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Ming Wu1, Li Jing Sun1, Hai Zhang1, Wei Wang2, Guo Min Luo2

1

China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

2

Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

E-mail: 14125996@bjtu.edu.cn

Published in The Journal of Engineering; Received on 6th October 2017; Accepted on 2nd November 2017

Abstract: Existing methods to determine the battery bank capacity of micro-grid composed of photovoltaic (PV) generation and energy

storage device are classiﬁed and summarised. In the viewpoint of peak load ﬁlling and implementing continuous power supply by independent

and grid-connected micro-grid composed of PV generation and energy storage device, the method for optimal conﬁguration of battery bank

capacity is researched. A method of optimising the storage capacity of DC micro-grids considering the randomness of PV and load is proposed

to maximise the local absorption of renewable energy. Based on the K-means algorithm, the engineering selection basis of PV and storage

capacity in DC micro-grid system is given, and its economic beneﬁt is evaluated. Finally, the efﬁciency and economy of the energy

storage capacity selection method are veriﬁed by practical application of 31.5 MW PV power station in Badaling, Beijing.

ducing the investment cost and maximising the utilisation of

With the increasing demand for energy crisis and environmental

resources in the micro-grid power supply scheme is analysed.

protection, distributed power generation technology has gained

Considering the factors such as charge and discharge balance and

more and more attention and application. However, distributed

cycle life of energy storage system, the control strategy of energy

PV power is subject to natural conditions, the lack of ﬂexible and

storage technology for power load shedding and valley ﬁlling is

controllable features, the main network is an uncontrollable

studied, and a mathematical model is established to evaluate the in-

source. Grid-connected PV-and-storage micro-grid system has a

vestment economy of energy storage system [6].

direct impact on the structure, planning, scheduling and monitoring

According to the micro-network system operation mode and the

of the grid [1]. In order to solve the above problems, the distributed

function of the energy storage equipment, the optimisation of the

power supply can be integrated into the main network through the

micro-net storage capacity in recent years mainly focuses on four

form of energy storage micro-grid. The micro-grid includes two

aspects: (i) independent micro-network to ensure continuous

kinds of forms: DC micro-grid and AC micro-grid. At present,

power supply angle conﬁguration of energy storage, (ii) to stabilise

micro-grids have been developed in the world, and the research

the distributed power supply active power ﬂuctuations in the conﬁg-

on the technology of DC micro-grid is still in progress [2].

uration of energy storage, (iii) power type + energy type integrated

For the distributed power supply as the centre of the DC micro-

conﬁguration of energy storage, (iv) other purposes conﬁguration

network, problems of power generation and electricity synchronised

energy storage. Such as maintaining system stability, cutting peak

are more serious, especially in the photovoltaic (PV) as a distributed

padding, maintaining a constant line power, and seamless conver-

power supply DC micro-network. Daytime PV power supply load,

sion of isolated networks [7].

energy storage battery will be stored in excess of PV power gener-

This paper is mainly for a 100 kW PV station with a DC micro-

ation. When the amount of PV power generation is not sufﬁcient to

network system, including distributed PV power, energy storage

meet the needs of the load (night or cloudy), energy storage battery

and station load. Firstly, the distributed PV power capacity is deter-

is supplied for the load power. It is a good solution for the problems

mined, and then the method of optimal conﬁguration of energy

of synchronised wok and energy waste. Making the energy storage

storage equipment is studied from the perspective of continuous

system really plays a ‘peak load ﬁlling valley’ role and ensuring that

power supply and peak load. Finally, the energy selection method

the micro-grid PV power supply in place to maximise the local ab-

of energy storage device with engineering signiﬁcance is given.

sorption of renewable energy not only needs to make the DC micro-

network power and load the power balance but also needs to ensure

that micro-internal power balance.

The existing literature focuses on the analysis of the economy. In 2 Model of DC micro-grid in PV station

[3], the micro-grid composed of PV generation and energy storage

device is used as the system model, and the storage capacity of the 2.1 PV energy storage micro-grid system

micro-grid is conﬁgured with the investment cost and the power The typical structure of the DC micro-grid established in this paper

generation cost as the objective function. In [4], the environment is shown in Fig. 1. The DC micro-grid is mainly composed of grid-

and economy are taken into account in the distributed power opti- connected converter (GCC), PV unit, PV unidirectional DC/DC

misation conﬁguration. However, the authors in [3, 4] did not con- converter, battery energy storage (BES) unit, bidirectional DC/DC

sider the reliability of the factors. Considering the energy storage converter and AC load. The public AC power grid and the AC

and discharge efﬁciency, charge state and other constraints. In load are connected to the DC micro-grid system, which is available

[5], a power capacity optimisation model considering the reliability of either grid-connected operation or islanding operation via a

and economy of the system power supply is established for the converter.

J. Eng., 2017, Vol. 2017, Iss. 13, pp. 859–864 This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons

doi: 10.1049/joe.2017.0452 Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

When the battery is discharged, PSB (t ) ≥ 0, the remaining cap-

acity at time t is

time t is

battery charge and discharge power at time t, hC and hD are charge

Fig. 1 Typical structure of DC micro-grid and discharge efﬁciency, respectively, s is the battery per hour self-

discharge ratio.

double-layer bus structure of the network, including 100 kW PV 3 Characteristic analysis of DC micro-grid in PV station

power generation unit and its 100 kW one-way DC–DC converter 3.1 Micro-grid power allocation strategy

group, BES unit and its 100 kW bi-directional DC–DC converter

group, 20 kW AC load and its DC–AC converter group. The operation mode of the DC micro-grid includes the grid-

connected operation and the islanding operation. The islanding

mode means that DC micro-grid operates as an independent

2.2 PV power generation model

system, and there is no power exchange with the AC power

In this paper, the simulation model based on battery characteristics grid [11].

is used to modify the performance parameters of PV cells according For the actual micro-network in terms of this project, although

to the environmental variables, which makes the simulation model the GCC is bidirectional AC–DC, actually, it operates according

more accurate. For the engineering application, the steady-state to the grid-connected mode without reverse current, in order to

power output of the PV module can be simpliﬁed using the follow- reduce the impact of micro-network system on the power quality

ing model [8]. The output of the PV cell is considered to be related of the public grid. The energy ﬂows from the AC grid one way

only to the solar radiation value and the ambient temperature into the micro-grid, through the GCC. Since the GCC is turned

on, only if the energy in the micro-grid is insufﬁcient to maintain

1 + k TC − Tr the normal operation of the load, the islanding state is the normal

PPV = PSTC GAC (1)

GSTC state of the stable operation of the micro-grid.

The energy is directly exchanged between the DC bus in DC

micro-grid and the energy storage device, the DC bus of PV con-

verter. PV solar panels and energy storage devices provide energy

2.3 Battery energy storage model

to load in station under normal conditions. It means that the PV

The lithium ion battery simulation model established in this paper is power is stored in the energy storage device, when the daytime

based on a large number of battery charge and discharge measured lighting is sufﬁcient. When the power of the PV is less than the

data ﬁtting. The model is a good description of the lithium battery in system load demand, the energy storage device is preferentially

a variety of state of charge (SOC) under the non-linear external used to provide energy. Only when the energy consumption of

characteristics, in the study has been widely used [9, 10]. The energy storage device is consumed to warning value, power

remaining capacity of the battery at time t is related to the remaining supply is provided by power grid for the station. As the energy

capacity of the battery at time t − 1, the amount of charge and dis- storage device is not charged by AC power grid, only by PV

charge of the battery during the [t − 1, t] period, and the amount of extra power, it can achieve the maximum use of energy within

power per hour. station.

This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons J. Eng., 2017, Vol. 2017, Iss. 13, pp. 859–864

Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) doi: 10.1049/joe.2017.0452

3.2 Operating mode of PV and energy storage (i) Light intensity and temperature values change with the seasons,

that is, the PV output power characteristics are signiﬁcantly dif-

The PV unit has two modes of operation: maximum power point

ferent. Therefore, considering the effect of the season on the

tracking (MPPT) mode and constant voltage mode. MPPT is a tech-

output characteristics of PV power supply, this paper takes k

nology to adjust the equivalent input impedance to obtain the

as 4.

maximum output power through a series of control device and

(ii) The selection of the initial clustering centre has a great inﬂu-

control strategy [12]. The efﬁciency of a PV system is equal to

ence on the clustering results. Once the initial value selection

the product of the photoelectric conversion efﬁciency and the

is not appropriate, effective clustering results may not be avail-

maximum power point tracking efﬁciency of the panel. The

able. Therefore, this paper randomly selected 1 day as the initial

energy storage unit bi-directional DC–DC converter operates in

clustering centre in each quarter, taking into account the inﬂu-

constant voltage mode and stop operating mode. In order to

ence of the season and reducing the effect of the initial value on

protect the battery operating life and improve economic efﬁciency.

the effectiveness of the clustering results.

The SOC is set in the controller to the upper and lower limits to

prevent the battery overcharge and over discharge.

4.2 Method of capacity allocation for energy storage devices

4.2.1 Model simpliﬁcation and assumptions

4 Capacity allocation of energy storage device (i) This paper studies the allocation method of energy storage

capacity from the perspective of engineering practice, in which

4.1 Data processing method of load power and output power of PV output power and load demand power are given.

PV power based on K-means algorithm (ii) The DC micro-grid does not deliver energy to utility grid, but

Considering the actual situation, the PV power and load power only absorbs energy from AC grid in grid-connected mode.

are uncertain and real time. If the PV output power data and the (iii) Energy storage batteries cannot produce energy, only as the

load power data are selected by random sampling method, energy buffer of the intermediary. There is no over-imbalance

although convenient and simple, but with a certain sampling of power supply in the micro-grid system.

error. In order to obtain statistical and practical signiﬁcance of

the storage capacity conﬁguration results, dimension models of

daily load capacity data and daily PV power generation capacity 4.2.2 Objective functionThe objective function is to minimise inter-

data are established ﬁrstly. The K-means algorithm is used to active power between the micro-grid and the AC grid and the costs

cluster the above data within 1 year to obtain representative of energy storage device, as follows:

k group data.

K-means algorithm is one of the most classical clustering algo- (i) The lower limit of energy storage capacity based on battery op-

rithms. Owing to its simplicity and fast computation, K-means algo- erating limits is studied from the perspective of continuous

rithm is widely used to cluster and analysis large-scale data [13]. At power supply. Micro-grid consumes local renewable energy

present, the new clustering algorithm is based on the K-means as much as possible and operate with maximum renewable

method to expand and improve. The K-means algorithm divides n energy consumption to reduce the amount of abandoned light

objects into k clusters with k as the parameters, which makes the

data in the cluster have high similarity degree and the inter-cluster ELOAD + ESB

data has low similarity. max RPV = ∗100% (5)

EPV

Assuming that the original data set is D (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ), each xi

is a d-dimensional vector, the purpose of K-means clustering is to

divide

the original data into K class given in advance, In the formula, RPV is the self-absorption rate of PV, EPV is

S = S1 , S2 , . . . , Sk . The following formula is used to calculate the total daily PV power generation, ELOAD is the daily con-

the minimum in the numerical model: sumption of PV power by the load, ESB is the energy storage

battery consumption of PV power.

k

2

(ii) At the same time, it is necessary to control investment costs and

arg min xj − mi (4) operating maintenance costs of energy storage equipment in the

S i=1 xj [Si economic point of view

where mi represents the average of class Si .

The K-means algorithm is used to analyse the load power and where CSB is the total annual cost of energy storage, CIN is the

output power of PV power in station as follows: annual cost of initial investment, CMA is the annual mainten-

ance cost of energy storage device.

(i) Select k = 4 days randomly from 365 days 1 year as the centre

of the four clusters.

(ii) Calculate the distance between the remaining 361 days of data

and the centre of four clusters, each data is classiﬁed to the 4.2.3 Model constraints

cluster with lowest degree of dissimilarity. (i) Power balance constraintAt any one time, the output power of

(iii) Recalculate the respective centres of four clusters based on the PV energy storage micro-grid system is limited as

clustering results. The value is the arithmetic mean of the re-

spective dimensions of all the elements in the cluster. PPV (t ) + PSB (t ) ≥ PLOAD (t ) (7)

(iv) Re-cluster the remaining 361 days of data according to the new

centre. where the load power PLOAD (t )

(v) Repeat step (iv) until the clustering result no longer changes. (ii) The SOC constraint

(vi) Output the ﬁnal cluster centre results of the four clusters. The charging state S(t) of the lithium battery must satisfy

the restriction condition of the following equation

The value of k in the algorithm is very difﬁcult to estimate. In this

paper, the value of k is chosen as 4 for two factors: Smin ≤ S (t ) ≤ Smax (8)

J. Eng., 2017, Vol. 2017, Iss. 13, pp. 859–864 This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons

doi: 10.1049/joe.2017.0452 Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

where Smin is the minimum lithium battery capacity, Smax is the than the load power

maximum capacity of lithium battery capacity.

(iii) Charge and discharge power constraints

288 5

S= PPVi − Ploadi × (13)

The charge and discharge power of battery is limited to i[p1

60

prolong the service life of lithium battery, generally related

to the total capacity of lithium batteries. The battery charge

and discharge power PSB (t) at any time must satisfy the limi- (iv) Calculate the amount of electricity difference S ′ that PV output

tation of the following equation: power less than load power. The set p2 is used to represent all

sets of sampling points where the PV output power is less than

the load power

PSBmin ≤ PSB (t) ≤ PSBmax (9)

288 5

S′ = Ploadi − PPVi × (14)

where PSBmin is the lithium battery charging power lower i[p2

60

bound, PSBmax is the lithium battery discharge power limit

constraints.

(iv) Maximum charge rate constraint [10]: (v) Determine the value of S and S ′ ,when S ≥ S ′ , the storage cap-

acity is calculated as S, that is, energy needs to be fully stored

at the peak of the PV power generation. The capacity of

− PSB (t ) ≤ Smax − S (t ) aC (10) storage battery is calculated as follows:

C1 = (15)

h×a×U

4.2.4 Calculation processFirst, the interactive power optimisation when S , S ′ , the storage capacity is calculated as S ′ , that is, it

target is transformed into the balance between storage capacity is necessary to provide sufﬁcient energy to the load without

and PV load capacity. Secondly, the energy storage cost optimisa- the maximum number of sunny days. The capacity of

tion target is transformed into K-means clustering algorithm to storage battery is calculated as follows:

obtain the statistic minimum capacity cost.

S′ × D × T × g

The basic calculation steps for the optimal capacity are as follows C2 = (16)

(Fig. 3): h×a×U

In (13) and (14), D is the maximum number of days without

(i) Process PV daily output power PPV data, assuming that there sunshine, T represents the temperature correction factor

are 288 sampling points a day (every 5 min a sampling point) (when the temperature 0°C ≤ t, T = 1; when the temperature

t ≤ 0°C, T = 1.1), g is a reliable coefﬁcient, h represents the

288 depth of discharge, a represents the decay rate, U represents

5

SPV = PPVi × (11) the discharge termination voltage.

i=1

60 (vi) Obtained storage battery capacity through the introduction of

reliable coefﬁcient K

where i is the sampling point, PPVi is the ith sampling point PV

power. C′ = K · C (17)

(ii) Process daily load power Pload data, assuming that there are

288 sampling points a day (every 5 min a sampling point)

5 Case study

288

5

Sload = Ploadi × (12) 5.1 Raw data description

i=1

60

In this paper, the distributed PV power and load in DC micro-grid

are calculated according to the output power of a PV power plant in

where i is the sampling point, Ploadi is the ith sampling point the table and the electricity consumption curve of the station.

load power. K-means algorithm is used to calculate the historical data of four

(iii) Calculate the amount of electricity difference S that PV output seasons in PV power station within 1 year. First, randomly selected

power more than load power. The set p1 is used to represent all 1 day at each season as an initial value. After three iterations, the

sets of sampling points where the PV output power is greater four centre data are obtained, that is, as a representative 4 days

PV output power and load power curve shown in Fig. 4. It can be

seen from Fig. 4, installed capacity of PV station is 100 kW.

Features include PV centralised output power between 6:00 and

18:00; summer sunshine time is long, winter sunshine time is

short; the maximum output power appears in 12:00–14:00, up to

98 kW in summer, up to 57 kW in winter.

The PV output power and load power are clustered to obtain a 4-day

PV output curve and load curve. The 4-day S and S ′ are shown in

the following Table 1.

The design of the energy storage system needs to meet the full

storage of electricity in lighting time and PV power generation

Fig. 3 Peak shaving peak time, according to the summer maximum S. Then the

This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons J. Eng., 2017, Vol. 2017, Iss. 13, pp. 859–864

Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) doi: 10.1049/joe.2017.0452

value that power consumption is lower than electricity consump-

tion. If the monthly electricity is surplus, there will be no need to

conﬁgure the battery capacity, the algorithm cannot match the

load changes ﬂuctuations at each time. The minimum capacity

method based on battery model is 14 935 kWh, which is greater

than the value determined by the ﬁrst two methods. The

minimum capacity method simply studies the lower limit of the

storage capacity based on the battery operation limit from the per-

spective of continuous power supply, with the storage capacity

minimisation as the objective function. However, this method

requires a very large battery capacity at the expense of cost. The

estimated cost of the battery accounts for about 80% of the total

cost of micro-grid system.

In summary, different algorithms will give different energy

storage battery conﬁguration recommendations, the speciﬁc appli-

cation need to combine micro-grid system size, capital data, eco-

nomic and technical requirements to determine. For the purposes

of this study, it is ﬁnally recommended to use the battery capacity

based on the K-means algorithm of the minimum capacity method.

The number of parallel strings is determined by the capacity of the

battery and the battery terminal voltage. DC micro-grid energy

storage battery voltage is 380 V. BYD lithium iron phosphate

monolithic battery is selected. The monomer parameters are as

follows: 3.2 V/200 Ah, four single series as a module parameter:

12.8 V/200 Ah.

The number of series is calculated as follows:

200 Ah.

The number of parallel is calculated as follows:

384/1400 Ah.

At this time, the battery capacity is calculated to meet the cap-

Fig. 4 The curve of PV daily output power acity requirements as follows:

a Spring2015/04/26

b Summer2015/07/18

c Autumn2015/10/12 C = 384∗1400 = 537.6 kWh, (20)

d Winter2015/12/04

Electricity, kWh Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 This paper proposes a storage capacity allocation method, taking

into account the randomness of PV power generation and load

PV power S1 = 228.6 S2 = 469.9 S3 = 259.5 S4 = 159.8 demand. The objective function is to minimise interactive power

load power S1′ = 207.1 S2′ = 235.6 S3′ = 211.5 S4′ = 211.2 between the micro-grid and the AC grid and the costs of energy

storage device. Based on the K-means algorithm, the engineering

selection basis of the storage capacity in DC micro-grid system is

given.

storage capacity of the battery multiplied by the corresponding re- The proposed capacity allocation model has been applied to the

liable coefﬁcient should be set to 510 kWh. project of Beijing Jingenng Badaling solar energy comprehensive

For the case data of this paper, the annual energy balance method pilot engineering, which has played the role of continuous power

and the minimum capacity method are used to determine the energy supply and peak load ﬁlling, and veriﬁed the effectiveness and

storage capacity, respectively (based on lingo programming). feasibility of the energy storage capacity selection method. The con-

The result of annual energy balance method is 343 kWh. It com- ﬁguration method can provide the theoretical and engineering prac-

pares the difference between the electricity generation and the elec- tice guidance for the planning and construction of the PV power

tricity consumption in the whole year, and ﬁnds out the maximum plant in remote areas and the selection of building storage capacity.

J. Eng., 2017, Vol. 2017, Iss. 13, pp. 859–864 This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons

doi: 10.1049/joe.2017.0452 Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

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This is an open access article published by the IET under the Creative Commons J. Eng., 2017, Vol. 2017, Iss. 13, pp. 859–864

Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) doi: 10.1049/joe.2017.0452