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Document of

The World Bank FJL COPy


Report No. 2295-BD

Public Disclosure Authorized




Public Disclosure Authorized

March 12, 1979

Public Disclosure Authorized

Agriculture D Division

South Asia Projects Department

1his documenthas a restricted distribution and may be used b) recipients only in the perforimianceof
their official duties. Its contents may not otherwise be disclosed without World Bank authorization.

The Bangladesh Taka is officially valued at 30.52 to the

Pound Sterling. The Pound now floats relative to the US Dollar and,
consequently, the Taka-US Dollar rate is subject to change. The
rate below has been used throughout this report except where other-
wise stated.

US$ = Tk 15.0
Tk 1 = US$0.067
Tk 1 million = US$66,667


1 acre (ac) - 0.405 hectare (ha)

1 mile (mi) = 1.509 kilometers (km)
I square mile (sq mi) 640 ac (259 ha)
1 foot (ft) = 30.5 centimeters (cm)
1 maund (md) = 82.27 lbs (37.3 kg)
I metric ton (ton) = 26.8 md
M = million


ADB = Asian Development Bank

BFDC = Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation
BJMSS = Fishermen's Cooperative Societies
BJSB = Bangladesh Jatiya Samabaya Bank
BKB Bangladesh Krishi Bank
BSB = Bangladesh Shilpa Bank
BTT Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Department
DANIDA = Danish International Development Agency
DFO = District Fishery Officer
DOF = Department of Fisheries
FAO = Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FSMF Fish Seed Multiplication Farm
GOB Government of Bangladesh
IRDP = Integrated Rural Development Program
PDB Power Development Board
PIU = Project Implementation Unit
TCCA Thana Central Cooperative Association
TFO = Thana Fishery Officer
UNDP = United Nations Development Program
UNICEF = United Nations Children's Emergency Fund


Composite Fish Culture - Growing two or more species of fish in a

pond to optimize productivity;often
synonymous with polyculture or mixed
fish culture.

Fingerling - Young fish of about 2.5 cm or larger.

Fish seed - Fish from the stages of egg to large


Fry - Fish from hatchling stage to about

2.5 cm size.

Hatchling - Fish from emergence from egg to about

0.8 cm size.

Spawn - Fertilized eggs and hatchlings.

Tank - A pond or a small reservoir of variable size,

mostly for irrigationuse.


July 1 to June 30

This document has a restricted distribution and may be used by recipients only in the performance
of their official duties. Its contents may not otherwise be disclosed without World Bank authorization.


Table of Contents

Page No.

I. INTRODUCTION ........................................ 1

* THE FISHERIES SECTOR .................. ..............

Overview ............ ......................

*. 1
Administration ................. 3
Inland Fisheries ..............................................
0..... 6
Inland Fisheries Development Activities .... * ........ 8


Potentials ..........................................
Present Oxbow Lake Management Practices .........o ... 12

IV. THE PROJECT .......................................... .. 14

Location and Climate ...................... .......... 14

Objectives .............................................. ....... 14
Main Investment Features .................. . ......... 15
Aquaculture Program . ....... .. . .. . . ...................... o...... . 18
Cost Estimates . ............................. ......... 21
Financing ........... ............................... 23
Procurement .........*........................................... 23
Disbursements ....... ................................24
Accounts and Audits .. . . ............... ............... 24
Environmental Impact ......... .. ... ...................... . 24

V. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ............ ............. 25

Department of Fisheries .............. ...............25

Project Implementation Unit ............ ............. 25
Lake Tenure .......................................
.. 26
Cooperation with Lake Fishermen . .........
I ...........26
Annual Work Programs ................ ................27
Maintenance .. 27
Technical Assistance .. 27
Training . .28
Progress Reports .. 28
Monitoring and Evaluation . .28

This report is based on the findings of an IDA mission, composed of

Messrs. D. Lee, D. Hodgkinson, B. Kanchanalak (IDA) and Mr. V. R. P. Sinha
(Consultant), which visited Bangladesh in March/April 1978.
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Table of Contents (Cont'd)

Page No.

Vi. PRODUCTION, MARKETING AND PRICES ....................29

Production ..........................................
Marketing ............................ ............... 29
Prices ..............................................


Financial Analysis ...... ............................ 30

Cost Recovery ....................................... 31
Economic Analysis ................................... 31
Sensitivity Tests ..... ..............................32
Project Beneficiaries ................... ............33
Employment Impact ................................... 33
Project Risks ........ . ................ .*. ........ 34

VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................... 34


I - Production and Trade of Fish and Fish Products

2 - Fishing Craft and Fishermen
3 - Organization Structure of DOF
4 - Estimated Lake Storage Capacity and Sedimentation
5 - Works and Equipment Requirements
6 - Cost Estimates
7 - Credit Allocation and Schedule of Disbursements
8 - Technical Assistance
9 - Cash Flow and Financial Rate of Return
10 - Economic Rate of Return
11 - Project Implementation Schedule
12 - Related Documents in Project File


2.1 Total Inland Water Area

4.1 Proposed Oxbow Lakes
4.2 Cost Estimates
7.1 Sensitivity Analysis


IBRD 13615 Project Location

IBRD 13616 Lake No. 1 (Baluhar) and No. 2(Jaydia)
IBRD 13617 Lake No. 3 (Fetehpur)
IBRD 13618 Lake No. 4 (Kathgara)
IBRD 13619 Lake No. 5 (Gobindapur)
IBRD 13620 Lake No. 6 (Marjat)
IBRD 13683 General Layout of the Central Hatchery Complex at Baluhar Lake



1.01 With the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent nation, the

World Bank undertook a series of major studies to define economic policy
options and development plans which could be pursued in future years. The
Land and Water Resources Study (IBRD Report PS-13) completed in December 1972
provided, inter alia, tentative proposals for accelerating development of the
inland fisheries subsector, including a suggestion for a pioneer project to
develop the country's oxbow lakes.

1.02 By June 1973, a project identification mission had identified 15

oxbow lakes in the Southwest (Jessore District) as having fisheries develop-
ment potential. Detailed physical surveys of the identified lakes commenced
in 1975 when IDA provided US$70,000 (under Technical Assistance Credit 409-BD)
for consulting engineers. The lake surveys were completed in mid-1976, form-
ing the basis for a project preparation report submitted in mid-1977. The
preparation report (BANGLADESH - Rural Fisheries Development Project) was
prepared by Dacca Office staff with assistance from the FAO Fishery Advisor
in Bangladesh and Department of Fisheries staff.

1.03 Project preparation was followed by a preappraisal mission which

visited Bangladesh in March/April 1978. The mission recommended several
important changes in project design with a view to (a) increasing lake pro-
duction benefits to the point where required investments are more justifiable,
and (b) simplifying institutional arrangements to facilitate project imple-
mentation. The mission also suggested holding the number of project lakes
to six to avoid dilution of management capability among too many sites.

1.04 GOB informed the Bank in late July 1978 of its acceptance of the
preappraisal mission's findings and requested that steps be taken to expedite
project processing. Given the general convergence of views of the Bank and
GOB on the revised project concept, its was decided in August 1978 that a
Staff Appraisal Report be prepared on the basis of the preappraisal mission's
recommendations. Accordingly, this report reflects the findings of the
March/April 1978 preappraisal mission which consisted of Messrs. D. Lee,
T.D. Hodgkinson, and B. Kanchanalak (IDA) and V.R.P. Sinha (Consultant).



2.01 The fisheries sector is assuming an increasingly important role

in the economy of Bangladesh, with fisheries now contributing approximately
5 percent to GDP and providing a livelihood to some 880,000 fishermen.
2.02 The physical base for the country's aquatic resources includes over
2 million ha of open and impounded inland waters and a 480 km coastline on
the Bay of Bengal. In addition, some 3 million ha of paddy fields are flooded
from 4 to 6 months each year, providing several hundred thousand tons of fis
for the local population.

2.03 Despite an extensive resource base, fish production in Bangladesh

has grown only slightly in the last decade, from 800,000 tons in 1965 to
824,000 tons in 1975 (Annex 1). 1/ Historically, some 90% of the total catch
has come from inland areas. In the period 1970-75, the production of fish
from inland waters rose from 727,000 tons to 735,000 tons, representing an
average annual growth rate well under 1 percent.

2.04 Fishery products rank fourth in importance among exports, 2/ pro-

viding nearly US$17 million in foreign exchange in 1976/77 (about 4 percent
of total export earnings). 3/ Since independence, the value of fishery ex-
ports has grown by an average of 26 percent per annum in real terms, led by
rapid increases in sales of frozen prawns, shrimp and froglegs. The tradi-
tional export of fresh and dried fish, mainly to India, continues to decline
in favor of relatively high-valued, processed seafood exports. The principal
markets are now Japan and the United States.

2.05 In the domestic economy, fish are a principal food source, supplying
some 80 percent of the total animal protein intake. On a per capita basis,
however, fish consumption is extremely low, having declined from over 13 kg
in the mid-1960s to 10-12 kg at present. This decline is in large part attri-
butable to the country's high population growth rate (2.8 percent), which
greatly exceeds the rate of expansion of fishery production. Other related
factors include a low per capita income (US$110 per annum) and generally poor
efficiency in both inland and marine fisheries.

2.06 Traditional methods of fishing predominate in both inland and coastal

areas. Of the roughly 80,000 fishing craft in Bangladesh in 1975/76, only
4,000 were motorized. 4/ In percentage terms, approximately 4 percent of all
inland fishing craft had motors; for marine fishing craft, some 13 percent had
motors. Traditional methods and practices have been perpetuated by the pre-
carious circumstances under which most fishermen live. Particularly in the
rural areas, fishermen are often indebted either to fish merchants or to local
money lenders to whom they must sell their catch at below market prices. Many

1/ Figures derived by DOF on the basis of extrapolated per capita con-

sumption data. Bangladesh does not have an operational catch reporting
system which could serve as the basis for more reliable estimates of
fisheries production and trade.

2/ Behind jute, leather and tea.

3/ Based on Export Promotion Bureau statistics.

4/ Annex 2.
fishermen are known to borrow money against future catches in order to pur-
chase boats or equipment. Compounding the difficulties experienced by fisher-
men is that only '0-15 percent are estimated to be literate, with not more
than 1 percent having had secondary schooling or higher education.

2.07 Since independence, the Government of Bangladesh has emphasized

accelerated development of the fishery sector. In its First Five Year Plan
(1972/73 to 1977/78), Government set forth an ambitiouis program to increase
production and exports and to improve the socio-economic conditions of fisher-
men. More recently, the Two Year Interim Plan (1978/79-1979/80) restates the
importance of fisheries and proposes the intensification of fish culture in
ponds and tanks. The Plan further states that work is needed to increase
the productivity of lakes and impounded waters by habitat improvements and
appropriate biological management techniques. The proposed project, by
focusing on the development of presently underutilized oxbow lakes, is con-
sistent with the priorities set forth in the Interim Plan. Overall, the
Plan target is to increase inland fisheries production by at least five per-
cent above the benchmark production achieved in 1976/77.


2.08 Fisheries administration and management in Bangladesh is character-

ized by multiple control, with responsibilities divided among the following
organizations: Department of Fisheries (DOF) under the Ministry of Fisheries
and Livestock; Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC); Fisher-
men's Cooperative Societies (BJMSS); and Integrated Rural Development Program
(IRDP). Institutional credit for fisheries development is provided by the
Bangladesh Krishi Bank (BKB), the Bangladesh Shilpa Bank (BSB), the Bangladesh
Jatiya Samabaya Bank (BISB), the nationalized commercial banks and, to a lesser
extent, through the IRDP-organized thana cooperatives (TCCA). In addition,
credit for fishpond development and/or rehabilitation is available through
BKB and commercial banks under the Special (100 Crore) Agricultural Credit

2.09 The Department of Fisheries was established in 1943 to perform the

following functions: research, extension, training, administration of fishe-
ries ordinances, promotion of fisheries development, legislation, licensing
and certification. DOF was recently brought under the control of the newly
formed (December 1977) Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock and given a mandate
to focus on the development of fisheries and aquaculture. In the First Five
Year Plan (1972/73 to 1977/78), Tk 212.95 million was earmarked for develop-
ment projects administered by DOF. Of the total program budget for 1976/77,
Tk 42.3 million was allocated for capital expenditures and Tk 26.2 million
was to be used for current expenses.

2.10 DOF currently employs some 1,400 officers and support staff. In
addition to Headquarters personnel in Dacca, there are four divisional and
18 district offices (Annex 3). Out of 415 Thana Fishery Officer (TFO) posi-
tions in mid-1977, only 279 positions were filled. There were also numerous
vacancies among field assistants, who work under TFOs. A principal weakness
of DOF is inadequate finance, which has resulted in low staff motivation and

effectiveness. In addition, DOF has been hampered by a lack of autonomy and

an outdated management system. GOB is aware of these deficiencies and is
seeking to correct them by strengthening DOF's management, staff and operating
budget. 1/

2.11 The Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation is an autonomous

agency under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock with responsibility for
the commercial exploitation of marine fisheries, primarily in the Bay of
Bengal. BFDC is governed by a five-member Board of Directors and has separate
divisions responsible for finance, planning and marketing. The 1976/77 bud-
get was some Tk 91 million, of which Tk 73 million was allocated for capital
expenditures and the remainder for current expenses. Until recently, BFDC's
major activity was the operation of 14 large trawlers in the Bay of Bengal.
However, this operation has not been very successful and BFDC is in the
process of scrapping a number of the boats. BFDC also operates a fishing
harbor at Chittagong, three wholesale fish markets, a small fish processing
complex at Cox's Bazaar and a net factory at Comilla.

2.12 Fishermen's Cooperative Societies are organized in a three tier

pyramidal structure. The base of the pyramid is formed by some 370 primary
societies with a total membership of 375,000. There are 88 secondary socie-
ties and, at the apex, a national society known as the BJMSS. 2/ The objective
of BJMSS is to organize fishermen and to undertake fisheries exploitation on
a commercial basis. At present, the national society owns and operates 11 ice
plants/cold storage units, a ferro-cement boatyard, a net-making factory,
freezing plants and workshops. BJMSS employs a staff of 200 persons with an
annual salary expenditure of about Tk 1.1 M. A major function of BJMSS is the
supply and service program which enables it to import fishing materials for
cooperative members, exempt from all taxes and duties. Since 1972, BJMSS has
imported over Tk 55 M of nylon rope, diesel engines, floats and other equip-
ment. BJMSS also controls a number of lakes, which it rents for fishing.

2.13 It is generally recognized that BJMSS is dominated by non-fishermen

and traders. As a result, few of its activities are specifically oriented
towards improving conditions among the neediest segments of the fishing
community. BJMSS credit operations, in particular, have been mainly for
the development of ice plants and cold storage facilities. A limited amount
of credit (Tk 2 M) was provided for cyclone-affected fishermen, but this was
a special undertaking rather than a long-term program.

2.14 The Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) 3/ was created in

1970 to supervise the implementation of various rural development activities.

1/ In late 1978, DOF underwent a series of personnel changes, including

the appointment of a new Director. In addition, financial outlays
for DOF have increased (in real terms) by at least 5% above average
annual First Plan expenditures.
2/ Bangladesh Jatiyo Matshajibi Samabay Samiti.
3/ Under the Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and

Since its creation, IRDP has been deeply involved in the revitalization of
thana and village level cooperatives. In thanas with fish ponds, IRDP thana
officers work with DOF personnel to organize the landless people in surround-
ing villages into fishery cooperatives. 1/ These cooperatives are given the
exclusive right to manage and harvest village ponds. In cases where such
ponds are in derelict condition, the cooperative provides medium-term credit
for rehabilitation. IRDP presently operates in some 250 thanas and is seek-
ing to expand its activities to cover 300 thanas by 1979/80. 2/

2.15 The Bangladesh Krishi Bank (BKB) is the principal source of agricul-
tural credit in the country, with authorized share capital of Tk 200 M. 3/
Established by Presidential Order in 1973, BKB is authorized to provide credit
facilities for crop production, horticulture, forestry and fisheries. At
present, the BKB staff numbers some 3,200 of which 350 are employed in the
head office and the remainder of BKB's network of ten regional offices and
171 branches. BKB management is anxious to increase lending for fishery
development and is contemplating the establishment of a separate Fishing
Credit Department.

2.16 The Bangladesh Shilpa Bank (BSB) was established in 1972 to provide
credit facilities and equity support to industrial concerns. Current activity
in the fishery sector consists of provision of credit for shrimp industry
development, utilizing in part the proceeds of an IDA Credit for US$25 M
received in 1976 (Credit No. 632-BD).

2.17 The Bangladesh Jatiya Samabaya Bank (BJSB) was established to serve
as the apex financial institution for cooperatives in the country. Its
affiliated cooperatives include 62 Fishermen's Central Societies and 4,172
Fishermen's Primary Societies. However, the viability of BJSB has been
seriously eroded by its increasing burden of overdues.

2.18 Of the six nationalized commercial banks, two show recent lending
activities in the fishery sector. The Pubali Bank lent some Tk 11.6 M for
fish culture in 1976/77, while the Agrani Bank granted loans of Tk 15.7
M for fish processing and marketing in the same period. The fishery credit
operations of both institutions have expanded considerably since 1975/76.
The recipients of commercial bank credit are primarily large-scale

2.19 Despite the existence of an extensive banking network, the credit

needs of small-scale fishermen have been largely unmet by institutional
sources. As a result, village money lenders charging excessive rates of

1/ This approach has been followed in the Bank-financed Rural Development I

Project (Credit No. 631-BD).

2/ Bangladesh has a total of 413 thanas.

3/ 50% was initially subscribed by the Government, which is the only

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interest remain active in rural Bangladesh, providing an estimated 70 percent

of the credit received by small farmers and fishermen. 1/

Inland Fisheries

2.20 Bangladesh has an extensive inland water area covering an aggregate

of 1,473,000 ha (Table 2.1). An additional 2.9 million ha of paddy is inun-
dated for 4-6 months a year, providing a rich feeding and breeding ground for
various species of freshwater fish and prawns. Total production from inland
waters amounted to 735,000 MT in 1975/76. With an estimated 660,000 inland
fishermen, average catch was on the order of 1.1 MT per fishermen per annum.



Rivers, Streams and Canals 830,000

National Depressions and Oxbow Lakes 293,000
Estuaries and Other Brackish Waters 183,000
Kaptai Lake 91,000
Ponds and Tanks 76,000
Total 1,473,000

Source: Department of Fisheries.

For analytical purposes, it is convenient to classify inland waters as

either open or impounded.

2.21 Open Waters. The Padma, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers and their
tributaries are most important for carp, catfish, featherbacks, and giant
freshwater prawns, and during the monsoon season (May to October) are also
the source of the valuable migratory Indian shad (Hilsa ilisha).

2.22 The deltaic "Sunderbans" area, a large swampy forest, is inter-

spersed with many estuarine tributaries and streams, interconnected with
numerous channels. These areas are very productive and support large stocks
of Indian shad, threadfins, pomfret and marine prawns.

2.23 Fishing in the rivers and estuaries is carried on throughout the

year and peaks during the winter months and the middle of the summer season
when migratory Indian shad are abundant. In addition to these capture fish-
eries, the rivers and estuaries provide an important source of fish eggs and
fry which are collected for further cultivation in managed ponds.

2.24 Impounded Waters. Freshwater impoundments include oxbow lakes,

defunct streams, and lowlying agricultural lands seasonally or perennially

1/ Agricultural Credit Study Project, Phase I Report. Robert R. Nathan

Associates, December 6, 1977.
filled from adjacent rivers or monsoon rains. Except for the oxbow lakes,
these bodies of water are generally shallow and enriched by fresh supplies
of silt introduced by annual floods. Juveniles of various species, mainly
carp, catfish and featherbacks, enter the impoundments with the annual floods.
When the floods ,ubside these areas are isolated, either naturally or by the
construction of embankments, thus permitting the growth of juvenile fish to
marketable size.

2.25 Brackish water impoundments consist of lowlying estuarine areas,

defunct river beds, tidal inlets, and swamps which are inundated at high
tide. The tidal waters introduce juvenile brackish water prawns and sea-fish.
Some of the impoundments are protected by embankments and sluices. The main
species produced in these impoundments are mullets, threadfin and prawns.
In some of the impoundments, fish rearing is alternated with rice cultivation
during the monsoon rains. In addition to the impoundments mentioned above,
which depend on seasonal inundation, there are many manmade ponds and tanks
on agricultural holdings used for the rearing of fish fry, water supplies,
irrigation water and food fish production, mainly Indian carp taken seasonally
from the rivers.

2.26 Except for some privately-owned ponds and tanks, all the inland
waters are, by constitutional provision, within the public domain and their
use for fisheries is subject to the approval of the Ministry of Fisheries
and Livestock.

2.27 Before Independence, inland waters were divided and the exclusive
right to fish was auctioned by Government to the highest bidder. The dura-
tion of the lease varied from one to six years. The lessee, usually a fish-
merchant or money lender, negotiated with fishermen for the right to fish on
payment of a cash rent and/or share of the catch.

2.28 This system still prevails in most of the waters in the public
domain. Since 1973, however, modifications have been introduced to give
priority to leases from the Ministry of Land Administration to the Department
of Fisheries, on the basis of a negotiated rent; and to fishermen's coopera-
tives, on the basis of the average rental over the preceding three years.

2.29 The prevalence of the short-term lease-auction system, which was

established in the past mainly for the purpose of raising revenue, greatly
reduces the incentive to invest in resource management, since lessees are
primarily concerned only with maximizing the catch from a particular water
area during the period of their leases. Without the security provided by
the assurance of long-term tenure, this low level of resource management is
likely to continue and to adversely affect inland fish production.

2.30 Aside from the inherent weakness of the lease-auction system, inland
fisheries are faced with problems of overfishing due to population pressures 1/

1/ Population density in Blngladesh is one of the highest in the world

with 558 persons per km .

and unregulated access to many inland waters. In this regard, local experts
claim that the capture of of wild stocks from both open and impounded waters
i-s reached a degree of intensity such that the stocks and hence catch rates
have fallen significantly. There is also evidence that the indiscriminate
application of pesticides has caused large scale mortality of wild stocks,
especially those grazing flooded paddy fields. Taken together, these factors
suggest that the scope for taking increased catches from wild stocks is quite

2.31 A number of actions have been taken to increase the efficiency of

the inland fisheries subsector. Though the basic lease-auction system remains
prevalent, GOB has shown a willingness to consider longer-term leases to
encourage investment and promote improved resource management practices. To
control pollution, GOB has established a Water Pollution Control Board and a
Technical Committee on the Use of Pesticides.

2.32 To an increasing extent, training is being recognized as an import-

ant element in inland fisheries development. The Fisheries Training Institute
at Chandpur (established in the early sixties) continues to function, with
present emphasis on in-service training. The training of new fishery person-
nel is now being undertaken by the Faculty of Fisheries of the Bangladesh
Agricultural University at Mymensingh. Assistance for development of an
aquaculture complex at Mymensingh is being provided by UNDP and DANIDA. Voca-
tional training for fishermen is carried out at four centers: Chandpur,
Mymensingh, Barisal and Serajgang. During 1976/77, the centers trained a
total of 85 fishermen in modern fishing methods and aquaculture. An expanded
program of vocational training is under consideration, but has not yet been
undertaken due to budgetary constraints.

Inland Fisheries Development Activities

2.33 In order to increase the efficiency of the inland fisheries sub-

sector, GOB is undertaking a wide-ranging aquaculture development program.
Of the twenty-six projects currently in effect, four are being undertaken
directly by GOB (total amount US$3.9 million). The remaining twenty-two
projects (total amount US$9.6 million) are being funded by both multilateral
and bilateral donors, as well as through voluntary agencies such as CARE and

2.34 The main thrust of GOB efforts is on the management and rehabilita-
tion of derelict ponds, for which approximately US$2.1 million has been allo-
cated since 1973. Some 35% of the allocated funds are earmarked for pond
rehabilitation loans, to be channelled through BKB and other banks to poten-
tial fish farmers. To complement its operational programs, GOB is providing
US$1.6 million during the period 1975-79 for continued development of the
Freshwater Fisheries Research Center at Chandpur.

2.35 Among the multilateral lending agencies, the World Bank has the
largest ongoing inland fisheries program, with fisheries components in the
Karnafuli Irrigation Project (Cr. 605-BD) as well as Rural Development I
(Cr. 631-BD).
2.36 The Karnafuli Irrigation Project provides US$3.3 million (about
11% of the total project cost) for studies of fishery development in both the
Muhuri 1/ and Karnafuli Irrigation Project areas and construction of a modern
carp hatchery in the area covered by the Chandpur II Irrigation Project
(Credit No. 340-BD). At full development, the carp hatchery 2/ will produce
20-25 million fingerlings per annum for periodic stocking in water bodies
adversely affected by irrigation works in the Chandpur area. Construction
of these works has, as anticipated, made it difficult or impossible for finger-
lings to naturally enter areas traditionally utilized by local fishermen. As
a result, fishery production in the Chandpur Unit has declined by an estimated
30 percent.

2.37 In addition to providing fry for the stocking of water bodies cut
off from natural sources of juvenile fish, implementation of the fisheries
sub-project is expected to significantly enhance Bangladeshi technical capa-
bilities for the induced breeding of carp species. Consultants have been
engaged to supervise engineering and construction and to provide technical
assistance to DOF personnel responsible for operating the proposed hatchery.
Thus far, on the job training has been provided for some 30 DOF Fishery
Officers and an additional 10 officers have received overseas training.
Despite some initial delays, implementation of the fisheries sub-project is
proceeding according to plan, thanks in large degree to the sustained efforts
of DOF. The Karnafuli Irrigation Project became effective in February 1976
and is scheduled for completion by June 30, 1980.

2.38 In the Rural Development I Project, approximately US$1.3 million

(5% of the total project cost) has been allocated for the rehabilitation of
derelict ponds and for the organization of Thana Fishery Cooperatives to
serve the needs of landless villagers in the project area. In addition, the
project provides for the training of district and village-level fishery offi-
cers, including the hiring of an additional fishery officer and two fieldmen
in each of the seven project thanas. Technical support for certain project
activities is being provided by FAO and UNICEF. The project became effective
in August 1976, and is scheduled for completion by June 30, 1981.

2.39 Ongoing inland fisheries project support provided by the Asian

Development Bank (ADB) is currently restricted to the supply of materials for
a fish marketing project (US$0.163 million) and technical assistance for pond
culture operations in the northern part of the country.

2.40 ADB involvement will increase sharply if GOB approves a recently

appraised US$38.1 million Aquaculture Development Project. As presently

1/ Credit No. 725-BD. In the Muhuri Unit, fish production in a poldered

area of 1,900 ha is expected to increase as proper management techniques
are implemented.

2/ Construction of the hatchery and rearing facilities is expected to

commence in early 1979 at a site 25 km southwest of Chandpur. By 1980
it is expected that the hatchery will be supplying high quality fry
to local fish farmers.
- 10 -

envisioned, the project would include an ADB loan of US$18.0 million to

cover 100% of foreign exchange requirements and some 14% of local currency
costs. The proposed project would include the following activities:

(i) establishment of five fish hatcheries and improvement

of 50 fish seed multiplication farms (FSMF);

(ii) fresh-water shrimp hatchery and rearing;

(iii) fish pens in inland waters;

(iv) fish cages in Kaptai Lake;

(v) smallholder fishponds and shrimp estate;

(vi) a fish net plant;

(vii) fish processing facilities; and

(viii) ice plants and storage facilities.

2.41 Though the above-listed activities would take place at specified

sites throughout the country, clarifications have been obtained from ADB that
none of the activities would take place in or near the proposed Oxbow Lakes
Fishery Project area. Implementation of the ADB project is estimated to
take from three to five years from the date of effectiveness of the loan.

2.42 Aside from the World Bank and ADB, multilateral project support
and technical assistance is provided by UNDP, FAO and UNICEF. A new and
important area of UNDP/FAO involvement concerns operational assistance for
GOB's recently-constructed Aquaculture Experiment Station at Mymensingh.
UNICEF activities include support for a scheme to strengthen the fisheries
extension service as well as technical assistance for the establishment of
a nationwide network of fish seed multiplication farms.

2.43 Bilateral assistance for inland fisheries development has been pro-
vided by Denmark, Norway, China, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United
States. Assistance from Denmark (through DANIDA) includes approximately
US$0.5 million for construction of the Aquaculture Experiment Station at
Mymensingh. UK support is for technical assistance for fish farming in con-
nection with a production and marketing project at Nimgachi (total amount
US$2.0 million). In order to develop and improve the skills of Bangladeshi
fish culturists, the People's Republic of China is providing training courses
and study tours in China for some 75 individuals.

2.44 Development assistance provided by voluntary agencies amounts to

approximately US$0.3 million. Four of the six ongoing projects involve
technical assistance for pond culture fisheries. The remaining projects
provide materials, small boats and gear to improve the efficiency of tradi-
tional fishermen. Both CARE and the World Food Program have ongoing food-
for-work projects aimed at the rehabilitation of derelict ponds throughout
the country.
- 11 -

2.45 Of all the projects now in effect, none is oriented towards increas-
ing production in oxbow lakes. GOB is aware of this imbalance in the fisheries
development program and is attaching high priority to future projects aimed at
exploiting oxbow lake potentials.



3.01 As a deltaic country laced with rivers, estuaries, ponds and lakes,
Bangladesh is ideally suited for inland fish farm development, providing great
potential for rapid increases in fish production. The high natural product-
ivity of inland waters in Bangladesh is attributable to a combination of in-
tensive solar energy and soil and water which are rich in nutrients. A major
source of nutrients is through the deposition of alluvial silts by the Ganges-
Brahmaputra river system. Rain and monsoon floods accelerate the accumulation
of nutrients in low-lying water bodies distributed throughout the countryside.

3.02 The Department of Fisheries estimates that the country has approxi-
mately 155,000 ha of impounded inland waters which are readily available for
fish culture. Additional extensive inland water areas need to be reclaimed
before they can be brought into regular production. Present yields from
unfertilized ponds generally do not exceed 600 kg/ha/yr. In fertilized ponds,
there are instances where yields of approximately 1,625 kg/ha/yr have been
obtained. The scope for significantly higher yields has been demonstrated
in India and elsewhere in Asia, where multi-species carp culture, termed
composite culture or polyculture, is becoming increasingly popular. A major
advantage of the polyculture approach is that the feeding habits of different
species are harmonized to optimally utilize available food resources.

3.03 Composite culture techniques are well-suited for oxbow lakes, where
it is estimated that yields in the range of 600 to 1,400 kg/ha/yr can be
achieved. To realize this potential, an assured supply of high quality seed
is an essential prerequisite. The provision of such seed is now possible
through improvements in induced breeding techniques (hypophysation). 1/ Under
this procedure, injections of pituitary gland extract from mature carps are
used to trigger the spawning of fish in captivity. Hypophysation is employed
as a regular part of fish culture operations in many parts of India and was
first introduced in Bangladesh by DOF personnel in 1966. Subsequently,
support was provided through the UNICEF and FAO-sponsored fishery development
activities cited earlier (para 2.42).

3.04 In addition to polyculture and induced breeding techniques, aqua-

cultural productivity is closely linked to the concept of water body control.
Given the recurrent monsoon floods characteristic of Bangladesh, embankments

1/ Fish farmers in areas where induced breeding is not practiced must

rely on the collection of wild seed, the supply and quality of which
is subject to considerable variation.
- 12 -

and other water control works are used to prevent predatory fish from enter-
ing, and stocked fish from escaping impounded areas. Another aspect of con-
trol relates to the management of aquatic weeds, which heavily infest many
oxbow lakes. In general, surface weeds such as water hyacinth must be manually
cleared on a periodic basis, while the spread of submerged weeds can be
checked with the introduction of grass carp. An added advantage of water
control is that it facilitates the maintenance of appropriate water quality
standards, a key element of high yielding aquacultural practice.

3.05 In some lakes and ponds, productivity may be limited as a result

of nutrient deficiencies. In these cases, high yields may, nevertheless, be
achievable by means of fertilization and supplementary feeding. Commonly
used fertilizers include organic manures (like cow dung, poultry droppings
and compost) and inorganic chemicals (nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassic
fertilizers). To condition the pond soil and water for a better response from
added fertilizers, it is also common to add lime. Supplementary carp feeds
include oil cakes (from mustard seed or ground nut), rice or wheat bran, and
certain aquatic weeds for grass carp.

3.06 Utilization of the above-mentioned techniques requires a nucleus

of trained personnel in fields such as hatchery management, induced breeding
and aquatic weed management. In India, short-term training programs have
been successfully developed to impart these skills within 3 to 6 months,
using a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. The initial
formulation of operational procedures for specific water bodies may require
a specialized technical assistance input, as is being provided in connection
with the Karnafuli Irrigation Fisheries Sub-project (para 2.36). The estab-
lishment of these procedures, together with the training efforts mentioned
above, can significantly enhance potentials for the rapid development of
self-sustaining aquacultural enterprises.

Present Oxbow Lake Management Practices

3.07 The present status of government-managed oxbow lakes leaves consider-

able scope for improvement. A pervasive constraint concerns the relative
scarcity of fish seed, which is currently collected from rivers during the
monsoon season. Under this arrangement, both the quantity and quality of the
spawn are difficult to control, and the available evidence suggests that the
situation is worsening. In the case of seed quality, a major problem is iden-
tifying and separating carp spawn from the spawn of predatory species which
resemble carp spawn. Since none of the lakes in Bangladesh are serviced by
modern hatchery facilities, it has not been possible to utilize induced breed-
ing techniques for quality control.

3.08 Because carp is a preferred table fish and is well-suited for lake
culture, the Department of Fisheries periodically stocks lakes under its con-
trol with Indian major carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita)
and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). An analysis of recruitment and retrieval data
for the proposed project lakes shows that the average carp stocking ratio over
the past five years ranged from 1,500 to 2,600 fry/fingerlings/ha/yr.1/ How-
ever, the average retrieval rates of the stocked fish has never exceeded 6
percent per annum. In yield terms, carp productionamong the selected lakes
averaged only 115 kg/ha. The rate of production of miscellaneousfish during
the same period is not known since no records were kept.

3.09 The historically low catch rates from the proposed project lakes
are in part a function of depredationby predatory species which enter the
lakes during the flood season or are inadvertentlystocked with the carp fry. 2/

3.10 The widespread infestationof aquatic weeds in the selected lakes

contributesto low retrieval rates. The growth of weeds has been stimulated
by the runoff of nitrogenous fertilizersused for terrestrialagriculture
in the periphery of the lake areas. Surface weeds such as water hyacinth
(Eichorniaspp.) as well as submergedweeds (particularlyHydrilla) have
been encountered,with extensive infestationoccurring in Baluhar, Gobin-
dapur and Fetehpur lakes (Maps 13616, 13619 and 13617).

3.11 The harvestingof carp is presently on a catch sharing basis, with

60 percent of the catch sales proceeds going to the Department of Land Revenue
and 40 percent paid to lake fishermen. Harvesting is done throughoutthe year,
though the peak season is between November and March. For miscellaneousfish,
there are no catch sharing arrangements in effect. Fishermenmust be licensed
by DOF, however, which charges a license fee of Tk 10-15 per annum.

3.12 Commonly-usedfishing gear includes gill and seine nets as well

as cast nets operated from the shore or from dugout boats. Twin boat ring-
net traps are also used. Size/weight restrictionsare presently enforced
with respect to catla and mrigal, which must weigh at least 1 kg before they
can be harvested.

3.13 Fish marketing is primarily in the hands of private traders who

frequent lakesidelanding sites. Fishermen are often in debt to the
traders and are known to sell their catch at depressed prices when other
alternativesdo not present themselves. The ability of the fishermen to
hold out for higher prices is limited because of the highly perishable
nature of fish and the absence of ice and insulatedboxes. Thus, in 1978,
oxbow lake fishermen in Jessore District were reported to receive Tk 8.2/kg
for fresh carp at the lakeside,while the wholesale price in Jessore town
was Tk 12-15/kg. The lack of all-weatheraccess roads and vehicles has
compoundedmarketing difficulties.

3.14 Ownership of the selected lakes is vested with the Ministry of Land
Revenue,which leases them to DOF on an annual basis. The short-termnature
of this system has not been conducive to investmentsin either rehabilitation
or improvement. Administrationand developmentof the lakes is nominally the
responsibilityof the Jessore District Fishery Officer, who is assisted by
several Thana Fishery Officers. However, due to the lack of finance,trans-
portation and various administrativeconstraints,the TFO's have been unable

1/ This is far below the number required for commercialcultivation.

2/ It appears also that there is a large resident population of predatory

fish which inhabit the proposed project lakes,
- 14 -

to undertake any systematic or scientifically-based program of lake development.

As a result, harvesting is typically haphazard, raising the possibility that
many fish are caught prematurely.


Location and Climate

4.01 The project is located in Jessore District in the southwest quadrant

of Bangladesh. Jessore lies some 30 km from the Indian border in the delta
between the Hooghly and Padma Rivers. There are 37 large-sized oxbox lakes
(covering about 4,000 ha) and 50 smaller lakes scattered throughout the dis-
trict. Ten of the 87 lakes are administered and stocked by the Department of
Fisheries, with the remainder available for lease by private cooperatives
from the Department of Land Revenue.

4.02 A network of paved roads links Jessore with Dacca (150 km northeast)
and Khulna, the Division Headquarters, some 60 km south. Access to project
lakes is by dry season feeder roads and tracks, all of which become impass-
able during rainy periods.

4.03 The climate is humid tropical during the southwest monsoon (June-
October) and relatively mild during winter (December-February). The mean
0 0
monthly temperature range is 18 -30 C, with peak temperatures in the forties
in April. Warm weather and abundant sunlight provide a potential for crop
production as well as tropical fish culture. Rainfall is also plentiful,
about 1,500 mm yearly, most of which occurs between April and November. The
high annual rainfall assures that lakes have water even in the dry months
(December-March). During the annual flood season (July-September), overflow
from local rivers inundates surrounding areas with 2 to 3 m of water by
September, subsiding gradually in October and November.


4.04 The proposed project represents the first systematic attempt to

develop underexploited oxbow lakes in Bangladesh. As a pioneer undertaking,
the project would provide for the introduction of new seed production and
lake management technologies which would have implications for inland fish-
eries production throughout the country. The project would include training
and technical assistance components to facilitate the transfer of these tech-
nologies to indigenous personnel.

4.05 Within the project area, specific objectives would be the following:

(i) substantially increase inland fisheries production by

developing six oxbow lakes and supporting hatchery
- 15 -

(ii) improve the well-being of fishermen through increased income

and investments in access roads, water supply, telephone and

(iii) upgraie the professional competence of Bangladesh fishery

personnel by providing in-service training at the central
hatchery and at project lakes; and

(iv) provide a dependable source of good quality fry and fin-

gerlings for use by fish farmers in and around the project

4.06 At full development, total annual carp production from the proposed
project lakes would be about 950 MT, representing a sevenfold increase above
current levels. On a per hectare basis, implementation of the project would
increase the present average yield of 130 kg/ha/year to about 900 kg/ha/year
within five years.

Main Investment Features

4.07 Oxbow Lake Development. A cluster of six oxbow lakes would be

developed under the project (Table 4.1). The number of project lakes was
purposely kept small to avoid dilution of technical and management capability
among too many sites.


Name Dry Season Area


1. Baluhar 282.0
2. Jaydia 189.0
3. Fetehpur 47.0
4. Kathgara 71.0
5. Gobindapur 217.0
6. Marjat 253.0
Total 1,059.0

/a The relative location of the proposed lakes is

shown in Map 13615.

4.08 A preliminary review indicates that, except for Kathgara, 1/ sedi-

mentation would not occupy more than 10% (on average) of present storage
capacity over the next 30 years. Assurances were obtained that DOF would
carry out detailed investigations of lake sedimentation and storage capacity 2/

1/ After 15 years, Kathgara would likely require further rehabilitation

(e.g., raising embankments and building control gates) to keep sedi-
ment below 20% of storage capacity.

2/ The investigations would be undertaken to refine the mission's estimates

of lake sedimentation and storage capacity, as shown in Annex 4.
- 16 -

and that the results of these investigations would be forwarded to IDA for
review and comment.

4.09 The civil works to be constructed at each lake include: (i) em-
bankments; (ii) inlet/outlet works; (iii) lake fishery stations; and (iv) lake-
side hatchery facilities.

4.10 Earth embankments (totalling 55 km) would be constructed primarily

in lowlying lake peripheries to prevent fish from escaping during the flood
season. All embankments would have 0.6 M freeboard above the maximum 10-year
flood level, thus affording a secure impoundment for planned fish culture
operations. Assurances were obtained that GOB would adequately investigate
the 10-year flood levels at each lake for detailed design of embankments.

4.11 Inlet/outlet culverts would ensure a continued supply of water for

cultivated areas adjacent to the lakes. Culverts would be fitted with wire
screen to keep lake fish from escaping and to preclude the entry of predatory

4.12 The construction of lakeside fishery stations would provide needed

office space, laboratory space and living quarters for lake management per-
sonnel. Each station would be responsible for sampling water quality, super-
vising the periodic clearance of water hyacinth, providing technical assist-
ance to lake fishermen and monitoring landing and distribution activities.

4.13 In order to provide lakes with a capability to supply their own

fingerlings, the project would finance the construction of lakeside hatchery
facilities and dugout ponds.2 A typical lake hatchery would include a single-
room enclosure of about 60 M to house hatching tanks, hatchling collection
boxes and other equipment necessary for induced breeding. In the hatchery
enclosure, a proper cement cistern would be constructed to hold hatchlings
for about three days prior to stocking in prepared nursery ponds.

4.14 Three types of dugout ponds would be constructed on the lakeshore

near the hatchery enclosure: Brood stock, nursery and rearing ponds. The
total pond area per lake would vary from 4 to 22 ha, depending on lake size
and seasonal stocking requirements.

4.15 Central Hatchery Complex. In the initial phase of project imple-

mentation, fry for all six lakes would be produced at a Central Hatchery to
be located at Baluhar Lake. The Baluhar site was selected because of its
central location, available land and proximity to a main highway.

4.16 At full development, the Central Hatchery would be capable of pro-

ducing, mostly by induced breeding techniques, some 20 million carp fry per
annum. As lake management personnel gain experience and lake hatchery pro-
duction increases, fry from the central hatchery would be sold to fish
- 17 -

farmers outside the project area, where the demand for good quality fry
is increasing. 1/

4.17 Induced breeding efforts at all project hatcheries would focus

mainly on carp in view of their acceptance among Bangladeshis and the fact
that they are biologically well-suited for oxbow lake culture. Species to
be bred, reared and stocked would include the Indian major carps (catla,
rohu, mrigal), grass carp, silver carp and common carp.

4.18 The entire Central Hatchery complex would occupy approximately

44 ha (8 ha for structures and 36 ha for dugout ponds). Induced breeding
facilities would be analogous to those provided at the other project lakes,
though of larger scale. Dugout ponds would include 150 nursery ponds, 90
rearing ponds and 6 broodstock ponds (Map 13683).

4.19 Other facilities to be located at the central hatchery complex

would include: (i) an administration building; (ii) a trainee hostel;
(iii) staff and guest quarters; and (iv) a garage and workshop.

4.20 Infrastructure. The project would provide financing for the

following infrastructure investments: (i) access roads; (ii) electrical
power for hatcheries and fishery stations; and (iii) telephone service.

4.21 The proposed project lakes are presently linked to all-weather main
highways by poor quality earthern access roads. The access roads are badly
rutted and become impassable even after brief showers. To provide fishermen
and surrounding farmers with assured access throughout the year, project roads
would be upgraded and realigned as necessary. 2/ The main access road to the
Central Hatchery at Baluhar (1 km) would have a 6 M carriageway, while se-
condary access roads (25 km) would have a 4 M carriageway. All roads would
be asphalt surfaced with a minimum embankment clearance (free-board) of 1 M
above the 10-year flood level. The main access road would cost about
Tk 870,000 per km. The estimated expenditure for secondary roads would be
on the order of Tk 630,000 per km, excluding land acquisition costs.

I/ About 60 km east of the project, an upcoming IDA drainage and flood

control project will, as a secondary effect, restrict the natural
entry of fry in two poldered sub-project areas totalling some 35,000 ha.
As a result, farmers will require a new source of fry/fingerlings, a
demand which the proposed Central Hatchery is well-suited to meet. A
similar scheme to provide hatchery-produced fingerlings for poldered
irrigation areas is underway in connection with the IDA-financed
Karnafuli Irrigation Project (Credit No. 605-BD).

2/ District Council authorities, in consultation with the Roads and

Highways Department, would undertake upgrading of lake and hatchery
access roads.
- 18 -

4.22 Since electricity is essential for the operation of project hatch-

eries, an 11 Kv line system would be installed to transmit power from Kotch-
andpur Station (33/11 Kv) to the Central Hatchery Complex, about 2.5 km. A
distribution system would extend electricity to other lake hatcheries (Map
13615). 1/

4.23 A telephone system would be provided to link the various lake

fishery stations. 2/ Two direct lines (Jessore to Baluhar and Jessore to
Marjat) would be installed on existing poles. New lines would be installed
connecting Baluhar with Jaydia and Fetehpur, and Marjat with Kathgara and
Gobindapur lakes.

Aquaculture Program

4.24 Complementary to the physical investments described in the previous

section, the project would include a comprehensive aquaculture program designed
to increase production efficiency at the selected lakes and hatchery sites.

4.25 At the lakes, the management program would be basically an exten-

sion of the polyculture system, using a combination of Indian major carps
(i.e., catla, rohu, mrigal); Chinese carps, i.e., silver carp (Hypophthal-
michthys molitrix), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella); and common carp.
The introduction of Chinese carps is imperative because the Indian major carps
presently stocked in the lakes do not utilize the full range of fish food and
weeds such as Hydrilla and duckweed (Lemna spp.). The existence of significant
quantities of unutilized fish food, primarily phytoplankton, gives the lake
waters a greenish appearance. Phytoplankton feeding silver carp would graze
down the unutilized phytoplankton, while weed eating grass carp would effec-
tively control the submerged Hydrilla, which is present in enormous quantities
in the project lakes.

4.26 Among the Indian major carp, catla and rohu would be stocked to
feed on surface and column food, while mrigal, which is a bottom dweller,
would graze on detritus. Stocking of European common carp is likewise recom-
mended since it is an omnivore which rakes up bottom mud, thus promoting the
circulation of nutrients from the soil to the water. In total, a six-species
combination of high yielding carp is recommended to achieve optimal production
from the project lakes.

4.27 Since several highly predatory species are presently established

in the lakes, 3/ appropriate biological control measures must be included

1/ Installation of the electrical system would be handled by the Power

Development Board (PDB).

2/ Telephone equipment would be installed by Bangladesh Telephone and

Telegraph (BTT).

3/ Such as Wallego attu, Chana murulius and Notopterus Chitala.

- 19 -

in the aquaculture program. In this regard, live bait angling and seine
netting (4-5" mesh) would be encouraged in the pre-monsoon season to reduce
the predatory fish population as much as possible before monsoon breeding
takes place. As an incentive, free licenses or rewards for certain species
would be offered.

4.28 The control of snails and other molluscs which also infest the
project lakes would be achieved by stocking black carp (Mylopharyngodon
picens) or catfish such as Pangasius spp. The rate of stocking of these
fish would depend on the actual assessment of the snail population.

4.29 The stocking density and ratio of the co-stocked species would
vary from year-to-year, depending on physio-chemical conditions, plankton
density and extent of aquatic weed infestation. An initial stocking rate
of 8,000 carp fingerlings/ha would be employed.

4.30 In the first and second years of the project, Indian major carp
fry/fingerlings would be purchased locally, with hatchery-bred supplies
becoming available by Year 3. It is expected that Chinese and common carp
fingerlings would likewise be available for stocking by Year 3 of the project.
Since Chinese carp are presently not available in Bangladesh, assurances were
obtained that GOB would by July 31, 1981, have imported approximately 10,000
grass carp fry and 10,000 silver carp fry. These fry would be temporarily
stocked at the Jessore District seed farm pending the availability of lakeside
rearing ponds.

4.31 Fertilization of project lakes would be deferred until after grass

carp fingerlings are stocked to control submerged weed. 1/ Once weed grazing
has taken place, monthly applications of phosphate fertilizers would be in-
cluded in the aquaculture program. Fertilizer dosage would be a function of
physio-chemical conditions, nutrient levels and the growth rate of the co-
stocked carp species.

4.32 Supplementary feeding is not contemplated at present, though this

option could be utilized in subsequent years, again depending on the degree
of submerged weed infestation and carp growth rates.

4.33 Harvesting would be carried out using conventional techniques,

such as gill nets. Seine nets may also be used. Harvesting operations would
be spread over about 240 days a year, with a slack period during the monsoon

4.34 Aside from the various lake fish farming activities described above,
an integral part of the aquaculture program concerns the induced breeding and
rearing of carp fry and fingerlings. Initially, all breeding activities would
take place at the Central Hatchery at Baluhar Lake, which would have a produc-
tion capacity of 20 million fry per year. Subsequently, hatchery, nursery and

1/ Until the grass carp are available, locally-procured Puntius gonionotus

could be stocked at the rate of 100/ha/yr for interim control of sub-
merged weeds.
- 20 -

rearing facilities would be constructed at each lake so that each of the pro-
ject lakes would eventually become a self-sufficient induced breeding unit and
the Central Hatchery would supply its seed for stocking water bodies outside
Xicproject area.

4.35 Key phases of the induced breeding/rearing cycle may be summarized

as follows:

- production and selection of broodstock;

- induced breeding (hypophysation);

- collection and care of eggs;

- hatching techniques;

- care and collection of hatchlings;

- nursery pond management;

- rearing pond management; and

- lake stocking procedures.

4.36 Broodstock production would be undertaken in newly constructed

broodstock ponds of 0.4 ha each. These ponds would be fertilized with
manure and chemical fertilizers and provided with supplementary food such
as rice bran or oil cake. Selection of broodstock would be done after
approximately two years, at which time the fish would have reached an
average weight of 2-3 kg.

4.37 Induced breeding operations would be undertaken at the advent

of the monsoon season when natural breeding normally takes place. Since
common carp breed naturally in confined waters, 1/ induced breeding would
be required only for Chinese and Indian major carps. For these species,
breeding activity is induced by the administration of pituitary gland
extract taken from mature carps. The procedure for obtaining and storing
pituitary hormones is relatively simple and refrigerated pituitary "banks"
would be established to guarantee an ample supply for breeding purposes.

4.38 Egg collection takes place from four to seven hours after the ad-
ministration of the pituitary extract. Normally, the developing eggs hatch
some twelve to fifteen hours after fertilization. Hatchlings are kept in a
special cement cistern for about three days until they a e ready for stocking
in prepared nursery ponds. One cistern of less than 2 m will accommodate
nearly one million hatchlings for the three day holding period.

1/ Common carp will naturally breed in a pond habitat several times a

year. Best results are obtained towards the end of winter (February-
March) and during monsoon seasons.
- 21 -

4.39 Important nursery pond management procedures would include pond pre-
paration, weed clearance, eradification of unwanted fish and aquatic insects
and, fertilization and supplementary feeding. The latter procedure would be
extremely important, since the spawn are voracious feeders capable of exhaust-
ing the natural pond food supply (i.e., plankton) in only 4-5 days. Under
the project, harvesting of fry would normally take place after several weeks
when average size reaches 25-30 mm. A nursery pond survival rate of 75% is
envisioned. During each breeding season, two to three crops of hatchlings
would be raised in nursery ponds.

4.40 The basic procedures for rearing pond management are analogous to
those described above. As before, consideration must be given to weed control,
fertilization, supplementary feeding and so on. The stocking rate of 25-30 mm
fry would be about 0.3 million/ha. With the provision of supplementary feed
(oil cake plus rice bran) on a daily basis, the fry will attain fingerling
size (120-150 mm) at the end of three or four months. An average survival
rate of 75% is assumed for fry to fingerling rearing.

4.41 Initially, all nursery and rearing pond operations would be under-
taken at the Central Hatchery. These operations would be gradually shifted
to the project lakes as lakeside hatchery facilities and pond complexes are

4.42 Once rearing is complete, lake stocking takes place. Using a stock-
ing rate of 8,000 fingerlings/ha, the fingerling requirement for the combined
project lake area of 1,059 ha would be approximately 8.5 million per annum.
Excess fry/fingerling production would be sold to local fish farmers (para
4.16) who face a shortage of high quality carp seed. It is expected that
most of these transactions would be for the sale of fry, with the purchasers
undertaking fry to fingerling rearing in their own impoundments.

Cost Estimates

4.43 The total project cost including taxes and duties (US$0.6 million
equivalent) is estimated at US$7.5 M (Tk 111.9 M equivalent), of which US$3.0
million or about 37% would be foreign exchange (Table 4.2). Estimates are
based on May 1978 prices. Physical contingencies have been estimated at
20% since detailed design work is yet to be completed. Annual expected price
increase rates used in estimating the total costs of imported items were 7.5%
in 1979 and 8% in 1980-85. For domestically produced items, a 10.0% price
increase rate was used. Costs of civil works, including embankments, build-
ings, dugout ponds and infrastructure are based on recent costs in Bangladesh
for similar works. The cost estimates for equipment and vehicles are based on
unit prices in recent contract awards and on international prices. Detailed
equipment requirements and cost estimates are presented in Annexes 5 and 6,
- 22 -


Tk '000 US$ '000 % of

Local Foreign Total Local Foreign Total Total

Land Acquisition 3,308.2 - 3,308.2 220.5 - 220.5 3

Lake Improvement 2,263.8 352.3 2,616.1 150.9 23.5 174.4 2

Hatchery Facilities 4,847.5 3,134.5 7,982.0 323.2 209.0 532.2 7

Dugout Ponds 3,064.7 - 3,064.7 204.3 - 204.3 3

Equipment &
Vehicles 1,987.0 7,019.0 9,006.0 132.5 467.9 600.4 8

Infrastructure 18,823.7 9,107.3 27,931.0 1,254.9 607.2 1,862.1 25

Subtotal 34,294.9 19,613.1 53,908.0 2,286.3 1,307.5 3,593.8 48

Engineering &
Admin. (15%) 3,795.0 3,795.0 7,590.0 253.0 253.0 506.0 7

Assistance - 10,818.0 10,818.0 - 721.2 721.2 10

Training 786.0 225.0 1,011.0 52.4 15.0 67.4 1

Operating Costs 5,949.5 - 5,949.5 396.6 - 396.6 5

Base Cost Estimate 44,825.4 34,451.1 79,276.5 2,988.3 2,296.7 5,285.0 71

Physical Contin-
gencies (20%)/a 7,618.0 4,681.6 12,299.6 507.9 312.1 820.0 11

Price Contingencies 13,726.3 6,571.5 2,0297.8 915.1 438.1 1,353.2 18

Total Estimate /
Project Cost 66,169.7 45,704.2 11 1 ,8 7 3 .91 b 4,411.3 3,046.9 7,458.2 100

/a Excluding technical assistance, training and incremental operating costs.

/b Includes US$0.6 M equivalent in taxes and duties.

- 23 -


4.44 The proposed IDA credit of US$6.0 M (covering about 90% of the
total project costs, excluding duties and taxes) would finance 100% of for-
eign exchange costs and about 67% of local costs. IDA financing of 90% of
the project cost is recommended in view of DOF's limited financial resources
and heavy commitments elsewhere in the fisheries sector. In addition, pro-
vision of 90% IDA financing would enable DOF staff to concentrate fully on
project execution and would constitute an assured financial base for the
speedy introduction of new carp production and breeding technologies. GOB
would finance the balance of the project cost, US$1.5 M (TK 22.5 M equivalent,
including duties and taxes). To ensure the timely provision of project funds
and hiring of needed extra project staff, a condition of credit effectiveness
would be approval of the Project Proforma 1/ by the Executive Committee of
the National Economic Council.


4.45 Overall responsibility for procurement would be vested in DOF.

Project civil works include embankments, hatchery facilities, dugout ponds,
offices, living quarters, and supporting infrastructure such as access roads,
water supply, electrification and telephone connections. Civil works con-
tracts (US$2.7 M) would be located at the six selected lake sites with con-
struction spread out over three years. Such contracts would not be suitable
for international competitive bidding and would be let through local competi-
tive bidding, using established GOB procedures satisfactory to IDA. Imported
construction materials (US$0.8 M), such as cement and steel bars, would be
provided by the selected contractors, as individual requirements would be too
small to justify separate tenders under the project.

4.46 Equipment, vehicles and spare parts (US$0.7 M) would be procured

through ICB in accordance with Bank guidelines. A preference limited to 15%
of cif price or the prevailing customs duty, whichever is lower, would be
extended to local manufacturers in the evaluation of bids. Small off-the-
shelf items costing less than US$20,000 for each contract, which are either
urgently needed or are not suitable for ICB, would be purchased through normal
Government procedures, on the basis of quotations received from three or more

4.47 Documents for all contracts, whether for civil works, materials,
equipment or vehicles estimated to cost US$50,000 or more would be sent
to IDA for review before bids were invited and later before award. Contracts
estimated to cost less than US$50,000 would be awarded in accordance with
normal Government procedures, which are satisfactory. A summary of the bid
evaluation would be sent to IDA with all contracts for which disbursement is
sought. The format would be agreed at negotiations.

1/ An internal GOB document which must be approved prior to the release of

funds and authorization to hire new staff.
- 24 -


4.48 Disbursementsfrom the proposed IDA Credit would cover:

(a) 80% of civil works expenditures;

(b) 80% of expendituresfor locally procured construction

materials,equipment,vehicles and spare parts;

(c) 100% of cif expendituresfor directly imported con-

structionmaterials,equipment, vehicles and spare

(d) 100% of total expendituresfor consultants'services and

overseas training; and

(e) 80% of administrativeexpendituresof the Project


4.49 Disbursementsfor expenditures(a) through (d) above would be on

the basis of full documentation. In the case of expendituresincurred by the
PIU, item (e) above, disbursementswould be against certificatesof expendi-
ture submittedby DOF, the documentationfor which will not be submitted for
reviewingbut will be retained by the Borrower and will be available for
inspectionby IDA during the course of Project supervisionmissions. The
proposed credit allocation and the estimated schedule of disbursementsare
shown in Annex 7. It is estimated that the credit would be fully disbursed
by June 30, 1984.

Accounts and Audits

4.50 Assuranceswere obtained that:

(a) separate accounts would be kept for the project by DOF;

(b) these accounts would be audited annually in accordance

with procedures satisfactoryto IDA;

(c) a separate annual audit would be undertakenwith respect

to Project ImplementationUnit expenditures;and

(d) GOB would send IDA copies of the audit reports annually
within six months of the end of the fiscal year.


4.51 Implementationof the project would have a positive effect on the

environment. Among the selected lake sites, systematicmanagement efforts
would reduce the breeding of mosquitoes and snails, which are known hosts for
transmittingtropical diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasisand filaria-
sis. All of these diseases are prevalent in the project area. Proposed water
- 25 -

control works such as embankments and screened inlet/outlet gates would pro-
vide fishermen as well as neighboring rice farmers with the means to better
manage seasonal flood waters. It is also expected that proposed infrastructure
investments, particularly all-weather access roads and electrification, would
have a noteworthy impact on the quality of life in the rural villages surround-
ing the project area.


Department of Fisheries

5.01 Overall responsibility for execution of the project would rest with
DOF. 1/ Specific responsibilities of DOF would include surveys, planning,
designs, procurement and implementation of all project works. To the extent
necessary, DOF headquarters personnel would be made available to provide
administrative and technical support for project activities. At the field
level, Divisional, District and Thana Fisheries Officers would liaise with
project staff and provide assistance with respect to carp marketing and fry/
fingerling sales to neighboring fish farmers. Headquarters training staff
would cooperate with project staff in the design and implementation of in-
service training activities to be conducted at the Central Hatchery and lake
sites (para 5.09).

Project Implementation Unit

5.02 Day-to-day management of the project complex and selected lakes

would be undertaken by an administratively self-contained Project Implemen-
tation Unit (PIU). Based at Baluhar lake (i.e., at the Central Hatchery),
the unit would be headed by a specially appointed Project Director to carry
out the following functions:

(a) Management of project funds and facilities;

(b) Preparation and implementation of annual work

programs (para 5.07), including fish farming
and breeding activities;

(c) Administration and supervision of all project-

financed procurement and construction; 2/

1/ DOF is presently managing the lakes in the project area and, in the
mission's view, would be well-suited to continue in this role. The Plan-
ning Commission also favors retaining DOF for project execution, there-
by strengthening the agency's capability to effectively manage inland
fishery development activities.

2/ In consultation, where necessary, with officials from appropriate GOB

agencies (e.g., Power Development Board, Roads and Highways Department,
Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Department, etc).
- 26 -

(d) Monitoring of the distribution of benefits among

project participants;

(e) Recruitment of consultants and administration of

training activities;

(f) Preparation of quarterly progress reports and reports

from the project consultants for submission to IDA.

5.03 With respect to function (d) above, the PIU would include personnel
to continually monitor catch sharing and marketing arrangements with a view
to ensuring that lake fishermen receive an equitable share of project revenues.

5.04 Detailed staffing arrangements for the PIU were agreed at nego-
tiations. Establishment of the PIU including, inter alia, the selection
of a Project Advisor/Aquaculture Specialist and an Engineer, would be a
condition of effectiveness.

Lake Tenure

5.05 An essential element of project organization and management efforts

would be the securing by DOF of long-term leases for all project lakes and
lake depot sites. Title to all of the proposed lakes is presently held by
the Department of Land Revenue, which rents the lakes to DOF on an annual
basis. As discussed earlier (para 3.14), the short-term nature of annual
lease-auction arrangements has not been conducive to investments in either
rehabilitation or improvement. To eliminate the uncertainties associated
with the annual lease-auction system, assurances have been obtained that the
assignment of project lakes to DOF would endure throughout the economic life
of investments to be made under the project. 1/

Cooperation with Lake Fishermen

5.06 A key feature of project organization would be the clear delinea-

tion of carp production and marketing responsibilities between the PIU and
project fishermen. 2/ PIU staff would have overall responsibility for (a) in-
vestment in physical facilities, (b) seed production, (c) lake management 3/,
and (d) stocking operations. In addition, the PIU would market project fish
production jointly with the fishermen and provide vehicles and staff to assist
in marketing of the carp catch. The financial cost of these activities would
be met through the 60/40 catch sharing formula discussed in para 7.03. The
main responsibility of participating fishermen would be the daily harvesting

1/ Estimated to be 30 years.

2/ Presently, there are some 600 families licensed to fish in the project
area. As discussed in para 7.07, the number of participating families
will be enlarged as lake production increases. For all lakes, a
licensing system will remain in effect as a management tool for the
proper regulation of fishing effort.

3/ Including O&M of all lake facilities.

- 27 -

and landing of carp at the depots which would be constructed at each of the
proposed lakes. Fishermen would also participate in marketing, together with
PIU representatives. 1/

Annual Work Prog ams

5.07 Before each construction season, DOF would prepare annual programs
detailing activities and works to be undertaken during the forthcoming year.
Such programs would include appropriate maps, charts and drawings, staffing
and material requirements as well as cost estimates. The Project Director
would be responsible for collating and consolidating these programs for sub-
mission to IDA. Assurances were obtained that by September 30 of each year,
IDA would receive, for review and comments, work programs and procurement
schedules for the forthcoming construction year (November 1 to October 31).


5.08 The economic and financial viability of the proposed project is

directly linked to the implementation of a satisfactory maintenance program.
DOF would be responsible for the O&M of all project works except access roads
and telephone and power facilities. Maintenance of the lake and hatchery
access roads would be undertaken by the District Council, with assistance, if
necessary, from the Roads and Highways Department. The maintenance of tele-
phone lines and equipment would be the responsibility of Bangladesh Telegraph
and Telephone (BTT). For power lines, installation and maintenance would be
handled by the Power Development Board (PDB). Assurances were obtained that
project facilities would be maintained in accordance with sound engineering
and management practices.

Technical Assistance

5.09 Technical assistance would include consultancy services for fish

farming and marketing and engineering and hatchery management. Within the
latter category, a specialist advisor would be provided for induced breeding
operations. A total of 130 months of technical assistance 2/ is included
(Annex 8), at an average cost, including overhead, of Tk 83,000 (US$5,500) per
month. 3/ Fishery advisors would be based at the Central Hatchery complex
where they would work closely with members of the PIU.

5.10 Short-term consultants would be employed, as necessary, for assist-

ance in engineering design work and in establishing appropriate procedures
and organizational arrangements for proper operation and maintenance of the
project facilities. Assurances were obtained that DOF would employ

1/ Marketing arrangements are discussed in paras 6.03-6.04.

2/ Including 18 months for short-term consultants.

3/ Fishery consultants could likely be drawn from neighboring countries

where considerable fish farming expertise exists.
- 28 -

consultants whose qualifications, experience and terms and conditions of

employment would be satisfactory to the Borrower and IDA. The consultants
would include, inter alia, a Project Advisor/Aquaculture Specialist and an
Engineer to be in post not later than December 31, 1979.


5.11 The project would provide facilities for in-service training at the
Central Hatchery in lake management, induced breeding techniques, composite
fish culture, aquatic weed control, nursery rearing and brood stock management.
Fishery advisors would assist the PIU in training efforts. Trainees would
include DOF personnel as well as small-scale fish-farmers who could benefit
from practical instruction in improved agricultural techniques. Once the
project is fully operational, the scope of training activities could be ex-
panded to include the participation of fish farmers from outlying districts,
thus promoting the diffusion of efficient fish farming methods throughout
the country. To familiarize core staff with modern fish farming and hatchery
management techniques, short-term study tours would be organized for about
six staff members to neighboring countries such as India or Thailand. Assur-
ances were obtained that the program for study tours and the qualifications
of the proposed candidates would be satifactory to IDA. In this regard, the
Borrower agreed to furnish to IDA for approval (i) details of proposed over-
seas training programs by December 31, 1979 and (ii) details of proposed in-
country training programs by December 31, 1981.

Progress Reports

5.12 Project progress would be recorded by means of quarterly and annual

progress reports prepared by DOF staff. The reports would include all relevant
data on physical and financial progress of the project together with reasons
for deviations, if any, from the targets set under annual work programs (para
5.07). Following review and consolidation by the Project Director, quarterly
and annual reports would be promptly sent to IDA.

Monitoring and Evaluation

5.13 The main objectives of the monitoring and evaluation studies would
be to estimate the direct and indirect benefits resulting from the project as
well as the socio-economic characteristics of the project beneficiaries. In
addition, the studies would explore the feasibility of alternative organiza-
tional arrangements, including fishery cooperatives, which could prove useful
in the long run management of the project lakes (i.e., following the successful
introduction of the aquacultural technologies discussed in paras 4.24-4.42).
The data for evaluation would be obtained through selected in-depth interviews
as well as through canvassing representative samples of project beneficiaries.
During negotiations, assurances were obtained that DOF would complete (i) a
benchmark monitoring survey about two years prior to project completion and
(ii) two follow-up surveys about one year and four years, respectively, after
project completion. The surveys would include information on hatchery and
rearing operations, stocking rates and yields, catch sharing and marketing
arrangements, and employment and income distribution for the various classes
of project beneficiaries. The monitoring studies and surveys would be under-
- 29 -

taken by well qualified local consulting firms or research institutions

selected in consultationwith IDA. Assurances were obtained that before
January 1, 1980, DOF would prepare and submit to IDA for review, a detailed
proposal for implementationof the project monitoring and evaluationprogram.
In addition,DOF would furnish to IDA for comments by December 31 of each
subsequentyear the results of the monitoring program for the preceding
fiscal year. Project progress reports (para 5.12) and data from the moni-
toring and evaluationreports would form, in part, the basis for preparation
of the Project CompletionReport by DOF.



6.01 At full development in about 1984, annual production from the six
project lakes would amount to 953 MT of carp, 1/ valued at US$0.76 million.
Additional revenue amounting to US$0.05 million per annum would be realized
by the sale of fry from the Central Hatchery to fish farmers in surrounding
areas. The sale of Central Hatchery fry outside the project area would com-
mence in Year 5, following the achievementof self-sufficientfry production
at the project lakes.


6.02 The market prospects for carp, the project'smajor product, are
excellent. Jessore District is currently a fish deficit area, as are parts
of Kushtia and Rajshahi to the north and Khulna to the south. Carp is a pre-
ferred table fish which is actively traded in rural and urban markets through-
out the country. At full development in 1984, annual incrementalfish produc-
tion from the project would represent less than one percent of projected total
Bangladesh fish productionand would pose no serious marketing problem.

6.03 A major thrust of the project would be to rationalize carp market-

ing practices. Toward this end, the project would include a lake access
road component as well as the provision of trucks with ice boxes. 2/ Both
featureswould facilitatethe timely transfer of freshly caught carp to the
surroundingmarkets. Given the preference for fresh fish, coupled with the
relativelysmall average daily catch of 4.0 MT (based on 240 fishing days
per year), the project provides for insulatedboxes rather than costly cold
storage facilities. To improvemarket information,telephone lines would be
installed linking the Central Hatchery with outside market centers such as
Jessore and Khulna (para 4.23).

1/ Of which 815 MT would be incrementalproduction.

2/ The vehicles would be operated and maintained by DOF personnel.

- 30 -

6.04 Implementation of the project would effectively end the dependence

of lake fishermen on traders and middlemen offering depressed ex-lake carp
prices (para 6.05). Instead, fishermen would land their catch at DOF-operated
lake depots for weighing and transport to wholesale market sites. ThroughoLt
the marketing process, representatives of the fishermen would be present to
verify catch sharing arrangements and sales revenue. 1/ The effectiveness
of marketing operations would be further ensured by the assignment of a
marketing specialist to the Central Hatchery staff. In addition, the project
would include technical assistance services to develop, implement and monitor
marketing arrangements (para 5.07).


6.05 Prices used for project financial analyses are based on average
wholesale market prices for Jessore and Khulna Districts in May 1978. 2/
Given the continued unmet demand for carp and carp seed in and around the
project area, and expected improvements in the quality of both products, the
use of these prices on a constant basis for project analysis is reasonable.
Prices used average Tk 12,000 (US$800) per MT for carp and Tk 31,200 (US$1,113)
per million fry. Improved access and the provision of vehicles are expected
to end the dependence of lake fishermen on traders and middlemen who have pur-
chased carp at depressed ex-lake prices ranging from Tk 4,500 to 8,500 (US$300
to 565) per MT.


Financial Analysis

7.01 The project's financial benefits would consist of (i) the incre-
mental carp catch resulting from project investments, (ii) the value of Central
Hatchery fry sales to neighboring fish farmers, and (iii) the increase in carp
prices received by project fishermen as a result of lower transport costs and
improved market access. At full development, proposed project investments are
expected to yield annual incremental landings of 815 MT of carp valued at Tk
10.5 million (US$0.7 million). As discussed in para 7.03, 60% of the proceeds
of carp sales would be retained by GOB.

7.02 The investment costs, operating results and cash flow relating to
development of the Central Hatchery Complex and the six selected lakes are
summarized in Annex 9. The estimated financial rate of return (ROR) on
hatchery development and lake improvement is 14%, based on the assumption
that present 60/40 catch sharing arrangement (para 7.03) would remain in

1/ The fishermen's 40% share of carp sales proceeds would be distributed

as soon as possible after the sale of the fish at the wholesale market.

2/ The financial cost associated with transporting the catch to wholesale

market centers is reflected in the cash flow estimates for O&M of
vehicles (Annex 9, Table 1).
- 31 -

Cost Recovery

7.03 A comparison of discounted incremental benefits with discounted

project cost estimates (Annex 9) supports the existing catch sharing arrange-
ment whereby 60% of carp sales revenue are allocated to DOF and the remain-
ing (40%) share is retained by the fishermen. If a greater share of carp
sales revenues are channeled to participating lake fishermen, the estimated
cost recovery index becomes less than one, indicating that the project cost
is not fully recovered. As a result, assurances were obtained that, except
as IDA shall otherwise agree, DOF would provide participating fishermen with
40% of carp sales revenue promptly after the sale of such fish.

7.04 The estimation of cost recovery indices was based on a full devel-
opment yield of 900 kg/ha and a 10% discount rate. Assurances were obtained
from GOB that if project revenues are higher than envisioned (or, project
costs are lower) the catch sharing formula would be amended so as to recover
as much of the project's investment costs as possible while maintaining suf-
ficient incentives for project fishermen. In this connection, the Project
Implementation Unit would be required to monitor catch sharing and marketing
arrangements at frequent intervals (para 5.03) to ensure an equitable alloca-
tion of project revenues. The appropriateness of pricing policies and cost
recovery norms would also be investigated on a periodic basis as part of
project evaluation and monitoring activities (paras 5.12-5.13).

Economic Analysis

7.05 The project's economic rate of return is estimated to be about

24% (Annex 10). Computation of the economic analysis is based on the follow-
ing assumptions:

(a) Benefits. The projected revenue included in the analysis

is based on the achievement of full development carp yields
of 900 kg/ha after five years. Revenues from outside sales
of Central Hatchery carp fry were assumed to commence in
Year 5, reaching Tk 0.6 million per annum by Year 7. Addi-
tional benefits which were not quantified include (i) the
incremental production of miscellaneous fish; (ii) trans-
port cost savings as a result of access road improvements;
(iii) social benefits related to the provision of electrical
power and telephone services; and (iv) the value of incremental
carp production realized by fish farmers outside the project
area utilizing high quality seed produced by the Central
Hatchery. 1/

1/ The annual sales of 20 million 4-5 cm carp fry (at full development)
would be sufficient to service 800 to 1,000 ha of pond area. At an
average yield of 1,000 kg/ha, total annual carp production would range
from 800-1,000 MT. At an average ex-pond price of Tk 8/kg, gross
production benefits would be on the order of Tk 6.4 to 8.0 million
(US$0.4 to 0.5 million) per annum.
- 32 -

(b) Prices. For project carp production,which is exclusively

for domestic consumption,the estimationof annual revenue
is based on the prevailingwholesalemarket price of Tk 12/kg.
Non-tradeableservices,including transportationand handling,
were adjusted by a factor of 0.75 to reflect the current
regime of import taxes and quotas. 1/

(c) Costs. The low opportunitycost of unskilled construction

labor is reflected by applicationof a 0.75 conversionfactor
to the local cost element in the civil works. 2/ A proportional
share (60%) of training and technical assistancecosts were
excluded from the economicanalysis since they are oriented
toward general inland fisheriesdevelopmentand are not
directlyrequired for implementationof the project. Simi-
larly,-only 50% of infrastructure costs, mostly for access
roads, were allocated to the project since a major share of
road usage will be by non project participants,particu-
larly small farmers, living in the vicinity of the proposed
lakes. All other investmentcosts (net of contingencies,
cost of land acquisitionand taxes and duties) are included
in the economic analysis.

(d) Phasing of Costs and Benefits. Constructionof lake facilities,

includinghatcheriesand supportinginfrastructure,would be
phased over three years. The increasedstocking and scientific
managementof project lakes would, however,begin in the
second year and accordinglysome benefits are expected before
constructionis completed. Project facilitiesare assumed to
have a useful life of 25 years.

Project economic costs and benefitsare summarizedin Annex 10.


7.06 Sensitivitytests indicate that the project remains viable under a

variety of adverse assumptionsabout economic costs and benefits (Table 7.1).

1/ This is a standardconversionfactor which translatesdomestic

prices to border prices for non-tradeables.

2/ To approximate the shadow wage rate.

- 33-

Table 7.1: Sensitivity Analysis

Assumption Rate of Return (%)

(a) Basic Case 23.9

(b) All Costs Up 10% 20.8
(c) All Costs Up 20% 18.3
(d) All Benefits Down 10% 20.5
(e) All Benefits Down 20% 17.2
(f) Costs Up 20% and Benefits Down 20% 12.7
(g) Construction Conversion Factor = 1.0 22.8
(h) Construction Conversion Factor = 0.5 25.0
(i) Three Year Lag in Benefits 12.9
(j) Useful Project Life Reduced to 10 years 15.0

Project Beneficiaries

7.07 The direct project beneficiaries would be the 600 fishing families
presently living in the vicinity of the proposed lakes. 1/ At full develop-
ment, average family income from carp farming is expected to increase from the
present Tk 750 per annum to Tk 7,625 (US$508) per annum (Annex 9, Table 3).
Additional income would be realized through the sale of miscellaneous fish,
the proceeds from which would go entirely to fishermen (i.e., catch sharing
arrangements would apply only to carp production). Indirect beneficiaries of
the proposed project would include non-fishermen inhabitants of the project
area who would gain appreciably from access road improvements as well as rural
electrification (para 4.20). Outside the project area, the principal benefi-
ciaries would be fish farmers who would be offered an assured supply of high
quality carp fry produced by the Central Hatchery.

Employment Impact

7.08 Direct employment benefits attributable to the project would be

limited to families engaged in lake fishing activities. 2/ As project imple-
mentation proceeds and yields increase, it is envisioned that the number of
licensed fishing families can be considerably increased. Additional increases
would depend on catch/effort studies and financial considerations. Indirect
employment benefits are expected to extend to several thousand fish farmers
who would purchase carp seed from the Central Hatchery. With an assured
supply of seed, these farmers would be freed from the risks costs associated
with the collection of wild seed.

1/ These are landless families who earn their livelihood by fishing on

the project oxbow lakes. All of the families are licensed by DOF to
engage in lake fishing operations. As discussed in para 7.08, it is
envisioned that the number of licensed fishing families can be consid-
erably increased as project implementation proceeds. Assuming, for
example, that the number goes to 900, average family income would be
on the order of Tk 5,083 (US$339) per annum.

2/ At present, there are some 600 families licensed by DOF to fish in the
project lakes.
- 34 -

Project Risks

7.09 The major project risk concerns organizational weaknesses in the

Department of Fisheries and the capacity of DOF to implement the p <J
a long-term basis. To facilitate DOF's task, the project has been kept
simple organizationally and incorporates a fully staffed Project Implementa-
tion Unit to provide necessary support for DOF lake and hatchery management
personnel. Although the project provides for the introduction of new fish
production techniques, the principles of composite carp culture and breeding
are well established and appropriate training and technical assistance com-
ponents have been included to keep risks within acceptable limits. It is
expected that the provision of a Central Hatchery plus satellite (lake)
hatcheries will further reduce the risks associated with high quality carp
seed production. Once project facilities are completed, the adequacy of O&M
works will be critical to the continued successful functioning of the project.
With this in mind, DOF is preparing a detailed program for O&M of the project
facilities. Compliance with the program should minimize the problems related
to inadequate maintenance. As indicated in para 7.06, the project should
remain economically viable even if there were to be substantial delays in
implementation or reduction in project longevity due to inadequate maintenance.


8.01 Assurances were obtained from GOB that:

(a) detailed investigations of lake sedimentation and storage

capacity would be completed by September 30, 1980 and the
results would be forwarded to IDA for review and comments
(para 4.08);

(b) investigations would be undertaken to determine the 10-year

flood levels at each lake in connection with the detailed
design of embankments (para 4.10);

(c) GOB would, by July 31, 1981, have imported approximately

10,000 grass carp fry and 10,000 silver carp fry for
initial stocking of project lakes (para 4.30);

(d) (i) separate accounts would be kept for the project by DOF;
(ii) these accounts would be audited annually in accordance
with procedures satisfactory to IDA; (iii) a separate
annual audit would be undertaken with respect to Project
Implementation Unit expenditues; and (iv) GOB would
send IDA copies of the audit reports annually within six
months of the end of the fiscal year (para 4.50);

(e) the assignment of project lakes to DOF would endure through-

out the economic life of investments to be made under the
project (para 5.05);
- 35 --

(f) by September 30 of each year, IDA would receive, for review

and comments, work programs and procurement schedules for
the forthcoming construction year (para 5.07);

(g) proj, t facilities would be maintained in accordance with

sound engineering and management practices (para 5.08);

(h) DOF would employ consultants whose qualifications, experience

and terms and conditions of employment would be satisfactory
to the Borrower and IDA; the consultants would include, inter
alia, a Project Advisor/Aquaculture Specialist and an Engineer
to be in post not later than December 31, 1979 (para 5.10);

(i) the program for study tours and the qualifications of the
proposed candidates would be satisfactory to IDA and the
Borrower would furnish to IDA for approval (i) details of
proposed overseas training programs by December 31, 1979
and (ii) details of proposed in-country training programs
by December 31, 1981 (para 5.11);

(j) DOF would undertake a monitoring program to assess the im-

pact of the project on the development of the project areas
and would complete (i) a benchmark survey about two years
prior to project completion and (ii) two follow-up surveys
about one year and four years, respectively, after project
completion (para 5.13);

(k) before January 1, 1980, DOF would prepare and submit to IDA
for review a detailed proposal for implementation of the
project monitoring program and would furnish to IDA for
comments by December 31 of each subsequent year the results
of the monitoring program for the preceding fiscal year
(para 5.13);

(1) except as IDA shall otherwise agree, DOF would provide par-
ticipating fishermen 40% of carp sales revenue promptly
after the sale of such fish (para 7.03); and

(m) DOF would, in consultation with IDA, review the existing

catch sharing arrangements by December 31, 1982 and again
by December 31, 1984 with the objective of recovering as
much of the project's investment costs as possible while
maintaining sufficient incentives for project fishermen
(para 7.04).

8.02 Conditions of credit effectiveness would be that:

(a) the Project Proforma had been approved by the Execu-

tive Committee of the National Economic Council
(para 4.44); and
- 36 -

(b) DOF had establisheda Project ImplementationUnit

including,interalia, the selection of a Project
Advisor/AquacultureSpecialistand an Engineer
(para 5.04).

8.05 With the above assurances and conditions,the project would be

suitable for an IDA credit of US$6.0 million on standard IDA terms. The
borrower would be the Governmentof Bangladesh.
- 37 -

Table 1



Fish Production in Bangladesh

('000 mt)

1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76

Inland 731 730 732 733 735

Marine 86 88 88 89 89

Total 817 818 820 822 824

Production of Inland and Marine Fresh Fish

by Main Varieties
('000 mt)

1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76

Type of fish

Inland: (Total)
of which 730 732 733 735

1. Hilsa 382 383 384 383

2. Rohu & Other carp
family 86 86 87 86
3. Boal, Pangas &
Ahir 71 71 71 71
4. Prawn (Chingri) 24 24 24 24
5. Koi, Magur, Singhi 31 31 31 31
6. Others 136 137 136 140

Marine 88 88 89 89

Total 818 820 822 824

Source: DOF.


Carp Production by Divisions

('000 MT)

1965 1970 1975 1976 1977

Capture Culture Capture Culture Capture Culture Capture Culture Capture Culture

1. Rajshahi 5.44 1.36 6.30 4.20 6.40 6.40 5.28 7.92 5.64 8.46

2. Khulna 9.12 2.28 10.50 3.50 11.90 5.10 11.44 6.16 11.28 7.52

3. Dacca 17.36 4.34 18.38 6.12 20.79 8.91 20.02 10.78 19.74 13.16

4. Chittagong 13.68 3.42 15.75 5.25 17.85 7.65 17.16 9.24 16.92 11.28 X

Col. Total 45.60 11.40 50.93 19.07 56.94 28.06 53.90 34.10 53.58 40.42

Annual Total 57.00 70.00 85.00 88.00 94.00

Source: DOF.


Export of Fish and Fish Products

(MT - '000 Taka)

1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76

Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

Fresh Fish - - 1,920 11,177 4,677 23,356 1,406 10,711 1,250 17,852
Frozen Fish 795 11,482 902 19,412 1,523 40,596 1,682 46,848 2,510 70,293
Frozen Shrimp 65 1,180 317 7,677 253 11,123 1,217 34,089 1,786 109,331
Dried, Salted or Smoked Fish - - 3 18 - - 2 49 4 186

Shark - - - - - - 2 54 24 1,249

Frozen Froglegs 37 231 138 1,755 191 2,437 627 7,986 930 11,822
Fish Maws, etc. - - - - 10 91 6 235 21 1,091

897 12,893 3,280 40,039 6,654 77,603 4,942 99,972 6,525 211,824

Source: Export Promotion Bureau and DOF.

- 40 -

Fishing Craft and Fishermen (Inland and Marine)
Number of Fishing Craft

Fishing Craft
Used for 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76

Inland 70,000 71,000 71,500

(motorized) (2,800) (2,900) (3,000)

Marine 7,000 7,500 7,600

(motorized) ( 900) ( 950) (1,000)

Total 77,000 78,500 79,100

Number of Fishermen

1961 1974/75 1975/76

Fishermen (National Census) (Estimate by DOF) (Estimate by DOF)

Inland 560,000 600,000 660,000

Marine 175,000 200,000 220,000

Total 735,000 800,000 880,000

Source: DOF and National Census data.

-41 - ANNEX 3


(AS OF 1 APRIL 1978)


Principal Project
Economist Scientific Director
w Sit
| Bic Officer (Acquaculture)

E S ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Diector, _, ~~~Asst Dy. D-re0> (TechI
F,sh Culturist, Deputy Director Senior Senior
Depuit IDiector Dy. Director
Project Manager Seniosor,
IDix.Ig~ Scientific Sctific (Quality Control)
_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Oftfier Officer Officer
_Tcnlgs ~ ~~Ch'ef

*I , I I I I I
Deputy Asst. I
Deputy As.
Director IDii 1, D T,
Deputy Fish sheries Technologist
Fcsheries Iuri
Cilturist (D-), TecholoistDeputy
Bologist, Researchlgt,
A-st Training
Project Offc |t Steti-ticol Officer Technical Officer
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~Sci-tific
Ac ltut,
Officer (Div ), Curator. giometric-an Store Officer, Librarini (Oualitv
Farmi Ma
Officer Et-ension Officer Llbrarian Control). Limnologist.
Lect ExtensionEvaWt,.n
OfficerOffice, c g ExIe--

C As. Fish Administrati-e Administratioo

Project Officer. Asst Project Research Officer Officer, Accounts O.ficcr, Adtrinistratiu Demonstrator
Ott. Fisheries i Arist Officer
Dec Officer

Asst. Research I I
Officer, Sub Assistant Sub Assistant 7Technologst,
Captain, Engineer. Engineer, Tec Al t |
Engineer, Foreman Foreman IMicrbiologist),
{ lFisherman
l { { | l l l l (Tech.l

rTnac Fisnhry
Cffitri, FihAildu-LbAst
| Curture Assr. ll per iCulturet l Ecaluafion l Rsersesarcnh
Unit Officer

Office Officoe Offcen Office Offeic

Others [ Othe[s Others Others Others Others Oter -

| (Cerk Tvist Etc) || (ler, Tpist Et l | Clek. Tpis, Ec )| |IClek, VP tS lc.i| |IClrk.Tvpst, tc. | (Cerk Tvpst,Etc) Word(leSackVisf5Et )


Estimated Lake Storage Capacities and Sedimentation

Sedimentation Baluhar Jaydia Fetehpur Kathgara Gobindapur Marjat

Effective Catchment - ha3 3,138 2,289 984 2,417 2,110 4,443

Annual Sediment Load - m 15,690 11,445 4,920 12,085 10,550 22,215
AccumulatiNe Sediment in 30 years -
Mm 0.47 0.34 0.15 0.36 0.32 0.67

Lake Storage Capacities (Present)

Lake Surface Area - ha 282 189 47 71 217 253

Average Depth - m 2.75 3.05 1.50 1.20 2.10 2.10 ZI
Lake Storage Capacity Mm3 7.75 6.20 0.71 0.85 4.56 5.31

Sediment in 30 years % 6 5 21 42 7 13
(in term of Lake Capacity)

Source: Mission estimates.



Summary of Project Main Features


Annual Rainfall mm 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 -
Annual Evaporation mm2 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,100 1,l10
Effective 1,100 -
Catchment Area km 31 23 10 24 21 44 -
Lake Area (Dry Season) ha 282 189 47 71 217 1,060

Lake Improvement
Embankment km 6.7 4.4 4.3 5.5 22.0 11.5 54.4
(wilth culverts & screens) 2
Wire Screening Structures m2 330 360 390 780 138 1,278 3,276
Weed Clearing ha 27 14 14 19 47 27 148
Access Roads km 1.0 5.3 1,0 6.6 4,6 7,7 26,2
Electrification km 1.6 6.5 9.7 13.0 9,7 13,0 53,5
Telephone Connection Lump Sum
Tube Well & Water
Supply System Unit 1 - _ - _
Hatchery Complexes
Main Facility ha 8 - _ _ _ _ 8
Minor Facility ha - 1 1 1 1 1 5
Dug-Out Ponds
Nursery Unit 150 15 4 15 15 25 224
Rearing Unit 90 66 16 58 58 100 388
Blood Stock Unit 6 1 1 1 1 2 12
Embankment ha 9.2 6.3 5.9 7.5 30.1 15.8 74.8
Hatchery ha 8.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 13.0
Road ha 2.0 10.0 2.0 12.0 8.5 14.0 48,5
Dug-Out Pond ha 36.0 14.6 4.2 13.0 13.0 22.6 103.4
EQUIPMENT & VEHICLES (See Details in Table 2)

Main set 1 - - - - -
Minor set - 1 1 1 1 1 -

~- M~
- 44


Works & Unit Pricea in TK

BALUHA* LAKE (with Cantrial HatdlAf'__ IAYDTATAlAK

Unit Quantity Unit Price Quantity Unit Price 4/
Effective Catchment Area km 31.4 22.9
Lake Area (Dry Season) ha 282.0 189.0


Embankments km 6.7 4.4

Land Acquisition, 1.37 ha/km ha 9.2 13,500 6.3 13,500
Earth Work km 6.7 20,500 4.4 20,500
Culverts with screen, 5 culv./km km 6.7 5,255 4.4 5,255
Netting, 6-m depth m 55.0 1,214 60.0 1,214
Weed Clearing ha 27.0 3,730 14.0 3,730


Site Acquisition ha 8.0 15,000 1.0 13,500

Land Filling & Leveling ha 2 4.0 90,000 0.5 10,000
Cement Cistern ms 200.0 1,000 65.0 1,000
Lab Facilities & Installation Lump Sum L/S L/S 633,600 L/S 187,200
Buildings: 2
Office mi2 300.0 1,200 120.0 1,200
Guest Quarter mi2 250.0 1,200 - -
Trainees Hostel mi2 200.0 1,000 -
Garage & Workshop mi2 300.0 900 60.0 900
Stores Room ms2 50.0 900 25.0 900
Staff Quarter is2
5-Room tm 150.0 1,200 - -
5-Room m22 50.0 1,000 50.0 1,000
3-Room m 45.0 1,000 45.0 1,000
2-Room is4.
Gate Keeper L/S 55,000 L/S 30,000
Roads m 1,000.0 500 100.0 300
Fence, Barbed Wires km 26.0 1,970 9.0 1,970
Fence Posts km 1.2 16,280 0.4 16,280
Installation & Mobilization 30%
Miscellaneous 107.


Nursery 150-Units 200 m3

3 6.0 15-200 m 3 6.0
i 6-50 is3 .
Rearing 90-Units 1,500m 4.2 66-1500 34.2
Broodstock 6-Units 8,400 m 3.5 1-8000 m 3.5
Land Acquisition ha 36.0 15,000 14.6 13,500


Access Road Excluding Row km 1.0 872,500 5.3 633,000

Electrification 3/ L/S 668,389 L/S 1,269,637
Telephone Connection L/S 35,680 L/S 35,680
TAbe Well Unit (60-m 1.0 247,000 (20-m depth) 1.0 82,000
Water Supply System with Elevated Tank LIS 1.0 100,000 - -
Road Row 5/ ha 2.0 15,000 10.0 13,500


Loading Truck, 6-Ton Unit 3 136,000 1/ - -

Pickup Truck 4 112,500 1/ 1 112,500 1/
Jeep, 4-wheel Dr. 2 112,500 1/ 1 112,500 T/
Motor Cycle, 100 cc " 2 11,200 1/ - -
Micro Bus 2 120,000 1/ -
Speed Boat " 2 15,000 1/ 2 15,000 1/
Outboard Motor, 40 HP 3 23,000 T/ 3 23,000 T/
Bicycle 2 1,300 1/ 1 1,300
Pump, 2 cusec 2 37,500 1/ 1 37,500 1/
Refrigerator 2 12,000 T/ 1 12,000 T/
Workshop Tools L/S 15,000 L/S 5,000
Spare Parts L/S 270,000 L/S 90,000
Office Equipment " L/S 150,000 L/S 15,000
Furniture L/S 425,000 L/S 70,000
Medical Supplies L/S 75,000 -
Hand Pumps L/S 3 1,500

1/ Withau t TAD
2/ W/TAD = With taxes and Duties
3/ For other lakes:
Fetehpur - TIK 1,789,446
Kathgara - TK 2,309,254
Gobindapur - TK 1,789,446
Marjat - TK 2,309,254
4/ Same for other 4 lakes, except otherwise shown
5/ For other lakes:
Fetehpur - 2.0 ha
iathgara - 12.0 ha
Gobindapur - 8.5 ha
Marjat - 14.0 ha
-45 - ANNEX 5
Table 3

Hatchery, Nursery, Rearing and Brood Stock Facilities for
the Central Hatchery

Scope: To produce 20 million fry of carps yearly.

Features: No. Size

i. Hatchery Building 1 12.5 x 13 m

ii. Cement Cistern

Larval holding tank 6 1.5 x 1.2x 1 m
Holding and recovering tanks 3 2 x 2 x 1 m
Injected fish tanks 6 3 x 1 x 0.7 m

iii. Laboratory cum store 1 3 x 5 m

iv. Incubating Plastic Jar

Big jars 4 65 lit. each
Small jars 40 6.35 lit. each

V. Galvanized Steel Semi Circular

Open Conduit serving all jars

vi. Proper Platform with circular

holes to fit the jars

vii. Deep Tubewell for water supply which would include, besides
the complex requirements, about 72,000 lit of water for 15
hours per day for hatchery operation.

viii. Dug-out Ponds No. Size

Nursery 150 20 x 10 x 1.5 m
Rearing 90 50 x 20 2 m
Brood Stock 6 100 x 40 2.5 m

ix. Buildings No. Size2

Main Office 1 300
Guest Quarter 1 250
Training Hostel 1 200
Garage & Workshop 1 300
Store Room 1 50
Staff Quarter
5-room 1 150
3-room 8 50
2-room 7 45
- 46 - ANNEX 5
Table 4
Page 1
List of Laboratory Apparatus and Prices for
the Central Hatchery

Prices /a
Item (Tk)

I. Incubating jars
a. Big (4), @ Tk 1,600 each 6,400
b. Small (40), @ Tk 600 each 24,000

II. G-I semicircular open conduit serving

all the jars and also water pipes, etc. 2,800

III. Wooden platform for the jars

a. Big jar 2,000
b. Small jars 1,000

IV. Shower with fittings (21) @ Tk 600 each 12,600

V. Aerators (10) @ Tk 1,500 each 15,600

VI. Live fish transport tanks on trailer

@ Tk 4,500 each 13,500

VII. Air compressor for above with accessories (3)

@ Tk 7,500 each 22,500

VIII. Balances (3) 24,000

Hanging pan balance (1)
Platform balance (1)
Chemical balance (1)

IX. Water analysis kit with spare chemicals (2)

@ 7,500 each 15,000

X. Electric fishing equipment with spares and

accessories (1) 32,100

XI. Oxygen cylinders (4) @ 7,500 each 30,000

XII. Thermographs (2) @ 7,500 each 15,000

XIII. Portable turbidimeters (2) @ 7,500 each 15,000

XIV. Portable conductivitimeter (2) @ 7,500 each 15,000

a/ Excluding taxes and duties.

-47 - ANNEX 5
Table 4
Page 2

Prices /a
Item (Tk)

XV. Portable electric PH meter (2) @ 7,500 each 15,000

XIV. Portable dissolved oxygen meter (2)

@ 22,500 each 45,000

XV. Water sampler (2) @ 7,500 each 15,000

XVI. Benthos dredge (2) @ 3,750 each 7,500

XVII. Drying oven (1) 9,750

XVIII. Stereoscopic microscope with accessories 15,000

XIX. Homogenizers (2) @ 7,500 each 15,000

XX. Mosquito nets hapas, ice boxes

nets and other small items 105,000

XXI. Refrigerator (1) 15,000

XXII. Cine Camera with accessories (1) 6,000

XXIII. Cine Projector with accessories (1) 7,500

XXIV. Tape recorder and tapes with accessories (1) 7,500

XXV. Slide projector (1) 2,250

XXVI. Cameras (2) @ 4,500 each 9,000

XXVII. Projection screens (2) @ 3,750 each 7,500

TOTAL 527,900

a/ Excluding taxes and duties.

- 48 - ANNEX 5
Table 5

Hatchery, Nursery, Rearing and Brood Stock Facilities
at Each of the Five Remaining Lakes

Scope: To produce an adequate number of 5-6 inch carp fingerlings

for stocking in each of the five remaining lakes.

Features: No. Size

i. Hatchery Building 1 5 x 13 m

ii. Cement Cistern

Larval holding tank 2 1.5 x 1.2 x 1 m
Holding and recovering tanks 1 2 x 2 x 1 m
Injected fish tanks 2 3 x 1 x 0.7 m

iii. Laboratory cum store 1 3 x 2 m

iv. Incubating Plastic Jar

Small jars 10 6.35 lit. each

v. Galvanized Steel Semi Circular

Open Conduit serving all jars

vi. Proper Platform with circular holes to fit the jars

vii. Shallow Tubewell for water supply which would include, 30,000
lit of water for 15 hours per day for hatchery operation

viii. Dug-out Ponds

Size Nursery Rearing Brood Stock

No. Required 20 x 10 x 1.5 m 50 x 20 x 2 m 100 x 40 x 2.5 m

Jaydia 15 66 1
Fetehpur 4 16 1
Kathgara 15 58 1
Gobindapur 15 58 1
Marjat 25 100 2

ix. Buildings No. Size i

Office T12
Garage & Workshop 60
Store Room 1 25
Staff Quarter
-room 1 50
2-room 1 45
- 49 - ANNEX 5
Table 6

List of Laboratory Apparatus and Prices for
Each of theeRemaining Lake HatchePies

Prices /a
Item (Tk)

I. Incubating jars
Small (40), @ Tk 600 each 6,000

II. G-I semicircular open conduit serving

all the jars and also water pipes 800

III. Wooden platform for the jars 350

IV. Shower with fittings (7) @ Tk 600 each 4,200

V. Aerators (2) @ Tk 1,500 each 3,000

VI. Balances (3) 24,000

Hanging pan balance (1)
Platform balance (1)
Chemical balance (1)

VII. Water analysis kit with spare chemicals

@ 7,500 each 7,500

VIII. Oxygen cylinders (1) @ 7,500 each 7,500

IX. Homogenizers (1) @ 7,500 each 7,500

X. Refrigerator (1) 15,500

XI. Mosquito net hapas, ice box

Nets and other small items 80,000

TOTAL 155,850

TOTAL for five lake hatcheries 779,250

/a Excluding taxes and duties.



Physical Investment Costs Net of Duties and Taxes

(Taka '000)

Sub- Central
Baluhar Jaydia Fetehpur Kathgara Gobindapur Marjad Total Hatchery Total

Land 480.0 328.4 166.8 322.5 661.5 591.0 2550.2 758.0 3308.2

Lake Improvement 322.0 221.6 223.5 336.5 748.5 598.0 2450.1 - 2450.1

Hatchery 621.0 621.0 621.0 621.0 621.0 621.0 3726.0 3152.0 6878.0

Dug-out Ponds 731.0 462.0 134.7 413.0 413.0 719.0 2872.7 192.0 3064.7

Equipment 497.0 497.0 497.0 497.0 497.0 497.0 2982.0 1709.0 4691.0

Sub-total 2651.0 2130.0 1643.0 2190.0 2941.0 3026.0 14581.0 5811.0 20392.0

Infrastructure 1168.0 4231.0 2095.0 5851.0 4238.0 6505.0 24088.0 439.0 24527.0

Total 3819.0 6361.0 3738.0 8041.0 7179.0 9531.0 38669.0 6250.0 44919.0

Engineering (15%) 573.0 954.0 561.0 1206.0 1076.0 1430.0 5800.4 937.0 6737.9
Total Base Costs 4392.0 7315.0 4299.0 9247.0 8255.0 10961.0 44469,4 7187.0 51656.9

I- 0


Physical Investment Costs Including Duties and Taxes

(Taka '000)

Sub- Central
Baluhar Jaydia Fetehpur Kathgara Gobltdapur Marjad Total Hatchery Total

Land 480.0 328.4 166.8 322.5 661.5 591.0 2550.2 758.0 3308.2
Lake Improvement 340.0 238.6 241.5 370.5 769.5 656.0 2616.1 - 2616.1
Hatchery Facilities 732.0 732.0 732.0 732.0 732.0 732.0 4392.0 3590.0 7982.0
Dug-Out Ponds 731.0 462.0 134.7 413.0 413.0 719.0 2872.7 192.0 3064.7
Equipment and Vehicles 959.0 959.0 959.0 959.0 959.0 959.0 5754.0 3252.0 9006.0
Sub-total 3242.0 2720.0 2234.0 2797.0 3535.0 3657.0 18185.0 7792.0 25977.0
Infrastructure 1418.0 4742.0 2540.0 6605.0 4819.0 7301.0 27425.0 506.0 27931.0
Total 4660.0 7462.0 4774.0 9402.0 8354.0 10958.0 45610.0 8298.0 53908.0
Engineering (15%) 627.0 1070.0 691.1 1361.9 1153.9 1555.1 6459.0 1131.0 7590.0
TOTAL BASE COSTS 5287.0 8532.0 5465.1 10763.9 9507.9 12513.1 52069.0 9429.0 61498.0
Physical Contingencies (20%) 1057.4 1706.4 1093.0 2152.8 1901.6 2502.6 10413.8 1885.8 12299.6
Price Contingencies 1745.0 2816.0 1803.8 3552.7 3137.8 4130.0 17185.3 3112.5 20297.8
Total Including Contingencies 8089.4 13054.4 8361.9 16469.4 14547.3 19145.7 79668.1 14427.3 94095.4


Annual Establishment Budget


Monthly Total Total Annual Salary
Salary Per Month Per Annum Allowances & Allowances

Central Hatchery

1 Project Director 1350 1350

2 Fishery Specialist 1100 2200
1 Aquatic Weed Specialist 805 805
1 Fishery Statistician 805 805
1 Marketing/Coop Expert 805 805
2 Accountants 700 1400
1 Dispensary Officer 700 700
2 Mechanic/Electricians 550 1100
2 Guards 400 800
6 Drivers 550 3300
2 Secretaries 490 980
2 Clerk Typists 500 l00O0
1 Storekeeper 325 325
2 Cooks 475 950
1 Messenger 275 275
2 Gardeners 275 550
2 Sweepers 200 400
3il7 17745 x 12 mos = 212940 + 23460 = 236,400

Lake Personnel
(Six Lakes)

6 Station Chief 1000 6000

6 Fishery Specialist 900 5400
24 Field Assistants 650 15600 m M
6 Drivers 550 3300
6 Messengers 275 1650
24 Watchmen 275 6600
72 38550 x 12 mos = 462600 + 51000 = 513,600
750,13 T
- 53 - ANNEX 7
Table 1


Proposed Credit Allocation

Amount Allocated Expenditures

Category Dollar Equivalent to be Financed

1. Civil works, including

construction materials 3.9 M

(a) civil works 80%

(b) construction materials

procured through local
shopping 80%

(c) construction materials

directly imported 100% of foreign

(d) construction materials

locally manufactured and
procured through inter- 100% of local
national competitive expenditures
bidding (ex-factory)

2. Equipment, vehicles and spare

parts 0.9

(a) directly imported 100% of foreign


(b) locally manufactured

and procured through 100% of local
international compet- expenditures
itive bidding (ex-factory)

(c) other local procurement 80%

3. Technical assistance and

training 0.5 100%

4. Administrative expenditures
of the Project Implementation
Unit 0.4 80%

5. Unallocated 0.3

Total 6.0 M
- 54 - ANNEX 7
Table 2



Estimated Quarterly Schedule of Disbursements

at End of Quarter
IDA Fiscal Year and Quarter (US$ Million)

FY 1980
1st a/
2nd -
3rd 0.1
4th 0.4

FY 1981
Ist 0.7
2nd 1.0
3rd 1.4
4th 1.8

FY 1982
lst 2.2
2nd 2.7
3rd 3.3
4th 3.8

FY 1983
1st 4.3
2nd 4.7
3rd 5.0
4th 5.3

FY 1984
1st 5.5
2nd 5.7
3rd 5.9
4th b/ 6.0

a/ Estimated Date of Effectiveness; September1, 1979

b/ Estimated Closing Date: June 30Q 1984
_55 - ANNEX 8
Table 1
Page 1



Technical Assistance

Consultant Monthly Total

No. Requirement Salary Expenditure
(Months) (TK'OO0) (TKR000)

1 Project Advisor 48 45.0 2,160

1 Engineer 24 40.0 960

1 Hatchery Management/Induced
Breeding Expert 24 35.0 840

1 Marketing/Cooperatives
Expert 12 35.0 420

1 Fisheries Statistician 4 30.0 120

Sub-total 112 4,500

Unallocatedb/ 18 75.0 1,350

Total 130 5,850

a/ Excluding overhead
b/ Short-termconsultants

Position Description

Project Advisor - The consultantwill have substantialexperience

in the field of fisheriesmanagementand will
be particularlyconversantin inland fisheries,
carp culture, seed productionand teachingand

Engineer - With managerialexperiencein the problemsof

rural engineering,includingbuilding construction,
the design of embankmentsand water control works
and facilitiesmaintenance.
- 56 - ANNEX 8
Table 1
Page 2

Hatchery Management/
Induced Breeding Expert - Experienced in hatchery operations and management,
with expertise in the breeding of Indian and
Chinese carps and the maintenance of pituitary
gland banks. The consultantshould have experience
in training and extensionwork.

Expert - An economist/managementexpert with substantial
experience in all phases of fish distribution
and marketing. The consultantwill be well-versed
in cooperativedevelopmentand socio-economic
aspects of catch sharing arrangements.

Fisheries Statistician - A biologist/statistician with wide experience in

fish population dynamics and collection, inter-
pretation and disseminationof catch/effortdata
and cost and revenue information.
57 ANNEX 9
Table 1


Cash Flaw Prolections

(Taka 1000)

----------------------------- Years --------------------------------

1 2 3 4 5 6 7-25

I. Cash Inflow

Gross Sales of Carp a/ (1) 1652.4 3812.4 6354.0 9531.6 11437.2 11437.2 11437.2
Central Hatchery Fry Sales - - - - 156.0 312.0 624.0
Subtotal 1652.4 3812.4 6354.0 9531.6 11593.2 11749.2 12061.2
less Fishermen's 40% Catch Share 661.0 1525.0 2541.6 3812.6 4637.3 4699.7 4824.5

Total Cash Inflow (2) 991.4 2287.4 3812.4 5719.0 6955.9 7049.5 7236.7

II. Cash Outflow

Operating Costs

Wages and Allowances b/

(i) Central Hatchery 65.0 111.6 159.4 159.4
(ii) Project Lakes 152.7 229.1 305.4 305.4
Subtotal 217.7 340.7 464.8 464.8 464.8 464.8 4
Rent c| 87.7 87.7 87.7 87.7
Fertilizer d/ - 116.7 134.4 134.4
Feed e/ - 42.3 143.0 143.0
Dewatering f/ - - 21.3 21.3
Pesticide A/ - - 1.6 1.6
O & M, Lakes h/ - 74.9 74.9 74.9
O & M, Ponds - - 70.2 74.3
0 & M, Vehicles and Boats V/ - 328.6 938.8 938.8
O & M, Equipment and Miscellaneous / - 48.7 139.0 139.0
Total Operating Costs (3) 305.4 1039.6 2075.7 2079.8 2079.8 2079.8 2079.8
Investment Cost k/ (4) 1414.3 13789.7 14143.4 6010.9 - - -

Total Cash Outflow (5) 1719.7 14829.3 16219.1 8090.7 2079.8 2079.8 2079.8

III. Net Cash Flow (2)-(5) (6) ( 728.3) (12001.9) (12406.7) (2371.7) 4876.1 4969.7 5156.9

IV. Financial Benefit - Cost

Benefit (2) (7) 991.4 2287.4 3812.4 5719.0 6955.9 7049.5 7236.7
Cost (5) (8) 1719.7 14829.3 16219.1 8090.7 2079.8 2079.8 2079.8
Net Benefit (7)-(8) (9) ( 728.3) (12001.9) (12406.7) (2371.7) 4876.1 4969.7 5156.9

V. Financial Rate of Return: 14.07

a/ Based on a full development yield of 900 kg/ha from Year 5 onwards.

b/ Staffing requirements for project facilities are shown in Annex 6, Table 3.
c/ Paid to the Department of Land Revenue. Average rent is TK 83/ha of water.
_/ Fertilizer application rates are as follows:
nursery ponds: Organic manure, 10 MT/ha for 2 crops a year @ TK 30/MT.
rearing ponds: Organic manure, 7.5 MT/ha for 1 crop a year @ TK 30/MT; plus variable application of inorganic
fertilizers @ TK IOOOfMT, applied for 3 months a year. '
brood stock ponds: Organic manure, 10 MT/ha/year @ TR 30/MT; variable application of inorganic fertilizers
_ TK 1000/MT.
lake: Single superphospate, .15 MT/ha/year @ TK 1000/MT.
e/ Feed requirements are as follows:
nursery ponds: .175 MT/ha oil cake @ TK 2500/MT; and .175 MT/ha of rice bran @ TK 1600/MT per 2 crops.
rearing ponds: .250 MT/ha of oil cake and .250 MT/ha of rice bran for I crop per two years.
Brood stock ponds: 3 MT/ha/year of oil cake and 3 MT/ha/year of rice bran for 1 crop per 2 years.
f/ Nursery ponds drained twice a year; rearing and brood stock ponds drained once a year. Unit dewatering cost is
TK 405/ha.
Oil and soap emulsion applied to nursery ponds, 1 application per crop. Base cost is TK 200/ha.
h/ Includes maintenance of embankments, culverts, netting and periodic weed clearance.
i/ Based on average operation of 10,000 miles per vehicle per year @ 12.5 miles per gallon fuel. Lubricants charged
at 57. of fuel cost; repair estimated at TK 7,500/vehicle/year.
/ Includes 06M of laboratory equipment, office equipment and furniture and tubewell maintenance.
k/ From Annex 6, Table 2. Investment cost items, including taxes and duties, consist of TK 26.0 M for lake development,
plus a proportional share of infrastructure expenditures (TK 5.6 M) and engineering costs (TK 3.8 M).


Carp Production and Revenue Projections

Based on a Full Development Yield of 0.9 MT/HA

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7-25

Yield (kg/ha) 130.0 300.0 500.0 750.0 900.0 900.0 900.0

Production ('000 kg) 137.7 317.7 529.5 794.3 953.1 953.1 953.1

Gross Carp Sales Revenue (Tk '000) a/ 1652.4 3812.4 6354.0 9531.6 11437.2 11437.2 11437.2
plus Fry Sales by C.H. (Tk 'O00) b/ - - - - 156.0 312.0 624.0
Total Gross Revenue (Tk '000) 1652.4 3812.4 6354.0 9531.6 11593.2 11749.2 12061.2
less Gross Revenue without (Tk '000) c/ 1129.1 1129.1 1129.1 1129.1 1129.1 1129.1 1129.1

Value of Incremental Production (Tk 'O00) 523.3 2683.3 5224.9 8402.5 10464.1 10620.1 10932.1


a/ Based on average wholesale market price of Tk 12/Kg.

b/ Ex-hatchery fry price of Tk 312/10,000. At full development, Central Hatchery fry sales would
be on the order of 20 million/yr.
c/ Based on average yield of 130 kg/ha and ex-lake carp price of Tk 8.2/Kg.

(D >4


Average Family Income from Carp Production
(Based on a 407 Catch Share for Project Fishermen)


No. of Change in Percentage
Fishermen Carp Carp Fishermens Average Carp Carp Fishermens Average Average Increase in Av.
Area Families Production Value 40% Share FamVlsIIncome Production Value 40% Share Fam!iK Income FamplKr Income Famiv Income
(ha) (mt) (TK'ooo) (TKTo00) (T mt) (TK'000) (TK'000) (K (TT)

Baluhar 282 140 48.1 411.4 164.6 1,176 253.8 3,045.6 1,218.2 8,701 7,525 740

Jaydia 189 156 31.1 233.9 93.6 600 170.1 2,041.2 816.5 5,234 4,634 872

Fetehpur 47 49 3.8 31.0 12.4 253 42.3 507.6 203.0 4,143 3,890 1,638

Kathgara 71 60 7.8 64.0 25.6 427 63.9 766.8 306.7 5,112 4,685 1,197

Gobindapur 217 100 32.1 274.9 110.0 1,100 195.3 2,343.6 937.4 9,374 8,274 852

Marjat 253 95 14.4 109.7 43.9 462 227.7 2,732.4 1,093.0 11,505 11,043 2,490

Total 1,059 600 137.3 -/ 1,124.9 450.1 750* 953.1 11,437.2 4,574.8 7,625* 6,875* 1,017*

*average *average *average *average

all lakes all lakes all lakes all lakes

a/ Average carp yield without project = 130 kg/ha

b/ Average farmgate price of carp = TK 8.2/kg
c/ Average carp yield with project = 900 kg/ha at full development - 2
d/ Carp production constitutes the major source of inmome for the project fishermen. wo


Economic Analysis
(Taka '000)

Incremental Total Incremental

Project Investment Operating Project Economic Net
Year Cost 1/ Cost 2/ Cost - Benefits 3/ Benefits

1 1,944.2 - 1,944.2 523.3 ( 1,420.9)

2 13,220.6 734.2 13,954.8 2,683.3 (11,271.5)
3 14,776.0 1,770.3 16,546.3 5,224.9 (11,321.4)
4 8,165.7 1,774.4 9,940.1 8,402.5 ( 1,537.6)
5 777.7 1,774.4 2,552.1 10,464.1 7,912.0
6 - 1,774.4 1,774.4 10,620.1 8,845.7
7 1,774.4 1,774.4 10,932.1 9,157.7
8 1,774.4 1,774.4 10,932.1 9,157.7
9 3,500.0 4/ 1,774.4 5,274.4 10,932.1 5,657.7
10-25 1,774.4 1,774.4 10,932.1 9,157.7

Base Economic Rate of Return = 23.9%

Sensitivity Analysis: ROR (%)

All Costs Up 10% 20.8

All Costs Up 20% 18.3
All Benefits Down 10% 20.5
All Benefits Down 20% 17.2
Costs Up 20% and Benefits Down 20% 12.7

1/ Economic investment costs equal the corresponding financial costs adjusted for duties and taxes.
Costs include engineering and a proportional share of investment in access roads (50%) and
technical assistance (40%).
2/ Operating costs adjusted for duties and taxes of project lakes and Central Hatchery. With the project,
the daily labor requirement for fishermen is expected to remain the same. Accordingly, the incremental
operating cost figures do not reflect an incremental labor cost for fishermen.
3/ Incremental benefits are derived from the sale of carp from project lakes and through the sale of carp
fry produced by the Central Hatchery. Incremental benefits exclude the value of carp produced without
the project and revenues obtained through the sale of miscellaneous fish species. Data on prices
and yields is shown in Annex 9, Table 2.
4/ Vehicle replacement cost.

Years1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 2
1984 4
lOr 20Qr 3Or 40Or l Qr 2Q dOr
40 IOr 20 3r Or Or 2 Qr Q 0 O 0 0 0 OQr 3r, O(r

CREDIT EFFECTIVENESS Follow-up monitoring
1 PROJECT ORGANIZATION saiveys no be completed
EstablIhshmentof Plu 1st So,r,ey Completed 1 year and 4 years after
Prolect completion


Consultan,t Serices lRecrwtme,tl ....

Site S5:rvey2I
LakEeHydrology lnecestigationsand Studies ... ..
Detailed Design & Contract Documents -

Land Acqois,i.io FibnN Hatchery &

Dug-out Foods - --

Access Roads ---

Equipment & Vehicles procurement .... .. I

Lab-Instruments & Facilities Procurement I*- -

Infrastructure: II

Access Roads .......

Telephone Corr-t,on
Supply System
Lake Ir,proveme-t:
Ennhankments & Drainge StrLrtrIes
Hatchery Compiexes:
Main Hatchsery(Central) Complex
Facilities& Installations i~
Lahe HatchrweisComplex II - - -'
Fac.ilities & Intallatio-

Cleaning WorEk

Excavatnon& Installations.....

Counter--Part LucauEngiqneeringSi~pporri

andMianagement lK
F,scal Ye,ars -180-4181 921983 t1984- --- 1985
1/ Continuing after Project Completion July 1 July 1 July I July 1 July 1 July 1
2/ Eupected Early Implementation
~~~~- ~~~~~~Eupected

3/ i- Effectuniess Date Eupected Coe,pletio, Dote, j
3/ Poss~~~~ble Extension September 1, 19791
4J Works not affected by Flood -
Upper Structure Construction andWrl ak-07

anion WVork, ak-07
- 62 - ANNEX 12



Related Documents in Project File

1. Land and Water Resources Study, IBRD Report PS-13, December 1972.

2. Bangladesh - Inland Fisheries Project: Identification Pre-preparation

Mission, Full Report, IBRD, September 28, 1973.

3. Preliminary Feasibility Report on Inland Fisheries Project in the

District of Jessore, Bureau of Consulting Engineers, Dacca,
May 1976.

4. Bangladesh - Rural Fisheries Development Project, Dacca Office,

May 12, 1977.

5. Appraisal of the Aquaculture Development Project in the People's

Republic of Bangladesh, Asian Development Bank, November 1977.

6. Recent Advances and Prospects of Different Techniques of Major Carp

Seed Production in India, V. G. Jhingran, Director, Central
Inland Fisheries Research Institute, West Bengal, February 28,

7. Aquaculture Planning in Asia, UNDP/FAO, 1976.

IBRD 13615
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Project Location
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;~~~~~~~~~~~~_ __ 4ro_ _00 PROJEC

30 0 30.... 30. 202030
. 2



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TBool d1