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Vibration and Aeroelasticity of Advanced Aircraft Wings Modeled as Thin-Walled Beams –Dynamics, Stability and Control

Zhanming Qin

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Mechanics

Prof. Romesh C. Batra Prof. David Gao Prof. Daniel J. Inman Prof. Liviu Librescu, Chair Prof. Surot Thangjitham

October 2, 2001 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Thin-Walled beam, Dynamics, Aeroelastic intabilities, Passive/ActiveControl

Copyright

c 2001, Zhanming Qin

Vibration and Aeroelasticity of Advanced Aircraft Wings Modeled as Thin-Walled Beams

–Dynamics, Stability and Control

Zhanming Qin

(ABSTRACT)

Based on a refined analytical anisotropic thin-walled beam model, aeroelastic instability, dynamic aeroelastic response, active/passive aeroelastic control of advanced aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams are systematically addressed. The refined thin-walled beam model is based on an existing framework of the thin-walled beam model and a couple of non-classical effects that are usually also important are incorporated and the model herein developed is validated against the available experimental, Finite Element Anaylsis (FEA), Dynamic Finite Element (DFE), and other analytical predictions. The concept of indicial functions is used to develop unsteady aerodynamic model, which broadly encompasses the cases of incompressible, compressible subsonic, compressible supersonic and hyper- sonic flows. State-space conversion of the indicial function based unsteady aerodynamic model is also developed. Based on the piezoelectric material technology, a worst case control strategy based on the minimax theory towards the control of aeroelastic systems is further developed. Shunt damping within the aeroelastic tailoring environment is also investigated.

The major part of this dissertation is organized in the form of self-contained chapters, each of which corresponds to a paper that has been or will be submitted to a journal for publication. In order to fullfil the requirement of having a continuous presentation of the topics, each chapter starts with the purely structural models and is gradually integrated with the involved interactive field disciplines.

Dedication

To my parents, for their love, support and great expectation

iii

Acknowledgements

First of all, I wish to thank my advisor, Professor Liviu Librescu, for his resourceful help, constant encouragement, unabating enthusiasm and great expectation. Without his great patience, this work would never have been finished. It is by the inspiring discussions and close interactions with him that my hope was reinvigorated once again and that I learned how to steadfastly move to the next step.

I also wish to thank all my committee members: Professors Romesh C. Batra, David Y.

Gao, Daniel J. Inman and Surot Thangjitham for their help, patience and for devoting

time from their busy schedule to serving on my committee.

Many thanks are expressed to Professors Leonard Meirovitch and Dean T. Mook in the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Jan N. Lee and Layne Watson in the Department of Computer Science for their crystally clear lectures on the master level.

I would like to express my most profound thanks and gratitude to my parents for their sustaining love, dedication and support at all their possible levels.

High appreciations are also expressed to my brothers, sisters and sister-in-laws, for their constant encouragement and help during the past years.

Special thanks are expressed to Tongze Li, Johnny Yu, for their invaluable suggestions at my critical time. I also gratefully recognize the following friends for their help: Jianxin Zhao, Lizeng Sheng and Wei Peng and Caisy Ho.

During the rocky road of the past five years, I would like to express my warmest thanks to Professor Henneke, the head of the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, for his patience and generosity to manage to provide financial support for me. I also wish to express my gratitude to Mrs. Tickle Loretta, the graduate secretary of the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, and Professor Glenn Kraige in the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, for their help and constructive advice.

When staying at the Computer Lab of the Department of Engineering Science and Me- chanics, I was deeply impressed by the readiness for help from Tim Tomlin, the system manager of the Computer Lab.

Many thanks are expressed towards my dear friends Peirgiovanni Marzocca and Axinte

iv

Ionita, for their friendship and help.

Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to God, for His mercy and grace, to provide me such a benign environment to let me grow.

v

Contents

1 On a Shear-Deformable Theory of Anisotropic Thin-Walled Beams: Fur- ther Contribution and Validation

1

1.1 Introduction .

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2

1.2 Basic Assumptions

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3

1.3 Kinematics

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1.4 Constitutive Equations

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5

1.5 The Governing System

 

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6

1.6 Governing systems for the Cross-ply, CUS and CAS configurations

 

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1.7 Solution Methodology

 

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11

1.8 Test Cases .

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14

Validation

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14

1.10 Conclusions

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1.11 References

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1.12 Appendix A

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2 Dynamic Aeroelastic Response of Advanced Aircraft Wings Modeled as Thin-Walled Beams

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2.1 Introduction .

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52

2.2 Formulation of the Governing System .

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2.2.1 The Structural Model

 

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53

2.2.2 Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads for Arbitrary Small Motion in In-

compressible Flow

 

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55

 

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2.2.3 Gust and blast loads

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60

2.2.4 The Governing System

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61

2.3 Solution Methodology

 

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2.3.1 Non-Dimensionalization and Spatial Semi-Discretization

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2.3.2 State Space Form of the Governing System .

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68

2.3.3 Temporal Discretization of the Governing System

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69

2.4 Simulation Results and Discussions

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70

2.5 Conclusions

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73

2.6 References

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74

3 Aeroelastic Instability and Response of Advanced Aircraft Wings at

Subsonic Flight Speeds

 

107

3.1 Introduction .

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108

3.2 Kinematics

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109

3.3 Subsonic Aerodynamic Loads, an Indicial Function Approach

 

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3.4 Aeroelastic Governing Equations and Solution Methodology

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114

3.4.1 Aeroelastic Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions

 

114

3.4.2 State Space Solution

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117

3.5 Validation

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117

3.6 Numerical Results and Discussion

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118

3.7 Conclusion .

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120

3.8 Time-Domain Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads in Supersonic-Hypersonic Flows121

3.9

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References

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4 Minimax Aeroelastic Control of Smart Aircraft Wings Exposed to Gust/Blast

Loads

148

4.1 Introduction .

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149

4.2 Structural modeling .

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150

4.2.1 Basic Assumptions and Kinematics

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150

4.2.2 Constitutive Equations .

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152

vii

4.3

Subsonic Aerodynamic Loads, an Indicial Function Approach

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4.4 Integrated Aeroelastic Governing System in State-Space Form

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157

4.4.1 General Theory

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157

4.4.2 State-Space Form

 

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160

4.4.3 Electric Power Consumption .

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161

4.5 Minimax Control Design

 

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162

4.6 Numerical Illustrations and Discussion

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167

4.7 Concluding Remarks

 

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169

4.8 References

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170

5 Investigation of Shunt Damping on the Aeroelastic Behavior of an Ad-

vanced Aircraft Wing

 

194

5.1 Introduction .

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194

5.2 Modeling

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195

5.2.1 Governing Equations in State-Space Form

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195

 

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5.2.2 Initial Conditions of V c and V c .

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197

5.3 Numerical Simulations and Discussion

 

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197

5.4 Conclusion .

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199

5.5 References

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199

6 Conclusions and Recommendations

 

221

6.1 Summary

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221

6.2 Recommendations for Future Work

 

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222

viii

List of Figures

1.1 Geometric configuration of the box beam (CAS

 

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1.2 Coordinate system and displacement field for the beam

 

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1.3 Mode shapes of the bending /twist components in the first three

 

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1.4 Mode shapes of the bending /twist components in the (4, 5, 6)th modes.

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1.5 Twist angle of cross-ply test beam under 0.113 N-m tip

 

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1.6 Bending slope of cross-ply test beam under 4.45 N tip shear load.

 

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1.7 Twist angle of CUS1 beam by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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1.8 Twist angle of CUS2 beam by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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1.9 Twist angle of CUS3 beam by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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1.10 Induced twist angle of CUS3 beam by 4.45 N tip extension load.

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1.11 Bending slope of CUS1 beam by 4.45 N tip shear load.

 

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1.12 Bending Slope of CAS2 beam by 4.45 N tip shear load.

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1.13 Twist angle of CAS1 beam by 4.45 N tip shear load.

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1.14 Twist angle of CAS2 beam by 4.45 N tip shear load.

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1.15 Twist angle of CAS3 beam by 4.45 N tip shear load.

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1.16 Twist angle of CAS1 beam by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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1.17 Twist angle of CAS2 beam by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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1.18 Bending slope of CAS3 beam by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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1.19 Influence of the tranverse shear non-uniformity on the twist deformation of

 

CAS test beams by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

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46

1.20 Influence of the tranverse shear non-uniformity on the bending slope of

 

CAS test beams by 4.45 N tip shear

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ix

1.21

Influence of the tranverse shear non-uniformity on the bending slope of

 

CAS test beams by 0.113 N-m tip torque.

 

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48

1.22

Natural frequency vs. ply angle of CAS beams (1st mode) (the material,

 

geometric and lay-ups are listed in the Table 1 in Ref. [3]).

 

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49

1.23

Natural frequency vs. ply angle of CAS beams (2nd mode) (the material,

 

geometric and lay-ups are listed in the Table 1 in Ref. [3]).

 

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50

2.1

Geometric configuration of the aircraft wing modeled as a thin-walled beam

 

model.

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