This paper mainly proposes an efficient modified particle swarm optimization MPSO method, to identify a slider-crank mechanism driven by a field-oriented PM synchronous motor, dynamic formulations of a slider-crank mechanism have been successfully formulated with only one independent variable The parameters of many industrial machines are difficult to obtain if these machines cannot be taken apart In system identification, we adopt the MPSO method to find parameters of the slider-crank mechanism This new algorithm is added with "distance" term in the traditional PSO's fitness function to avoid converging to a local optimum It is found that the MPSO method can obtain optimal high-quality solution, high calculation efficiency, and its feasibility and effectiveness Finally, the comparisons of numerical simulations and experimental results prove that the MPSO identification method for the slider-crank mechanism is feasible Chin Wen Chuang | Kuan Yu Chen | Yi Hua Su "Identifying the Slider-Crank Mechanism System by the MPSO Method" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-2 | Issue-6 , October 2018, URL: http://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd18413.pdf

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This paper mainly proposes an efficient modified particle swarm optimization MPSO method, to identify a slider-crank mechanism driven by a field-oriented PM synchronous motor, dynamic formulations of a slider-crank mechanism have been successfully formulated with only one independent variable The parameters of many industrial machines are difficult to obtain if these machines cannot be taken apart In system identification, we adopt the MPSO method to find parameters of the slider-crank mechanism This new algorithm is added with "distance" term in the traditional PSO's fitness function to avoid converging to a local optimum It is found that the MPSO method can obtain optimal high-quality solution, high calculation efficiency, and its feasibility and effectiveness Finally, the comparisons of numerical simulations and experimental results prove that the MPSO identification method for the slider-crank mechanism is feasible Chin Wen Chuang | Kuan Yu Chen | Yi Hua Su "Identifying the Slider-Crank Mechanism System by the MPSO Method" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-2 | Issue-6 , October 2018, URL: http://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd18413.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

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Crank Mechanism System by the MPSO Method

Chin Wen Chuang

Chuang, Kuan Yu Chen, Yi Hua Su

Department of Electrical Engineering

Engineering, I-Shou University

Kaohsiung, Taiwan

ABSTRACT

This paper mainly proposes an efficient modified However, the dynamic formulations of a slider-crank

slider

particle swarm optimization (MPSO) method, to mechanism with one degree-of of –freedom have more

identify a slider-crank

crank mechanism driven by a ffield- than one independent variable in the past researches

resear

oriented PM synchronous motor, dynamic [3-4].

4]. In this study, the dynamic formulation is

formulations of a slider-crank

crank mechanism have been expressed by only one independent variable of

successfully formulated with only one independent rotation angle. Moreover, its dynamic responses are

variable. The parameters of many industrial machines compared well with the experimental results.

are difficult to obtain if these machines cannot be

taken apart. In system identification, we adopt the Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a stochastic

MPSO method to find parameters of the slider slider-crank population

on based optimization approach, and was first

mechanism. This new algorithm is added with published by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995 [5-6]. [5

“distance” term in the traditional PSO’s fitness PSO has been shown to be an efficient, roust and

function to avoid converging to a local optimum. It is simple optimization algorithm. Most studies of the

found that the MPSO method can obtain optimal high high- PSO are empirical with only a few theoretical

quality solution, high calculation efficiency, and its analyses that concentrate

oncentrate on understanding particle

feasibility and effectiveness. Finally, the comparisons trajectories. A large amount of research has been

of numerical simulations and experimental results proposed to improve the performance of PSO. From

prove that the MPSO identification method for the these studies, much effort has been invested to obtain

slider-crank mechanism is feasible. a better understanding of its convergence properties.

These studies es concentrated mostly on a better

Keyword: Slider-crank

crank mechanism, Modified particle understanding of the basic PSO control parameters,

searm optimization. namely the acceleration coefficients, inertia weight,

velocity clamping, and swarm size [7-9]. [7 In this

I. INTRODUCTION paper, a modified PSO algorithm is proposed to

A slider-crank

crank mechanism is widely used in gasoline improve the searching g ability and prevent from being

and diesel engines, and has been studied extensively trapped in a local optimum. The main difference of

in the past three decades. The responses of the system the MPSO from the PSO is its fitness function

found by Viscomi and Ayre [1] are to be dependent considers the “distance” to avoid converging to a local

upon the five parameters as the length, mass, optimum. From these empirical studies it can be

damping, external piston force and frequency. The concluded that the MPSO O is sensitive to control

steady-state

state responses of the flexible connecting rod parameter choices, specifically the inertia weight,

of a slider-crank mechanism with time time-dependent acceleration coefficients and velocity clamping.

boundary effect were obtained by Fung [2]. A slider

slider- However, wrong initialization of these parameters

crank mechanism with constantly rotating speed was may lead to divergent or cyclic behavior.

controlled by Fung et al. [3]. The mathematical model This study successfully demonstrates that the dynamic

of the coupled mechanism of a slider slider-crank formulation can give a wonderful interpretation of a

mechanism was obtained by Lin et al. [4] [4], where the slider-crank

crank mechanism in comparison with the

system is actuated by a field-orientedoriented control experimental results. Furthermore, a new identified

permanent magnet (PM) synchronous servomotor. method using the MPSO is proposed, and it is

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2456

confirmed that the method can perfectly sea

searches the A machine model of a PM synchronous motor can be

parameters of the slider-crank

crank mechanism driven by a described in a rotor rotating by [10] as follows:

servomotor through the numerical simulations and vq Rs iq pq ws d (10)

experimental results.

vd Rs id pd ws q (11)

II. DYNAMICS FORMULATION OF A

SLIDER-CRANK

CRANK MECHANISM Where

A slider-crank

crank mechanism is a single looped q Lq iq , (12)

mechanism with a very simple construction shown in d Ld id Lmd I fd . (13)

Fig.1(a) and the experimental equipment of a slider

slider-

crank mechanism is shown in Fig. 1(b). It consists of

In the above equations, vd and vq are the d and q axis

three parts: a rigid disk, which is driven by a

servomotor, a connecting rod and a slider. stator voltages, id and iq are the d and q axis stator

currents, Ld and Lq are the d and q axis inductances,

Figure1 (a) shows the physical model of a slider

slider-crank

d and q are the d and q axis stator flux linkages,

mechanism, where the mass center and the radius of

the rigid diskare denoted as point “ O ” and length “ r and Rs and ws are the stator resistance and inverter

”, respectively. And “ l ” is denoted as the length of frequency, respectively. In Eq. (13), I fd is the

the connected rod AB . The angle is between OA equivalent d -axis axis magnetizing current, and Lmd is the

and the X-axis, while the angle is between the rod

d -axis

axis mutual inductance. The electric torque is

AB and the X-axis.axis. In OXY plane, the geometric

m pLmd I fd iq ( Ld Lq )id iq ,

3 (14)

positions of gravity centers

ers of rigid disk, connected 2

rod, and slider, respectively, are as follows: and the equation for the motor dynamics is

x1cg 0, y1cg 0 (1) e m Bmr J mr . (15)

1 1

x 2cg r cos l cos , y 2cg l sin (2) In Eq (14), p is the number of pole pairs, m is the

2 2

x3cg r cos θ l cos, y3cg 0. (3) load torque, Bm is the damping coefficient, r is the

rotor speed and J m is the moment of inertia. The basic

The mechanism has a constrained condition as principle in controlling a PM synchronous motor

follows drive is based on field orientation. The flux position in

r sin l sin . (4) the d q coordinates can be determined by the shaft- shaft

position sensor because the magnetic flux generated

g

The angle can be found from Eq. (4) as from the rotor permanent magnetic is fixed in relation

r (5) to the rotor shaft position. In Eqs. (13-14),

(13 if id 0 the

sin 1 sin θ .

l d -axis flux linkage d is fixed since Lmd and I fd are

constant for a surface-mounted

mounted PM synchronous

In the kinematic analysis, taking the first and second

motor, and the electromagnetic torque e is then

derivates of the displacement of slider B with respect

to time, the speed and acceleration of slider B are as proportional to iq , which is determined by closed-loop

closed

follows control. The rotor flux is produced in the d axis

xB rsin lsin (6) only, and the current vector is generated in the q axis

x

2

B r sin r cos l sin l cos.

2

(7) for the field-oriented

oriented control. As the generated motor

torque is linearly proportional to the q axis current as

Similarly, the angular velocity and acceleration the d axis rotor flux is constant in Eq. (14), the

are obtained as follows maximum torque per ampere can be achieved.

With the implementation of field-oriented

field control, the

rcos PM synchronous motor drive system can be

(8)

l cos simplified to a control system block diagram, as

rcos cos rcos sin r2 sin cos shown in Fig. 2, in which

. (9)

l cos

2

e K t iq* , (16)

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

2456

Kt

3

PLmd I fd , (17) where m is the torque applied in the direction of r ,

2

1

and the variables r and r are the angular speed and

H p (s) , (18)

J m s Bm acceleration of the disk, respectively.

where iq* is the torque current command. By According to Ref. [3], the dynamic equation of the

slider-crank

crank mechanism can be concluded to be

Mˆ Nˆ , Fˆ

substituting (16) into (15), the following applied (20)

torque can be obtained as follows:

m K t iq J m r Bm r (19)

Where

2

r

3

m 1 l 1

Mˆ 2m3 m2 3 r cos cos sin 2 m2 m3 r 2 sin 2 m2 r cos m1r 2 J m

2

c c 3

c 2

l2 r lr 2 r3 r3 r2 r2 2r

Nˆ m2 r 2 sin cos 1 2 cos 4 cos 2 3 cos sin 2 m2 sin 3 m3 r 2 sin cos 1 2 sin 2 2 cos 2 cos

3c c 3c 2 c 2 c c c c

r 4 cos 2 sin 2 r 3 2 r3 1

4

3 sin cos m3 sin 3 2 Bm m2 gr cos ,

c c c 2

r

Fˆ K t iq FB FE r sin 1 cos ,

c

c l 2 r 2 sin 2 .

The system becomes an initial value problem and can In general, there are three attributes, current position

be directly integrated by using the fourth order x j , current velocity v j and past best position pbest j ,

Runge-Kutta method. for particles in the search space to present their

features. Each particle in the swarm is iteratively

III. IDENTIFICATIONS OF THE SYSTEM updated according to the aforementioned attributes.

A. Particle swarm optimization For example [5-9], 9], the jth particle is represented as xj

Birds (particles) flocking optimizes a certain objective = (xj,1, xj,2,…, xj,g) in the g--dimensional space. The

function in a PSO system. Each agent knows its best best previous position of the jth particle is recorded

value so far (pbest) and its position. This information and represented as pbestj = (pbestj,1, (pbestj,1 pbestj,2,…,

is analogy of personal experiences of each agent. pbestj,g). The index of best particle among all

Moreover, each agent knows the best value so fa far in particles in the group is represented by the gbestg.

the group (gbest) among pbests. This information is The rate of the position change (velocity) for particle j

analogy of knowledge of how the other agents around is represented as vj = (vj,1, vj,2,…, vj,g). The

them have performed. The PSO concept [5 [5-6] consists modified velocity and position of each particle can be

of changing the velocity of each particle toward its calculated using the current velocity and distance

pbest and gbest locations. In the PSO, eac each particle from pbestj,g to gbestj,g as shown in the following

moves to a new position according to new velocity formulas [9]:

and the previous positions of the particle. This is

compared with the best position generated by v (jt, g1) w v (jt, )g c1 Rand () ( pbest (jt, )g x (jt, )g )

previous particles in the fitness function, and the best c2 Rand * () ( gbest (jt, )g x (jt, )g ) ,

one is kept; so each particle accelerates in the

x (jt, g1) x (jt, )g v (jt, g1) . (21)

direction of not only the local best solution but also

the global best position. If a particle discovers a new j 1,2, , n; g 1,2, , m

probable solution, other particles will move closer to where n is the number of particles in a group; m is the

it to explore the region more completely in the number of members in a particle; t is the pointer of

process. iterations (generations); v (jt, )g is the velocity of the

particle j at iteration t, Vgmin v (jt, )g Vgmax ; w is the

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

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inertia weighting factor; c1 , c2 are the acceleration where is an adaptive decay scale, max is set as 0.7

constants; Rand(), Rand*() are random numbers and min is set as0.005 in this paper. RDk is the rank of

between 0 and 1; x (jt, )g is the current position of Dk assigned to the kth individual, where Dk is the

particle j atiteration t; pbestj is the pbest of particle j; distance from the individual to the current best

gbestg is the gbest of the group g. solution vector,, and is given by

Dk vk vbest (24)

In the above procedures, the parameter Vgmax

determine the resolution or fitness, with which regions where vk is the vector of the kth individual in the

are searched between the present position and the

combined population, and vbest is the current best

target position. If Vgmax is too high, particles might fly

solution vector.

past good solutions. If Vgmax is too low, particles may

not explore sufficiently beyond local solutions. An adaptive scheme is defined as [11]

R ( max min ) / g max (25)

The constants c1 and c2 represent the weighting of ( g ) , Fmin ( g ) Fmin ( g 1)

the stochastic acceleration terms that pull each ( g 1)

particle toward pbest and gbest positions. Low values ( g ) , Fmin ( g ) Fmin ( g 1)

allow particles to roam far from the target regions (26)

before being tugged back. On the he other hand, high and

values result in abrupt movement toward or past target ( g 1) min ; if ( g ) min (27)

regions.

where is the step size; Fmin is the minimum value

Suitable selection of inertia weighting factor w of fitness functions; R is the regulating scale and is

provides a balance between global and local set as1.25 in this paper, and g max is the maximum

explorations, thus requiring less iteration on average

allowable number of iterations.

iterations

to find a sufficiently optimal solution. As originally

developed, w often decreases linearly from about 0.9

Individuals will be ranked in ascending according to

to 0.4 during a run. In general,

eral, the inertia weighting

their fitness scores by a sorting algorithm. The PS

factor w is set according to the following equation [6

[6-

individuals are transcribed along with their fitness for

7]:

the next generation. If the new population does not

w wmin

w wmax max iter (22) include the current best solution, the best solution

itermax must be replaced with the last individual in the new

where itermax is the maximum number of iterations population. In addition, a gradually decreased decay

(generations), and iter is the current number of scale can satisfy a successive statistic searching

iterations. process by first using the diversification (bigger

( ) to

explore more regions, and then the intensification

B. Modified particle swarm optimization (smaller ) to exploit the neighborhood of an elite

The main point of the MPSO differs from the PSO is solution. The current best solution (point A) for a

to consider the “distance” in its fitness function to minimum fitness problem as shown in the Fig. 3 may

avoid converging to a local optimum. Assign a rank not reach the global optimum [11-12],

[11 and there are

(i.e., the number place 1, 2, 3, …, etc.) RE k tothe three electable solutions exist. Generally, solutions

calculated error of each new individual, vk , with slightly better fitness (point C or B) prevailed, so

the solution trapped into the valley prematurely. The

k 1, , PS , PS is the population size. A combined more attractive solution(point G) is relatively far

population with 2 PS individuals is formed. Unlike away from point A, but itt nears the global optimal. To

previously developed statistic methods, the concept of prevent prematurity,, point G with slightly worse

“distance” is added to the fitness function to prevent fitness than C, it needs a higher rank to be selected.

from being trapped in a local minimum. The fitness That is, a higher RDk is awarded toa longer Dk .

score of the kth individual is modified by [11

[11-12]

Fk RE k RDk , k 1, ,2 PS . (23)

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

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Stopping Criteria: Stopping criteria is given in the The main parameters of a slider-crank

slider mechanism and

following order: servomotor used in the numerical simulations and the

1. Maximum allowable number of iterations reached. experiments are as follows

2. Number of iterations reached without improving m1 0.232 kg , m2 0.332 kg ,

the current best solution. m3 0.600 kg , r 0.030 m ,

Fig. 4 shows the flow chart of the proposed algorithm

algorithm. l 0.217 m , FB 0.100 N ,

FE 0.000 N , iq 0.400 A ,

C. Parameter identifications J m 6.700 105 Nms 2 ,

Kt 0.5652 Nm / A ,

How to define the fitness function is the key point of

Bm 1.430 102 Nms / rad.

the MPSO, since the fitness function is a figure of

merit, and could be computed by using any domain

knowledge. In this paper, we adopt the fitness The physical model of the slider-crank

slider mechanism

function as follows [13-14]: driven by a servomotor. In the parameter

n identification, we utilize the MPSO and PSO methods

F ( parameters) Ei2 (28) to identify the 5 parameters m1 、 m2 、 m3 、 r and l

i 1

simultaneously, and the fitness function is described

Ei x (i ) x(i ) (29) as Eq. (20). The identified results are given in Table

E 1.

where n is the total number of samples and i is the

*( i )

calculated error of the i th sampling time, x is a Figure 6 shows the displacement errors of the slider-

slider

solution by using the fourth-orderr RungeRunge-Kutta crank mechanism by both the PSO and MPSO

method to solve the dynamic Equations (31) for the methods. Furthermore, their displacement errors are

PM synchronous servomotor drive coupled with a all about ± 0.2 m . Figure 7 shows the convergence

slider-crank

crank mechanism with the parameters identified characteristics in PSO and MPSO methods of the

(i )

from these two methods, and x is the displacement slider-crank

crank mechanism system. It is seen from Fig. 7

measured experimentally at the i th sampling time. that the proposed MPSO method is superior to the

PSO method.

IV. SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS V. CONCLUSION

A block diagram of the computer control system for The dynamic formulations of a slider-crankslider

the PM synchronous servomotor drive coupled with a mechanism driven by a field-oriented

field PM

slider-crank mechanism is shown in Fig. 5(a) and the synchronous motor have been successfully formulated

experimental equipments of a slider-crank

crank mechanism with only one independent variable. Furthermore, the

of computer control system is shown in Fig. 5(b). The main objective of this study is to utilize PSO and

control algorithm is implemented using a Pentium MPSO methods to identify a slider-crank mechanism

computer and the control software is LABVIEW. The driven by a servomotor. According to the comparisons

PM synchronous ous servomotor is implemented by between identified results and displacement errors, it

MITSUBISHI HC-KFS43 KFS43 series. The specifications is found that MPSO method has the best matching

are shown as follows: Rated output 400 (W), Rated with the experimental results.

torque 1.3 (Nm), Rated rotation speed 3000 (rpm) and

Rated current 2.3 (A). The servo is implemented by It is concluded that the implementations of MPSO are

MITSUBISHI MR-J2S-40A1.. The control system is different from the PSO in five aspects. Firstly, its

Sine-wave

wave PWM control, which is a current control fitness function considers the distance to avoid

system. In order to measure the angle and angular converging to a local optimum. Secondly, for the

speed of the disk and the position and velocity of the MPSO, vectors with good enough fitness scores

slider B, the interface of the device is implemented by would be used as candidates to create new solutions.

motion control card PCI-7342.7342. It can measure the Thirdly, it has the advantage of the MPSO to conquer

angle of the disk and the position of slider B at the various constraints without using the fitness function

same time. with penalties, and can perform better. Fourthly, the

solution is coded with a decimal representation,

representation and

saves computer memory. Finely, the gradually

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

2456

decaying parameters can satisfy a successive statistic 10. Krause, P. C., Analysis of Electric Machinery

searching process by first using the diversification (New York: McGraw-Hill)

Hill) , 1986.

(bigger

bigger parameters) to reserve the larger attractive

11. Lin, W. M., Cheng, F. S., and Tsay, M. T.,

region. Then, the intensification (smaller pparameters)

“Nonconvex Economic Dispatch by Integrated

used to search the small neighborhood of an elite

Artificial

icial Intelligence”, IEEE Transactions on

solution.

Power systems, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 307-311,

307 2001.

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1. Viscomi, B. V., and Arye, R. S., “Nonlinear Improved Tabu Search for Economic Dispatch

Dynamic Response of Elastic Slider

Slider-Crank With Multiple Minima”, IEEE Transactions on

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2. Fung, R. F., “Dynamic Response of the Flexible F., “A Method Identifying the Parameters of

Connecting Rod of a Slider-Crank

Crank Mechanism Bouc-Wen

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with Time-Dependent

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slider

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Oct 2018 Page: 186

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

2456

Fig.2 Simplified control block diagram

(b)

Fig.5

5 The experimental setup. (a) Computer control

system block diagram; (b) The experimental

Fig.3

3 The concept of distances. equipments of a slider-crank

crank mechanism of

Computer control system.

Step 1 Data Collection

- parameter of PSO : c1 , c2 , w, R, ρmin, ρmax

- Rank and Sort the Error and Distance

- Evaluate the Fitness Function

- Find the gbest and pbest

- update all parameter mentioned in Step2

reach max. iteration number ? No Step 3

between the PSO and MPSO methods.

Yes

End

PM

Command Synchronous

Current Motor

Voltage

in PSO and MPSO methods of the slider-crank

slider

(a) mechanism system.

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

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Table 1. The identified parameters of the numerical simulations.

Parameter m1 kg m2 kg m3 kg r m l m

Feasible domain 0.000 ~ 1.000 0.000 ~ 1.000 0.000 ~ 1.000 0.000 ~ 0.100 0.000 ~ 1.000

The actual value 0.232 0.332 0.600 0.030 0.217

The identified value of the

0.311 0.304 0.752 0.024 0.325

PSO method

The identified value of the

0.234 0.331 0.603 0.030 0.216

MPSO method

Oct 2018 Page: 188

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