 KN

1 4𝑀𝑠
𝐴𝑏 = [ − 𝑊]
𝑁𝑏 . 𝐹𝑏 𝐷𝑏
1 4 ×4486.59 ×103
= [ − 44.339× 103 ]
12 ×125 0.92
= 31140.03

31140.03 ×4
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = √ = 119.11 𝑚𝑚
𝜋

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

4𝑀𝑠 𝑊 4×4486.59×103 44.339×103


𝐹𝑏 = [ 2 + =
] [ + ]
𝜋𝐷𝑠 𝜋. 𝐷𝑠 𝜋(0.72)2 𝜋. (0.72)
𝑁
= 1104.47 ∗ 104
𝑚

214
Taking the bearing pressure at 5 N/mm2
The min. weight of the base ring is

𝐹𝑏 1 110.47 ×103
𝐿𝑏 = × 3= = 2208.94𝑚𝑚
𝐹𝑐 10 5 × 103

3
Skirt angle 𝜃𝑠 = tan−1 (1 ) = 69.19
(3−0.7)
2
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑠 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (69.02) = 0.934

This term has little effect on the design criteria

-Assume bolt circle dia. = 3.2 m


Take number of bolts as 16
𝜋 ×3.2 ×103
𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 = = 628𝑚𝑚 satisfactory
16

1 4 ×4986.5 × 103
𝐴𝑏 = [ − 44.339×103 ] = 2781.94 𝑚𝑚2
16 ×125 3.2

From figure 13.30 in chemical engineering vol. 6 page 852

215
Bolt size = M64 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root diameter = 2787

4×4486.59×103 47.436×103 𝑘𝑁
𝐹𝑏 = [ + ] = 639.751
𝜋(3)2 𝜋. (3) 𝑚

640 ×103
𝐿𝑏 = = 127 𝑚𝑚
5 × 103

This is the Min. width required: actual width will depend on the chair
design.

= 𝐿𝑟 + 𝑡𝑠 + 50 𝑚𝑚
𝐿𝑟 = 152 ⟹ 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 13.30

= 152 + 18 + 50 = 220 𝑚𝑚

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation

639.715 × 103 𝑁
𝑓𝑐, = = 2.90
220 × 103 𝑚𝑚2

3 𝑓𝑐,
𝑡𝑏 = 𝐿𝑟 × √
𝑓𝑟

𝑓𝑟 = 140 𝑚𝑚 ⟹ 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑒 13.30


3× 2.9
𝑡𝑏 = 152 × √ = 38 𝑚𝑚
140

Chair diameter from figure 13.30 for bolt size M64

Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

216
Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering
Vol. 6 page 866
D for Feed = 30 mm

25 30 100 14 35 60 2 4 11 75 42

D for Distillate = 128.06 mm

D for Bottom = 122 mm

217
Summary

Head thickness 6 mm
Total weight 44.339 KN
Loading 1035 N/m
Pressure stress σL 10.3 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 20.64 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 0.93 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 18.34 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 27.7 N/mm2
σz (downwind) −8.9 N/mm2
Bending stress in the Skirt σws (operating) 1.06 N/mm2
Number of bolts required 5
Skirt angle 69.02
Bolt size (Fig 13.30) M64

218
Mechanical Design Condenser for Distillation 2
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 7.4
Material Stainless steel
3
Density of material, kg/m 7800
Shell temperature °C 126.25 – 125.75
Tube temperature °C 25 - 80
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 2598
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 50, 52
Number of tubes 1010
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 7.4 ∗ 1.1 = 8.14 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 0.814 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 150 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 140 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 0.814 ∗ 2598
𝑒= = = 14.22 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 140 − 0.814
add corrosion allowance 14.22 + 2 = 16.22
say 16 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=2.598

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

219
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 155.88 𝑚𝑚

1 2598
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 155.88

0.814 ∗ 2598 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 13.3 𝑚𝑚
2 ∗ 140 + 0.814(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 13.3 + 2 = 15.3
say 15 mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
2598 + 16
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 2.614 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 2.614(4.88 + 0.8 ∗ 2.614) ∗ 16
= 76659.9 𝑁 = 77 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.0522 − 0.052
= 1010 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14
4
= 12376.13 𝑁 = 12 𝐾𝑁

220
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 1010 ∗ (0.052)2 = 2.154 𝑚
4
𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 3.15 𝑚
𝑊 = (1000 ∗ 2.154 + 702.7 ∗ 3.15) ∗ 9.81 = 42777.33 𝑁 = 43 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 4.88 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 =
2.298 𝑚3
weight = 2.298 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2931.251 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 5863 𝑁 = 6 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 77
Pipes 12
Liquid 43
Insulation 6
Total 138 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 2.598 + (75 + 16) ∗ 10−3 =
2.689 𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 2.689 = 3442.21
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 3442.21
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 2.6892 = 12446.95 𝑁𝑚
2 2

221
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.814 ∗ 2.598 ∗ 103 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 32.58
4𝑡 4 ∗ 16 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.84 ∗ 2.598 ∗ 103 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 65.16
2𝑡 2 ∗ 16 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 137676 𝑁
𝜎𝑤 = = = 1.03 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(2598 + 16)16 𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 2598 + 2 ∗ 16 = 2630.46 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (2630.464 − 25984 ) = 5.64 ∗ 1010 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 12446.95 ∗ 103 2598 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 16) = ∓0.29
𝐼𝑣 2 5.64 ∗ 1010 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 32.58 − 1.03 + 0.29 = 31.8
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 32.58 − 1.03 − 0.29 = 31.2
𝑚𝑚2

222
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
65.15 − 31.2 = 33.9
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 2.6 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

223
Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866
224
D for shell = 128.06 mm

D for tube side = 69.27 mm

Summary

Shell thickness 16 mm
Head thickness 15 mm
Total weight 138 KN
Loading 3442.21 N/m
Pressure stress σL 32.58 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 65.16 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σw 1.03 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.29 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 31.8 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 31.2 N/mm2

225
Mechanical Design Reboiler for Distillation 2
Condition
Operating Pressure (bar) 7.3
Material Stainless steel
Density of material, kg/m3 7800
Shell temperature °C 165.4-163.52
Tube temperature °C 250-175
corrosion allowance mm 2
Shell diameter, mm 4321.7
Tube inside, outside diameter, mm 36,50
Number of tubes 872
Insulation thickness, mm 75

Design pressure, take as 10 per cent above operating pressure


𝑃𝑖 = 7.3 ∗ 1.1 = 8.03 𝑏𝑎𝑟
𝑃𝑖 = 0.803 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2

Design temperature 250 C.


From Table 13.2 Chemical Engineering vol. 6 page 812, typical design
stress = 115 N/mm2
Shell thickness
𝑃𝑖𝐷𝑖 0.803 ∗ 2410.9
𝑒= = = 17.1 𝑚𝑚
2𝑓 − 𝑃𝑖 2 ∗ 115 − 0.803
add corrosion allowance 17.1 + 2 = 19.1
say 19 mm plate

Head thickness
Choose Tori spherical
𝑃𝑖 ∗ 𝑅𝑐 ∗ 𝐶𝑠
𝑒=
2𝐹𝑗 + 𝑃𝑖(𝐶𝑠 − 0.2)
Rc=Di=2410.9

1 𝑅𝑐
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ )
4 𝑅𝑘

226
𝑅𝑘 = 6% 𝑅𝑐 = 144.65 𝑚𝑚

1 2410.9
𝐶𝑠 = (3 + √ ) = 1.77
4 144.65

0.803 ∗ 2410.9 ∗ 1.77


𝑒= = 14.8
2 ∗ 115 + 0.803(1.77 − 0.2)
add corrosion allowance 14.8 + 2 = 16.8
say 17 mm plate

Dead weight
Take 𝐶𝑣 = 1.08
2410.9 + 19
𝐷𝑚 = 𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡 = = 2.43 𝑚
1000

𝑊 = 240𝐶𝑣 ∗ 𝐷𝑚(𝐻𝑣 + 0.8𝐷𝑚)𝑡


= 240 ∗ 1.08 ∗ 2.43(4.88 + 0.8 ∗ 2.43) ∗ 19 = 82082.5 𝑁
= 82 𝐾𝑁

Weight of pipes:
Density of stainless steel = 7800 kg/m3

𝑑𝑜 2 − 𝑑𝑖 2
𝑊 = 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒𝑠 ∗ 9.81𝜌𝜋
4
0.032 − 0.0262
= 738 ∗ 7800 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 3.14 = 9929.735 𝑁
4
= 10 𝐾𝑁

227
Weight of Liquid:
𝑊 = 𝜌𝑙 ∗ 𝐴
3.14
𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠 = 738 ∗ (0.03)2 = 0.52𝑚²
4

𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝐴 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐴 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐴 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 4.04𝑚


𝑊 = (6616.34 ∗ 4.04 + 3.12 ∗ 0.52) ∗ 9.81 = 24451.26 𝑁
= 24 𝐾𝑁

Weight of insulation:
mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3
approximate volume of insulation= 𝜋 ∗ 2 ∗ 4.88 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−3 = 2.3 𝑚3
weight = 2.3 ∗ 130 ∗ 9.81 = 2931.25 𝑁
double this to allow for fittings, etc. = 5863𝑁 = 6 𝐾𝑁
Total weight:
Shell 82
Pipes 10
Liquid 24
Insulation 6
Total 122 KN

Wind loading
Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2.
Mean diameter, including insulation = 2.410 + (75 + 19) ∗ 10−3 =
2.5𝑚

𝑁
Loading (per linear meter) 𝐹𝑤 = 1280 ∗ 2.410 = 3206.4
𝑚

Bending moment at bottom tangent line:


𝐹𝑤 2 3206.4
𝑀𝑥 = 𝑥 = ∗ 2.52 = 10060.1 𝑁𝑚
2 2

228
Analysis of stresses
At bottom, tangent line
Pressure stresses:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.809 ∗ 2410 𝑁
𝜎𝐿 = = = 29
4𝑡 4 ∗ 19 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝐷𝑖 0.809 ∗ 2410 𝑁


𝜎𝐻 = = = 50.7
2𝑡 2 ∗ 19 𝑚𝑚2
Dead weight stress:
𝑊𝑣 122
𝜎𝑤 = =
𝜋(𝐷𝑖 + 𝑡)𝑡 3.14(2410.9 + 19)19
𝑁
= 0.84 (𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒)
𝑚𝑚2

Bending stresses:
𝐷0 = 2410.9 + 2 ∗ 19 = 2449.1 𝑚𝑚
𝜋 3.14
𝐼𝑣 = (𝐷04 − 𝐷𝑖4 ) = (2449.14 − 2410.94 ) = 5.3 ∗ 1010 𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑀𝑥 𝐷𝑖 10060.1 ∗ 103 2410.9 𝑁


𝜎𝑏 = ∓ ( + 𝑡) = ∓ ( + 19) = ∓0.23
𝐼𝑣 2 5.3 ∗ 1010 2 𝑚𝑚2

The resultant longitudinal stress is:

𝜎𝑧 = 𝜎𝐿 + 𝜎𝑤 ∓ 𝜎𝑏
𝜎𝑤 is compressive and therefore negative
𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑢𝑝𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 29 − 0.84 + 0.23 = 28.4
𝑚𝑚2

𝑁
𝜎𝑧 (𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑) = 29 − 0.84 + 0.23 = 27.93
𝑚𝑚2

229
As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σz and
σH.

28.4 27.93

50.68 50.68

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the


down-wind side
𝑁
50.68 − 27.93 = 22.75
𝑚𝑚2
well below the maximum allowable design stress

Support Design
Choose saddles support must be designed to withstand the load imposed
by the weight of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks
or concrete, or are fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should
not be less than 120º, and will not normally be greater than 150 º. Wear
plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area
of contact with the saddle.
The dimensions of typical “standard” saddle designs are given in Figure
13.26 chemical engineering Vol. 6 page 847
For shell diameter of 2.6 m choose the design that fit that diameter from
fig 13.26

230
Flange Design
Use for Flanges (Two for shell and two for tubes)
𝐷 = 282 ∗ 𝐺 0.52 ∗ 𝜌−0.32

Select standard flange design from Figure 13.37 chemical engineering


Vol. 6 page 866

231
D for shell = 122 mm

D for tube side = 79.5 mm

Summary

Shell thickness 19 mm
Head thickness 17 mm
Total weight 122 KN
Loading 5863 N/m
Pressure stress σL 29 N/mm2
Pressure stress σH 50.68 N/mm2
Dead weight stress σH 0.84 N/mm2
Bending stresses σb 0.23 N/mm2
longitudinal stress
σz (upwind) 28.4 N/mm2
σz (downwind) 27.93 N/mm2

232
References

Journal Article
[1] Troy A. Semelsbergera, Rodney L. Borupa and Howard L. Greeneb,
Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel, 2005

Book
[2] Coulson and Richardson's, Chemical Engineering Volume 6, 2005
[3] Coulson and Richardson's, Chemical Engineering Volume 2, 2002
[4] Richard M. Felder and Ronald W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes 3rd Edition, 2004
[5] Robert H. Perry, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook 8th Edition,
2007
[6] J. M. Smith, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics,
7th Edition, 2005
[7] James A Anderson and Marco J. Castaldi, Catalysis Volume 21, 2009

Website
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyl_ether
[9] http://www.peacesoftware.de/einigewerte/calc_dampf.php5
[10] http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=115-10-6
[11] https://www.google.com/patents/US20070142482
[12] https://www.google.com/patents/US5750799
[13] http://www.oil-gasportal.com/dimethyl-ether-dme-production-2
[14]
http://ddbonline.ddbst.de/DIPPR105DensityCalculation/DIPPR105Calcul
ationCGI.exe?component=Diethyl%20ether
[15] http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C115106&Mask=7#ref-2
[16] http://www.tarimsalkimya.com.tr/dimethyl_ether/eng/itici.php

233