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Seventh Edition

Social Research Methods:


Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
by W. Lawrence Neuman

Chapter 6: Strategies of
Research Design
Triangulation
• Triangulation of measures
• Triangulation of observers
• Triangulation of theory
• Triangulation of method

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Qualitative and Quantitative
Orientations
• Nature
N off D
Data
– Soft data vs. hard data
• Assumptions
A ti off social
i l life
lif
– Positivist vs. Interpretive/critical
• What
Wh t are we trying
t i to t accomplish
li h in
i a study
t d
– Hypothesis testing vs. hypothesis development
• Type of “logic”
– Systematic vs. ongoing practice

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Qualitative and Quantitative
Orientations
• Reconstructed logic and logic in practice

• Linear and non linear paths

• Objective and integrity

• Preplanned and emergent research questions

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Ways to Select Topics

• Personal experience
• Curiosity based on media
• State of knowledge in the field
• Solving a problem
• Social premiums
• Personal values
• Everyday life

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Narrowing a Research Question

• Examine literature
• Talk over with others
• Apply to a specific context
• Define the aim of the study

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Good and Bad Research Questions

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Quantitative vs. Qualitative

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Qualitative Design Issues
Language of cases and context

• Grounded theory
• Context is critical
• Bricolage
• Case and process
p
• Interpretation
– First-order interpretation
p
– Second-order interpretation
– Third-order interpretation

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Quantitative Design Issues
Language of variables and hypotheses

• Variable
• Attribute

• Types of variables
– Independent variable (IV)
– Dependent variable (DV)
– Intervening variable

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Characteristics of Causal
Hypotheses

• At least 2 variables
• Expresses a cause-effect relationship
• Can be expressed as a prediction
• Logical link between hypothesis and theory
• Falsifiable

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Testing
g and Refiningg Hypothesis
yp

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Quantitative Design Issues
Language of variables and hypotheses

• Logic of disconfirming hypothesis


– Null hypothesis
yp
– Alternative hypothesis
– Double-barreled hypothesis

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Quantitative Design Issues
Language of variables and hypotheses

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Quantitative Design Issues
Potential errors in causal explanation

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Quantitative Design Issues
Potential errors in causal explanation

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Quantitative Design Issues
Potential errors in causal explanation

• Spuriousness

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Quantitative Design Issues
Potential errors in causal explanation

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