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It is done by disposing off top and bottom rows, thus, making X to be square

matrix. This zero-forcing solution minimizes the peak ISI distortion by selecting

the C n weights so that the equalizer output is forced to zero at N (say)

sample points on either side of desired pulse. In other words:

Z k 1 for k 0

0 for k 1,2,...., N

Example: Consider that the tap weights of an equalizing transversal filter are to

be determined by transmitting a single impulse as a training signal. Let the

equalizer filter be made up of just three taps. Given a received distorted set of

pulse samples xk , with the voltage values 0.0,0.2,0.9,0.3,0.1 as shown in the

following Figure we use a zero forcing solution to find the weights c1, c0 , c1

that reduce the ISI values of the equalized pulse samples zk have the value

z1 0, z0 1, z1 0. Using these weights calculate the ISI values of the

equalized pulse at the sample times k 2,3 . What is the largest magnitude

sample contributing to ISI and what is the sum of all ISI magnitudes?

Sol.

0.0 0 0

0.2 0.0 0

0.9 0.0 0.0

X 0.3 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.9 0.9

0 0.3 0.3

0 0.1

0.1

Hence, in order to make it square, the upper two rows and bottom two

rows are disposed off. This process will ensure ISI free samples at one sample

position at either side of center (note that if we do not want to dispose off the

top and bottom rows, then, we need a filter with seven tap coefficients, then,

we will ensure ISI free condition at three sample positions at either side of the

center).

Hence,

X 0.3 0.9 0.2

0.1 0.3 0.9

Now, Z XC

0 C 1

Z 1 , X is given, C C 0 is to be found.

0 C1

1 0.3 0.9 0.2 C

0

1 0.1 0.3 0.9 C1

C 1 0.2140

C 0.9631 This value of coefficient will make the received

0

C1 0.3448

pulse free from ISI only at two time instants, that is, at T & T .

Hence, ISI at all sample times k 3,2,1,0,1,2,3 are computed by using above

coefficient values.

z 3 0 0 0

z 2 0.2 0 0

z 1 0.9 0.2 0 0.2140

0.9631

z 0 0.3 0.9 0.2

z 1 0.1 0.3 0.9 0.3448

z 2 0 0.1 0.3

z 3 0 0.1

0

z 3 0, z 2 0.0428, z 1 0, z0 1, z1 0, z2 0.0071, z3 0.345 .

Note

(i) Here, sample of greatest magnitude is 0.0428 and total ISI magnitude

is equal to 0.0844.

(ii) Here, it should be clear that this three-tap equalizer has forced the

sample points on either side of equalized pulse to be zero. If

equalizer is made longer than three-taps, more of the equalized

sample points can be forced to a zero value.

Adaptive Equalization

Figure 9.41: Adaptive Equalization

unknown characteristic. In this, to adjust the tap as per unknown

characteristics of channel, we send the trainee sequence (PN Sequence) of

known characteristic. This received trainee sequence is passed through

equalizer and its output is subtracted from the same PN sequence (the trainee

sequence that was transmitted) and error is fed back to equalizer to adjust its

taps. When the trainee process is completed, the PN sequence generator is

switched off and the adaptive equalizer is ready for normal data transmission.

Let

x nT xn

y nT yn

Now, let an be the desired response. Let en be error defined as

In the least-mean-Square (LMS) algorithm for adaptive equalization, the

error signal actuates the adjustment applied to the individual tap weights of

the equalizer as the algorithm proceeds from one iteration to the next.

Updated Value th Step - Size

th of k tap applied to error Signal

of k tap weight weight parameter th

k tap weight

Then,

where,

N

en an ˆ k n.xn k

k 0

Let

n ˆ 0 n, ˆ1n,...., ˆ N nT

Where, xT n. n is called inner product of vectors xn and n.

follows:

(1) Initialize the algorithm by setting w1 0 (That is, set all the tap-weights

of the equalizer to zero at n 1.

(2) For n 1,2,.... compute

yn x T n.wˆ n

en an yn

Wˆ n 1 Wˆ n enxn

Unit III

Spread Spectrum

In spread spectrum, a signal (Let us say, binary wave) is multiplied with PN sequence (to be

discussed later) which has a very large bandwidth. Hence, the spectrum of resulting signal

will occupy a very large BW. Since total power remains fixed, thus, PSD of signal falls down

and its level goes near noise level which has spread in the complete range of frequency.

Hence, it appears that signal has hidden itself or submerged into an ocean of large BW

spectrum of noise. Since the PN noise has got very wide BW and hence, this transmitted

signal blends itself into this AWGN noise background so as to remain undetected by

Jammer.

One more justification can be given as to why spread spectrum is wide. We know

that from convolution theory if we multiply the two signal in time domain, then they will be

Sequence. The multiplication of both the signals in time-domain results in convolution of their

So, convolution of narrow band with the wideband signal results in wideband signal.

Therefore, we can divide the complete process of spreading and dispreading of signal into

This is the received signal r t . Now, for detection purpose, just reverse process takes place

zt r t ct

We see that bt is a narrow band signal and it is a wideband signal (as it ct is also a

kind of spread spectrum on it ). Hence, low pass filter should be used to filter out bt .

Here we note that ct is a PN sequence having amplitude+1 and -1. Hence, c 2 t 1 .

Consider the general case of communication system in which message signal is occupying

Hence, signal can easily be detected using suitable receiver. Now If the signal is spreaded

by multiplying with PN sequence, the situation looks like as shown in Figure 3(a). It may be

noted that if the signal b(t) is multiplied in time-domain with C(t), then, in frequency domain,

this signal will be convolved with PN sequence as shown in Figure 3(a). Hence, signal

spectrum has spread in a wide range spectrum and after being added with AWGN noise, as

shown in Figure 3(b), it appears that it has hidden itself into the noise background just like

grasshopper camflouges itself in a grass. Had the grasshopper been different from grass

color, it could easily be detected. Further, in Figure 3(c), this signal plus noise is being

multiplied with the de-spreading code and resultant signal will consist of base-band signal

(low BW) plus noise (Wide BW) as given in (3). Using Low pass filter, this baseband signal

Here, we note that in the receiver stage, there are two-stage modulations. First stage is to

bring from pass band signal to baseband signal. Hence at (6), we get the distorted version of

spread sequence mt . To get the distorted version of binary wave, this is to be multiplied

by PN sequence. The reason for using LPF in first stage demodulation is that even mt

which is also equal to ct bt is also a baseband signal (or low pass signal), though, it has

Here, we note a very important point. The spreading is followed by modulation (Like BPSK,

QPSK). Now these two operations can also be interchanged to each other. The reason is

that these two operations (i.e. spreading and modulation) are linear processes. This is

shown as follows:

Hence,

b1 t ct b2 t ct

m1 t m2 t

(1)

x1 t m1 t Cos c t x2 t m2 t Cos c t

In a similar way, and

Hence, it proves that spreading and modulation both are linear process. Now, we know that

linear process can be interchanged without affecting the result. Hence it is concluded that

these two processes can be interchanged. In a similar way, it can be shown that at receiver

side, dispreading and demodulation both the process can also be interchanged.

Fig. 5

Here, let us ignore the presence of noise as we are concerned about Jammer’s interference

and hence we are trying to see the effect of Jammer’s interference only.

x(t ) j (t ) c t x t c t j t c t

s t c 2 t j t c t

Here, c t 1

2

Here note that Jammer interference j t is a pass band signal. Now, if j t be multiplied

with ct , the resulting term j t ct will also be passband. Now, S t is baseband. Hence,

Pseudo-noise sequence

What is Pseudo-noise sequence? It is the periodic sequence of binary wave which appears

like random binary wave. Its appearance as binary random wave but not exactly equal to

How is it generated? It is generated using the shift register with some kind of feedback

combinational logic circuit which decides the kind and period of PN sequence.

This is shift-register with length m. We first choose the some initial state of shift register then,

after clock is applied, logic circuit computes the output which will shift the content of first FF

when clk is applied . In this way , this process goes on till the same state of FF is repeated .

At the best, the number of possible state of shift register is 2 m 1 where m is the number of

FF in shift register. Here, 1 is subtracted because we have excluded one possible state of all

zero. If the initial state of shift register is all zero then next state will also be zero. In this way

only this zero loop will go on till infinite so, this situation is avoided.

th

k 0

S j (k 1) S J 1 (k ) (6)

1 j m

Hence, PN sequence is the output of last F-F (that is, mth FF) of shift Register.

Note:

A feedback shift Register is said to be Linear when the feedback logic consists

A period of shift Register will always be less that or equal to 2 m 1. When the period

used. Hence, there are only specific number of combinational logic circuits that

next section.

Register for m=3. Find the PN sequence assuming initial state of the shift register to be (i)

Modulo 2

Adder

Output, PN

1 2 3

S0 S1 Sequence

S2

Fig. 8

Hence the following is the list of all state of the shift register:

register

1. 100

2. 110

3. 111

4. 011

5. 101

6. 010

7 001

8. 100

…..

Hence the output PN sequence is 0011101=7 bits. We see that this is equal to 23 1 7 .

signal waveform is as shown in Fig. 9. We note that the waveform repeats itself after seven

chips. This duration is called period of PN sequence. Here chip is the duration of the

individual pulse of this waveform. Thus, we note this example that there are seven chips in

one PN sequence period. Fig. 10 shows the spread sequence which is obtained by

multiplying the message (101) signal with the PN sequence. Here, we have assumed

Tb=NTc. After understanding how a PN sequence is generated, we are going to discuss that

the some PN sequence satisfies some properties of run-length. These sequences are known

as maximal-length sequence.

Fig. 10: Plot of message bit [1 0 1], PN sequence for shift Register [3,1] with initial

Considering the Fig. 6 once again, it may be noted that the capacity (number of users) of the

system depends upon the cross-correlation between the two sequences. Moreover, it is also

important to understand the auto-correlation between two PN sequences of the same type

as the PN code at the Rx of Tx-Rx system, if slightly desynchronized, may results in loss of

transmitted message.

Example: This is an example which gives the cross correlation between and maximal-length

sequence [3,1] and non-maximal length sequence [3,2]. Generate two PN sequences using

Shift Register I:

Fig. 15

Output of PN sequence: [1 1 1 0 0 1 0];

Solution:

Autocorrelation: For autocorrelation we can chose any of the two PN sequences and result

will be same. Let us chose the first sequence and find its autocorrelation with itself.

0 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

0000000

Hence R11(0)=(7-0)/7=1

1 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C1 (t ) = 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

1010011

Hence R11(1)=3-4/7=-1/7

Cross Correlation:

0 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 1 1 1 0 0 1 0

1101111

Hence R12(0)=1-6=-5

1 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

0100100

Hence R12(1)=5-2=3

2 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 1 0 1 1 1 0 0

1000001

Hence R12(2)=5-2=3

3 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

0110011

Hence R12(3)=3-4=-1

4 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

0001010

Hence R12(4)=5-2=3

5 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

1010110

Hence R12(5)=3-4=-1

6 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1111000

Hence R12(6)=3-4=-1

7 C1 (t ) = 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

C 2 (t ) = 1 1 1 0 0 1 0

1101111

Hence R12(7)=1-6=-5

Fig. C

Hence once again considering the Fig. B, and assuming that C1(t) at Tx and Rx are perfectly

We note that -0.7 is because of cross-correlation between C2(t) and C1(t) at Rx1.

transmissions where the data signal is modulated with a narrowband carrier signal that

"hops" in a random but predictable

frequencies. This technique reduces interference because a signal from a narrowband

system will only affect the spread spectrum signal if both are transmitting at the same

frequency at the same time. If synchronized properly, a single logical channel is maintained.

Advantage of FHSS:

Better range, due to lower receiver sensitivity

Good rejection of in band interference

Good performance in multipath environments

No "near/far" problems

FHSS can be thought of as a two steps modulation process: the data modulation and

code and data for a given hop, the occupied transmission BW is identical to the BW of

conventional modulation scheme, which is typically much smaller than WSS (total frequency

hopped spectrum).

required to generate frequency tone if the frequency hopping BW is WSS and minimum

Example: A hopping BW WSS of 400MHz and frequency step size f of 100Hz. What is

the minimum number of PN chips that are required for each frequency word?

f 100 Hz

4 108 Hz

n 4 106 Hz

100

Referring to DS-spread spectrum, the chip is defined as the shortest duration pulse between

PN sequence and data bit. Since the duration of PN sequence pulse is lesser than that of

data pulse and hence chip is defined as the PN sequence pulse width. Proceeding with the

same line, for FHSS, chip is defined as the shortest duration pulse between the symbol

duration and hopping tone duration. Hence, if the hopping ton duration is less than the

symbol duration (i.e. the case of fast FHSS), then chip is defined as the period of hopping

done. On the other hand, if the symbol duration is less than hopping tone duration (the case

slow FHSS), the chip will be defined as the symbol duration. Hence, in summary,

Tc min(Ts , Th )

where Ts is the symbol duration and Th hopping tone duration. The chip rate is given as

Rc max( Rs , Rh )

Consider an example of symbol rate as 40 symbols/s. Hence Ts=1/40 s and let us consider

a hop rate as 10 hopps/s with Th=1/10 seconds. It implies that in one hop duration, there will

Note that the frequency separation between the two consecutive symbols should be Ts or its

multiple to ensure that the symbols are orthogonal to each other. For fast FHSS let us

consider hopping rate as 80 hops/s with Th=1/80 s. Therefore, corresponding to one symbol,

Depending on the symbol rate of modulator output at ‘1’ and the rate frequency tone

If Th is the hopping duration and Ts is the symbol duration, then for slow frequency hopping,

Ts≤Th

Or

Rs≥Rh

where Rs and Rh are the symbol and hopping rate.

That is, in one hopping duration, there will be multiple symbol duration. This is shown in the

Figure 3.

Th≤Ts

or

Rh≥Rs

where Rs and Rh are the symbol and hopping rate.That is, in symbol duration, there will be

multiple hopping.

frequency spacing of 10KHz is used. Calculate the minimum number of chips

required for generation of each frequency tone signal.

Sol. Number of frequency sub-band=100MHz/10kHz=104

n 4

Example 2:

rate of 120 kbps and the modulation scheme used 32-FSK. A hopping rate of

2000 hops/s is used over an total available spectrum of 10MHz. Calculate

(b) The number non-over-lapping hopping sub-band.

Sol.

Rb 120kbps

then, 2n 32 n 5 . Hence, symbol rate=120/5=24ksps=24,000sps

For M-ary FSK scheme, the minimum separation between two frequency tones

such that they remain orthogonal is 1/ TS .Further assuming that the BW occupied

by each symbol is equal to RS is symbol rate, the minimum BW one sub-band of

12 symbol (corresponding to one hop) is given by

10MHz

N 35

288KHz

Example 3:

Let us consider a FHSS where the input data rate is 200 bits/s and the

modulation scheme used is 32-ary FSK. The frequency hopping rate is 200

hops/s. Calculate

(b) Number of frequency tones produced by frequency synthesizer.

(c) Processing gain if hopping BW is 10 MHz.

Sol:

200

Rb 200bits/S, 2 k 32 k 5 RS 40 Symbol/S

5

Rh 200bits/S, Th 1 5 ms

200

200

Number of hops/symbol 5 hops/symbol

40

25ms

Ts 1 Seconds= 25ms chip duration 5ms

40 5

Note that chip duration is equal to min TS , Th . Minimum separation between

tones is 1/5ms=200Hz. Processing gain

BW h 10 106

5 104

R 200

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