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Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences (NJES) Vol.20 No.2, 2017, pp.

358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

Comparative Study for Different Types of Shear Walls in


Buildings Subjected to Earthquake Loading
Muhammed Abbas Husain Osamah Ibrahim Mahmood
Civil Eng. Dep. Civil Eng. Dep.
University of Samarra University of Samarra
mhmdabbas@uosamarra.edu.iq osamah.mahmood@uky.edu

Abstract analysis, response spectrum analysis, time history


Shear walls are effective structural elements analysis, nonlinear static analysis, and nonlinear
used mainly in multi-story buildings to provide dynamic analysis .The present work will adopt
resistance against lateral loadings such as the response spectrum analysis method since it is
earthquake and wind loadings. There are several the most popular method used for analysis due to
types and shapes of shear walls depending mainly the fact that it provides a simple and logical way
on geometry and height of the building. Both type to define the earthquake loadings and economical
and shape of the shear wall affect the efficiency of computational efforts. The response spectrum
resisting lateral loadings. In this study, fifty six analysis is considered as a dynamic linear
building models have been analyzed using the analysis.
finite element method by using the SAP2000 V14 The study of the effects of shear walls
computer program. Each model have ten stories, locations and types in buildings subjected to
subjected to earthquake loadings, with various earthquake loadings are presented in different
numbers of bays, and with three types of shear approaches [2-4]. In this study, a new approach is
walls, namely: side shear walls, middle shear core, presented to obtain the optimum behavior of
and double shear cores, provided that each type of buildings subjected to earthquake loading with
the shear walls (or cores) has the same material different types of shear walls and different
volume. The analysis outputs have been locations.
investigated to select the appropriate type and 2. Description of Models
location of the shear walls (or cores) for the multi- Ten - story reinforced concrete framed
story buildings subjected to earthquake loadings. buildings are assumed in this study. There are
Specified conclusions have been presented to nine different buildings which have been
obtain the optimum behavior for the multi-story considered and categorized according to the
buildings under the effects of earthquake loadings. number of bays in the X-direction (the
Keywords: Earthquake, optimum shear walls, longitudinal direction) where, the first building
response spectrum. has two bays in the X-direction (2B), the second
1. Introduction building has three bays in the X-direction (3B),
Shear walls are effective structural elements the third building has four bays in the X-direction
used mainly in multi-story buildings to provide (4B) and so on. All these buildings have two bays
adequate resistance against the lateral loadings in the Y-direction and all bays (in both X and Y-
such as earthquake and wind loadings. Each direction) are of (5 m) span with story height of
building is significantly influenced by the shape (3 m).
and position of shear walls [1]. There are two For each building type, three different
main arrangements of shear walls; the first one is arrangements of shear walls are studied: sidewall
placed at the edges of the building which could be system (SW), figure (1-b), middle-core system
in either plane or flanged shape. The second (MC), figure (1-c), double-core at different
arrangement is placed inside the building in the symmetric locations system (C1, C2, C3,.. etc.)
shape of core walls or channel sections [2]. This depending on the building width, figure (1-d,e,f).
study will consider the sidewall (edge walls) Also a free-wall frame system (F) with no shear
arrangement, middle core walls, and double core walls has been studied, figure (1-a). Each shear
walls arrangements at different positions as shown wall arrangement built using the same material
in figure (1). volume. The total number of models is fifty six.
Regarding methods used for earthquake The details of the column and beam sections, and
analysis, there are several main approaches for the dimensions of the three arrangements of shear
this analysis, namely: the equivalent static walls are shown in figure (2).

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

Figure (1-a): Figure (1-b): Figure (1-c):


Free-wall arrangement. Sidewall arrangement. Middle-core arrangement.

Figure (1-d): Figure (1-e): Figure (1-f):


Double-core (C3) arrangement. Double-core (C2) arrangement. Double-core (C1) arrangement.

Figure 1: Typical images for shear wall arrangements used in this study.

All buildings are modeled by using the finite - The long period transition period = 8
element method via computer program SAP2000 - Damping ratio = 0.05
V14 [7]. Each building is assumed to be subjected - Site class = B (Rock).
to the seismic loading according to the IBC 2006 - Site Coefficient Fa = 1
[8]. - Site Coefficient Fv = 1
Two nodes beam element has been selected to - Modal combination: CQC (Complete Quadratic
represent the beams and columns in the buildings. Combination).
The beam element includes the effects of biaxial - Directional combination: SRSS (Square Root of
bending, biaxial shear deformations, torsion, and the Sum of Squares).
axial deformation. The walls in the buildings have The Dynamic analysis based on modal
been represented by four nodes thick shell analysis in Eigen vectors mode type. Various
element which includes the effect of transverse mode shapes have been investigated for the
shear, in addition to the effects of in – plane and models to choose the required number of these
out of the plane rotational and translational shapes for the analysis. Due to the symmetry in
stiffness components , and combines both the geometry of the buildings, and also due to the
membrane and plate bending behavior. specified approach adopted in this study, two
The information for analysis used in this work is main mode shapes have been selected to represent
as follows: the behavior of such buildings. Typical mode
- The 0.2 sec. spectral acceleration Ss = 2.29 shapes for a typical building (model 4BDC2) is
-The 1 sec. spectral acceleration S1= 0.869 shown in figure 3.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

Figure 2: Details of sections of the members and dimensions of the shear walls.

Figure 3: Mode shapes for a typical building (model 4BDC2).

3. Results and Discussion 3.1 Story Drift


After carrying out the analysis, three different Values of the story drift for all buildings are
variables where examined to draw a conclusive plotted and shown in figure 4. The models have
result. These variables are: the drift of the 10 been designated based on the number of bays in x
story, the resultant shear base along the edge and – direction, and the type of shear wall, e.g. 2BSW
center line of the building, and the resultant means the model has two bays in x – direction
bending moment in columns of the ground story with side walls type.
along the edge and center line of each building. It can be noticed that sidewall arrangement shows
the maximum reduction for story drift of the two-
bay and three- bay buildings, while the double-
core arrangement produces the maximum
reduction for the other building types.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

10
10 8

Story Level
6BC1
8 6
Story Level
6BC2
3BC1
6 4 6BC3
3BC2
4 2 6BSW
3BSW
2 0 6BMC
3BMC
0 0 5 10 6BF
3BF
0 5 10 Drifting (mm)
Drifting (mm)

10
7BC1
10 8

Story Level
7BC2
8 6
Story Level

7BC3
6 2BC1
4
7BC4
4 2BSW
2
7BSW
0
2 2BMC 7BMC
0 5 10
0 2BF 7BF
Drifting (mm)
0 5 10
Drifting (mm)
10 8BC1
Story Level

8BC2
10 5 8BC3
8 8BC4
Story Level

4BC1
6 0 8BSW
4BC2 0 5 10
4 8BMC
4BSW Drifting (mm)
2 8BF
4BMC
0
4BF
0 5 10
Drifting (mm) 10 9BC1
Story Level

8
9BC2
6
9BC3
4
10 2 9BC4
8 0
Story Level

5BC1 9BC5
6 5BC2 0 5 10 9BSW
4 5BC3 Drifting 9BMC
2 5BSW
0 5BMC
0 5 10 5BF 10
Story Level

Drifting (mm) 10BC1


10BC2
5
10BC3
10BC4
0
0 5 10 10BC5

Drifting (mm) 10BSW

Figure 4: Story vise drift for the models.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

3.2 Base Shear 3.3 Bending Moment


The resultant shear force at the edge and The resultant bending moment at the edge
center line (middle) of the ground story is and center line (middle) of the ground story is
presented in figures (5 to 13). The maximum presented in figures (14 to 22). The maximum
shear forces are generated for the free-wall (F) value of the resultant bending moment is seen in
system, while the minimum forces occurred in the the free-wall (F) system and the minimum
sidewall (SW) system of the two-bay and three- resultant bending moment occurred in the
bay buildings. The double-core system recorded sidewall (SW) system of the two-bay and three-
the minimum shear force as compared with the bay buildings, while the double-core arrangement
other building types. recorded the minimum bending moment as
compared with the other building types.

60
Shear Force (kN)

50
40 Edge
30
20
10 Middle
0
2BC1 2BSW 2BMC 2BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 5: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the two-bay building.

60
Shear Force (kN)

50
40
30
Edge
20
10 Middle
0
3BC1 3BC2 3BSW 3BMC 3BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 6: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the Three-bay building.

50
Shear Force (kN)

40
30
20 Edge
10 Middle
0
4BC1 4BC2 4BSW 4BMC 4BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 7: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the Four-bay building.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

50

Shear Force (kN)


40
30
20 Edge
10 Middle
0
5BC1 5BC2 5BC3 5BSW 5BMC 5BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 8: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the Five-bay building.

50
Shear Force (kN)

40
30
20 Edge
10 Middle
0
6BC1 6BC2 6BC3 6BSW 6BMC 6BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 9: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the six-bay building.

40
Shear Force (kN)

30

20
Edge
10 Middle
0
7BC1 7BC2 7BC3 7BC4 7BSW 7BMC 7BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 10: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the seven-bay building.

40
Shear Force (kN)

30

20
Edge
10 Middle
0
8BC1 8BC2 8BC3 8BC4 8BSW BMC 8BF
Arrangemet Type

Figure 11: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the eight-bay building.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

40

Shear Force (kN) 30

20
Edge
10 Middle
0
9BC1 9BC2 9BC3 9BC4 9BC5 9BSW 9BMC 9BF
Arragement Type

Figure 12: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the nine-bay building.

50
Shear Force (k)

40
30
20 Edge
10 Middle
0
10BC1 10BC2 10BC3 10BC4 10BC5 10BSW 10BMC 10BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 13: Shear force (kN) computed in the ground story for the ten-bay building.

70
Bending Moment (kN.m)

60
50 Edge
40
30
20
10 Middle
0
2BC1 2BSW 2BMC 2BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 14: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the two-bay building.

70
Bending Moment (kN.m)

60
50
40
30 Edge
20
Middle
10
0
3BC1 3BC2 3BSW 3BMC 3BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 15: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the three-bay building.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

80

Bending Moment (kN.m) 60

40
Edge
20 Middle
0
4BC1 4BC2 4BSW 4BMC 4BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 16: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the four-bay building.

70
Bending Moment (kN.m)

60
50
40
30 Edge
20
Middle
10
0
5BC1 5BC2 5BC3 5BSW 5BMC 5BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 17: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the five-bay building.

80
Bending Moment (kN.m)

60

40
Edge
20 Middle
0
6BC1 6BC2 6BC3 6BSW 6BMC 6BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 18: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the six-bay building.

100
Bedig Moment (kN.m)

80
60
40 Edge
20 Middle
0
7BC1 7BC2 7BC3 7BC4 7BSW 7BMC 7BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 19: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the seven-bay building.

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

100

Bending Moment (kN.m)


80
60
40 Edge
20 Middle
0
8BC1 8BC2 8BC3 8BC4 8BSW BMC 8BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 20: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the eight-bay building.

100
Bending Moment (kN.m)

80
60
40 Edge
20 Middle
0
9BC1 9BC2 9BC3 9BC4 9BC5 9BSW 9BMC 9BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 21: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the nine-bay building.

120
Bending Moment (kN.m)

100
80
60
Edge
40
20 Middle
0
10BC1 10BC2 10BC3 10BC4 10BC5 10BSW 10BMC 10BF
Arrangement Type

Figure 22: Bending moment (kN.m) computed in the ground story for the ten-bay building.

Conclusions floor bending moment occurred with


The following conclusions are obtained from reduction percent ranging between (80-
this work: 98)%.
1- Seismic load resisting capacity of the frame 3- Double-core shear wall arrangement is
building is significantly improved in the considered the best option for buildings with
presence of shear walls as is clear from the length (in the X-direction) of greater than
story drift, base shear resultant, and bending 20m.
moment when comparing the free-wall 4- Since the double core arrangement has
arrangement with the other arrangements. more than one case, it has been concluded
2- Sidewalls arrangement is considered to be that placing the core at a distance (a),
the best option for buildings with length (in measured from the center of the core to the
the X-direction) less than or equals to 20 m edge of the building, would give the
since it has been recorded that the least minimum values for drifting, base shear, and
values of drifting, base shear, and ground ground floor bending moment when the ratio
(a/b) is about 0.75, in which (b) is the

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NJES Vol.20, No.2, 2017 Husain & Mahmood, pp. 358-367
Special Issue - Proceedings of the 4th Eng. Conf. (21April 2016, Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad, IRAQ)

distance from the center of the core to the Conventional Shear Wall”, World Applied
center line of the building, as shown in figure Programming, Volume 4, Issue 1. PP. (42-49).
23. 3- Shahzad J. S., Umesh. N. K., (2013), “ Effect
of change in Shear Wall location on Story Drift of
a b Multistory Building Subjected to Lateral Loads”,
IJIRSET, Volume 2, Issue 9 .
4- Hiremath G.S, Hussain M.S., (2014), “Effect
of Change in Shear Wall Location with Uniform
and Varying Thickness in High Rise Building”,
IJSR, Volume 3, Issue 10.
5- Berrah M., Kausel E., (1992), “Response
spectrum analysis of structures subjected to
1Figure 23: Optimum location of the spatially varying motions, Earthquake
double-core shear wall arrangement (a/b is Engineering & Structural Dynamics”, Volume 21,
about 0.75). Issue 6, PP. (461–470).
6- Venkata S. K., (2013), “Influence of
Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall on Multistory
References Buildings”, IJESRT, Volume 4, Issue 5.
7- CSI Analysis Reference Manual for SAP2000.
1- Nilson A., Darwin D., Dolan C., (2014), Berkeley ,USA, 2009.
“Design of Concrete Structures”, 14th Edition, 8- International Code Council Inc. "International
USA, McGrow Hill, p.787. Building Code", 200
2- Behruyan M., Mohammadi M., (2014), “Study
of Shear Wall with Circular Core Compared To

‫دراﺳﺔ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻷﻧواع ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣن ﺟدران اﻟﻘص ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﻧﺎﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﻌرﺿﺔ اﻟﻰ أﺣﻣﺎل‬
‫اﻟﮭزات اﻷرﺿﯾﺔ‬
‫اﺳﺎﻣﺔ اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ ﻣﺤﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺎس ﺣﺴﯿﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ اﻟﻤﺪﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺳم اﻟﮭﻧدﺳﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﺎﻣﺮاء‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺳﺎﻣراء‬

‫اﻟﺧﻼﺻﺔ‬
‫ ﺣﯾث ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﺑﺷﻛل رﺋﯾﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﻧﺎﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟطواﺑق‬,‫ﺗﻌﺗﺑر ﺟدران اﻟﻘص ﻣن اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻻﻧﺷﺎﺋﯾﺔ اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ ھﻧﺎﻟك ﻋدة أﻧواع وﻋدة أﺷﻛﺎل‬.‫ﻟﺗوﻓﯾر ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺿد اﻷﺣﻣﺎل اﻟﺟﺎﻧﺑﯾﺔ ﻣﺛل أﺣﻣﺎل اﻟﮭزات اﻻرﺿﯾﺔ وأﺣﻣﺎل اﻟرﯾﺎح‬
‫ إن ﻛﻼً ﻣن ﻧوع وﺷﻛل ﺟدار اﻟﻘص ﯾؤﺛر ﻓﻲ ﻛﻔﺎءة‬.‫ﻟﺟدران اﻟﻘص ﺗﻌﺗﻣد ﺑﺷﻛل رﺋﯾﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻛل وارﺗﻔﺎع اﻟﺑﻧﺎﯾﺔ‬
‫ ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟدراﺳﺔ ﺗم ﺗﺣﻠﯾل ﺳت وﺧﻣﺳون ﻧﻣوذﺟﺎ ً ﻣن اﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام طرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر‬.‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻷﺣﻣﺎل اﻟﺟﺎﻧﺑﯾﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻌرض اﻟﻰ أﺣﻣﺎل‬,‫ ﻛل ﻧﻣوذج ﻣؤﻟف ﻣن ﻋﺷرة طواﺑق‬.‫ اﻟﻧﺳﺧﺔ اﻟراﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺷر‬SAP2000 ‫اﻟﻣﺣددة ﺑواﺳطﺔ ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫ ﻟب ﻗص‬,‫ ﺟدران ﻗص ﺟﺎﻧﺑﯾﺔ‬: ‫ وﺑﺛﻼﺛﺔ اﻧواع ﻣن ﺟدران اﻟﻘص ھﻲ‬,‫ وﺑﺄﻋداد ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﺟﺎﻻت‬,‫اﻟﮭزات اﻷرﺿﯾﺔ‬
‫ ﺗﻣت دراﺳﺔ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل‬.‫ وﺑﻧﻔس ﺣﺟم اﻟﻣﺎدة اﻻﻧﺷﺎﺋﯾﺔ ﻟﻛل ﻧوع ﻣن ھذه اﻷﻧواع اﻟﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬,‫ وﻟﺑﯾن ﻣزدوﺟﯾن‬, ‫وﺳطﻲ‬
‫ وﺗم ﺗﻘدﯾم اﺳﺗﻧﺗﺎﺟﺎت ﻣﺣددة ﻟﻠﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻷﻣﺛل‬, ‫ﻻﺧﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻧوع اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب واﻟﻣوﻗﻊ اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻟﺟدران اﻟﻘص‬
.‫ﻟﻸﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﻌددة اﻟطواﺑق ﺗﺣت ﺗﺄﺛﯾر أﺣﻣﺎل اﻟﮭزات اﻷرﺿﯾﺔ‬

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