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International Journ al of Trend in Scientific Research and D evelopment (IJTSRD) Internat tional Open Access
International Journ al of Trend in Scientific Research and D evelopment (IJTSRD)
Internat tional Open Access Journal | www.ijtsr d.com
ISSN No: 245 6 - 6470
|
Volume - 2 | Issue – 6
|
Se p – Oct 2018
I nter-Cell Interference

Aamir Nazir Beigh 1 , Er. Prabhjot Kaur 2

1 M .Tech Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Sai College of Engin eering & Technology Badhani, Pathankot, Punj ab, India

ABSTRACT

The continuously increasing demand f or higher data

transferred to a larger umbrell a-type of cell in order to

rates results in increasing network de ensity, so that

minimize the frequency of th e handovers due to this

movement. Bandwidth Spect rum flexibility is a key feature of the LTE system to operate in
movement. Bandwidth Spect rum flexibility is a key
feature of the LTE system
to operate in different
geographical areas with the d ifferent frequency bands
and different bandwidth. It
can be implemented on
either paired or unpaired fre quency bands. In paired
frequency bands, a separa te frequency band is
allocated for uplink and d ownlink transmissions,
respectively, while uplink a nd downlink share the
same frequency band in the un paired frequency bands.
II. INTER-CELL
MITIGATION
INTERFERENCE
It is known that effective r euse of resources in a
cellular system can highly
capacity. With a smaller
enhance
the
system
frequency
reuse
factor
flat,
IP-based
(FRF), more available bandw idth can be obtained by
each cell. So, in this se nse the classical FRF
deployment is desirable.
heterogeneous

inter-cell interference is becoming the

most serious

obstacle towards spectral efficiency. C onsidering that radio resources are limited and ex pensive, new

techniques are required for the next

generation of

cellular networks, to enable a more ef ficient way to allocate and use radio resources. In th is framework, we target the design of a frequency re use 1 scheme, which exploits the coordination betwee n base stations as a tool to mitigate inter-cell interferen ce.

Keyword: LTE, FRF, ICI

I. INTRODUCTION

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is all ab out 4G, which

tends to complement LTE (3G) networ ks with higher

data rates, low latency and a

architecture. It also allows operators to use a new and a much wider spectrum when com pared to the

previous standards. A part from the en hancements in the radio link, the next performance le ap in wireless networks will come from an evo lved network topology. The concept is to imp rove spectral efficiency per unit area. With various c ombinations of

femto cells, relays and Pico cells,

networks can provide the optimal exp erience to the

user. In any cellular mobile communi cation system, two major classes of interference must be considered, namely: intra-cell interference, a nd inter-cell interference. When a travelling user, c onnected to a

large, umbrella-type of cell, stops then t he call may be transferred to a smaller macro cell or e ven to a micro cell in order to free capacity on the um brella cell for

Inter-Cell Interfere

Microcells are composed of

ce Mitigation

conventional operator-

other travelling users and to reduce

the potential

installed eNBs which provide

open access mode and

interference to other cells or users : this works in

covers wide area with few ki lometers. In general, the

reverse too, when a user is detected faster than a certain threshold, the

to be moving call can be

open access mode means that each user in the network can automatically be con nected to the eNBs.

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Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Microcells are designed to guarantee the minimum chunks. When all the req uested transmission is data
Microcells are designed to guarantee
the minimum
chunks. When all the req uested transmission is
data rate under maximum tolerable del ay and outage
restrictions. Macro eNBs emit transmis sion power up
to 46 dBm and can serve thousands of c ustomers.
Pico cells are low power nodes which a re deployed by
allocated, subcarriers permuta tion is made in random
manner so that each UE’s tr ansmission is arbitrarily
spread up over the total ti me-frequency grid. The
following figure shows the all ocation of subcarriers in
a given cell before and a fter the pseudorandom
the operator. Pico eNBs have lower
powers compared to macro eNB within
transmission
a range from
permutation. In each
interfering cell, the
pseudorandom permutati on is performed
23 to 30 dBm. Pico cells can improve c apacity as well
independently. The cell specif ic scrambling causes the
as the coverage of outdoor or indoo r regions for
environments with inadequate macro pe netration (e.g.,
interference spread up along
with the transmission of
a given user. As the codin g is performed at the
office buildings). Since microcells
access mode, all users can access them.
work in open
transmitter during transmissio n, the whole bit stream
can be easily recovered at the receiving end.
III. INTERFERENCE
SCHEMES
AVOIDANCE
In cellular network, different power
and frequency
allocation schemes are deployed to av oid the impact
of ICI so as the system’s spectral effi ciency can be
improved. In many ICI mitigation sche mes, frequency
reuse technique is taken as the mai n idea. These
frequency reuse planning algorithms a im to improve
the SINR, and must fulfill the power
constraint of
each cell by making sure that the transm it power of an
eNB is not exceeding the maximum a llowable limit.
Based on time scale, ICI avoidance sc hemes can be
Subcarrier allocation before ( a) and after (b) random
permutat ion
categorized as static, semi-static
and dynamic
schemes. Static allocation schemes can n operate on a
V. FEMTOCELLS
relatively large time scale. In static
scheme, the
resource allocation for each cell is dete rmined during
radio planning and only long-term rea djustments are
made during network operation. Theref ore, the power
Femtocells are low-power b ase stations that can be
installed inside buildings a s a single stand-alone
device or in clusters, and p rovide improved indoor
coverage at low-cost. The fem tocells are linked to the
levels and the set of sub-carriers assigne d for each cell
main core network using the
mobile backhaul scheme
and cell regions are static (fixed).
approach, a part of the RB allocation
and the other RBs allocations reserved
In semi-static
is predefined
for cell edge
Timescale of
that uses the user’s Digital S ubscriber Line (DSL) or
other internet connections.
In addition to high
performance and better cover age, femtocells can also
users are dynamically changed.
help to reduce load from
MBS by channelling a
reallocation is in seconds or sev eral hundred
milliseconds. In dynamic scheme, reso urce allocation
fraction of its traffic throu gh the internet service
provider of the user. This fr eed-up capacity can be
is dynamically updated based on the
variations of
network conditions. Dynamic allocati ons are done
after a very short time period.
used to accommodate mo re users entering the
network.
The femtocell encrypted
all voice calls and data
IV. INTERFERENCE RANDOM IZATION
One of three ICI mitigation technique s is named as
interference randomization. In
randomization policy, the users’ data
interference
are spread up
over
a
distributed
set
of
subcarr iers
so
that
interference scenario can be ran domized and
frequency diversity gain can be
achieved. In

interference randomization, in each c ell the users’ data are sequentially allocated over a t ime-frequency

sent or received by the m obile phone. This makes it impossible for an exter nal user to break into a user’s home network. Fo r a standard 3G cellular phone, the femtocell appe ars as another cell site or microcell, hence commu nicating with it as it would with a macrocell, w hen the mobile phone is used outdoors. Since fem tocells operate at very low radio power levels, b attery life is high. Also call quality is excellen t, when the distance between the femtocell an d the mobile handset is

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 Microcells are designed to

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International Journal of Trend in

Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

short. The connection between

the femtocell

Transactions on Telecom munications, 17(3):303– 312, 2006.

Boudreau, J. Panicker , N. Guo, R. Chang, N.

Wang, and S. Vrzic. Inter ference coordination and

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closely co-ordinated

Fachgruppe 5.2.4

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gateway and the femtocell is en crypted using IPsec, which prevents interception. There is also authentication when t he femtocell is installed for the first time to ensure that the access point is a valid one. Inside the femt ocell there are the complete workings of a mobi le phone base station. Some additional functi ons are also included, such as the RNC (R adio Network Controller) processing, which wo uld normally reside at the mobile switching centre .

6. G. cancellation for 4G 2009. 7. Large cells can be subdivided into smaller cells for
6.
G.
cancellation
for
4G
2009.
7.
Large cells can be subdivided into
smaller cells
for high volume areas. Cell phone c ompanies also
8.
use this directional signal to imp rove reception
along highways and inside buildings and arenas.
From
autonomous
to
approaches.
VDE/ITG
Workshop
Darmstadt
VI. CONCLUSION
In a multi-cell environment, inter-cell
interference is
the most important problem addresse d. In order to
avoid resource collisions during tran smission from
9.
adjacent cells, several techniques
have been
suggested. The research paper describ es number of
parameters related to inter-cell int erference like
Interference Avoidance Schemes an d Interference
802.16m May 2011.
Randomization. The need is to have
coordinate neighbouring base stations
inter-cell interference while achieving
efficiency.
a scheme to
that minimize
high spectral
10. R.
Irmer, H. Droste, P.
V.
performance,
and
field
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