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Architecture of Smart Grid

Dr. Premalata Jena

Department of Electrical Engineering


Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2010

Grid Layout
generators of
electricity in Bulk Transmissio carriers of bulk
Generation n electricity
bulk quantities.

The organizations
providing services to Service SMART The distributors of
electrical customers Provider GRID Distributions electricity to and
and utilities. from customers.

Customers End users of

The managers of Market electricity
the movement of Operations
electricity. operators and
participants in

Customer Domain
Customer Domain
Customer Domain
• The ESI is the primary service interface to the Customer domains.

• The ESI communicates via the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)

infrastructure or Internet (with other domains ).

• The ESI communicates through Home Area Network or other Local

Area Network (to devices and systems within the customer premises).

Customer Domain
Customer Domain Participators and their function

Control Includes all

various Building Customer
Micro types of
functions and Home Domain distributed
within a Automation
building .

controls industrial processes

such as manufacturing or
Market Domain
• The markets are where grid assets are bought and sold.

• Boundaries: the edge of the Operations domain where control happens, the
domains supplying assets (e.g., generation, transmission, etc) and the Customer

• The high-priority challenges in the Markets domain are:

– extension of price and DER signals to each of the Customer sub-domains
– expanding the capabilities of aggregators
– interoperability across all providers and consumers of market information
– managing the growth (and regulation) of retailing and wholesaling of energy, and
– evolving communication mechanisms for prices and energy characteristics between and
throughout the Markets and Customer domains.
Market Domain
Market Domain
Market Domain Participators and their function *ISO-Independent system operator
Market managers • sell power to end
include ISOs for Market customers.
Management Retailing
wholesale markets • connected to a
trading organization

provide frequency
support, voltage DER Aggregators
support, spinning Market Aggregation combine smaller
reserve Domain participants.

• Make a particular market

function smoothly. • participants in markets
Market Trading
• financial and goods sold • buying and selling of
clearing, price quotation energy
streams, audit, balancing.
Service Provider Domain
• perform services to support the business processes of power system
producers, distributors and customers.

• These business processes range from traditional utility services, such as billing
and customer account management, to enhanced customer services, such as
management of energy use and home energy generation.

• Challenge: is to develop the key interfaces and standards that will enable a
dynamic market-driven ecosystem while protecting the critical power
Service Provider Domain
Service Provider Domain
Service Provider Domain Participators and their function
Installing and
Managing maintaining
customer Customer Installation &
Management Management premises
relationships. equipment

All of the services Service Monitoring and

and innovations Emerging Provider Building
for future smart Services Management
Domain building energy

Managing the Account Home Monitoring
supplier and Management Management and controlling
customer business Managing home energy
accounts. customer billing
Operation Domain
• Actors in the Operations domain are responsible for the smooth operation of
the power system.
4. Operation Domain (Cont.)

4. Operation Domain (Cont.)
supervise network Training Real-time Network
connectivity Calculations actors
provide facilities for
supervise wide area Records and
Control dispatchers that
and local automatic or Assets simulate system
manual control.
Fault identification, track and report on
elimination and Fault Operation
Operation Planning network equipment
service restoration. Management inventory
Compare data records Maintains continuous
Maintenance and
with the historical Analysis power supply by doing
event datas. Construction different network action

archive on-line data Extension develop long term

Reporting and
and perform feedback Planning plans for power
analysis. Statistics system reliability

Real-time Network Customer help customers to

Calculations actors
Calculations troubleshoot power
Support system services
Bulk Generation Domain
• Electricity generation is the process of creating electricity from other forms of
energy, which may vary from chemical combustion to nuclear fission, flowing
water, wind, solar radiation and geothermal heat.

• The boundary of the Bulk Generation domain is typically the Transmission

domain. The Bulk Generation domain is electrically connected to the
Transmission domain and shares interfaces with the Operations, Markets and
Transmission domains.

• New requirements for the Bulk Generation domain include green house gas
emissions controls, increases in renewable energy sources, and provision of
storage to manage the variability of renewable generation.
Generation Domain
Bulk Generation Domain
Bulk Generation Domain Participators and their function
determine when equipment
manage the flow of
should have maintenance,
Control power and reliability
calculate the life expectancy
of the system
of the device
Bulk digital and analog
Generation Measure
Asset measurements
Management Domain collected through
the SCADA system

Keep the records of Record Protect the system
the system status for
from various abnormal
forecasting purpose.

Transmission Domain
• Transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical power from generation sources
to distribution through multiple substations.

• A transmission network is typically operated by a Regional Transmission

Operator or Independent System Operator (RTO/ISO) whose primary
responsibility is to maintain stability on the electric grid by balancing
generation (supply) with load (demand) across the transmission network.

• Energy and supporting ancillary services are procured through the Markets
domain, scheduled and operated from the Operations domain, and finally
delivered through the Transmission domain to the distribution system and
finally to the Customer domain.
Transmission Domain
Transmission Domain
Transmission Domain Participators and their function

controls the
systems Transmission charging and
Substation Storage
within a Domain discharging
substation. of an energy
storage unit
& Control

measure, record, and control with

the intent of protecting and
optimizing grid operation.
Distribution Domain
• The Distribution domain is the electrical interconnection between the
Transmission domain, the Customer domain and the metering points for
consumption, distributed storage, and distributed generation.

• The electrical distribution system may be arranged in a variety of

structures, including radial, looped or meshed.

• In the Smart Grid, the Distribution domain will communicate more closely
with the Operations domain in real-time to manage the power flows
associated with a more dynamic Markets domain and other
environmental and security-based factors.
Distribution Domain
Distribution Domain

to measure, record, and

control with the intent of control and monitoring
protecting and optimizing Substation systems within a
& Control
grid operation. substation

Distribution controls a charging

Domain and discharging of an
power source energy storage unit
located on the
distribution side Distributed Storage
of the grid Generation

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