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World History Pre-AP – Duez

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Chapter 5 “Roman Empire” Time:
2 Weeks
Rome began as a small village and became the seat of power of one of the greatest empires the world has known. The Romans were
greatly influenced by early settlers of the peninsula and by the peoples whom they conquered. They were also innovators in art,
culture, engineering, and government. Through warfare, they gradually conquered the entire Mediterranean and much of Europe.
While at first Christians were persecuted, eventually Christianity was declared the empire's official religion. Power shifted to
Constantinople, the empire's new eastern capital, as Rome declined.
Section 1 • Geography greatly influenced the development of Rome. The narrow Italian peninsula was an important
The Rise of crossroads, and farmland was plentiful. Rome itself was strategically situated inland on hills along the Tiber
Rome River.
• In the late sixth century the Romans overthrew the Etruscan kings based north of Rome and established a
republic. Wealthy patrician landowners in the Roman Senate dominated the early republic. Male
nonpatrician Romans, called plebeians, voted and served in the army, but they could not marry patricians or
be elected.
• Rome never became a democracy, but it did develop universal standards of justice that have influenced many
societies.
• Over several centuries, Rome brought most of Italy under its control. It then confronted its main rival in the
Mediterranean, Carthage. In the Third Punic War, Rome finally defeated Carthage. By the end of the war,
Rome dominated the Mediterranean Sea.
Horatius Imperator Procurator Praetor
Livy Dictator Insulae Consul
Section 2 • By the second century B.C., a few aristocrats dominated the Roman state. Meanwhile, many small farmers
From could no longer compete and became landless poor. Some leaders called for land reform to address the
Republic to problem. However, the aristocrats resisted such pressures, and the republic faced a period of civil war.
Empire
• The First Triumvirate placed power in the hands of three wealthy generals. One of these generals, Julius
Caesar, marched on Rome with his troops, and eventually he was declared dictator. Caesar's rule ended in his
assassination.
• Following a Second Triumvirate, Octavian became Emperor Augustus, and the civil wars came to an end.
• The Roman Empire expanded its borders until, at its height; it had a population of more than 50 million. Trade
and commerce thrived, but farming remained the chief occupation. Large landed estates
called latifundia dominated farming, and an enormous gulf separated rich and poor in Roman society.
Paterfamilas Horace Cincinnatus Virgil
Pax Romana Hannibal Antony Pompey
Section 3 • The Romans imitated Greek culture in some respects, but they also developed their own realistic style of
Culture and sculpture, introduced the use of concrete in construction, and displayed impressive feats of engineering in
Society in the their roads, bridges, and aqueducts.
Roman World
• Education was a father's responsibility. In early Rome the male head of household had absolute authority over
the family.
• By the third century B.C., this authority was waning. Women could ask for a divorce and enjoyed increasing
independence and a more visible—if unequal—social role.
• Slavery was commonplace, although slaves occasionally revolted.
• The small town of Rome grew into a thriving, overcrowded city. There was an enormous gulf between the
city's rich and poor. Yet Rome's public buildings, public works, and public entertainment provided a sense of
grandeur and magnificence.
Laity Spartacus Augustus Plague
Clergy Perpetua Nero Inflation
Section 4 The • Christianity emerged at a time of widespread unrest in the Roman province of Judaea. A Jewish court
Development denounced him and turned him over to the Roman authorities, who saw Jesus as a potential revolutionary.
of Jewish followers of Jesus saw him as the Savior. Christianity thus began as a religious movement within
Christianity & Judaism that caught on quickly following Jesus' death.
Section 5
Decline and • Paul of Tarsus, a Jewish Roman citizen, preached the gospel to Jews and non-Jews throughout Asia Minor and
Fall along the coast of the Aegean. Romans viewed Christianity as a threat to the state.
• In the fourth century, the emperor Constantine proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity, setting the stage
for its adoption as the empire's official religion.
• Conflict and confusion followed the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors (Pax
Romana).
• Invasions, civil wars, and plague brought the empire to the brink of economic collapse.
• Diocletian and Constantine restored at least temporary stability to the empire.
• Later Rome was sacked by two invading tribes, first the Visigoths, then the Vandals.
Questions from 5. PG. 162 #6 Quiz is on Wed 11/27 & Thu 11/28
Chapter 5: Tue, 6. RC Pg. 164
Nov. 26th 7. PG. 168 #6 TEST- Wednesday, November 3rd and Thursday, November
1. RC Pg. 150 8. RC Pg. 177 4th
2. RC Pg. 153 9. PG. 178 #5
3. RC Pg. 159 10. PG. 178 #6
4. RC Pg. 162 (The end of this six week's period is Friday, November 5th)

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