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LESSON 1:

PREPARING STOCK REQUIRED FOR MENU ITEMS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the classification of ingredients used in the


standard recipes, culinary terms and stock, clarifying agents used in
preparing stocks. It also deals with the selection of stocks, conveniences and
substitute products and the common problems and how to identify and
rectify them.

Learning Objectives:

 Ingredients and flavoring agents are used according to standard


recipes and enterprise standards.
 Varieties of stocks are produced according to enterprise
standards.
 Clarifying agents are used appropriately in preparing stocks.
 Convenience products are used appropriately.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

 stock – a liquid in which meat fish and sometimes vegetables have


been cooked
 clarification – to make or become clear fumet – the savory color of
meat while cooking
 savory – a hardy, annual aromatic culinary herb of the mint family
 poach – to cook food in a hot liquid in such a manner that it retains
its original shape

 aromatic – having a smell of fragrant spicy


 simmer – to cook very gently in water just below the boiling point
 skim – to remove floating water from the surface with a ladle
 mirepoix – a mixture of vegetable, herbs, and spices with or without
meat, used to enhance flavor of meat, fish and shell fish.
STOCKS

Stocks are great enhancement of flavor in food. The most basic food
preparation is that of quality stocks. They are made by simmering meat,
poultry, seafood, and vegetables in liquid to attract flavor, color, body,
aroma, and nutrient values. A very flavorful liquid that is carefully and
properly made can produce a variety of products. It can be used as a basic in
soups, sauces and other preparation. Its taste should be definite to allow
ready identification, but it should not be too strong to compete with other
dish.

A. Types of Stock

 White stock or Fond Blanc is made by gently simmering poultry, beef


or fish bones. The aromatics in water are appropriate to extract the
water-soluble proteins that provide flavor and body. It is a clear and
colorless liquid.

 Brown Stock of Fond Brun is made by browning meat and bones of


beef, veal, or game through roasting with aromatic vegetables. It is an
amber liquid.

 Fumet is made with fish bones in which bones and mirepoix are
allowed to cook before the liquid is added. The technique is known as
sweating method. It is a highly flavored stock.

 Court Bouillon is an aromatic vegetable broth that is commonly used


for poaching fish but it may also be used for cooking vegetables that
are supposed to be served chilled or “a la grecque.” It usually has wine
or vinegar.

 Remoullage is made from bones that have already been used. This
stock is less strong. It is a second stock which is usually reduced to
make a glaze.

 Broth or Bouillion is the liquid that is produced from simmering


meat. It may be used as a basis for soup, stew, and braises, but it can
also be used as a soup.

 Jus – is a rich, lightly reduced stock used as a source for roasted


meat. This is done by deglazing the roasting pan, then reducing to
achieve the rich flavor desired.

 Ham stock – made from ham hocks

 Prawn stock –made from boiling prawn shells

 Vegetable stock –made from vegetables


 Master stock – a special Chinese stock used primarily for poaching
meats, flavored with soy sauce, sugar, vinegar, ginger, garlic and
other aromatics.

 Glace viande –a stock made from bones, usually from veal, that is
highly concentrated by reduction.

B. Rules for Preparing Stocks

23 The stock ingredients are boiled starting with cold water. This
promotes the extraction of protein which may be sealed in by hot
water.
24
25 Stocks are simmered gently, with bubbles just breaking the surface,
and not boiled. If a stock is boiled, it will be cloudy.
26 Salt is not usually added to a stock, as this causes it to become too
salty, since most stocks are reduced to make soups and sauces.
27 Meat is added to the stock before the vegetables and the “scum” that
rises to the surface is skimmed off before further ingredients are
added.

C. Ingredients of Stock

 Bones – the flavor of the stock comes from the cartilage and
connective tissues.
 Mirepoix – a combination of onion, carrots, celery and sometimes
other vegetables (carrot skins and celery end.)
 Herbs and Spice – their use depends on availability and local
traditions (The bouquet garni for "garnished bouquet") is a bundle of
herbs usually tied together with string and mainly used to prepare
soup, stock, and various stews. The bouquet is cooked with the other
ingredients, but is removed prior to consumption. Example of this are
parsley, bay leaves, and thymes).

23Flavoring Agents

o herbs
o flavor enhancers
o oil extract

24 Convenience and Substitute Products

 bouillon cubes or powder


 flavoring enhancer
 flavoring packs – sinigang, ginisa mix
25 Clarifying Agent

 chopped lean meat


 egg whites
 mirepoix
 herbs and spices
 acidic ingredients (tomatoes, wine, lemon juice)
 egg shell

REFERENCES

Chavez, Lilia L. & de Leon, Sonia; BASIC FOODS FOR


FILIPINOS 4th Edition

POULTRY STOCK

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 4lbs chicken or turkey parts or meaty
gas or electric stove 1 large bones
ladle 2 - 3 large onion
knife 3 - 4 pcs. chopped carrots
chopping board chopped celery (the leafy top parts
mortar and pestle are great for stocks as well)
strainer 6 – 8 cloves chopped garlic gloves
1tbsp whole black pepper corn

PROCEDURE:

23 Put all your ingredients into a pot and simmer to about two hours.
24 Periodically skim off the foam as it rises to the top of your pot.
25 When finished cooking, strain the broth and refrigerate for a few
hours. Any fat in the broth will congeal at the top and can be easily
strained off.
26 Your stock is now ready for use or for the freezer.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 8
VEGETABLE STOCK

INGREDIENTS

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT QUANTIT


Y DESCRIPTION
casserole 1 large carrot chopped
stock pot 2 medium onions, chopped
gas or electric stove 6 sticks celery, chopped
ladle 4 pcs. bay leaves
knife 2 tsp. peppercorns
chopping board 3 liters water
mortar and pestle
strainer

PROCEDURE:

23 Combine all ingredients in a stock pot.


24 Simmer uncovered 1 1/2 hrs.
25 Strain.
BEEF STOCK

INGREDIENTS

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT


QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole
stock pot 2kg meaty beef bones
gas or electric stove 2 bulb onions, chopped
ladle 2 sticks celery, chopped
knife 2 large carrots, chopped
chopping board 1 bouquet garni sachet con-training
mortar and pestle 1pc. bay leaf
strainer 1/8 tsp. thyme
1 tsp. peppercorns
3 pcs. parsley stem
1 cloves garlic

PROCEDURE:

23 Combine all ingredients in a stock pot.


24 Simmer uncovered, 3 hours. Add extra water if needed.
25 Simmer further, uncover 1 hour, strain

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 9


4. Simmer uncover, 1 ½ hrs. Strain.
CHICKEN STOCK

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole
Leftover bones and skin
stock pot 2kg from
a cooked or raw
gas or electric stove chicken
ladle 2 pcs. carcass
knife 2 pcs. carrot chopped
chopping board 2 sticks onions, chopped
mortar and pestle 2pcs. sticks celery
strainer 2 tsp. bay leaves
5 liter peppercorns
water

PROCEDURE:

5888 Combine all ingredients in a stock pot.


5889 Simmer uncover, 2 hours. Add extra water if needed.

Activity Sheet 1.5


STOCK

INGREDIENTS
TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 2kg fish bones
stock pot 2 cloves onions, chopped
gas or electric stove 2 sticks celery, chopped
ladle 2 pcs. bay leaves
knife 3 liters water
chopping board
mortar and pestle
strainer

PROCEDURE:

23 Combine all ingredients in a stock pot.


24 Simmer uncover, 20 minutes to 1 hour, strain.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 10
Activity Sheet 1.6
BASIC BROWN STOCKS

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
stockpot 5-6 kg. bones (veal or beef)
stove 10-12 liters water (cold)
measuring cup
measuring spoon Mirepoix
wooden spoon
roasting pan 500 g. onions chopped
oven 250 g. carrots chopped
250 g celery chopped
500 g tomatoes
1 pc. bayleaf
1 pc. dried thyme
1 pc. peppercorn
6-8 stems parsley
2 pcs. cloves

PROCEDURE:

23 Brown the bone in a roasting pan in a hot oven 400 °F .


24 Remove bones from pan and place in a stock pot.
25 Cover with water and bring to simmer. Skim and let stock
continue to simmer.
26 Drain and reserve the pot in a roasting pan. Deglaze the pan
with water and add to stock pot.
27 Toss the mirepoix with some of the reserve fat and brown well
in the oven.
28 Add the brown mirepoix to the stockpot
29 Continue to simmer, skimming the surface as necessary.
30 Strain to several layers of cheese cloth.
31 Cool the stock and refrigerate.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 11
Activity Sheet 1.7
BASIC WHITE STOCKS

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
bones (veal or beef or
stockpot chicken)
stove 5-6 kg. water (cold)
measuring cup 10-12 liters
measuring spoon Mirepoix
wooden spoon 500 g. onions chopped
refregirator 250 g. carrots chopped
strainer 250 g celery chopped
500 g tomatoes
1 pc. bayleaf
1 pc. dried thyme
1 pc. peppercorn
6-8 stems parsley
2 pcs. cloves

PROCEDURE:
0 Blanch the bone, place in the stock pot cover with cold
water bring to boil. Drain and rinse.
1 Place the bone on a stock pot and cover with cold water.
Bring to a boil and reduce heat to simmer, and skim the
sum.
2 Add the mirepoix.
3 Simmer for the required length of time skimming the
surface as necessary.
4 Strain to several layers of cheese cloth.
5 Cool the stock and refrigerate.

SELF CHECK
Direction: Prepare a mis en place for the ingredients and utensils and
perform the following:
0 White stock
1 Brown stock

RESOURCES:
Tools and Equipment

stock pot with cover


knife
measuring spoon
soup ladle
cutting board
measuring cups
soup bowl

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 12


Ingredients of stocks

meat (pork, chicken, veal, beef)


fish
vegetables
flavorings (bouillon cubes, sinigang mix)
seasonings ( salt, spices)
herbs

REFERENCES

Chavez, Lilia L. & de Leon, SONIA; BASIC FOODS FOR


FILIPINOS 4th Edition
Wayne, Gisslen; PROFESSIONAL COOKING 5TH Edition

LESSON 2

PREPARING SOUPS REQUIRED FOR MENU ITEMS

INTRODUCTION

This lesson deals with the preparation and presentation of soup using
vegetable garnishes and accompaniments, including the culinary terms used
for different kinds of soup, and criteria for evaluation.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

0 Appropriate ingredients are selected and assembled to prepare


soups including stocks and prepared garnishing.
1 Varieties of soups are prepared according to enterprise standards.
2 Clarifying, thickening agents and convenience products are used
whenever appropriate.
3 Soups are evaluated for flavor, color, consistency and temperature.
4 Soups are presented at the right temperature in clean service ware
without drips and spills, using suitable garnishes and
accompaniments.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
broth – a fluid food made by boiling meat and vegetable in water
consommé – a clear soup made of meat and sometimes vegetables boiled
in water.
chowder – a soup usually of clams or fish stewed vegetables often in
milk.
bouillon – a clear soup from beef, chicken, and other meat. béchamel
sauce – a white sauce made of cream, butter, flour and
flavored with onion and seasoning.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 13
scum – a firmly layer of impure matters on the surface of a liquid
veloutes – a rich white sauce made by thickening chicken or veal
stock with flour and water.
stew – to simmer or boil in a small quantity of liquid.

Soup

Information Sheet 2.1


SOUP

Soups are gently simmered liquid with a major flavoring component


from meat, poultry, fish, shellfish and vegetables. It should also have herbs
and spices to enhance flavor and to reduce the use of salt.

Kinds of Soups:
0 Clear soups are clear, flavorful broths that are amber to brown in
color. They are very similar to stocks, except that broths are based
on meats rather than bones so they are richer and have a more
defined flavor. Broths can be used as a liquid in preparing broths.
A good quality broth should be clear, aromatic and rich-tasting
with a very evident flavor of the major ingredient. One strong and
clear broth or stock is a consommé. It is made by combining lean
chopped meat, egg whites, mirepoix, herbs and spices and an
acidic ingredient like tomatoes, wine or lemon juice.
The combination is called “clarification” since the particles that
make the broth appear cloudy are trapped as it cooks. A good
quality consommé is crystal – clear, has a good body, amber to
brown in color and completely fat-free.
0 Bouillon – a clear soup from beef, chicken or other milk
1 Consommé – a clear soup made from chicken and veal and
sometimes boiled water.
2 Broth – made from vegetables and meat stock

1 Thick soup is a cream soup based on béchamel sauce and is


finished with a heavy cream. A béchamel sauce is milk thickened
with roux. But some thick soups are veloute sauce-based, stock
thickened with roux. A veloute sauce base is usually finished with
a liaison of heavy cream egg yolk. A thick soup should have a
velvety smooth texture and the thickness of heavy cream. It is
always essential to strain out the solids and at times to puree and
put back in the soup. Cream soups may be served hot or cold.

A kind of cream soup based on crustaceans like shrimps


and lobsters is bisque. It is made by simmering a crustacean in a
stock or a fish fumet.

Another thick vegetable soup is the chowder made with


broth, milk or water as base, then thickened with roux. Cold, thick
soups such as
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 14
vichyssoise are simply cream soups served cold. Others like
gazpacho or a chilled cantaloupe soup are based on a puree of
cooked or raw ingredients brought to the correct consistency by
adding fruits or vegetable juice as a liquid

Thick soup (depends upon the thickening agent)


23 Purees – vegetable soup thickened with starch
24 Bisques – made from pureed shellfish thickened with cream.
25 Cream soup – thickened with béchamel soup.
26 Veloutes – soup thickened with egg, butter and cream.
27 Chowder – soup made from fish, clam or vegetables like corn,
potatoes; and spinach thickened with butter milk and flour.

Information Sheet
2.1

B. Other types of soup


23 Dessert soup
23 Ginataan – a Filipino soup made from coconut milk, milk,
fruit, and tapioca pearl serve hot or cold.
24 Osheriku – a Japanese asuki beans soup
25 Tonge sui – a Chinese soup

24 Fruit Soup can be served hot or cold depending on the recipe where
dried fruits are used like raisins and prunes. Fruit soup may
include milk, sweet or savory dumplings, spices or alcoholic
beverages like brandy and champagne.

25 Cold soup are variations on the traditional soup wherein the


temperature when served is kept at or below temperature.

23 Asian soup is a traditional soup which is typical broth, clear soup,


or starch thickened soup.

23Other thickening agents


23 rice
24 flour
25 grain
26 corn starch

24Ingredients of soup
23 Meat (chicken, beef, pork, lamp, fish)
24 Salt
25 Pepper
26 Vegetables (carrots, string beans, turnips, tomatoes, mushrooms,
celery, leak)
27 Onion
28 Garlic
29 Water
30 Eggs
31 Cornstarch
32 Seasoning (MSG, convenience products)
33 Butter
34 Cream
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 15
23 Garnishes (slices of lemon, egg, shredded vegetables, pimiento
strips)

SELF CHECK

Direction: Read the question carefully and choose the letter of the
correct answer. Write your answer in your test booklet.

1.Which of the following is a clear soup?


a. bouillon c. cream
b. bisque d. puree
What substance is added that gives taste to the
2. food?
a. decoration c. seasoning
b. flavoring d. thickening
What type of soup can be served either hot or
3. cold?
a. ancient soup c. dessert soup
b. cold soup d. fruit soup

4.What utensil is appropriate in serving hot soup?


a. bowl c. soup bowl
b. basin d. tray

5.What makes a soup appetizing?


a. garnish c. taste
b. ingredients d. all of the above

REFERENCES:

The Major Kitchen Culinary Arts Center; MANAGING A FOOD – SAFE


KITCHEN pp. 50 – 60

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 16


Activity Sheet 2.1

CREAM OF POTATO SOUP

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole ½ cup chopped bacon
gas or electric stove ¾ kg potatoes
knife 3 cup water
chopping board 2 bulb onions, chopped
strainer 1 whole chicken bouillon cube
saucepot 2 cup hot water
measuring cup ¼ cup butter
measuring spoon ¼ tsp. pepper
wooden spoon 2tbsp. Gold Medal all-purpose flour
soup ladle ½ tsp. salt
1½ c all-purpose cream

PROCEDURE:

23 Cook bacon until crispy. Cool. Set aside, peel potatoes and cut into
cubes, place in a saucepot and add water and chopped onions. Bring
to a boil and cook until potatoes are tender. Remove potatoes and sere
the broth.

24 Add chicken bouillon cube to the reserved potato broth to make potato
chicken broth and stir until dissolved. Add the hot water. Place cooked
potatoes in blender in 2 batches, adding ¾ cup of the potato-chicken
broth with each batch. Cover and blend for 1 minute or until smooth.
Set aside.

25 Melt butter in a saucepan. Add flour, salt and pepper. Add cream all at
once. Cook stir until slightly thickened and bubbly. Cook 1 minute
more. Stir until heated through. If necessary, stir in additional milk to
make the desired consistency. Serve with sprinkled bacon bits.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 17
Activity Sheet 2.2

CONSOMME A LA MADRILENE

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 1kg. Lean beef, cut in 3 portion
gas or electric stove ½ kg bone marrow
knife 3 ½ liter cold water
chopping board 3 large carrots, cut up
measuring cup 2 cloves onion, stuck with 3 cloves
measuring spoon 2 stalks celery w/leaves.
leeks, sliced lengthwise
wooden spoon 3 and
soup ladle 1½ tbsp. wash salt
6 peppercorns
2 spring parsley
pinch thyme
1 clove clove garlic
1pc bay leaf
3 large egg whites, beaten
3 crushed eggshells
2 cup tomato puree
2tbsp finely chopped onions
½ tsp dried basil

PROCEDURE:

23 Combine the beef, bone and water in a stockpot and bring to a boil.
Simmer for 5 minutes and skim. Cover and simmer for 1 hour.
24 Add to the onion stock with cloves, the carrots, celery, leeks, salt
peppercorns, parsley, thyme, garlic and bay leaf. Cover and cook
slowly for 4 – 5 hours.
25 Strain through a double thickness of cheesecloth and skim off fat. Use
absorbent paper towels, if necessary, to remove the remaining particles
and reserve the meat for another purpose.
26 To clarify the consommé, return it to the heat and add beaten egg
whites and eggshells.
27 Bring to a rolling boil and strain once more through 3 thickness of
cheesecloth.
28 Pour 6 cups of consommé into a saucepan and reserve the remainder
for another use.
29 Add the tomato puree, onion, and dried basil. Simmer for 20 minutes,
remove from the heat and strain through cheesecloth.
30 Serve hot.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 18
Activity Sheet 2.3
EGG DROP SOUP

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 6 ½ cups prepared basic chicken stock
stockpot with cover 2 tbsp. light soy sauce
gas or electric stove 2 tbsp. sherry
knife ¼ tsp. white pepper
chopping board 2 large salt
mortar and pestle 1 tbsp egg whites
strainer 2 tbsp sesame oil
measuring cup 1/8 tsp Maya cornstarch
measuring spoon 2 large eggs
wooden spoon 1 tbsp. scallions , thinly sliced
soup ladle

PROCEDURE:

23 In a 2-quart soup pot, hear 6 cups of chicken broth to a simmer. Add


the soy sauce, sherry, pepper, and salt.
24 Beat the egg whites lightly. Drizzle into the chicken broth mixture
25 Mix the cornstarch with the remaining ½ cup chicken stock until lump
free. Add to the soup. Stir in the sesame oil garnish with scallions and
serve hot.

Activity Sheet 2.4


CREAMY CARROT SOUP

INGRIDIENTS
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT QUANTIT
Y DESCRIPTION
casserole 22 grams butter
stockpot with cover 1 medium onion, chopped
gas or electric stove 3 strips bacon, chopped
knife 600 grams carrots, cubed
chopping board 1 pc small chicken cube
mortar and pestle ½ cup cream
strainer dash salt/ pepper
measuring cup
measuring spoon
wooden spoon
soup ladle
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 19
PROCEDURE:

0 Melt butter in a large saucepan, add onion and bacon, stir constantly
over heat until onion is soft.
1 Add carrots to pan, then chicken stock and cube, bring to a boil,
reduce heat, cover, simmer for about 30 minutes or until carrots are
tender. Remove saucepan from heat.
2 Blend or process mixture in several batches until smooth.
3 Return mixture to pan, stir in cream, reheat, and stirring constantly
without boiling.
4 Season with salt and pepper. Serve hot

Activity Sheet 2.6

CHICKEN AND CORN CHOWDER

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole
stockpot with cover 200 grams butter
gas or electric stove 1 tsp. salt
knife 1 pc carrot
chopping board 1 pc onion, sliced
mortar and pestle 6 cup water
strainer 6 strips bacon strips
measuring cup ½ cup chopped onion
measuring spoon ½ cup cubed celery
wooden spoon ½ cup cube carrot
soup ladle 7 cup chicken stock
½ cup gold medal all-purpose
1 can flour
small corn kernels

PROCEDURE:

0 In a saucepan, put chicken breast, salt, carrot, onion, and water.


Bring to a boil. Cook for 20 minutes.
1 Strain out chicken stock. Set aside. Remove chicken breast. Slice meat
into cubes. Set aside.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 20
0 In a sauté pan, put bacon strips. Cook until brown. Set aside cooked
bacon strips.
1 Retain about 2 tablespoons of the bacon drippings.
2 In a saucepot, using the bacon drippings, sauté onions until soft. Add
chicken meat. Mix well. Add flour. Stir well.
3 Add the chicken mixture. Let it simmer. Stir until thick.

To serve: Put soup in a bowl, top with chopped bacon. Serve while hot.
May be served with parley-garlic bread bacon at the side.

Activity Sheet 2.7

CLAM CHOWDER

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 3 cup clams (halaan )
stockpot with cover 4 tbsp. flour
gas or electric stove ½ cup milk (evaporated )
knife 1 ½ cup potatoes, diced
chopping board 1 tsp. salt
mortar and pestle ½ cup onion chopped
strainer ¼ tsp. ground peper
measuring cup ½ cup bacon, cut into small pieces
measuring spoon 1 cup clam broth
wooden spoon 4 tbsp. margarine or butter
soup ladle

PROCEDURE:

0 Wash then steam clams (halaan). Set clam meat aside.


1 Put diced potatoes, chopped onions and bacon in a sauce pan. Add
enough water to cover. Cook potatoes until tender. Set aside.
2 Meanwhile, make a thick sauce by melting 4 tbsp margarine or butter
in a saucepan.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 21
0 Add flour and blend well. Stir in milk and cook until thick. Combine
potato mixture white sauce and clams.
1 Thin mixture with clam broth. Season to taste.

Activity Sheet 2.8

THICK SAUCE

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 4 tbsp. margarine or butter
gas or electric stove 1 ½ cup evaporated milk
measuring cup 4 tbsp flour
measuring spoon
wooden spoon
wire whisk

PROCEDURE:

Melt butter or margarine in a saucepan.


Add flour and blend well
Stir in milk and cook until thick.

SELF CHECK
Direction: Plan a laboratory activity and evaluate your finished product,
using the given score sheet.

Criteria for Evaluating Soup


Good Fair Poor
I. Products:
(3) (2) (1)
0 General Appearance
0 attractive and appealing to appetite
1 pleasing and good color combination
2 ingredients cooked just right
3 correct consistency
1 Palatability
0 delicious
1 taste just right
2 Nutritive value
0 highly nutritious
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 22
II. Procedures:
0 Use of Resources:
0 working table is kept orderly while preparing the ingredients
1 use only the proper and needed utensils and dishes
2 use time-saving techniques and devices
1 Cleanliness and sanitation
0 well- groomed and properly dressed for cooking,
use of clean apron, hair nets, hand towel and pot holder
Sanitary handling of food
0 Conservation of nutrients
23 proper preparation and cooking procedures
24 following the recipe correctly
Score: (maximum 42 points)
Comments:

RESOURCES:
Tools and Equipments:
soup kettle with cover
cutting board
measuring spoon
soup ladle
bowl
knife
measuring cup
wooden spoon
stove

Ingredients of Soup:
thin soup
thick soup

REFERENCES:

The Major Kitchen Culinary Arts Center; MANAGING A FOOD –


SAFE KITCHEN PP. 50 –
60

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 23


LESSON 3

PREPARING SAUCES REQUIRED FOR MENU ITEMS

INTRODUCTION

This lesson deals with the classification of sauces, common culinary


terms on sauces, different thickening agents for sauces, bases for a variety of
sauces and common problems on sauces.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

0 Varieties of hot and cold sauces are prepared from classical and
contemporary recipes based on the required menu items.
1 Derivations are made from basic sauces.
2 Variety of thickening agents and convenience products are used
appropriately.
3 Sauces are evaluated for flavor, color and consistency.
4 Problems are identified and solved in accordance with enterprise
policy.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

roux - a melted butter mixed with brown flour for thickening soup and
grains.
drippings - the juice that drips from roasting or baking meat or a sauce
made from it.
spice - an aromatic, pungent vegetable substance used to flavor food and
beverages.
seasoning - substance added to food that gives flavor and taste.

Information Sheet 3.1

SAUCES

One of the important components of a dish is the sauce. Sauces serve


a particular function in the composition of a dish. These enhance the taste of
the food to be served as well as add moisture or succulence to food that are
cooked dry. Sauces also enhance the appearance of a dish by adding luster
and sheen. A sauce that includes a flavor complementary to a food brings
out the flavor of that food. It defines and enriches the overall taste and its
texture.

Kinds of Sauces:

0 Brown – a roux-based sauce made with margarine or butter, flavor and


brown stock. (Romesco Sauce)
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 24
Butter – a sauce made from melted butter or margarine to which
seasonings are added. (Café de Paris)
Hollandaise or a Dutch sauce made by forming an emulsion with a fat
such as margarine, butter or salad oil and egg.
Tomato – a sauce made with tomatoes and seasoned with spices and
herbs.
Vinaigrette – a sauce made from a blend of salad oil, vinegar and
seasoning.
White sauce – a roux-based sauce made with margarine or butter, flour
and milk, cream or light stock.

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Ѐ ᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ0 Variation of Sauces
0 Hot Sauces – made just before they are to be used.
1 Cold sauces – cooked ahead of time, then cooled, covered and placed
in the refrigerator to chill.

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Ѐ ᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ1 Four Basic Sauces
for Meat, Vegetables and Fish
0 White sauce - its basic ingredient is milk which is thickened with flour
enriched with butter.

2. Veloute sauce - Its chief ingredient is rich chicken broth, thickened


with flour and enriched with butter and seasoning and sometimes
cream.

0 Hollandaise - It’s the three basic ingredients are butter, eggyolk and
lemon juice with seasoning for accent.

1 Savory butter- It’s the basic ingredient is butter which is creamed and
blended with some other ingredients such as lemon for lemon butter,
pounded lobster or shrimp for lobster and shrimp butter to give its
individual flavor.

5888 Thickening Agents

1. 3. 5. flour 7. cornstarch
Starch eggs 6. 8. water
2. cream 4. rice grains

D. Common Problems in Sauce

1. discarding 3. poor texture 5. oil streaking


2. oiling-off 4. synersis
(weeping)

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions on your test booklet.

0 Why are sauces important in a dish?


1 What are the differences and similarities of brown sauce and a
white sauce?
2 Enumerate and differentiate the kinds of sauces
REFERENCES:

The Major Kitchen Culinary Arts Center; MANAGING A FOOD – SAFE


KITCHEN pp. 50 -60

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 25


Activity Sheet 3.1

SUGGESTED RECIPE:

Sauces Blanches
(White Sauce)

Purpose Butter Flour Liquid: Milk or Stock or Cream

Light Sauce 1 tbsp. 1 tbsp. 1 cup

General Sauce 1½ tbsps. 1 ½ tbsp. 1 cup

Thick Sauce 5 tsps. 2 tbsps 1 cup

Soufflé Sauce 2 tbsps. 2 tbsps. 1 cup

PROCEDURE:

23 Heat liquid (milk or stock or mixed) as you make the roux.


24 Melt butter over low heat. Then add flour stirring with a wooden
spoon or whisk for 2-3 minutes (Roux)
25 Take pan off the heat and add hot liquid gradually. Stir constantly
with a whisk until smooth. For a “golden” roux, roast flour lightly
first before adding butter.
26 Return to heat and simmer for 2 to 3 minutes, whisking constantly
until thickened.
27 Skim sauce made with stock, season with salt, white pepper and
nutmeg.
28 Put thin layer of milk, cream or butter on top. Cover.

Activity Sheet 3.2

SWEET AND SOUR SAUCE

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
non-stick pot
gas or electric stove 1/3 cup white vinegar
wooden spoon 1/3 cup white sugar
measuring spoon ¼ tsp. ginger
measuring cup 1 tsp. soy sauce
8 oz. pineapple tidbits, drained
2 tbsp. ketchup
2 tsp. cornstarch
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 26
PROCEDURE:

5888 Stir together the vinegar and sugar in a small non-stick pot.
Cook on high, stirring constantly until all sugar has been dissolved.
5889 In a small cup, mix the cornstarch with just a little water so that
it is dissolved.
5890 Boil the sauce and then add the cornstarch and stir until thick.
5891 Refrigerate and is ready to use in a stir-fry dish.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Plan for a laboratory activity prepare white sauce,(thin,


medium, thick). Evaluate your finished products using the score
sheet.

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING SAUCES

I. Product: Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1)


1. General Appearance
a. attractive and appealing to _________ _________ ________
appetite
b. pleasing and has a good color _________ _________ ________
combination
c. ingredients cooked just right _________ _________ ________
d. correct consistency not mushy/
very thick/thin consistency
_________ _________ ________

2.Palatability
a. delicious _________ _________ ________
b. tastes just right _________ _________ ________
3.Nutritive Value
a. highly nutritious _________ _________ ________
II. Procedure:
1. Use of Resources:
a. working table is kept
orderly
while preparing the _________ _________ ________
ingredients
b. used only the proper and _________ _________ ________
needed utensils and dishes
c. used time-saving
techniques
and devices
_________ _________ ________
2. Cleanliness and Sanitation
a. well-groomed and properly
dressed for cooking, use of _________ _________ ________
clean apron, hair nets,
hand
towel and pot holders
b. sanitary handling of food
3. Conservation of Nutrients _________ _________ ________

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 27


a. proper preparation and cooking _________ _________ ________
procedures

_________ _________ ________

SCORE: (maximum of 42 pts.)

COMMENTS:

RESOURCES:

Tools and Equipment:

sauce pan
rotary beater
wooden spoon
bowl
measuring cups
measuring spoon

Ingredients for Sauce

butter
flour
milk
salt
water

REFERENCES:

The Major Kitchen Culinary Arts Center; MANAGING A FOOD – SAFE


KITCHEN pp. 50 -60

LESSON 4

STORING AND RECONSTITUTING STOCKS, SOUP AND SAUCES

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals on the storing and reconstituting of stocks, soup, and
sauces.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

23 Stocks, sauces and soups are stored properly to maintain


optimum freshness and quality.
24 Stocks, sauces and soups are reconstituted to appropriate
standards of consistency.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 28
DEFINITION OF TERMS

reconstitute – to add appropriate amount of water to sauce or soup. sauce

– a thickened liquid used to flavor and enhance other food

Information Sheet 4.1

Storage of Soup, Stocks and Sauces

The stock should never be put in the refrigerator while it is hot. The
large volume of hot liquid can raise the internal temperature of the
refrigerator to the point that the stock will cool sufficiently within two
hours and may warm everything else in the refrigerator. A good way to
cool the stock is to place the hot stock pot in a sink full of cold water and
ice cubes until it is lukewarm but it should not exceed one hour. After
leaving it uncovered for the first half hour and stirring occasionally to
cool, it should be covered with an upside down plate to prevent
evaporation which would cause the stock to become too concentrated.
Refrigerated stock cools better in shallow pans. If covered, stock lasts up
to five days but it is best if used in two days.

Storage of Starch and Sauces

Sauces and starches should be kept in airtight container and stored in


a cool dry place away from the moisture, oxygen, lights, and pests. Food
made with starches contains egg, milk, cream of other dairy products all
of which make them prone to bacterial contamination and to food-born
illnesses. Sauces made with these ingredients should be kept out of the
temperature danger zone. Thickened sauce should also be prepared,
served, and stored with caution. These products should be stored in the
refrigerator and never left to stay for long at room temperature.

Storing Equipments

23 Glass/Plastic Container
24 Stock pot
25 Refrigerator

Ways to Reconstitute Stocks

23 Skim the surface and strain off the stock through a china cup lined
with several layers of cheesecloth.
24 Cool the stock as quickly as possible as follows:
23 Set the pot in a sink with blocks, rack or some other object
under it. This is called venting. This allows cold water to flow
under the pot or as around it.
24 Run cold water into the sink, but not higher than the level of the
stock.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 29
23 Stir the pot occasionally so the stocks cool evenly

Cooling stock quickly and properly is important. Improperly cool stock


can spoil in 6 to 8 hrs.
23 When cool, refrigerate the stock in covered containers. Stock will keep
2 to 3 days if properly refrigerated. Stock can also be frozen and will
keep for several months.

To reconstitute stock, water, and other liquid like evaporated


milk, coconut milk fruit juices may be added.

Ways to Reconstitute Stocks, Sauce and Soup

23 By adding water
24 By using other liquid like evaporating milk, coconut milk, and fruit
juices

SELF- CHECK

Direction: On a separate sheet, answer the following questions

23 Why should we avoid placing hot stock and soups in the


refrigerator?

23 What are some ways to reconstitute stocks and sauces?

REFERENCES:

Ingram, Gays G.; ESSENTIAL DICTIONARY OF CULINARY ARTS


pp. 190 - 195

Gisslen, Wayne; PROFESSIONAL COOKING, COPYRIGHT 2007


pp. 154
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 30
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: SELECTING, PREPARING, COOKING, AND STORING


MEAT
Module Title: Selecting, Preparing, Cooking, and Storing
Meat
Module No.: 2 Nominal Duration:
50 Hrs.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 31
SELECTING, PREPARING, COOKING, AND STORING MEAT

Module Title: SELECTING, PREPARING, COOKING AND STORING MEAT

Module Introduction:

This module covers the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required in


selecting, preparing, cooking, and storing meat in a commercial kitchen or
catering operation.

Expected Outcome:

After completing the module, you should be able to:


23 select quality meat.
24 prepare and portioning of meat.
25 cook and present meat cuts for service; and
26 store meat

PRE-TEST

Direction: Read the following questions carefully and choose the letter
with the correct answer. Write your answer in your test note
book.

23 What animal produces veal meat?


23 calf
24 deer
25 hog
26 sheep

24 Which of the following market forms of meat does not undergo


chilling?
23 fresh meat
24 cured meat
25 frozen meat
26 processed meat

25 What part of the meat helps you identify the less tender cuts?
23 bone
24 fat
25 flesh
26 ligament

26 What part of the meat has the greatest amount of quality protein?
23 Bone
24 Fat
25 Flesh
26 Ligament

27 Which of the following meat cuts requires long and slow cooking
temperature?
a. less tender b. tender
b. slightly tough d. tough
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 32
23 A long – bladed hatchet or a heavy knife used by a butcher.
23 butchers knife
24 chopper knife
25 cleaver knife
26 set of slicing knife

24 Which of the cooking methods does not belong to dry heat method?
23 baking
24 pan broiling
25 roasting
26 stewing

25 When meat is cooked in steaming liquid in which bubbles are


breaking on the surface, this cooking method is ____________.
23 boiling
24 broiling
25 roasting
26 stewing

23 An oil-acid mixture used to give flavor and to tenderize meat.


23 brine solution
24 marinade
25 soy sauce and vinegar
26 salt and calamansi

24 Which of the following tools is used for carving?


23 cleaver knife
24 fork
25 platter
26 razor knife

LESSON 1

SELECTING MEAT

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the different classifications of meat, its market
forms, cuts and their characteristics, nutritive content and food values, the
appropriate trade names and culinary terms in accordance with standard
meat cuts, handling, and waste minimization of meat leftovers.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

23 Primary, secondary and portioned cuts of pork, lamb, beef and


veal are selected as required for menu items.
24 Offal and fancy meats are selected as required for menus.
25 Leftovers are used to minimize waste.
26 Low cost cut meat products are selected when and where
appropriate.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 33
23 The best supplier for quality and price are selected according to
enterprise requirements.
24 Appropriate purchase and storage techniques are used to
minimize wastage.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:
slaughter – to butcher an animal for food.
wastage - loss by use
tender cut – part of meat that requires less period of cooking
tough cut – part of meat that requires longer period of cooking
vermin – small animals such as rats and mice which cause problems to
humans by carrying disease and damaging crops or food.

Information Sheet 1.1

MEAT

Meat refers to animal parts that are used as food. Edible organs and
glands of animal meats include tongue, liver, kidney, sweetbread, heart,
brain, lungs, tripe, and small intestines. Meats should be loosely wrapped
and stored under refrigeration. They should be in a separate unit. Meats
should always be placed on trays to prevent drippings on the floor or on the
food. The chef should separate the different kinds of meat to prevent cross-
contamination. Meats should be wrapped in air-permeable paper such as
butcher’s paper because air-tight containers promote bacteria growth that
could result in spoilage or contamination. Variety meats and uncured pork
products that have short shelf lives should be cooked as soon as possible
after they are received.

Meats that are stored at the proper temperature and under optimal
conditions will last without unnoticeable quality loss for several days.

Inspection of all meats is mandatory. After fresh meat has been


inspected by an authorized inspector or veterinarian and is declared
wholesome and fit for human consumption, it may already be classified into
grades. Quality conformation and finish of the carcass is the basis for
grading. Quality includes tenderness, juiciness and palatability. The shape,
form or general outline of the side or the whole carcass is the conformation.
If there is a high meat to bone ration and a high percentage of the tender
cuts, it means a good conformation. Finish refers to the quality, amount, and
color of the fat within and around the muscle.

Market forms of meat are those cuts of meat that are ready for sale.
Some cuts are fully boned and trimmed before they are ready for sale. Meats
can be sold fresh, chilled, frozen, cured, and processed.

Pork, lamb, veal, and beef are almost structurally identical. Being four-
legged animals, they have the same number of bones mals, same number of
bones with the same shapes in the same plates.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 34
Tips on Buying the Right Kind of Meat

23 Buy meat where proper hygiene and sanitation is observed by the


handler.
For instance, check the meal stall’s cutting table. The table must be
smooth, free from crevices and kept clean at all times. See that dust
and vermin are kept away from the meat stalls.

24 Look for the inspected-and –passed stamped marks, especially in big


cuts of meat. It pays to go to your favorite suki in the market while
the butcher is still cutting the beef carcass into retail cuts. This will
more or less help in the identification of the carcass, whether its
really cow’s meat or carabao’s or horse’s.

25 Know the different meat cuts that are needed in your menu. Select
meat for specific use. For example, shank and brisket for stew. The
tender portion is the tender cuts that lie along the back. The less
tender cuts are those involved in the excessive movements of the
animal such as the leg, shoulder and neck. Remember that young
animals are porous and red while white in older animals.

26 Check if the beef is fine, bright red in color with yellow fat and free
from slime and off-odor. Avoid brightly off-colored meat as this
indicates the use of artificial coloring like achuete.

27 When buying ground meat of good quality, select from a big cut and
have it ground by the butcher in your presence. Don’t buy pre-
grounded beef or pork.
28 Buy refrigerated meat in places where refrigeration facilities are
available.

29 Meat should not be wrapped in newspaper, use plastic bags or other


vapor resistant wrapping materials.

30 Thawed meat must be cooked immediately.

31 When storing meat to be frozen, package in convenient family size


units and identify properly as to the kind of meat cuts and date of
purchase.

32 Store packages correctly in the refrigerator. Refrain from overloading


the freezer and provide space for the air to circulate inside the freezer.

33 Freeze quickly at zero or lower temperature. Beef should not be kept


frozen for more that 12 months, while pork should not over 6
months. Frozen meat is just as good as fresh meat provided it is
properly handled.

34 The use of pressure cooker, if available, shortens cooking time


thereby saving fuel and improves the tenderness of the meat.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 35
Information Sheet 1.1

Different Classification of Meat

Sources Meat Age

1.Hog on pig Pork 4 to 6 month old

2.Calves on young cattle Veal 1 to 3 years old

3.Cow (adult) Beef 3 years old and above

4.Deer Venison -
5.Carabao Carabeef 3 years old above

6. Goat Chevon -

7.Young sheep Lamb Not less than 1 year old

8.Sheep (adult) Mutton 3 years old and above

Information Sheet 1.1Market forms and source of Beef Cuts


Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 36
Market forms and Source of Pork Cuts

Market Forms of Meat


23 Fresh meat - meat taken immediately after slaughter without
undergoing chilling. It is the common form of meat sold in public
markets.
24 Chilled meat –meat that has been kept to a temperature just above
freezing at 1-3°C within 24 hours after slaughter. This is available in
supermarkets and specially meat shops.
25 Frozen meat - meat cuts frozen to a temperature of -2°C. Imported
meat is sold in this form, and texture is stone hard.
26 Cured meat - are meat products that have been treated with curing
agent. Examples of this form are ham, bacon, tapa, tocino and
sausage.
27 Processed meat - may include not only the processed canned
meat, but also preparations that are frozen such as frozen meat pies,
rolled meats and others in the convenience food shelves.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 37
MEAT CUTS

Types of meat cuts and their characteristics

23 Tender cuts of meat - taken from the parts of the animal where
the muscles are not well-exercised and are fleshy. Example: sirloin,
porterhouse, t-bone, prime ribs, tenderloin.
24 Less tender - meat cuts which come from the most exercised
muscle parts of a live animal. Example: chuck, flank, rumps, hock,
neck feet and shoulder.
25 Tough cuts –meat that requires a longer cooking period over low
heat.

Nutritive Content and Food Values of Meat

Lean meat supplies great amount of high quality protein with an


average of 18% of the meat. It contains all the essential amino acids. It is
also a good source of phosphorous, iron, and vitamins A, B and B2.
Unsaturated fatty acids are also present in meat.
The amount of energy (calories) supplied by meat varies with the fat
content of animal species.

Handling of Meat

Fresh meat spoils quickly, so it must be stored immediately. If the


animal is slaughtered and handled in a sanitary manner, there is no need to
wash its meat before storing, wipe the surface with a damp cloth to remove
dirt on surface. Make sure it is dry before wrapping. It is a good idea to
portion meat needed for one cooking into individual wrap. This way, you
avoid refreezing portions that will be cooked at a later time and avoid
bacteria to grow.

Waste Minimization of Meat

The correct way of purchasing or buying meat is important to minimize


waste.

Here are some guidelines to consider:


23 Know the desirable characteristics of each type of meat.
24 Look for the stamp of BAI which indicates that it was inspected.
25 Consider the form or cut you need.
26 Check the thickness and distribution of fat inside and outside of
meat.
27 Make sure it does not have foul odor.
28 Choose young animals for more tender meats.
29 Check whether the flesh of beef is red in color and pork is pink.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: In a whole sheet of paper answer the following questions

23 What is the significance of connective tissues to the live animal,


cooking method and eating quality of meat?
24 List common meat dishes and indicate the meat cuts used for each of
these.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 38


5888 What are the factors that affect meat tenderness? Juiciness?

5889 What are the safety concerns that should be addressed when
purchasing and preparing meat dishes

Direction: Visit a public market and observe each type of meat. Using
the chart, write the correct indicator of each type of meat. (Group
Activity)

Criteria for Selecting Good Quality Meat

Characteristics Pork Beef

1.Color of Meat
2.Odor
3.Color of fat
4.Texture of Meat
5.Flesh

RESOURCES:
23 Fresh pork
24 Fresh veal

REFERENCES:

Sandoval, Maria Teresa G., CULINARY ARTS I AND II, 1993, pp.
87-89

Navarro, Leticia S. et al., HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND ME III;


FOOD MANAGEMENT AND CONSUMERISM, PP. 33-34

De Leon, Sonia Y., Ph.D et al., BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO,


1999, PP. 231-253

LESSON 2

PREPARING AND PORTIONING MEAT

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the uses and characteristics of various knives for
cutting meat, preparation techniques of meat cutting, and use of appropriate
marinade.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

23 Suitable knives and equipment are selected and used prior to


meat preparation.
24 Meat cuts are prepared and portioned according to menu
requirements.
25 Suitable marinades are prepared and used appropriately for a
variety of meat cuts.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 39


DEFINITION OF TERMS:

portion - a part of whole or to divide into parts


marinade – an oil-acid mixture used to give flavor and to tenderize meat.
suitable – appropriate
seasoning – a spice for enhancing the flavor of food butcher – a person
who slaughters animals for food.

Information Sheet 2.1

Cutting Tools, Their Uses and Characteristics

Knives are used for cutting, chopping, slicing. They are the most
important tools in the kitchen.

23 Butcher’s knife – is used to


section raw meat.. It can be used as
a cleaver to separate small joints or
to cut bones. Butcher’s knives are
made with a heavy blade with a
Butcher Knife with 10-
saber or flat grind.
inch (25cm) blade and
pointed tip

24 French knife – is used to


chop, dice, or mince food. Heavy
knives will have a saber or flat grind.
French Knife with 8-inch
(20 cm) to 12-inch (30 cm)
blade and pointed tip.

23 Roast beef slicer – is used to slice roasts, ham, and thick, solid
cuts of meats. The thin, light blade will have a concave or hollow grind.
Roast Beef Slicer with 12-
inch
(30 cm) blade and rounded
tip.

5888 Boning knife – is used to fillet fish and to remove raw meat
from the bone. It will have a concave grind on a thin, light blade.
Boning knife with 5-
inch
(12.7 cm) to 6-inch (15
cm)
thin blade and pointed
tip.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 40
Cooking Methods Suitable to Different Meat Cuts

23 For Tender cuts of meat, sirloin, porterhouse, T-bone, tenderloin and


prime rib roast, the cooking method is dry heat method.

23 Roasting – the meat is cooked over live coal or oven.

Roasting
Internal Temperature of Meat
Rare 140°F(60°C)
Medium155°F(70°C)
165°F(75°C)

Internal temperature of meat increase 2° to 3° Centigrade or 5°


Fahrenheit during roasting period.

High Heat Roasting:


5888 Sear meat 240°C or 475°F for the first 15 minutes until crusted
on the outside.
5889 Roast at 180°C or 350°F for remaining time.

Bone-in per 500g Boneless per 500g


Rare 10 – 12 mins 8 – 10 mins
Medium 12 – 15 mins 10 – 12 mins
Well done 15 – 18 mins 15 – 18 mins

For tenderloin roast whole fillet cook at 240°C (475°F) at seven minutes
per 500 g. for rare and 10 minutes 500 g. for medium
French standards for degrees of doneness of meats use slightly less
cooking times.

Low Heat Roasting:

This method uses the same cooking time for both boned and boneless
roasts.
Roast at 150°C or 300°F.

Medium 20 – 25 per 500 g.


Well done 30 – 35 per 500 g.

0 Pan broiling – the meat is placed in a hot frying pan over the
sources of heat instead of under it.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 41


23 Broiling – Cooking by radiant heat. Food is placed on a rack either
below or between the gas or electric heat source. The rack is positioned
3 to 6 inches from the heat source, depending on the type and intensity
of the heat

24 Pan frying – Cooking in a moderate amount of fat in a pan over


moderate heat.

Grilling or Pan Frying

Steak Names Thickness Rare Medium


Flank Steak ½ - 1” 3 – 4 mins/ side 4 – 5 mins
Top Round 1” 4 – 5 mins/ side 6 – 7 mins
Tenderloin 1 ½” 5 – 6 mins/ side 7 – 8 mins
Top Sirloin ¾ - 1” 3 – 4 mins/ side 6 mins
Ribeye 1” 3 – 4 mins/ side 6 mons

23 Less tender cuts of meat. Chuck, flank, rump, hock, neck, leg, feet and
shoulder can be cooked through the dry heat method such as the
following.

0 Boiling – Cooking food in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly.

1 Braising – a method of cooking that combines cooking in fat with


the addition of moisture. Food is browned in a small quantity of fat,
and then cooked slowly in liquid in a covered utensil.

2 Stewing – cooking in a small amount of water, either by boiling or


simmering.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 42


Meat Marinade

A seasoned liquid, usually containing an acid, herbs and/ spices, in


which meat are soaked to absorb flavors and become tender before cooking

A marinade makes meat better by adding moisture, increasing


tenderness and adding flavor. Here are loads of marinade for any meat; beef,
lamb, pork, poultry, fish or seafood.

SELF- CHECK
Direction: Answer the following:

23 Enumerate marinades for beef and their uses in various cuisines.


24 List marinades for pork and the cooking processes to be used.

REFERENCES:

Lewis, Dora S. et al., FAMILY MEALS HOSPITALITY, 224-237 Navarro,


Leticia S., HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND ME III, 27-29

Activity Sheet 2.1

SUGGESTED RECIPES:

SWEET MARINADE

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
knife 1 cup crushed pineapple
chopping board 1/3 cup soy sauce
measuring cup 1/3 cup honey
measuring spoon ¼ cup cider, vinegar
wooden spoon 2 cloves garlic, minced
mixing bowl 1 teaspoon ginger powder
¼ teaspoon powered cloves

Prep Time: 6 minutes

PROCEDURE:

Mix all ingredients together and use immediately. The marinade can be
stored in airtight container for up to 7 days.

Activity Sheet 2.2


Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 43
TASTY BEEF MARINADE

INGRIDIENTS
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole ½ cup soy sauce
gas or electric stove 4 tbsp. sugar
knife 2 stalk green onions, minced
chopping board 2 tbsp. grated fresh ginger
measuring cup 2 tbsp. sesame oil
measuring spoon ½ tsp. ground pepper
wooden spoon ¼ cup vinegar
2 tsp. sesame seeds, toasted and
5 large garlic cloves, minced fine
crushed to a paste

PROCEDURE:

Combine all ingredients with sugar in a jar with tight fitting lid. Shake
well before using. Best for marinating or for grilled Korean (bulgog).

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Below is the chart of beef cuts. Label each cut or part
correctly by using the beef chart

REFERENCES:

23 Lewis, Dora S. et al., FAMILY MEALS HOSPITALITY, 224-237


24 Navarro, Leticia S., HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND ME III, 27-29

LESSON 3

COOKING AND PRESENTING MEAT CUTS FOR SERVICE

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the preparation and cooking of meat for
service, carving using appropriate tools and techniques.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

23 Appropriate cooking methods are identified and used for meat


cuts.
24 A variety of primary, secondary and portioned meat cuts are
cooked and presented to standard recipe specifications.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 44
23 A variety of offal are cooked and presented according to standard
recipes.
24 Meat cuts are portioned and served according to menu
requirements.
25 Meats are carved using the appropriate tools and techniques
considering:
0 Meat structure
1 Bone structure

DEFINITION OF TERMS

carve – to decorate with designs cut on the surface.


range – length of cooking
razor – a sharp–edged instrument used especially for shaving
platter – a large, shallow dish for holding and serving food.

Information Sheet 3.1

Meat is cooked for various reasons. It improves the palatability, quality,


increase tenderness and for sanitary purposes. Cooking also enhance the
flavor of foods and the attractiveness of the original color, form, and texture;
to destroy harmful organism and substances to ensure that food is safe for
human consumption; and to improve digestibility.

Cooking Methods Using Various Meat Cuts and Meat Types

BEEF MEAT CUTS COOKING METHODS


Brisket Punta Y Pecho Simmer, corned beef
Chuck Paypay Braise, simmer, pot
Flank Kampto on kabilugan Roast
Fore shank Ken chi Stew
Hind shank Ken chi Stew, braise
Loin end Kadera Stew, braise
Plate Tadyang on liempo Broil, roast, steak
Neck Leeg Stew, fry, broil
Ribs Castillas Fry, boil
Round Pierna Corta Broil, roast
Rump Tapadera Braise, roast
Short loin Kadera Braise, roast
Broil, steak
PORK MEAT CUTS COOKING METHODS
Ham Pigi Roast, broil, pan broil,
Shoulder Butt fry
Hock Roast, broil, pan broil,
Leg Pata fry
Shank Ken chi Boil, stew, braise
Sirloin Braise, stew, boil
Head Ulo Stew, braise, boil
Picnic Kasim Roast, broil, fry
Loin Lomo Braise, stew
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 45
Broil, roast, fry
Broil, roast, pan broil

LAMB MEAT CUTS COOKING METHODS


Fore shank Ken chi Stew, braise
Loin Lomo Roast, Broil
Shoulder Butt Roast
Rib Costillas Stew, Braise
Hind Shank Roast
Leg Chops Steak
Ribs Roast

SUGGESTED
ORGAN LOCAL NAME SOURCE RECIPES OF
COOKING METHOD
Tongue Dila Beef and Pork Pastel de Lengua pie
Tripe Tuwalya Beef Meudo, goto, callos
Librilyo Libro-libro or Beef Kilawin
tuwalya
Liver Atay Beef and pork Sarsa ng lechon
Braise, kilawin,
batchoy
Brain Utak Beef and pork Misua soup
Heart Puso Beef and pork Kilawin, batchoy
Lungs Baga Beef and pork Kilawin, bopis
Kidney Bato Beef and pork Batchoy, bopis
Blood Dugo Pork and beef Dinuguan
Ears Tenga Pork and beef Tokwa, kilawin
Skin Balat Pork and beef Sitsaron
COOKING RANGE OF MEAT DISHES

APPROXIMATE BROILING TIME FOR SOME CUTS OF MEAT

TOTAL MINUTES
CUT THICKNESS WEIGHT TO COOK AT
350°F
Beef
Club Steak 1-1½ inches 1-1¼ pounds 15-30¹
Porterhouse 1-1½ inches 2-2½ pounds 20-35¹
Steak 1-1½ inches 1½-2 pounds 20-30¹
T-bone Steak 1-2 inches 3-4¼ pounds 20-35¹
Sirloin Steak ¼ pounds 15-25¹
Ground Beef
Patties
Lamb
Chop 1-1½ inches 3-5 ounces 12–22
Ground Patty 4 ounces 18

Ham
Slice, ½ - 1inches 1-2 pouch 20-30
Untenderized ½ - 1 inches 1-2 pouch 10-20
Slice, Tenderized 3-5
Bacon 3-5
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 46
Canadian
Bacon
Organ Meats
Liver ½ - ¾ inch 3-5 ounces 6

APPROXIMATE ROASTING TIME FOR SOME CUTS OF MEAT

CUT MINUTES PER POUND


Beef
Standing Ribs
Rare 18 to 20 at 300°F.
Medium 22 to 25 at 300°F.
Well-done 30 to 35 at 300°F.
Rolled Ribs
Rare 28 to 32 at 300°F.
Medium 32 to 38 at 300°F.
Well- done 40 to 48 at 300°F.
Veal
Leg 22 to 25 at 300°F.
Loin 30 to 35 at 300°F.
Shoulder 30 to 35 at 300°F.
Lamb
Leg 30 to 35 at 300°F.
Shoulder-Roll 40 to 45 at 300°F.
Shoulder-Cushion 30 to 35 at 300°F.
Pork
Cured Untenderized Ham 25 to 28 at 300°F.
Cured Tenderized Ham 15 at 300°F.
Fresh Loin 30 to 35 at 350°F.
Fresh
Shoulder 35 to 40 at 350°F.

CARVING MEAT

Meat carving is the process and skill of cutting portions of meat, such
as roast and poultry, to obtain a maximum or satisfactory number of meat
portions, using a carving knife or meat-slicing machine. A meat carver
disjoints the meat and slices in uniform portions. Meat carving is sometimes
considered a skill for the private dinner table.

TOOLS IN CARVING

There are only few tools required for carving. A razon-sharped knife
and a fork are needed. The first platter should be large enough to hold the
roast as well as the carved meat and the second platter for the slicers.

TECHNIQUES IN CARVING

23 Select an appropriate meat cut. Choose larger cuts of meat such as


roasts since they are firmer, easier to carve, and loose fewer juices
when cut. Meat which has had some or all of the bones removed will
generally be easier to carve.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 47
23 Cook to appropriate doneness. Beef roasts which are medium-rare or
medium are easier to carve than those which are well done. (See
temperature table in Cooking and Preparation)
24 Let rare roasts "set" for about ten minutes before carving. This will
allow the roast to become a little more firm and it will lose fewer meat
juices when carved.
25 Remove strings, skewers, etc. in the kitchen. However if you are
carving a stuffed roast or a rolled piece of meat which may fall apart
when carving, leave one or two of the strings tied around the roast
while carving.
26 Allow elbow room at table for the carver.
27 Be comfortable - stand or sit. You may find carving easier while
standing as you will be able to apply greater pressure to the carving
knife.

Carving

23 Anchor meat with a fork while carving. Try to avoid puncturing the
roast too many times as some of the meat juices will escape with each
puncture.
24 Carve on a large plastic or wood carving board. If possible carve on
a board with a "well" or a "lip" to catch the meat juices
25 Carve with a thin bladed, sharp knife.
26 Carve uniform, attractive slices perpendicular to the grain of the
meat. Carving perpendicular to the meat grain may not be possible
when carving poultry. In general, meat slices should be 1/4 to 1/2
inch thick.
27 Finish carving then serve meat on hot plates.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions

23 What are the cooking methods of the various cuts of beef?


24 What are the tools used in carving meat?

REFERENCES:

De Leon, Sonia Y. Ph. D. et al., BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO, 1999, pp. 231-
253
Lewis, Dora S. et al.., FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY REVISED
EDITION, 1955
Navarro, Leticia S. et al., HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND ME III; FOOD
MANAGEMENT AND CONSUMERISM, pp. 33-36
Activity Sheet 3.1

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 48


SUGGESTED RECIPES:

BEEF CURRY

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 2 pounds chuck, cut into 1” cubes
gas or electric stove ½ cup water or beef stock
knife 1 tbsp. vinegar
chopping board 3 tbsp. canola oil
measuring cup 1 tsp. cinnamon
measuring spoon 2 cloves garlic
wooden spoon 1 cup coconut milk
1 small onion, sliced thin
1 tbsp. patis
1 tbsp. grated ginger
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 tbsp. curry powder
1 tsp. salt

PROCEDURE:

23 Heat oil in skillet, over medium high heat. Brown beef cubes on all
sides, a few pieces at a time. Set aside in a bowl.
24 In same skillet, brown garlic in remaining oil, add to beef cubes in
bowl. Add onion and leave alone until they are brown and
caramelized, about 3
– 5 minutes. Stir in ginger and curry powder until mixture is well
browned.
25 Return beef cubes to the pan. Add water, vinegar and cinnamon;
simmer covered, and cook until broth thickens, about 5 minutes.
Taste and complete the seasoning.
Preparation and cooking time: 60 minutes

Activity Sheet 3.2

GRILLED MARINATED BEEF TENDERLOIN WITH SWEET POTATO


PUREE AND WARM CHIPOTLE SALSA

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
blender 2kg Beef tenderloin
refrigerator 60 g Onion, chopped fine
knife 1clove Garlic, chopped fine
chopping board 30 ml Chile powder
mixing bowl 5 ml Salt
wooden spoon 2ml Dried oregano
oven 1ml Ground cumin
electric grill 0.5 ml Cinnamon
measuring cup 60 ml Lime juice
30 ml Olive oil
1 clove Garlic unpeeled
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 49
500 g Plum tomatoes or small tomatoes
2 can Whole chipotle chiles in adobo
10-15 ml Sauce from the can chiles
1.5kg Sweet potato
to taste Salt

PROCEDURE:
23 Trim fat and membranes from the tenderloin.
24 Mix together the onion, garlic, powdered chile, salt, oregano, cumin,
cinnamon, lime juice and oil.
25 Coat the meat with this mixture. Wrap and refrigerate several hours or
overnight.
26 Roast the garlic and tomatoes in an oven preheated to 450ºF (239ºC)
for 10 minutes.
27 Remove the skin from tomatoes and garlic, place them in a blender.
28 Carefully cut open the chiles. Scrape out and discard the seeds.
Chopped the chiles.
29 Add the chiles, salt, and the sauce from the chiles to the blender.
Blend to make a coarse puree. Add more salt if needed.
30 Bake the sweet potatoes at 400ºF (200ºC) until soft. Cut in half and
scoop out the flesh. Pass through a food mill to puree. Season lightly.
31 Scrape the onions and garlic off the meat (they will burn if left on).
32 Grill the meat until just well done. Be careful not to overcook, or the
meat will be dry.
33 To serve, place 3oz (90g) sweet potato puree on the plate. Slice the
meat across the grain into medallions. Arrange 5oz (150g) meat on top
of the sweet potato. Drizzle with 1 ½ oz (45mL) tomato chipotle salsa.

Activity Sheet 3.3


BEEF
STEW

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 2 pounds stewing beef, cubed
gas or electric stove 1 cup hot water, 1 bay leaf
knife 1/3 cup flour
chopping board 2 pcs. potatoes, diced
measuring cup 3 tbsp. canola oil
measuring spoon 2 pcs carrots, diced
wooden spoon 1 large onion chopped
saucepan 1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 stalk celery stalk chopped
1 cup canned of chopped fresh tomatoes
1 tbsp. soy Worcestershire sauce
2 tbsp chopped parsley
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 50
PROCEDURE:

23 Coat beef cubes thoroughly with flour. In a heavy saucepan heat the
oil over medium high heat, brown beef on all slides, a handful at a
time. Set aside
24 Sauté garlic, onions, and tomatoes for 5 minutes until mushy. Return
beef to saucepan, add water and bay leaf, cover tightly, simmer 1 to 2
hours until beef is tender, stirring occasionally. Add ½-1 cup more
water as needed.
25 Add potatoes, carrots, celery, salt pepper and soy sauce, simmer for 30
minutes until potatoes are done. Taste and correct seasoning.
26 Thicken broth with 2 tbsp flour dissolved in 4 tbsp water. If necessary.
Stir the solution into broth until well blended for about 5-7 minutes

Preparation and cooking time: 2 hours, 30 minutes Serve 6 to 8

Cooking Tips: For stewing beef, coat the beef cubes lightly with flour
before cooking to increase the amount of browning and help thicken the
broth. Browning the beef cubes before adding liquid gives beef stew a rich
color and flavor. Brown beef in batches to avoid overcrowding the pan.

BEEF
TAPA
(Fried Seasoned Beef)

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 2 to ½ flank steak
gas or electric stove pounds
knife 2 tsp. salt
chopping board 2 tbsp. brown sugar
measuring cup ¼ cup vinegar
measuring spoon ¼ tsp. ground pepper
wooden spoon 3 cloves garlic, crushed
frying pan canola oil for frying
mixing bowl
brush
pan
refrigerator

PROCEDURE

5888 Cut flank steak in half lengthwise, cut each half crosswise into
thin slices. Pound slices, between wax paper, with a small iron
skillet until very thin.
5889 In a large bowl, combine remaining ingredients, except oil, add
beef slices and marinate, covered, in the refrigerator for at least one
day or overnight.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 51
23 To cook, place a large cast iron skillet over minute more. Place meat
in a single layer in skillet, well spaced so slices don’t touch each
other, cook for 30 to 60 seconds on each side or until browned.
Keep heat on medium high while frying meat so beef does not stew
and become tough.
24 Transfer meat to plate, repeat with remaining slices. Brush pan
with small amount of canola oil before placing new layer of beef to
prevent meat from sticking to the pan. Cook until all the meat is
fried.

Preparation and cooking time: 45 minutes

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Prepare and cook meat dishes and rate your finished
products using the score card below. ( Group Activity)

SCORE CARD
EVALUATION OF FINISHED PRODUCT

NAME OF RECIPE: ______________________________________

Good Fair Poor


(5) (3) (1)

1. Product
a. General Appearance: _____ _____
_____
 attractive and appealing to
appetite
 pleasing and good color _____ _____ _____
 ingredients cooked just
right; _____ _____ _____
b. Palatability:
 delicious taste _____ _____ _____
 moderately delicious _____ _____ _____
c. Nutritive Value
 highly nutritious _____ _____ _____

2. Procedure
a. Use of Resources:
 used complete utensils _____ _____ _____
 used only the proper ingredients _____ _____ _____
needed
b. Cleanliness and Sanitation
 well-groomed and properly
dressed _____ _____ _____
c. Conservation of Nutrients
 preparation and cooking
procedure _____ _____ _____
 following the recipe correctly _____ _____ _____

Comments: _____________________________________________________________
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 52
RESOURCES:

Tools and equipment


knives
oven
chopper
chopping board
frying pan
casserole
ladle
platter
Ingredients for the recipe

REFERENCES:

De Leon, Sonia Y. Ph. D. et al., BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO, 1999, pp. 231-
253

Lewis, Dora S. et al.., FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY REVISED


EDITION, 1955

Navarro, Leticia S. et al., HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND ME III; FOOD


MANAGEMENT AND CONSUMERISM, pp. 33-36

LESSON 4

STORING MEAT

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the proper storage and thawing of meat.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

5888 Fresh and plastic vacuum-packed meat are stored


correctly according to health regulations.
5889 Fresh meats are aged and stored properly to maximize and
maintain quality.
5890 Frozen meats are thawed in accordance with enterprise
procedures.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
perishable – food that gets easily spoiled or decayed
freeze – to preserve meat by refrigeration below freezing point
frozen – subject to long and serve cold, chilly or cold manner
thaw – to become liquid or soft due to the temperature rising above
freezing point
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 53
Information Sheet 4.1

Fresh meat spoils quickly so it must be stored immediately. If the meat is


going to be used within a few days (2-4days) it must be kept in the chiller
section of the refrigerator. If you intend to keep it longer, store in the freezer.

Principles and Practices of Storing, Freezing and Aging of Meat.

Because meat is a highly perishable food item, extra care and attention
are needed to ensure that a high quality, wholesome product is served.
Unwholesome and spoiled meat are caused by bacteria and other
microorganisms. This contamination generally occurs during cutting and
processing. These bacteria require three conditions for growth.

23 Low acidity (near neutral pH) level within the meat.


24 Inadequate supply of water or other moisture, such as meat juices;
25 A warm temperature – generally between 45 degrees and 127 F.

To prevent spoilage and the possibility of food borne illness,


precautionary measures must be taken to control these three factors.

The safety measures to be followed vary depending on the form or type


of meat product.

Fresh Meat. Keep fresh meat refrigerated at temperature of 38 degrees to


40F for as much time possible. It is best to select fresh meat items last when
shopping.
23 Store fresh meat in the coldest part of the refrigerator.
24 Use a thermometer to locate the best spot.
25 Leave the meat in its original wrapping if it is to be used within two
days.
26 For a longer storage, rewrap the meat.

Cooked Meat. Cool cooked meat as rapidly as possible to minimize the time
spent in the “warm” temperature range which is optimum for bacterial
growth. This can be done by:
23 Providing plenty of air circulation around the meat.
24 Placing the meat in a pot, or boiling and immersing it in cold water.

All cooked meat should be used within a week of the initial


preparation, or properly wrapped and frozen for later use.

Cured Meat. Cured, smoked, and ready to eat meats include ham, bacon,
smoked pork and sausage products. The heating, smoking and processing of
these items inactivate most bacteria and enzymes. Leave these products in
their original wrapping to prevent further contamination. Do not freeze
luncheon meat.

Canned Meat. Canned meats come in two varieties- those that require
refrigeration, such as hams, and those that do not, such as chili con carne,
corned beef and dried meats. The best rule to follow for storage is to read the
can label carefully and follow instructions. Most canned meat that do not
require refrigeration have relatively long shelf life. Canned meat should never
be frozen.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 54


Frozen Meat. Meat can be stored for longer periods of time frozen at -10of or
below. After the meat is frozen, maintain the temperature at 0oF or lower.
Most chest – type and side by side freezers are able to maintain this
temperature while most ice compartments in refrigerators do not. Therefore,
it is not recommended to store meat in the ice compartments.

Limit freezer storage time on all meats to maintain their optimum


quality and freshness. Freezing meat will not improve its quality, but it will
retain its natural color, flavor, texture and nutritional value.

How to Freeze Meat

The first step in successful freezing is choosing a high quality product.


Freezer storage will not improve the quality of meats so it is advisable to
choose cuts that are brightly colored, well-marbled and fresh.

Before wrapping, trim away excess fat and bone to make a smaller
package that is less likely to tear. Select a wrapping material that is air and
moisture proof, such as a freezer type paper, aluminum foil, and plastic wrap
or airtight casserole dishes. Wrap only the amount needed per meal to help
cut down leftovers. Place wax paper between chops, steaks and patties so
they can be separated while still frozen.

Use an air and moisture proof wrapping material, such as freezer


paper, aluminum foil or plastic wrap.

Wrapping instructions

23 Place meat in the center of wrapping material. With several cuts,


place an interleaf of waxed paper between cuts for easier
separation. Large cuts may need to be divided for easier thawing
and preparation.

24 Bring the edges of the wrap together and fold at least twice.

25 Smooth the wrapping material against the meat to force air out.
Smooth the ends of the wrap and fold them into triangles. Ends
may be double folded toward the package to seal out air.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 55


23 Fold the ends under the package and seal with freezer tape. Label
each package with the name of the cut, date and numbers of
servings or weight.

The last but most important step is to label all packages with the
contents, weight and/or number of serving and date. This will help in the
use of a “First-in, first-out” system.

Maximum Storage Recommendations for Fresh, Cooked and Processed


Meats.

Meat Refrigerator Freezer**

Beef (fresh) 2 to 4 days 6 to 12 months


Veal (fresh) 2 to 4 days 6 to 9 months
Pork (fresh) 2 to 4 days 3 to 6 months
Lamb (fresh) 2 to 4 days 6 to 9 months
Ground beef, veal, and lamb 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
Ground pork 1 to 2 days 1 to 3 months
Variety meats 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
Luncheon meats 1 week Not recommended
Sausage, fresh pork 1 week 60 days
Frankfurters 4 to 5 days 1 month
Bacon 5 to 7 days 1 month
Smoked ham, whole 1 week 60 days
Ham slices 3 to 4 days 60 days
Beef, corned 1 week 2 weeks
Leftover cooked meat 1 week 2 to 3 months
Sausage, smoked 3 to 7 days
Sausage, dry & semi-dry 2 to 3 weeks
(unsliced)
Meat pies (cooked) 3 months
Swiss steak (cooked) 3 months
Stews (cooked) 3 to 4 months
Prepared meat dinners 2 to 6 months

Thawing Frozen Meat

Thaw frozen meat slowly in the refrigerator, allowing approximately 3


to 7 hours per pound depending on the size and thickness of the cut. Frozen
meats need not to be thawed before preparation, but cooking time will
increase it by 15 to 20 minutes per pound.

Aging Meat

Aging. Aging of meats, particularly beef is a time-honored practice


improving palatability in temperate countries. This practice improves the
tenderness and flavor of meat. There are two general methods of aging: dry
and wet
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 56
Dry Aging. Dry aging is the original method. This is carried out in
controlled environment with temperatures of 0° to 2°C, 80 to 85%
relative humidity air flow of 0.5 to 2.0 m per second for 3 to 4 weeks.
The uncovered meat is hung in rails in controlled rooms. During this
time, enzymes within meat are tenderer. Some disadvantage of this
method is the time element, and the weight losses from both the
evaporated water and the trimming of the crust that forms. However,
this is the preferred method of most professional chefs because of the
flavor advantage.

Wet Aging. Wet aging is done when the meat cuts are vacuum packed
in waterproof-plastic materials and boxed for distribution. The package
barrier prevents moisture and weight loss. The aging happens during
the transportation and/ storage of the packed chilled meat.

There is a debate as to which is the better method. The answer is best


determined by analyzing the costs and the benefits of each of the
methods. Wet aging wins out in convenience and cost but dry aging is
the method preferred by fine dining customers who are capable of
paying for the extra cost.

Hanging Method. The Method of hanging the carcass during aging


and or chilling has been found to affect tenderness as well. The
common practice is to hang carcass by the heel of the hind leg. A
method develop in New Zealand is that of hanging by the pelvic girdle,
so the carcass looks like it is standing in its natural way. It was found
out that this method leads to more tender meat apparently due to the
fact that the muscle fibers stretches and thins out making them more
tender.

SELF- CHECK
Direction: Answer the following questions in one half sheet of paper.

23 What is aging?
24 Why is aging applied to meat?
25 What are the two general methods of aging?

Direction: Demonstrate how to freeze meat. Follow the wrapping


instructions (Group Activity)

RESOURCES:
Raw Materials
5888 Fresh pork
5889 Fresh beef/ veal

Equipment
0 Freezer
1 Refrigerator
Supply and Materials

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 57


0 Freezer type paper
1 Aluminum foil
2 Plastic wrap
3 Airtight casserole dishes

REFERENCES:

ᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀĀȀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ0 De Leon, Sonia Y.,


Ph. D. et al., Basic Foods For Filipino, 1999, 231-253
ᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀĀȀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ1 Sandoval, Maria
Theresa G., Culinary Arts 1 and 2, 1992, 87-89
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 58
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: PREPARE PORTION-CONTROLLED MEAT CUTS

Module No.: 3 Module Title: Preparing Portion-Controlled Meat Cuts


Nominal Duration: 5O Hrs.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 59


PREPARE PORTION-CONTROLLED MEAT CUTS Module

Title: PREPARING PORTION-CONTROLLED MEAT CUTS Module

Introduction:

This module deals with the specialized skills, attitudes, and knowledge
required to select quality meats, to break down primary and secondary cuts
into portions, and to prepare a selection of meat products.

Expected Outcome

After completing the module, you should be able to:


0 purchase good quality meat;
1 prepare and produce a variety of portion-controlled meats;
2 prepare and produce meat products; and
3 store meat cuts and meat products.

PRE-TEST

Direction: Answer the following questions. Write only the letter of the
correct answer.

0 To which meat cut do internal organs belong?


0.0 less tender cuts
0.1 tender cuts
0.2 tough cuts
0.3 variety cuts

1 Where should meat products be stored?


1.0 crisper
1.1 dry shelf
1.2 freezer
1.3 cold shelf

2 Which of the following is the most tender cut of beef?


2.0 chunk
2.1 tenderloin
2.2 sirloin
2.3 round cut

3 When buying meats, you should first consider its _____________.


3.0 price
3.1 quality
3.2 brand
3.3 round cut

4 What is your primary consideration when storing goods?


4.0 size
4.1 expiration date
4.2 fragility
4.3 quantity
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 60
0These are taken from the internal organs of animals.
0 variety cuts
1 less tender cuts
2 tough cuts
3 tender cuts

1A slaughtered animal is called ______________.


0 a carabeef
1 a pork
2 a poultry
3 a carcass

2The most common method of preserving meat is________________.


0 salting
1 refrigerating
2 curing
3 drying

3In this method, salt, sugar, potassium or sodium nitrate etc. are used in
preserving meat
0 drying
1 curing
2 freezing
3 salting

4The following are the characteristics of good quality pork, except


_____________.
0 breast is plump
1 flesh is pink
2 no foul odor
3 texture is fine and firm

LESSON 1

PURCHASING QUALITY MEAT

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals on purchasing meat in the market based on quality


specifications and request.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

0 Meats are purchased based on quality specifications and


standard.
1 Wastes are minimized through appropriate purchase and storing
techniques.
2 Meats are inspected for signs of parasitic infections and other
contamination.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 61
DEFINITION OF TERMS

staple - a principal raw material or commodity


perishable – subject to decay or spoilage.
stamped – inspected the product for approval
contamination – unintended presence of a harmful substance or
disease-causing microorganisms in food.
HACCCP – a food safety system that focuses on the flow of food in a food-
service operation to reduce the risk of food borne outbreaks.
Aerobic – microorganism that can live with air.

HACCCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.


NMIS – National Meat Inspection Service

Information Sheet 1.1

Purchasing of meat

Purchasing involves obtaining the necessary foods in the right


quantity, and quality, at the right time, the right place, and for the most
economical price. A quality-control program in food establishment should
ensure that only food which meet written specifications are purchased from
reputable vendors. The best purchaser considers price, supply, demand,
transportation and storage cost before placing an order. Food can easily
become contaminated during the various stages of the food flow from
purchasing, storing, preparation, holding, and serving. Time and correct
temperature need to be monitored closely.
The money paid for purchasing food items determine largely the costs
that the patrons have to pay. The quality of the food offered will depend upon
the grades, type and characteristics of the food item that is purchased. It is
important that the ones who buy food item and supplies has experience in
the food business. He or she should be knowledgeable on the basic cuts of
meat. He or she must also be familiar with the markets, crop conditions, and
current trends.

Consumer Aids

A good shopper knows how to get better value for his or her money.
There are consumer aids available to help you shop wisely. These include
advertising, coupons, labels, unit pricing, and open dating.

Advertising. Is a form of communication used to persuade an


audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to
products, ideas, or services. Advertising messages are usually paid for by
sponsors and viewed via
various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper,
magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising
or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages.

Food labels. Labels could help you identify the food, inform you about
the form, nutritional content, additives if any, and dietary properties. The
name and
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 62
address of the manufacturer or the packer-distributor should be printed
clearly. The net content of the product is usually given in metric units.
However, if the ingredients are not listed on the label, it means that a
standard of identity has been set up for that particular product.

Unit pricing. This is the cost per gram or item. This system helps you
make choices in terms of cost.

Open dating. This consumer aid helps the shopper judge the
freshness of the food. This refers to the date appearing on packaged foods,
which can be easily read and understood. Usually you find these dates on
perishable products such as bread, dairy foods, and refrigerated or ready-to
–cook foods. Keep in mind that open dating does not ensure freshness.
Storage, handling, and temperature affect the quality of the food.

Buying Meat

The most common fresh meat available in our markets are beef, pork,
and entrails. The entrails of a variety of meat include edible internal organs
such as the liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, spleen, tripe, intestines, and brain.
These are usually cheaper than other meats and can be cooked in many
ways such as dinuguan, bachoy, or callos.

Ways to Purchase Food

Food is purchased through open market, sealed-bid buying, contract


buying, and future buying.

Open market. Foods, particularly perishables are bought from one


vendor to another offering the lowest price. Open market purchasing may be
done through orders or by going directly to the market.

Sealed-bid buying. Government agencies and some institutions are


required to purchase goods or supplies under sealed bids. Sealed bids
contain the list of commodities and the prices requested by the purchasing
institutions. Bids come from two or more vendors. When bids are opened,
award is given to the lowest bidder. However, this type of purchase is not
reliable. Red tape or a lot of paper work is involved, prices are unreasonably
raised, and there is a possibility of favoritism.

Contract buying. Perishable goods and staples like bread, flour,


spices, condiments, and grocery items purchased under this method provide
quality and consistent prices.

Future buying. Large establishments buy their food supplies under a


contract that has been agreed upon. Prices are set when the orders are
placed. Contract is good for thirty days delivery. This type of buying is good
for canned goods and non-perishable items.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 63
Where to shop

Food is sold in large and small grocery stores. Large shopping malls
may have a wide selection of food items you need.
Supermarkets. These operate on a self-service basis. They vary in
size. Most carry general merchandise ranging from drugs and beauty items
to clothing.
Clubs and cooperatives. These associations are composed of
neighborhood residents who buy direct from wholesalers and, thereby, save
money. This is an economical way to buy food if well organized and run
efficiently.
24-hour convenience stores. These are neighborhood self-service
stores or large supermarkets, open 24 hours a day for consumer
convenience. Prices may be slightly higher because of increased costs of
staying open all day all night.
Specialty stores. These stores specialize in one type of food like dairy
stores, bakeries, meat shops, cheese stores, and ethnic food stores.
Delicatessens. These establishments sell ready–to-eat foods such as
meat, cheese, sausage, barbecues, and salads. Some may sell ethnic foods.
Wet markets. These are large markets selling products outdoors.
There are many different vendors, each with a separate counter or stall.
Roadside stands. These are stalls along the road selling products
abundant during harvest season only. Most products are picked fresh but
are not refrigerated so products may lose quality.
Pick-your-own. Some farms allow buyers to pick or harvest by
themselves.
The strawberry farm in Baguio is an example of this.

Classification of Food Purchases:

0 Perishable foods – are usually bought in open markets.


1 Staple foods – are generally purchased under contract from
supermarkets or groceries under contract. Ex. Flour, sugar, etc.
2 Contract items – are purchased on a contractual, basis. Food items
are delivered as ordered and paid within the duration of the contract.
Ex. Bread, rice, etc.

Factors that Determine Quality of Meat:


The species of animals
The quality of animal feeds
The health of the animal
The treatment before slaughtering
The sanitation in the slaughter house, packing plant and food service
facility
The bleeding and skinning process
The chilling process of the slaughtered carcass
The sanitation, temperature and the condition of meat cutting and
processing area
The sanitation of equipment and implements in the kitchen
The conditions of the distribution system
The temperature control all work, distribution and storage system

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 64


MEAT PRODUCT ACCEPT CRITERIA REJECT CRITERIA OTHER CRITERIA
Receive at 40°F or Beef Color: Color: Meat must display
lower Bright cherry red Brown or greenish, mandatory
Lamb Color: brown, green of inspection stamps
light red purple blotches; indicating that it
Pork Color: white or green spots has been inspected
pink lean meat Texture: for sanitary
white fat Broken cartons, standards by the
Texture: dirty wrapper, or Department of
Firm and springs torn packaging Agriculture
back when touch
Grading stamps on
the product indicate
the level of quality
and are not
mandatory

Meat Inspection and Grading


Inspection and grading of meat provide protection and many benefits to
consumers, farmers, processors and distributors.
Meat inspection is a requirement in every packing house or processing
plant throughout the world. Rigid standard and processing under sanitary
conditions are enforced. They are all stamped to indicate fitness for human
consumption.
The examples are live animals prior to slaughter, as well as animal
carcasses.
The safety of meat supply in the Philippines is the responsibility of the
National Meat Inspection Service, an agency of the Department of Agriculture.
Republic Act 9296 signed into law in May 2004, embodies the protection of
human and animal health against hazards in meat from farm produce to
processed meats. The law specifically mentions the application of the HACCP
approach to ensure meat safety.
The NMIS has put in place a system of accrediting slaughterhouses and
dressing plants in the country. Those with AAA accreditation are allowed to
export their products; those with AA are allowed to bring the meat to other
provinces and regions in the country. Those with A rating are allowed to sell
within the province. Unfortunately, there are still many slaughterhouses that
have not been accredited. Furthermore, in many communities, animal may be
slaughtered even without the benefit of a sanitary inspector.

Sources of Contamination in Food

0Botulism – is caused by aerobic bacteria


1Staphylococcus – it is caused by facultative bacteria found in the nose,
throat and infection of human.
2Porfringens – symptoms are diarrhea, nausea, cramps, possible fever and
vomiting
3Salmonellosis – occur within 6- 48 hours
4Streptococcus – occurs within four days. Symptom is nausea.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 65
Key concerns of fresh meat safety are presence of parasitism,
contamination with pathogens due to improper slaughter methods and
unsanitary handling. For cooked meat, the issues may be the meat is not
properly cooked.
Routing meat inspection looks for signs of parasitic infection so heavily
infested meats are condemned. Parasites undetected during such routine
examination are easily killed by adequate cooking.

Safe Cooking Temperatures for various meat


MEAT °C °F

Beef, rare 52 125

Beef, medium 57 135

Beef, medium well 68 155

Beef, well done 71 160

Ground beef 74 165

Pork 71 160

SELF-CHECK

A. Direction: On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following


questions

4 What are the aids to consumers that can help them shop wisely?
5 What are the ways to purchase meat? Which do you think is the best
place to buy quality meat? Explain
6 How can you tell if the meat is in good conditions?
7 Why is meat considered hazardous when not properly handled?
8 Why should pork be well cooked?

B. Direction: Do the following activities

Prepare a market list of food items needed in the recipe. Classify your list
accordingly.
Do the marketing from your family. Record the cost of each item you
bought. Describe the quality of each.

RESOURCES:

Ingredients for the recipe

REFERENCES:

Lilia L. Chavez, Sonia Y. De Leon and Virginia S. Claudio;


BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS 4th Editions
pp. 56 - 60
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 66
LESSON 2

PREPARING AND PRODUCING A VARIETY OF PORTIONED


AND CONTROLLED MEAT

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals on how to select, prepare, and produce a range of


portioned controlled meat.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Suitable ingredients and utensils are specified and selected


according to recipes.
Meats are precisely cut to required portion size.
Portion-controlled meats are weighed, trimmed, and boned in
accordance with enterprise recipes.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
emince – trim away thin pieces
flank – the fleshy section of the side between the last rib and hip cured - to
preserve meat as by salting, smoking and aging.

Information Sheet 2.1

CUTTING MEAT

The process requires skills. The meat cutter must know something
about the anatomy of animals and the methods of fabrication. The ability to
identify the characteristics of the muscles in the tissues between them, the
shapes and type of bones, the location and layer of fat will help the meat
cutter perform his task. He must also know the preparation methods for the
various cuts of meat. Proper use of tools and equipment and knowledge of
safety and sanitation practices will protect both the workers and the
customers.

Ingredients used for Preparing Meat Cuts

1. salt 6. anizado wine


2. black pepper 7. phosphate
3. praque powder 8. pickles
4. oil of anise 9. bayleaf
10.banana
5. oregano catsup
Utensils, Machinery and Equipment for Meat
Preparation

1. Slicers 6. Smokers
2. Knives 7. Pickling rate
Vacuum
3. Cleavers 8. packer
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 67
9. Robot
4.Saws coupe
5.Sausage casing machine

Trimming and Boning Pork Loin

← Remove all excess fat that covers the edge of the loin to expose the tips
of the ribs bones.
← Make smooth strokes along the bones to free the meat. Pull the meat
away to make it easy to see.
← When all the meat is freed from one side of the bones, turn the loin
over the free meat from the other side. Here, the tenderloin is being
gently cut from the bones.

Trimming and Cutting Beef Tenderloin

← Work the tip of a knife under the silver skin. Hold the end of the silver
skin tight against the meat and glide the knife blade just underneath.
Angle the blade upward slightly so that only the silver skin is cut
away.
← Cutting Emince - slice meat into evenly shaped pieces that are
approximately two inches square. Use a sharp knife to trim away thin
pieces, known as emince.

Boning a Leg of Veal

← Pull the flank away from the leg. Use a boning knife to cut through the
tissue and fat connecting the leg.
← Turn the leg and probe with knife and fingers to locate the pelvic and
knuckle bones connecting joint. Cut down to the joint and then
through the ligaments to separate these bones.
← Follow the meat’s natural seams and cut through the meat to the
bones. Cut and crape the meat away from all the bones as neatly as
possible.

Portion Control

← Submit the meat to a butcher’s test to determine the maximum


portions that could be sold.
← Cuttings should be done in accordance with the standard portioning
specified in the menu.
← Serve menu using standard portioning. Portion sizes will vary
depending on the type of restaurant and the price of the item.

Identifying Meat Cuts

How do you know which cut to buy? Meat cuts can be identified by
the shape of the bones. These bones are your clue as to which part of the
animal the meat comes from, how tender it is, and how it should be
cooked. Tender cuts are cooked with dry heat such as broiling, roasting,
or grilling. Less tender cuts must be cooked with moist heat such as stew
(nilaga) or casseroles with sauces.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 68
The more movement the muscle gets, the more it is developed and
the less tender it is. Muscle along the backbone gets very little movement.
Meat from that area is tender than meat from the shoulders, legs, breast,
and flanks.

MECHANICS OF COSTING
(Example)

Test Tools in Recipe Costing

← Price list/Inventory List


List of raw food items and their corresponding acquisition costs,
specifications, count or measure. This is the primary source of costs.

← Raw Food Tests. Count measure, weight and yield per unit of specific
food items.
How many Specification Cost

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 69


← Canned Food Test
Yield and actual cost of canned and bottled food items. Ex. Sliced
pineapple
1 can – Php 51.13 Specifications 10 cans Yield – 66-70 slices
Cost – Php 0.75/slice

SELF CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions; write your answer on your


test booklet

← Why is it important to use specified utensils in producing meat


cuts?
← Why is there a need to control portions of meat cuts for a
specified recipe?
← What are the steps in the mechanics of costing a specified
recipe?

REFERENCES

Gonzales, Gene, Sandique, Jill, FUNDAMENTALS OF


PROFESSIONAL COOKING AND BAKING – Revised
Edition, pp. 34-35

Chaves, Lilia L. et al., BUTCHERING PROCEDURE AND PROCESSING


MEAT Copyright 2006, pp. 36-40.

http://www.filipinofoodrecipes.net/

Activity Sheet 2.1

MORCON

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
beef, sliced 1/4 inch thick (3
Measuring spoon 1k pcs.)
Measuring cup ¼k ground beef liver
Knife 200 grams sliced sausages or ham
Weighing scale 200 grams pork fat (cut is strips)
Pot or pressure cooker 3 pcs. hard boiled eggs, sliced
100 grams cheddar cheese in strips
100 grams grated cheddar cheese
2 onions, chopped
5 pcs. bay leaf (laurel)
½ tsp ground black pepper
½ cup vinegar
2 tsp. salt
2 cups water
2 meters thread or string (for tying)
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 70
PROCEDURE:
Beef Morcon Cooking Instructions:
← Spread and stretch the sliced beef on your working table.
← Arrange the filling on the sliced beef: sausage strips, cheese strips,
sliced eggs, pork fat and some ground liver.
← Roll the sliced beef with all the filling inside and secure with a thread
or string.
← Repeat the procedure for the two remaining beef slices.
← On a pot, place the beef rolls and put the water, the remaining ground
liver, grated cheese, chopped onions, bay leaves, ground black pepper
and salt.
← Cover the pot and bring to a boil. Simmer for one hour.
← Add the vinegar and continue to simmer of another hour or until beef
is tender.
← Slice the beef morcon, arrange on a platter and top with the sauce/
gravy poured on top.
(Estimated cooking time: 2 to 3 hours.)

Cooking Tips:
A spoon or two of flour can be added to water to thicken the sauce.
Instead of boiling in a pot, you can use a pressure cooker for faster
cooking.
Optional: Garnish with olives before serving.

SELF CHECK

Direction:( Group Demonstration) Prepare the needed equipment,


utensils and ingredients in the laboratory activity and do the
following:

← boning meat
← trimming , slicing meat
← portioning meat cuts
← recipe for preparing the morcon

← From the table below, check if you have performed the following
steps in boning, trimming and cutting meat.

Steps in Boning, Trimming and


Cutting
Yes No
Meat

1.Trim off any visible fat or gristle

2.Remove all excess fat

3.Slice the meat evenly

4.Use boning knife to cut leg of meat

5.Cut and scrape the meat away from the


bones clearly

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 71


B. Evaluation criteria for a finished product.

1.Correctness of procedure – 40%


2.Quality of product - 40%
3.Sanitary preparation - 20%

100%

RESOURCES

Learning Materials:
Scoring sheet, ballpen , hand-outs and reference
Supplies and Materials:

Ingredients for the recipe

Utensils and Equipment


butcher’s Knife
paring knife
chopping board
measuring cups and spoon

REFERENCES

Gonzales, Gene, Sandique, Jill, FUNDAMENTALS OF


PROFESSIONAL COOKING AND BAKING – Revised Edition,
pp. 34-35

Chaves, Lilia L. et al., BUTCHERING PROCEDURE AND PROCESSING


MEAT Copyright 2006, pp. 36-40.

http://www.filipinofoodrecipes.net/

LESSON 3

PREPARING AND PRODUCING MEAT PRODUCTS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the preparation and production of meat


products. It includes the selection of ingredients, filling, flavoring and
marinades to enhance the flavor of meat products, and using proper
equipment and machineries based on the manufacturer’s manual and
enterprise.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 72
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

← Varieties of portion-controlled meat products are prepared using


suitable methods.
← Suitable ingredients are selected according to standard and
enterprise recipe requirements.
← Fillings, flavorings and marinades for processed meat products
are selected and used based on recipe requirements.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

marinade – a special liquid in which food is soaked before cooking entrees –


main course
coating – to cover with flour
processed food – preserved food
seasoning – addition of salt or black pepper to improve the flavor of food
combine – to mix the ingredients in the bowl

Information Sheet 3.1

Meat Dishes and Entrees

In the classical menu, the term entrée refers to the courses after the
Grosse piece. Basically, entrees are divided into cold entrees and hot entrees.
Today, however, the entrees are usually served as the main dish with
suitable vegetable and salad garnishes. Both hot and cold entrees are
frequently described as simple dishes on the menu, where they appear in
various categories, such as hot snacks garnishes for main dishes and
specialties of the day. The main difference between main grosses piece is that
the entries are cut up before being cooked. They do not require the same
methods of preparation as the grosses pieces which are prepared in single
large pieces. It is, therefore, not possible to group the two types of dishes in
the same category.

There are four kinds of doneness in meat:

← Rare – when pressed with a finger, the meat is very soft with jelly like
texture.
← Medium Rare – when pressed with a finger, meat feels springy and
resistant
← Medium – When pressed with a finger, meat feels firm and there is a
definite resistance.
← Well Done – when pressed with a finger the meat feels hard and rough.

Nutrient Content of Meat

Meat consists of water protein and fat, with a few minerals and some B
vitamins.

← Protein – High-quality protein is the major constituent of meat after


water, accounting for about 20 percent of its weight. Meat contains 7
grams of protein per ounce.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 73
← Fat –content can vary widely, according to the grade of meat and its
cut.
← Carbohydrates – Meat contains very little carbohydrates, glycogen,
found in liver and muscle tissue is present when the animal is alive,
but the glucose that makes up the glycogen is broken down to lactic
acid during and after slaughter.
← Vitamins – Meat is an excellent source of certain B vitamins – thiamin
(B), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), vitamin (B12) niacin and some
folate. Niacin is obtained from tryptophan, an amino acid plentiful in
meats and milk.
← Minerals – Meat is an excellent source of iron, zinc, copper,
phosphorous, and a few other trace minerals.

SELF CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions; write your answer in your


test booklet.

← How do you test doneness of meat?


← Enumerate and identify nutrients content of meat.

REFERENCES

Leuterio, Florida C., TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION FOR


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT , 2005, pp. 121

Brown, Amy, UNDERSTANDING FOOD PRINCIPLES AND PREPARATION


SECOND EDITION, pp. 275-280

Information Sheet 3.2

Basic Preparation Methods of Meat

← Washing
Generally the only occasion in which you will have to wash meat is when
it has come into contact with blood during preparation. After washing, dry
the food thoroughly with absorbent kitchen paper.

← Skinning
Most of the meat you dealt with has been already skin by the supplier.

← Dicing
Meat are diced when it is cut into cubes for various types of casseroles,
stems, and curries, and dishes such as steak and kidney pie and
pudding.

← Trimming
Do this carefully:
← Improve the appearance of the cut or joint
← Leave as much of the meat intact as possible.
← Leave an even thickness of fat (where fat is to be left). How much
fat you trim off will depend on the type of meat, preference, and
the cooking process to be used.
← Remove as much gristles and sinews as possible.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 74


← Slicing

← Seasoning
It is the addition of salt and white or black pepper to improve the flavor of
food.

← Use white pepper or cayenne pepper on food which you want to


keep attractive with white color.
← Add salt to roast and grill after the meat has browned – adding
salt before cooking will extract the juices of the meat to the
surface, and so slow down the browning reactions (which need
high temperature and dry heat).

← Coating
The two basic coatings are:
← Flour – coat the meat before cooking, otherwise the flour
becomes sticky and unpleasant.
← Bread crumbs – coat the meat in flour, then egg wash (egg wash
is made of lightly beaten whole egg with a little water/milk) and
finally with the bread crumbs.

Information Sheet 3.2

Meat Color and Meat Curing

The color of fresh meat is principally due to myglobin and to a lesser


extent hemoglobin. Myoglobin is a red solution protein present in the
muscle. All white hemoglobin is the red protein in blood. The biological
function of these two pigments protein is to combine reversibly with oxygen
to supply oxygen to the various body activities of the animals while alive.
During cookery or upon freezing for long periods, they become brown. Pink
may remain pink even upon cured. Curing is the process of mixing meat with
curing salt and sugar. This is true in the case of ham, bacon, and tocino.
Nitrate which is produced by oxidation of potassium nitrate reacts with the
myoglobin to form the nitrosomyoglobin which remains pink even after
cooking. Hence, cured meats are pink in color even after cooking.

Curing ingredients used in Processing Meat

curing salt
salt
sugar
nitrate
phosphate PT
anisado wine

Methods of Tenderizing Tough Meat Cuts


Mechanical Methods – This involves pounding the meat using a device
called meat tenderizer or a plain pestle as is practiced in making
Indonesian or

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 75


Chinese dried meat. Scoring, cutting into small portions, slicing into
very thin white section and by grinding are the usual procedure.
Marinating – is primarily for heightening the flavor of meat but has
tenderizing function as well. This is done by soaking meat in a solution
made up of vinegar, wine or other acidic ingredients such as
calamansi, salt and seasoning.
Use proteolytic enzymes. Certain plant, bacterial and fungal enzymes are
usually used to tenderize meat.

SELF CHECK

Direction: Explain the following:

How does suitable ingredient affect the curing of meat?


What is the importance of preparation methods to quality meat
products?

REFERENCES

Leuterio, Florida C., Technology and Livelihood Education for


Sustainable Development , 2005, pp. 121

Brown, Amy, Understanding Food Principles and Preparation


Second
Edition, pp. 275-280

Activity Sheet 3.1

Suggested Recipe:

LONGANIS
A
(Native)
TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS
EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
Measuring spoon 2 lbs. Lean pork meat (coarsely ground or
Measuring cup chopped)
pork fat (diced, coarsely ground or
Mixing bowl 1 lb. chopped)
Wooden spoon cloves garlic (crushed and chopped finely)
Refrigerator 5 cloves ground bay leaf, chopped
Plastic wrapper 1/3 tsp. salitre (available in drugstores)
String ¼tsp. brown sugar
3tsp. soy sauce
¼ cup vinegar
1/3 cup salt
1½ tsp. black pepper (powdered)
1tsp. red pepper (optional)
1tsp.

PROCEDURE:

Measure and combine all ingredients except casing.


Let stand for 1 – 2 hours (as in marinating the mixture).
Fill casing with mixture. Tie the ends of casing with string of 4 inches
interval.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 76


4. Refrigerate and let ripen for 2 days.

Activity Sheet 3.2

CORNED BEEF
(Meat Material - Beef, Carabeef, Chevon or Pork)

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
mixing bowl Curing Mix
wooden spoon (Cover pickle)
measuring cup 3 tbsp. 2cups Salt, refined
measuring spoon ½ tsp Water
pressure cooker 1 ½ tbsp Curing salt
casserole 1tsp Sugar, refined
knife 1tablet/500g Phosphate
chopping board ½ tsp Phosphate
Polyethylene bag Sodium Erythorbate
Ordinary plastic Seasoning
weighing scale Spices
refrigerator ½ tsp MSG (Monosodium Glutamate)
gas/electric stove 1tsp Pepper corn
1tsp Garlic, chopped powder
1-2 pcs Bayleaf
1tbsp Corned beef seasoning (optional)
few stands Oregano powder ¼ top
1cup Water
Beef seasoning (optional)
Packaging Polyethylene bag 6” x 8” (for ½ kg.
Materials package)
Ordinary plastic, 8” x 11”

PROCEDURE:

Select good quality raw materials.


Trim and weigh them.
Cut the meat into ½ -1 inch cubes.
Prepare curing mix (Cover pickle).
Soak meat in the cover pickle.
Cure either at room temperature for 8-10 hours or refrigerator
temperature for 1-2 days.
Wash the cured meat to remove excess salt.
Cook the meat together with spices wrapped in gauze either by the use of:
0 a pressure cooker for 45 min. to 1 hour at 15 bls. Pressure
1 an open fire (ordinary casserole)
Separate meat from broth.
10. Flake meat and remix broth and meat at a ratio of 3 parts broth
to 7
parts lean.
Product is now ready to eat as viand or be used as sandwich filling or can
be stored in freezer packed in P.E. bags.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 77
Activity Sheet 3.3

SKINLESS LONGGANISA

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
mixing bowl Curing
wooden spoon Ingredients
measuring cup 1tbsp Salt
measuring spoon ½ cups Curing salt
casserole 1tsp Phosphate
frying pan ¼ cups Water
knife Seasoning/
chopping board Spices
polyethylene bag 9-12 tsbp Sugar, refined
ordinary plastic ½ to 1tbsp Ground black pepper
weighing scale 2tbsp Garlic chopped
refrigerator 2tbsp Pineapple juice
grinder 2tbsp Anisado wine
gas/electric stove MSG (Monosodium Glutamate)
Paperlyne/ Plastic paper, cut into 6”
Packaging x
Materials 6” square
Polythylene bag, 6”x8” (for ½ kg
package)

PROCEDURE:

Select good quality raw materials.


Grind meat and fat.
Measure/ weigh all the ingredients separating curing ingredients and
seasoning.
Prepare curing ingredients with the meat until well blended.
Add the rest of the ingredients.
Cure either at room temperature for 8-10 hours or at refrigerator
temperature for 1-2days.
Wrap in paperlyne each piece weighing about 40 grams.
Pack in polyethylene bags.
Fry in cooking oil or store in freezer (2-4 months) or in refrigerator for one
week).

Activity Sheet 3.4

HAMBURGER

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
mixing bowl Meat
wooden spoon Material
measuring cup 500 g. Beef lean ground
measuring spoon 500 g. Pork, lean ground
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 78
casserole Curing mix
knife 1tbsp. Salt
chopping board 1tsp Phosphate
polyethylene bag ¼ cup Water
ordinary plastic Seasoning/
weighing scale Spices
refrigerator 1tbsp. Sugar
grinder 1tsp Celery powder
gas/electric stove 1cup Onion, chopped
1tbsp. Garlic chopped
½ to 1 tbsp. Black pepper, ground
4tbsp Flour
2pcs. Eggs, fresh
Paperlyne/ Plastic paper, cut into 6”
Packaging x
Materials 6” square
Polythylene bag, 6”x8” (for ½ kg
package)

PROCEDURE:
Select good quality raw materials.
Grind meat.
Measure/ weigh all the ingredients.
Add salt and phosphate in ½ cup water to the meat.
Mix until tacky.
Add the rest of the ingredients, mix until well blended.
Form into patties (50g wt or ¼ cup per patty) or pack into desire weight.
Freeze in package

Activity Sheet 3.5

TOCINO

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
mixing bowl 2lbs. pork ham
wooden spoon 1/4tsp Prague powder
measuring cup 1tsp. phosphate
measuring spoon 2tbsp. coarse salt
casserole 7 to 10 tbsp sugar
container 2tbsp. Anisado wine (or ground star
knife anise and/or
chopping board ½ tablet tablet ascorbic acid (250 mg)
weighing scale
refrigerator
gas/electric stove
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 79
PROCEDURE:

Slice the pork ham to about ¼ inch thickness.


Except for the meat, combine all ingredients in a container and mix well.
Apply the combined mixture to the meat by rubbing. Make sure that the
mixture is evenly distributed across the meat.
Place the mixed ingredients in a covered container.
Store the covered container (with meat and mixture) in room temperature for
14 hours. It may also be refrigerated but would take at least 3.5 days to
complete.

SELF CHECKED

Direction: (Group Demonstration)


Prepare the needed equipment, utensils, and ingredients in
the laboratory activity.

Native Longanisa
Corned Beef
Skinless Longanisa
Hamburger
Tocino

EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR FINISHED MEAT PRODUCTS

Good Fair Poor


Name of Recipe:
(3) (2) (1)
. Product
1. General Appearance:
a. Attractive and appealing to appetite
b. Pleasing and has a good color
combination
c. Ingredients are cooked just right
d. Correct consistency
2. Palatability
 Delicious taste
3. Nutritive value:
 Highly nutritious

2.Procedure
a. Use of resources:
 Working tables are kept orderly while
preparing the ingredients; used only the
proper and needed utensils and dishes;
 Use time saving techniques and devices
b. Cleanliness and Sanitation
 Well groomed and properly dressed for
cooking
 Sanitary handling of food
c. Conservation of Nutrients

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 80


Proper preparation and cooking procedures
Following the recipe correctly
SCORE (Maximum 42points)

Comments

RESOURCES:

Supplies and materials


0 Ingredients
1 Meat condiments

Tools/Utensils
0 Butcher’s knife
1 Paring knife
2 Chopping board
3 Measuring cups and spoons

REFERENCES

Leuterio, Florida C., TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION FOR


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT , 2005, pp. 121

Brown, Amy, UNDERSTANDING FOOD PRINCIPLES AND PREPARATION


SECOND EDITION, pp. 275-280

LESSON 4

STORING MEAT CUTS AND PROCESSED MEAT PRODUCTS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals on how to store meat cuts and meat products to avoid
food spoilage, and contamination in foods.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

1 Food spoilage is minimized through appropriate storage


techniques following enterprise regulations.
2 Quality of each cut and product is maintained through
appropriate storage techniques.
Meat preservation method is applied if appropriate.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 81


DEFINITION OF TERMS

perishable food – subject to decay or spoilage storage – a space for storing


spoilage – to become rotten or decayed
contamination – unintended presence of harmful substances or disease
causing microorganisms in food
sanitation – keeping the food equipment, utensils, and work area clean.
vermin – various small animals or insects such as rats or cockroaches that
are
destructive, annoying or hazardous to health.
food handling – any operation in the production, preparation, processing,
packaging, storage, transport, distribution and sale of food
decomposition – the state of being rotten or spoiled quality – characteristics
processed food – meat processed by curing ingredients

Information Sheet 4.1

Storage Procedures for Meat Products

Safe Storage - meat is among the most perishable foods. This perish ability
makes it a potentially hazardous food. At ambient temperatures, meat spoils
so fast. It is therefore necessary to keep it in chilled storage.

Storing - take time to store the food items. Store new purchases behind old
ones and always use the old stock first. It is easy to put new purchases at the
front. However, older stocks are overlooked and thus cause spoilage. These
may include cereal and cereal products, sweeteners, oils, seasonings, and
unopened cans and jars.
Do not use kitchen cabinets above the refrigerator, stove, or oven for
food storage.
Never use the area under the sink for storing food because openings
around water and drain pipes are impossible to seal. Pipes may leak and
damage the food.
If you reuse glass jars, wash them thoroughly, wipe, and air-dry before
using.
This helps remove any trace of odors that may remain.

Refrigerator storage. A refrigerator provides cold temperature for storing


perishable foods such as dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, fruits,
and vegetables.

Protein foods should be stored in the coldest part of the


refrigerator. Fruits and vegetables can be stored in less cold sections or
in a special compartment such as the crisper.

If refrigerated foods are not properly wrapped, they will dry out
and lose nutrients and flavor. Food should be well covered with plastic,
foil or wax paper, or should be put in tightly covered containers. Garlic
and sausages are strong-flavored foods and should be wrapped tightly in
plastic or foil and
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 82
stored in an air-tight container to prevent the transfer of aromas to
other foods.

Freezer storage. For proper freezing and storage, the temperature inside
the freezer should be 18ºC or lower.

Store frozen foods in their original packages. Foods to be frozen


should be put in moisture-vapor proof wrapping.

If plastic containers are used, allow about 2.5 cm of headspace


at the top between the food and the lid so the food can expand when if
freezes.

Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator. Do not allow food to thaw


at room temperature. At this point, microorganisms will begin to grow.

Our sanitary laws and regulations are so designed to safeguard


and promote health.

Bacteria are all around us, but they are so small that they
cannot be seen by the naked eye. There are hundreds of different kinds
of bacteria. Some harmless bacteria are useful and necessary such as
those essential in preparing cheese. Other bacteria are essential in
agriculture and industry. However, many types of bacteria are
dangerous and cause diseases if allowed to multiply and be
transmitted to humans.

Food contaminated with bacteria can make people sick. Some of


the common illnesses are salmonellosis, perfringens poisoning,
staphylococcal poisoning, and botulism.

Sanitation is the best preventive measure against food-borne


diseases. Sanitation means keeping bacteria out of food through
personal hygiene and proper handling procedures. It also means
keeping the food at proper temperatures so bacteria already present do
not have much chance to multiply.

Bacteria enter food in two ways. Some are naturally present in


food when you buy it. Others get in because of careless handling when
food is prepared and served. Bacteria cannot travel by themselves;
they are carried about by people, animals, and insects as well as
objects. Salmonella bacteria, for instance, can be found in food such
as raw meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. From these foods, the
bacteria contaminate other foods in the kitchen.

Staphylococcus bacteria are found not only in raw meat but in


food handlers with poor personal hygiene. The bacteria from food
handlers can be transmitted to the food through sneezing and
coughing.

Bacteria thrive on food, moisture, and the right temperature in


order to grow. With careless handling these growing conditions can
occur in any kitchen.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 83
SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

What are the types of storage used to minimize food spoilage?


What are the appropriate storage techniques used to maintain the
quality of meat products?

REFERENCES:

HOME TECHNOLOGY-FOOD MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE,MEAT AND


STORAGE OF FOOD, pp. 62-113

Chavez, Lilia C., Basic Foods for FILIPINOS-4TH EDITION, MEAT SAFETY,
2006, pp. 323-350

Information Sheet 4.2

Hygiene Practices in Storing Meat products

To achieve high standards of sanitation, the following measures should


be strictly observed:

See to it that physical equipment and layout are conducive to sanitary


practices.
Handle, store, and refrigerate food properly to prevent spoilage and
contamination.
Safeguard the food during distribution and service.
Wash and sanitize dishes, glasses, utensils, and equipment.
Clean floors walls, ceilings, counters, tables, and chairs regularly.
Eliminate vermin and rodents from food areas.
Maintain adequate employer supervision and a constant program of
education in sanitation for food service workers.
Make sure that food service employees are in good health, and are not
carriers of communicable diseases. The three principal groups of
communicable diseases that must be guarded against in public
feeding operations are respiratory, intestinal, and skin diseases.
Require medical examinations for food service employees.
Provide a regular employee education on food service sanitation.

The following table lists the common food-borne diseases, their causes,
symptoms, and prevention.

Illness and cause Kind of bacteria Symptoms Prevention


Salmonellosis Salmonella Severe headache  Wash raw food
Caused by Carried by followed by thoroughly.
eating insects, rodents, vomiting,  Keep hot foods
contaminated and pets, diarrhea, hot-
food and by especially abdominal temperatures
cramps, and
coming in turtles, birds, fever. above 60ºC
contact with a dogs, and cats. Infants, elderly, destroy bacteria.
carrier Can live and and persons with
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 84
grow in the low resistance are  Keep cold foods
human digestive most susceptible. cold-
tract, causing Severe infections temperatures
disturbances. cause high fever below 7ºC do
Grow and and may even not kill the
multiply at cause death. bacteria but
temperatures stop them from
between 6º and multiplying.
46ºC  Keep hands,
counters, and
utensils clean.
These stop
spread and
growth of
salmonella.

Perfringens Clostridion Nausea without  Serve cooked


poisoning perfringens vomiting, food
Caused by Spore-forming diarrhea, acute immediately or
eating food bacteria grow in inflammation of keep at
contaminated the absence of stomach and temperatures
with abnormally oxygen. Spores intestines above 60ºC until
large amount of are everywhere – ready to serve.
bacteria. Likely in food, soil,  Refrigerate
to accumulate dust, and cooked meat
when large sewage. Found promptly.
amounts of in human
foods are not intestinal tract
handled and in warm-
properly. This blooded animals.
happens Cooking
relatively often temperatures kill
at large dinners bacteria but not
not prepared by spores. Surviving
professional bacteria
cooks, such as continue to grow
church suppers in cooked food if
and community not kept at right
dinners. temperatures.
 Bacterial
Staphlococcal Staphyloccus Vomitting, growth
poisoning aureus diarrhea, can be stopped
Caused by Transmitted by prostration (tired by keeping hot
eating food food handlers feeling), and foods above
containing the who carry abdominal 60ºC and cold
toxin bacteria. These cramps. Generally foods below 5ºC.
bacteria are mild and often  Toxin is
fairly resistant to attributed to other destroyed by
heat. Bacteria causes. boiling for
grow fastest and several hours or
produce most by heating food
toxin at in pressure
temperatures cooker at 116ºC
for 30 minutes.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 85
between 6º and  Cleanliness
40ºC. prevents spread
of bacteria
Botulism Clostridium Double vision,  In home-
Caused by botulinum inability to canning, low
eating food Spore-forming swallow, speech acid foods must
containing the bacteria that difficulty, and be processed in
toxin grow and progressive a pressure
produce deadly paralysis of canner to
toxin. Bacteria respiratory destroy spores.
are found in soil system. Can Toxin is
and water. cause death. Most destroyed by
Spores are cases caused by boiling for 10 to
harmless but improper home 20 minutes.
extremely heat canning methods Time required
resistant. In the depends on kind
absence of of food.
oxygen, as in a  Never taste or
sealed container, eat food from a
and with low can that is
acid foods bulging,
present, spores damaged, or
germinate. If leaking. Never
canned food is eat food that
not properly does not smell
processed, or look normal.
bacteria is Destroy such
produced. They food so children
can also produce and animals
toxin in sealed cannot get into
containers and it.
in low acid foods
kept in
refrigerator for
two weeks or
more.

Proper Food Handling Practices

Select food properly. Buy meat, fish, pork, fruits and vegetables from
reliable dealers.

Wash fresh fruits and vegetables well before eating them. Use a mild
detergent and rinse well. Take raw seafood only when one is sure
the source is not contaminated.

Wash hands with soap and water before handling food, especially
after visiting the toilet, handling dust pans, coming from the
streets or even using a handkerchief.

Do not store foods within the temperature danger zone (between 40ºF
and 140ºF or 4ºC and 60ºC). At this temperature range, bacteria
grow and reproduce best.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 86
The figure below shows the temperature danger zone where
bacteria multiply.

Information Sheet 4.2

Canned goods may contain contaminated foods. Do not accept cans if


they exhibit the following characteristics:
0 swelled top or bottom
1 leakage
2 flawed seals
3 rusts
4 dents
Moreover, cartons of cereal, sugar, dried fruits and vegetables, and
flour should be rejected if:
5 the packages are punctured, torn or slashed.
6 the carton or packages are damp or moldy.
7 they contains insects or filth.

Products that have been thawed and refrozen must also be rejected.
These can be detected through the presence of the following
conditions:
0 fluid or frozen liquid inside the cartons.
1 large ice crystals on the product
2 product misshaped or distorted
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 87
3 In storing foods, always follow FIFO – “First in, First out.” This
simply means that goods should be stored and used in the order
in which they were received. Furthermore, foods should only be
stored in areas intended for food storage.

4 Pesticides and chemicals should be stored in their original,


labeled containers. They should be locked in the cabinet, away
from food handling and storage areas and in a location that will
not contaminate food and food-contact areas.

5 Work in a clean place. Keep work surfaces clean

Use only clean utensils.

Make it a habit to use a tasting spoon for sampling food. Do not return
the spoon to the food after it has been to the mouth.

Refrigerate perishable food to prevent spoilage or decomposition.


Decomposition is brought about by biochemical activity of either
the enzyme naturally present in food or microorganisms.
Refrigeration temperature lowers the rate of growth of
microorganisms and also decelerates the rate of enzyme action. In
home refrigerators, keep food for a few days only. In cold storage,
the temperature and humidity are controlled.

Freeze to retard microbial growth and enzyme action for a longer


period. Practically all kinds of food can be frozen. The most
important thing to
consider is that the material to be frozen should be of good
quality. Vegetables must be blanched first to destroy the enzymes
which are not inactivated by freezing.

Keep the refrigerator and freezer scrupulously clean.

Serve and store food in clean containers.

SELF- CHECK
Direction: Discuss the following. Write your answer on a sheet of paper.

Importance of sanitation and hygiene in handling and


storing meat products.
Symptoms and prevention of food-borne diseases

REFERENCES

HOME TECHNOLOGY-FOOD MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE,MEAT AND


STORAGE OF FOOD, pp. 62-113

Chavez, Lilia C., Basic Foods for FILIPINOS-4TH EDITION, MEAT SAFETY,
2006, pp. 323-350
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 88
Information Sheet 4.3

Methods of Preserving Meat

There are different methods of preserving meat. These include drying


or dehydration, smoking, salting, curing, refrigerating, freezing, canning and
freeze drying.

Drying – This is most common method of preserving meat. Drying


involves the reduction of the original 70% of water content of the meat
to about 15%. The removal of the moisture content does three things,
namely:

0 Enzymatic changes are retarded;


1 Growth of microorganisms is much hampered
2 Microbes lose water and become inert.

Ways of Drying Meat


0Natural sun drying – Natural sunlight is used to reduce the
amount of moisture content of meat. Portable solar dyers can
provide sanitary means of drying meat. Dryers with screen covers
are recommended for outdoor use and lengthens the storage life of
meat

1 Dehydration or artificial drying – Oven is used for drying the


meat. Although this is more expensive than sun drying, dehydration
is a more efficient method of removing moisture from meat.
Products dried in this way are of higher quality and can be sold at
better prices.

Smoking – Meat is smoked to create a distinctive color and flavor, thus


helping its preservation. The flavor, color, and attractive glaze on the
surface of the meat is desired like in ham, bacon, and tinapa. The
heat generated during smoking destroys the enzymes and dries the
product artificially, thus preventing the growth of molds and
vegetative bacteria on the surface. Cold and hot smoking are the two
types of smoking. Smoked meats include ham, bacon, and chicken.

0Cold Smoking – The temperature is held between 26 to 43ºC and the


products are smoked over a period of days or weeks. The products
thus pick up a strong smoked flavor and are dehydrated as well.

1Hot Smoking – The temperature is higher, from 71 to 79ºC. the high


temperature speed up the drying process, giving the product a mild
smoked flavor.

Salting – Salt improves the keeping quality of meat. It removes the water
from the tissue of the meat and the cells of spoilage organisms that
may be present in the meat.

Information Sheet 4.3

Curing – In this method, salt, sugar, potassium or sodium nitrate, and


other curing elements such as ascorbic acid, phosphate blend, and
spices are used to prolong the keeping quality of meat. Curing agents
also help improve the flavor and appearance of meat and retain its
original color. Sugar minimizes

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 89


the hardness of the straight cure process. It also makes the product
more appetizing and provides energy to the nitrate-reducing bacteria
which gives the red color. Spices give the desired flavor and aroma.

Refrigerating – Meat is stored at a temperature range of 2 to 10ºC to


retard mold and bacterial growth for a limited period.

Freezing – Meat is preserved at a temperature of 10ºC and below


through this method. Freezing deactivates enzymes and bacteria.
Meat can be preserved for two months to one year using this method.

Canning – Meat preserved by canning is packed in sealed cans or jars


which are subjected to a temperature of 100ºC and above 5-7 kilo
pressure for a specific period of time. This process destroys the
organism that causes spoilage. It maintains the high quality of meat
product and extends its life for about a year.

Freeze Drying – The process involves the removal of moisture from the
meat tissues by transforming the moisture content into ice and gas.
The product to be dried is first frozen and the ice is sublimed from the
frozen mass, removing 98% of the water content. The remaining
moisture is further reduced to 0.5% or lower by subjecting the
product to high temperature as possible without destroying it.

The texture, appearance, flavor, and nutritive value of freeze


dried products are comparable to frozen foods. The products have a
long shelf life and require no refrigeration. This method needs special
equipment such as modern freeze dryer.

Evaluating the Quality of Preserved Meat Products

Good quality pork has less than 1 ¼ cm of golden brown fat that
covers the surface of the meat and a thoroughly cooked interior where meat
has even pinkish color. It has also a juicy and tender texture, a pleasing
aroma and a tender seasoned and pleasing taste with a slight hint of smoky
flavor.

Sausages of good quality are uniform in size and length, each sausage
in a whole piece has no rupture of casing even when pricked. The interior
has a pinkish color when thoroughly cooked. A combination of juicy meat
with spicy seasoning marks their flavor.

Proper Storage of Preserved Meat

Many processed items prepared for future use may be stored in the
freezer. These should be wrapped in plastic or foil to prevent the occurrence
of freezer burn and avoid having a pulpy texture that comes from loss of
moisture. Each item should be labeled with the name of the product, date of
expiry, and quantity.

Processed food held in storage should be well-covered or wrapped to


keep them from absorbing odors and flavors from other foods. They should
be held below danger zone temperatures. Processed meat should be packed
in desired and easy to thaw market units. Thawing a 25kilo pack of ground
meat, for example, will be difficult. Systematic freezing of food in quantity for
long-term storage requires special freezing equipment.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 90


Food Storage Chart

Suggested
Recommended Maximum
Food Maximum Storage
Temperature (ºC)
Canned Products 21 12 months
Frozen Products
beef poultry -18 to -29 6–12 months, in original package
Fresh Pork
(not ground) -18 to 29 3-6 months, in original package
Sausage,
ground meat 18 to 29 1-3 months, in original package
Cold cuts, Sliced 3 to 4 3-5 days, in semi-moisture proof
paper
Cured bacon 3 to 4 1-4 weeks, tightly wrapped
Ham (tender
cured) 3 to 4 1-6 weeks, tightly wrapped
Ham (Canned) 3 to 4 6 weeks, in original container
(unopened)
Dried Beef 3 to 4 6 weeks, tightly wrapped
Most canned foods can be stored at room temperature in a cold place
and hold their eating quality for several months. They are safe to eat as long
as there is no bulge on the can. Below 24ºC is a good temperature for
storage. Canned ham and other perishable meats should be stored in the
refrigerator unless storage recommendations on the can state otherwise.
These meats should not be frozen.

SELF CHECKED

Direction: (Group activity) the teacher divides the class into groups and
asks them to perform the following tasks:

Practice storing the preserved meat products in your own school


cafeteria. Observe the storage areas. Check the storage
temperature.
RESOURCES:
Learning materials
- writing
- modules materials
- references - hand-outs
Meat and
condiments
Tools/utensil
s
- basin - cutting boards
- colander - plates
- mixing bowl - butcher’s knife
- kitchen spoon and fork - containers
- jars

REFERENCES:
HOME TECHNOLOGY-FOOD MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE,MEAT AND
STORAGE OF FOOD, pp. 62-113
Chavez, Lilia C., Basic Foods for FILIPINOS-4TH EDITION, MEAT SAFETY,
2006, pp. 323-350

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 91


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: PREPARE AND COOK POULTRY AND GAME

Module No.: 4 Module Title: Preparing and Cooking Poultry and Game
Nominal Duration: 50 hours

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 92


PREPARE AND COOK POULTRY AND GAME

Module Title: PREPARING AND COOKING POULTRY AND GAME

Module Introduction:

This module deals with the selection, preparation, cooking,


presentation, and storage of poultry and game in a commercial kitchen or
catering operation.

Expected Outcome

After completing the module, you should be able to:


select and purchase poultry and game;
handle and store poultry and game; and
prepare, cook and present poultry and game.

PRE-TEST

Direction: Read each of the following questions carefully and choose the
letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in your
test notebook.

1. What do you call birds that are hunted for food?


a. game c. poultry
b. livestock d. swine

What do you call a desexed male chicken usually under 8 months old?
a. broiler c. hen
b. capon d. rooster

Which of the following poultry has originated from China and is noted for
its tender and flavorful meat?
a. chicken c. itik
b. goose d. pecking duck

4. The young immature pigeon of either sex with extra tender meat is
called___.
a. duck c. rooster
b. fryer d. squab

5. Which of the following classes of poultry is on sale especially during the


Christmas Holiday?
a. broiler c. jumbo broiler
b. capon d. roaster

6. To what part of poultry does breast meat belong?


a. dark meat c. variety meat
b. tough meat d. white meat

Which of the following characteristics is a good quality of a live poultry? a.


free from pin feathers and shows no cuts
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 93
b. has clear eye
c. heavy and the skin is watery
d. thighs well develop

8. A young chicken that is usually 9 to 12 weeks of age is called ___.


a. fryer c. roaster
b. hen d. stag

9. How many days should a whole chicken be refrigerated? a. 1 day c. 2 to


4 days b. 1 to 2 days d. 3 to 4 days

10. What is a male chicken under 10 months old? a. fryer c. rooster b. hen
d. stag

11. How do you classify fleshy part of chicken like breast?


a. white meat c. dark meat
b. entrails d. all of the above

12. What cookery method is used for a matured poultry? a. boiling c.


roasting b. frying d. stewing

13. What cookery method is suitable for the less tender cuts? a. boiling c.
roasting b. frying d. stewing

14. What is the best cooking temperature for poultry?


a. low temperature c. moderate temperature
b. high temperature d. low to moderate temperature

15. What cooking method is used for Tinolang manok? a. boiling c.


steaming b. broiling d. stewing

0 The following are the steps in preparing roast chicken. Which one is
the first step?
a. combine marinade ingredients and marinate the chicken in it for
at least an hour
0 drain chicken and place on rack for roasting
1 salt chicken inside and out
2 wash chicken and dry with paper towel

What factor affects the poultry meat’s tenderness and juiciness?


a. age c. cookery
b. sex d. chicken cuts

18. Which of the following is not a domesticated poultry?


a. chicken c. wild fowls
b. duck d. goose

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 94


Rigor mortis in chicken meat occurs after slaughtering, how do you prevent
this?

0 immediately place the meat in the freezer


1 debone and cut chicken after 30 minutes
2 cook the chicken
3 wash and cut the chicken

Reheating of cooked poultry will result to dry dish. What is the remedy for
this?

0 cook using sauces and gravy


1 remove fat before cooking
2 overcook the poultry meat
3 none of the above

LESSON 1

SELECTING AND PURCHASING POULTRY AND GAME

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the different classifications of poultry and game
and the quality criteria in selecting poultry and game.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Poultry and game are selected and purchased according to


guidelines.
Poultry and game are received in accordance with the required
quantity and quality of the enterprise
Items are received and endorsed in accordance with enterprise
guidelines

DEFINITION OF TERMS

games – birds that are hunted for food.


dressed - slaughtered birds that have been bled, defeathered and the
organs are removed
plump – fleshy
pheasant – long tailed domesticated bird

Information Sheet 1.1

Selecting and Purchasing of Poultry and Game

Poultry consumption in the Philippines has increased markedly in the


last decade. This is evident in the popularity of chicken dishes in restaurants
all over the country.
Poultry refers to several kinds of fowl that are used as food and the
term includes chicken, turkey, duck, pigeons, and quails. These are usually
domesticated

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 95


raised mainly for meat and/or eggs. Birds such as smites that are hunted for
food are games.

Classification of Poultry and Games

Bird Uses
Chicken Meat, eggs
Duck Meat, eggs feathers
Turkey Meat
Goose Meat, feather, eggs
Quail Meat, eggs
Pigeon Meat
Guinea fowl Meat
Wild duck Meat, feather
Pheasant Meat

Chickens and other poultry may be divided into classes which are
essentially of the same physical characteristics associated with age, sex, live
weight and/or breed.

Broiler or fryer. A broiler or fryer is young chicken, usually 9 to 12


weeks of age, of either sex, is tender-meated with soft, pliable,
smooth-textured skin.

Roaster. A roaster is usually 5 to 6 months of age.

Capon. A capon is a surgically desexed male chicken usually under 8


months of age.

Stag. A stag is a male chicken, usually under 10 months of age, with


coarse skin, with somewhat toughened and darkened flesh.

Hen or Stewing chicken. Mature female chicken which is usually more


than 10 months of age. It can also be a culled layer.

Cock or Rooster. It is a mature male chicken with coarse skin,


toughened and darkened meat and hardened breastbone tip.

Jumbo Broiler. This is a large chicken about 4 kg. dressed weight which
are on sale especially during the Christmas holiday.

Other Poultry
Peking Duck. This is a breed of duck that originated from China and is
noted for its tender and flavorful meat.
Duck or Itik is available and popular in many towns of Rizal as fried itik.
Squab. This is a young immature pigeon of either sex and has extra
tender meat.

Selecting Good Quality Poultry and game

Live Poultry
0 has clear eyes
1 a young chicken has fine and soft feet. If it is old, the feet are
thick and scaly.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 96
2 the bone at the tip of the breast is soft in younger chicken and
thick in older chicken.
3 small feathers indicate that the chicken is young.

Whole Poultry. These are slaughtered birds that have been bled and
defeathered.
0 Their head, feet and viscera are still intact.
1 They should be clean, well fleshed.
2 They have a moderate fat coverings.
3 They are free from pinfeathers and show no cuts, scars or
missing skin.

Dressed Poultry. These are slaughtered birds that have been bled,
defeathered, and the visceral organs are removed.
0 skin must be smooth and yellow in color
1 breast must be plump
2 thighs are well-developed
3 no objectionable odor
4 heavy and the skin is not watery

Ready-to-Cook. The dressed birds may be cut up and marinated or


seasoned.

Poultry Parts. Several pieces of a single poultry part are usually packed in
one carton, wrapped and chilled or frozen. The various poultry parts
are divided into any of the following:
0 dark meat – drumsticks, thighs, wings, neck, backs, and rib
cage
1 white meat – breasts
2 giblets – gizzard and heart

SELF- CHECK

A. Direction: Read the following questions carefully and choose the letter of
the
correct answer. Write your answer in your test
notebook.
This refers to several kinds of fowls that are used as
1. food.
a. game c. poultry
b. livestock d. swine

2.What is chicken is 9 to 12 weeks of age?


a. broiler or fryer c. roaster
b. hen d. stag

3.Which of the following poultry originated from China?


a. chicken c. itik
b. goose d. pecking duck

Which of the following characteristics is a good quality of live poultry?


0 free from pin-feathers and show no cuts
1 has clear eyes
2 heavy and the skin is watery
3 thighs are well-developed thighs
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 97
5. What is a young immature pigeon of either sex and has extra tender
meat?
a. fryer c. roaster
b. hen d. squab

B. Direction: Visit a public market. List down and observe the market forms
of poultry. Using the chart, check the correct indicator of each form.

Characteristics Good Fair Poor


Dressed Poultry
0skin is smooth and yellow in color
1thighs are well developed
2no objectionable odor
3heavy body, skin is not watery
4breast is plump

1 Whole poultry
0 head, feet and viscera are intact
1 moderate fat covering
2 free from pin feathers
3 no cuts of the skin
4 clean and well-fleshed

RESOURCES:

Suppliers of poultry and game

REFERENCES:

Dora S. Lewis, et al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY Copyright 1955 240
– 253

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D. et al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS Copyright


1999 pp. 258 – 268

LESSON 2

HANDLING AND STORING POULTRY AND GAME

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the proper handling and storing of poultry and
game and the thawing of frozen poultry and game.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Poultry and game are handled efficiently to minimize the risk of


contamination and spoilage.
Frozen poultry and game are thawed in accordance with workplace
and thawing procedure
Poultry and game are stored at appropriate temperature.
Storage condition is maintained at optimum temperature.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 98
DEFINITION OF TERMS

thaw – to change from a frozen solid to a liquid by gradual warming.


damp - moist slightly wet drip – to fall or let fall in drops stripped off - to
remove or to take away

Information Sheet 2.1

Poultry may be frozen whole, in halves, cut into pieces, or parts after
they are dressed. Parts can be packed separately, ready to cook, or for easy
meal preparation and thawing.

Handling and Storage of Poultry

Poultry spoils very quickly unless it is properly handled and stored.


After being brought home from the market, it should be unwrapped as
quickly as possible and wiped off with a damp cloth. Then it should be lightly
covered with waxed paper, placed in shallow utensils and stored in a cold
part of the refrigerator near the freezing unit or ice. Cooked poultry should
be cooled as quickly as possible, covered to prevent drying and refrigerated.
Removing the bones saves space. Frozen poultry must be kept in the freezing
unit until it is thawed for cooking.

Freezing and Thawing Poultry

To prepare poultry properly for freezing, it should be wrapped tightly in


moisture-vapor proof film, foil or paper and then frozen at -170oC (0oF) or
lower. Although there are no abrupt changes in quality during the first few
months of poultry storage, it has always been a good practice to use these
chickens first which have been in storage longest and those with torn
wrapper.

Storage Time for Poultry and Game

Refrigerator
Product Freezer ( 0oF)
(35-40oF)
Chicken and turkey (Whole) 1 – 2 days 12 months
Chicken (pieces) 1 – 2 days 9 months
Turkey ( pieces ) 1 – 2 days 6 months
Duck and Goose ( whole ) 1 – 2 days 6 months
Giblets 1 – 2 days 3 – 4 months
Wild duck, pheasant. Goose
( whole) 1 – 2 days 6 months

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 99


Cooked poultry dishes 2 – 4 days 4 – 6 months
Canned poultry, opened 1 day NR

It is not recommended to refreeze poultry after it has been thawed.


Freezing and thawing release fluids called drip and the chances of bacterial
spoilage are increased.
When thawing, it is advisable to thaw slowly inside the refrigerator to
give tissues a better chance to rehydrate. Immediately cook the thawed meat
since bacterial growth is rapid upon thawing. Slow thawing may be effected
by placing the 1 to 2 kg. chicken in the refrigerator for 12 to 24 hours or to
place it under running tap water for ½ to 1 hour. In both cases in their
original wrap. However, frozen poultry or any other market forms of poultry
should not be allowed to thaw or soak in a bowl of water because of possible
bacterial build.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Demonstrate how to wrap poultry properly for freezing.

RESOURCES:

Equipment
Refrigerator
Freezer

Supplies and materials


Whole poultry
Dress poultry
Poultry parts
Foil
Plastic wrapper

REFERENCE:

Dora S. Lewis, et al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY Copyright 1955 pp.
240 – 253

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D. et al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS Copyright


1999 pp. 258 – 268

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 100


LESSON 3

PREPARING, COOKING, AND PRESENTING POULTRY AND GAME

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the common culinary terms related to poultry
and game, appropriate cooking methods, (past and current trends in poultry
and game dishes) preparing, cooking, and presenting poultry and game.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Poultry and game are prepared based on the preparation technique


and procedure
Poultry and game are cooked appropriately according to enterprise
standard recipes and cookery methods
Variety of poultry and game dishes are prepared based on standard
enterprise recipes
Poultry and game are served in accordance with enterprise
standard
Poultry and game are presented using suitable sauces, garnishes
and accompaniments.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

white meat- includes the white, fleshy part of the chicken such as the
breast.
dark meat- the dark meat parts include the legs, drumstick, wings and neck.
entrails- the animals internal organs such as liver, heart and gizzard.

Information Sheet 3.1

Cookery Methods and Preparation Techniques

As what have been discussed in your previous lesson, different forms


of poultry are available in the market.

Poultry is cooked to improve its palatability and tenderness and to


destroy any bacteria or parasites present. Poultry should always be prepared
properly and cooked thoroughly.

Live poultry

Live poultry should be healthy, alert, and well-feathered. Avoid poultry


which have bruises, blisters and broken bones.

Whole poultry
Though not alive, the criteria for selecting live poultry also apply to
whole poultry.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 101
Dressed poultry
This is the most available poultry form in the market. Dressed poultry
are actually slaughtered poultry with the head, feet, blood, feathers and
internal organs removed. Good quality dressed poultry should be free from
slime, off-odors and discoloration.

Drawn poultry
These are dressed poultry that have been chilled or frozen. They are
usually available in groceries.

Ready-to cook
These are poultry parts such as wings, breast, thighs, or drumsticks
which have been separately packed in a single container and frozen or
chilled.

Principles of Poultry Cookery

The fat distribution and maturity of the fowl affect the quality of the
product. Mature birds are best cooked using moist heat. Dry heat is
suitable for young birds.
The best cooking temperature for poultry is at low to moderate heat. This
temperature range produces a more flavorful and tender product. This
also minimizes nutrient loss and shrinkage of meat.
To prevent the risk of microbial contamination, stuffing of turkey and
chickens should be done immediately before roasting. It is best not to
fill the cavity completely as this will prevent the poultry from being
thoroughly cooked.
Because of its susceptibility to microbial growth, cooked poultry should
be eaten immediately or refrigerated if not consumed. Leftover stuffing
should be stored separately to prevent contamination.
Because poultry meat is pale-colored, it is best to employ dry heat
cooking with fat for a brown color.
When roasting chicken, cuts should be placed with the breast-side down
to produce a juicier and more tender product.
To improve the palatability of lean poultry meat, basting can be done.

POULTRY COOKERY

Poultry, like meat may be cooked by either dry or moist heat method.
The choice of method depends mainly upon the age of the bird instead of
location of the part in the carcass as in the case of meats. Fat content should
also be taken into consideration.

1. Moist Heat Method


As discussed earlier in this lesson, chicken are categorized into
classes. All classes of chicken and other poultry for that matter may be
cooked by moist-heat cookery. Common Filipino dishes are tinola,
sinampalukang manok, manok na pinaupo, and relyeno.

2. Dry Heat Method


The dry method is usually reserved for young tender Poultry. The
poultry class of these chickens is specially termed “broilers and fryers”
Somewhat older but still immature birds such as capons and roasters
are also suitable for roasting. They are still tender but have more fat
than the broilers or fryers.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 102
Older birds need to be tenderized by moist cooking prior to dry
heat cooking.
One point to remember in poultry cookery; moist heat cookery
may be applied to all classes and kinds of poultry but dry heat cookery
is reserved for tender birds.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Make a compilation of poultry recipes and classify according


to methods of cooking. Write the answer in your test note book.

REFERENCES:

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D. et al, BASIC BASIC FOOD FOR FILIPINOS,


COPYRIGHT 1999, PP. 258 – 268

Leonard M. Belmonte, Perla B. Del Mundo, PHILIPPINE FIESTA


RECIPE COPYRIGHT 1993, PP. 82, 87 AND 146

Maya Kitchen; FOOD SERVICE AND CATERING MANAGEMENT PP.


65 - 66

Activity Sheet 3.1

SINAMPALUKANG MANOK

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole ½ cup cooking oil
gas or electric stove 15 pcs. string beans cut into 1 to
knife 1 clove garlic, crushed
chopping board 1 ½ inch pieces
measuring cup 1 large onion, sliced
measuring spoon 3 pcs. eggplant, cut in halves
wooden spoon 2 tbsps. crushed or sliced ginger
4 pcs. long hot peppers (sili) for flavoring
4 m. sized tomatoes, sliced
patis to taste
1 m. sized chicken, sliced into serving pieces
4cup water
2 to 3 cup finely chopped young sampaloc
leaves

PROCEDURE:

Sauté garlic, onion, ginger, tomatoes, and the chicken pieces.


Add patis, cover and simmer for about 20 minutes or until the chicken is
almost tender.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 103
Add the string beans and eggplants, then cover and boil for 3 minutes.
Add the young sampaloc leaves, pepper and water. Cover bring to a boil
and add seasonings.
Serve hot. Good for 8 persons.

Activity Sheet 3.2

TINOLANG MANOK

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 3 lbs. roasting chicken, cut up
gas or electric stove 2 tbsps. patis
knife 2 tbsps. cooking oil
chopping board 1 tsp. salt
measuring cup 2 tbsps. fresh ginger, cut in stripes
measuring spoon 5 cup water
wooden spoon 1 clove garlic, crushed

½ lb. spinach or sili leaves


1 m. size onion, sliced
2 cup pared, sliced green papaya

PROCEDURE:

In a medium sized saucepan, heat oil over medium heat. Sauté ginger,
garlic and onion for 1 minute.
Add chicken and sauté until chicken color slightly. Season with patis and
salt.
Add water. Bring to a boil, lower heat and simmer for 30 minutes or until
chicken is tender.
Add papaya. Cook for 5 minutes or until papaya is tender.
Add sili leaves (or spinach); cover and remove from heat. Let stand for 5
minutes. Serve hot. Good for 5 to 6 persons.

Activity Sheet 3.3


ROAST CHICKEN

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 3 kg. roasting chicken
gas or electric stove 2 tbsp. salt
knife
chopping board Marinade
measuring cup 3 tbsp. minced onions
measuring spoon ½ cup soy sauce
1 ½ tbsp. celery
2 ½ tbsp.. honey
1 tsp. ground cinnamon

Module 4th yr |
Lesson 2 104
wooden spoon 3 tbsp. vinegar

1/8 tsp. whole anis seeds

Sauce
1 tbsp. cornstarch dissolved in 2 tbsps.
water leftover marinade

PROCEDURE:

Wash chicken thoroughly and dry with paper towel. Salt chicken inside
and out.
Combine marinade ingredients and marinate the chicken in it for at least
an hour. Preheat oven to 325oF.
Drain chicken and place on rack of roasting pan. Pour at least 1 cup of
hot water in the bottom of the roasting pan and roast chicken for an
hour or until done.
Transfer drippings to a saucepan. Add leftover marinade and bring to a
boil.
Thicken with cornstarch dissolved in water. Reduce heat and continue
stirring until thick. Correct with seasoning.
Serve sauce with cut up chicken and garnish with parsley. Serve hot.
Good for 10 persons.

Activity Sheet 3.4

STEAMED CHICKEN

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 1 whole chicken (dressed)
gas or electric stove vetsin
knife 2 stalks celery and leeks
chopping board salt and pepper
measuring cup 1 cup cream of mushroom soup
measuring spoon chicken stock from steamer
wooden spoon 3 tbsp. butter
frying pan chopped giblets, liver, heart

4 tbsp. flour

PROCEDURE:

Prepare chicken for roasting. Wipe dry and season inside and outside with
salt, vetsin and pepper.
Dust chicken with flour and fry in hot lard. Lay the chicken, back
downwards on a bed of celery and leeks in a steamer and steam until
done. Then add the giblets, liver and hearts to the chicken. Serve with
gravy.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 105


To make gravy

Heat butter in a saucepan and stir in flour. When brown, pour liquid from
the steamer, stirring constantly, adding a little water if it is too thick.
Add chopped giblets, liver and heart and cream of mushrooms.
Season with salt and pepper. Good for 8 persons.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Prepare the dressed chicken and cook the following recipe.
(Sinampalukang Manok, Steamed Chicken, and Roasted Chicken

Evaluate the finished product using the criteria below.

Criteria for Evaluating Finished Product

Good Fair
Qualities Poor (1)
(5) (3)
A. Roast chicken
a. tender texture
b. juicy breast
c. beautifully - browned skin
d. rich, well – made gravy
e. delicious taste
B. Sinampalukang Manok
a. tender texture
b. attractive and appealing to appetite
c. pleasing and has a good color
combination
d. ingredients are cooked just right
e. delicious taste

RESOURCES:

Equipment
Freezer
Refrigerator
Tables
Table appointment
Gas range
Oven
Meat slicer
Meat grinder
Tools and utensils
Knives
Chopping/ cutting board
Mixing bowls
Braising pan
Frying pan
Stock pots
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 106
Supplies and Materials
Dressed poultry and game
Spices
Fruits and vegetables for garnishing
Lard, oil, flour

REFERENCES:

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D. et al, BASIC BASIC FOOD FOR FILIPINOS,


Copyright 1999, pp. 258 – 268

Leonard M. Belmonte, Perla B. Del Mundo, PHILIPPINE FIESTA RECIPE


Copyright 1993, pp. 82, 87 and 146

Maya Kitchen; FOOD SERVICE AND CATERING MANAGEMENT PP. 65 – 66

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 107


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: PREPARE AND COOK SEAFOOD

Module Title: Preparing and Cooking Seafood


Module No.: 5
Nominal Duration: 50 Hrs.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 108


PREPARE AND COOK SEAFOOD Module Title:

PREPARING AND COOKING SEAFOOD Module Introduction:

The module deals with knowledge and skills required in selecting,


preparing, presenting, and storing seafood in a commercial kitchen or
catering operation.

Expected Outcome

After completing the module, you should be able to:


select and store seafood;
prepare and cook fish and shellfish; and
present and serve fish and seafood.

PRE-TEST
Direction: Read each of the following questions carefully and choose the
letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in your test
notebook.

Based on the study, what is the cause of Iodine deficiency in the


people in the Mountain Province?
0 abundant supply of seafood are found in the local market
1 diet are deficient with iodine
2 they are mostly vegetarian
3 none of the above

Which of the following market forms of fish is best in making Fish


Tempura and Fish Fillet?
0 whole
1 Fillet
2 Prawn
3 Flaked

Which of the following steps prevents fish spoilage?


0 cooking immediately after catching
1 storing immediately after catching
2 cleaning in running water
3 cleaning and gutting before frying

Which of the following guides should be checked when buying fish?


0 presence of microbial parasite
1 fresh fish are expensive compare to stake fish
2 changes in physical appearance of skin, eyes and gills
3 discoloration usually blacking

Which of the following dishes is an example of moist cooking method of


fish.
0 relleno
1 ischabeche
2 pesa
3 ihaw-ihaw

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 109


6. Which of the following foods come from water?
a. game c. poultry b. meat d. seafood

The following are the characteristics of good quality fish except one;
0 gills are bright
1 has no objectionable odor
2 skin is shiny with scales intact
3 the eyes are sunken and dull

What do you call the fish meat separated from the whole fish?
a. dressed fish c. live fish
b. flaked d. steaks

9. What is the market form of fish where essential parts are removed or
eviscerated?
a. deboned c. fillet
b. dressed fish d. flaked

10. Which of the following shellfish is an example of cephalopods?


a. crabs c. lobster
b. kuhol d. squid

11. What is the light temperature of the refregirator in storing fish?


a. 45 – 50°F c. 46 - 52°F
b. 35 – 40°F d. 35 - 45°F

12. What is the oven temperature that is required in baking fish?


a. 270 - 350°F c. 200 - 250°F
b. 280 - 380°F d. 220 - 290°F

13. What method of cookery is appropriate for cooking large fishes


such as lapu-lapu?
a. broiling c. stewing
b. frying d. toasting

14. What appropriate cooking method is used to dry anchovies?


a. roasting c. stewing
b. steaming d. toasting

15. Which of the following is used when handling the fish?


a. gloves c. soap
b. oil d. water

16. Which of the following is used in removing any remaining fish


odors?
a. lemon rind c. soap
b. salt d. vinegar

17. The fish is cooked in small amount of water, vinegar, salt,


sliced ginger, pepper and other spices. This moist heat method
is ________?
a. paksiw c. sinigang na isda

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 110


b. kuhol d. steaming

18. Which of the following shellfish have hard shells over the back of
the body and along the claws but hard softer shells covering on the
lower part of the body and legs?
a. bangus c. crabs
b. clams d. oysters

19. Which of the following types of a mollusk has only one shell?
a. bivales c. crustaceans b. cephalopods d. univalves

The first step in cleaning fish is ______________.


0 place the fish on the table for scaling
1 scrape the scales with a blunt knife from tail to head
2 cut a slit in the belly so that entrails can be removed
3 wear a pair of canvas gloves before handling fish

LESSON 1

SELECTING AND STORING SEAFOOD

INTRODUCTION

This lesson deals with the different types of selection and buying
techniques in handling, storing, and thawing of seafood.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Seafood are selected according to quality, seasonal availability,


price and the requirements for specific menu.
Yields are estimated based on various types of seafood.
Seafood are handled and stored in accordance with enterprise
handling and storing techniques.
Seafood’s are stored hygienically in accordance with enterprise
handling techniques.
Frozen seafood are thawed correctly to preserve maximum quality
and retain their nutrients.
When applicable, date stamps and codes are checked to ensure
quality control if applicable.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

seafood - any sea animal or seaweed that is served as food.


specks - small spots
visceral - internal organs
eviscerated - to remove the essential parts
thorax - the part of the body between the neck and the abdomen

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 111


Information Sheet 1.1

TYPES OF SEAFOOD

The term seafood includes any of the cold-blooded animals living in


water which are used as food by human beings. Seafood may come from
either fresh or salt water and may be classified as fish and shellfish.

Vertebrate or finfish. Fishes with backbone. These are bangus, bisugo,


tilapia, dalag, catfish and other fresh water fish. The edible portion
consists of the fleshy meat on either side of the vertebral skeleton. The
tail, fins, head and entrails are usually discarded as waste, but to
some people, these parts or some of these parts maybe consumed.

Shellfish. Fish with shell. These are classified into crustaceans, mollusks
and cephalopods.
0 Crustaceans are shellfishes with hard shells over the back of the
body and along the claws but have softer shells covering the lower
part of the body and legs. Ex. Crabs, lobster and shrimps.

1 Mollusks. There are two types of mollusks: the univalves with only
one
shell and bivalves with two shells. Example of univalve is: kuhol
while bivalves are clams (kabibi, tulya), oysters (talaba) and
mussels (tahong).

2 Cephalopods have reduced internal shell. Squid, cuttlefish and


octopus belong to this classification.

SELECTION AND BUYING OF FISH AND SHELLFISH

Characteristics of fresh Fish

Fresh fish has no foul odor.


The eyes are clear, full and bright, not dull and sunken.
Gills are bright red.
The flesh is firm and elastic.
Skin is shiny with scales intact.
Fish is covered with a natural lime, the odor and amount of which are
the characteristics of the species.
Abdomen and belly walls are intact and free from discoloration.

Characteristics of fresh Shellfish

Fresh shellfish such as crabs, talangka, mussels, oysters, snails,


lobsters and shrimps, must be bought alive.
Fresh crabs should have firm joints that are stiff when bent, and they
should be heavy for their size.
Fresh lobsters should have dark brownish green color with orange
specks and bright eyes and should be heavy for their size.
Fresh oysters are difficult to open and the meat should have clear
creamy color.
Live clams should have their shells tightly closed.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 112
Fresh shrimps should have their head intact, their meat firm, and with
no objectionable odor. They are somewhat translucent and without
black or orange color.

Market Forms of Fish

Live Fish. There are fishes which can be marketed alive because they live
long after catch. Good examples of these are dalag, hito and tilapia.

Whole or round fish. Most fresh fish is distributed in local market fish
stalls as whole or round fish. Shortly after catch, fish is chilled in ice
to prevent spoilage.

Drawn fish. This is a whole fish with the entrails removed. Preparation
for cooking involves scaling and cutting as needed. Most fish in
modern supermarkets are available in this form.

Dressed fish. Dressed fish has been scaled and eviscerated. Often the
head, tail and fins are also removed.

Fillets. These are two meaty sides of the fish cut from the backbone. The
skin may not be removed. A fillet cut from side of the fish is called a
single fillet. A butterfly fillet consists of two single fillets held together
by uncut flesh and skin in the belly portion of the fish.

Deboned. This is the form most convenient in the case of bangus. The
deboned bangus is sold frozen often times marinated and ready-to-
cook.

Steaks. These are cross section slices of dressed large fishes. A portion of
the backbone is usually the only in a fish steak. Steaks which are half
to two thirds of an inch thick are usually best. Steaks cut away from
visceral cavity are solid slices and are preferred by discriminating of
consumers.

Sticks. These are fillets or steaks cut further into smaller uniform pieces
like sticks. They are usually breaded and frozen.

Flaked. Fish meat separated from the whole fish is called flaked fish.
Labahita is commonly made into flaked fish.

Information Sheet 1.2

Market Forms of Shellfish

Live. Crabs, clams, mussels, oysters, snails and lobsters should be alive
if purchased in the shell except for boiled crabs and lobsters. Ideally,
shrimps should also be marketed alive.

Whole. Most shrimps marketed locally are whole.

Shucked. These are bivalves or mollusks which have been removed from
the shell. Oysters, clams and scallops may be sold in this form; Fresh
shucked oysters have a translucent appearance. They become opaque
with standing.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 113


Headless. Most shrimps, prawns and lobsters for exports are marketed in
headless form, the head and thorax are removed. The head is removed
mainly because it is the main source of bacterial spoilage during
transport and also because it does not appeal to most foreign palates.

Cooked Shellfish. Shrimps, crabs and lobsters may be cooked in the


shell prior to marketing.

Cooked Meat. The meat of shrimps, crabs and lobsters can be marketed
cooked, usually in cans.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions or a separate sheet of


paper.

What are the characteristics of fresh fish/shellfish?


What are the market forms of fresh fish/shellfish? Identify each.

REFERENCES:

Dora S. Lewis et. Al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY pp. 254 – 266

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D., et. Al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO pp.211 – 22

Info Sheet 1.3

Handling and Storage

Fish and fishery products are transported in fishing boats or


commercial ships. Higher value fishery products like shrimps and prawns
and special fish varieties especially those intended for restaurants and other
institutional food service establishments may be transported by air. Land
transportation for large quantities can be in open truck but the most
common means of transporting up to 1000 kg is by owner type jeepneys.
Insulated fish boxes or tubs are arranged on platforms as the rear end of
vehicle.

The method of handling and transport of fish as practiced may not


always be for keeping the fish at optimum quality. But while both fisherman
and trader are aware of this, cost considerations always prevail. Bigger fish
operators, however, make sure that proper holding temperature of not more
than 4C can be achieved with adequate icing and true insulated fish boxes.

water-soluble synthetic co-polymer with cold-retention ability is used


to keep fish frozen during transport. The material is initially a powder that
becomes a gel when water is added. The resulting gel is frozen at 40 to 30C
before using. The fish is placed between bags of this frozen gel. The fish to be
packed has to be cooled down first because the gel cannot cool fish at
ambient temperature but it can maintain a cold temperature that will avoid
thawing of an already frozen fish. The advantage of the gel pack is that it
does not drip like ice so it is particularly suitable for air transport.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 114
Fish and fishery products are still sold in many wet markets and
talipapa where icing is minimal or entirely without ice at all, in many cases.
Fish and shellfish are displayed at ambient temperatures for extended
periods allowing deterioration. Again this practice is gradually changing for
the better.

Storage Times for Seafood

Refrigerator (35-
Product Freezer ( 0o )
40F)
Fresh water fish, cleaned 3 – 5 days 6 – 9 months
Fillets 2 – 3 days 4 – 6 months
Steaks 3 – 5 days 2 months
Cooked fish 3 – 4 days 1 month
Smoked fish 1 – 2 weeks 4 – 5 weeks
Canned fish 1 day NR
Clams, oyster (shucked) 7 – 9 days 3 – 4 months
Crabs 7 days 2 months
Shrimps 3 – 5 days 6 – 12 months

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Perform the following activities:

Visit a fish market. Identify as many fishes and shellfishes as you can
you. Report to the class the number you have identified and submit a list.
List down the kind of seafood that are available in your locality and compare
this list with the seafood found in the market.

RESOURCES:

Equipment
Refrigerator
Freezer
Tools
Plastic wrapper
Knives

Fresh fish
Shellfish

REFERENCES:
Dora S. Lewis et. Al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY pp. 254 – 266

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D., et. Al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO pp.211 – 22
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 115
LESSON 2

PREPARING AND COOKING FISH AND SHELLFISH

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the preparation and cooking of fish and shellfish
in accordance with enterprise standards.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Fish is cleaned and eviscerated, correctly and efficiently according


to enterprise standards
Shellfish and other types of seafood are cleaned and prepared
correctly in accordance with enterprise standards
Seafood are cooked in accordance with enterprise standards using a
variety of cooking methods, considering:
0 Cut, sizes and portion
1 Whole and fresh fish
2 Bone-in or boneless portions
3 Market forms of fish; live, fresh or frozen
Fish and shellfish are used for a variety of dishes and menu items.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
slip - to cause to move smoothly and easily, cause to slide blunt - having a
thick edge, not sharp
wok - cooking pan, as of iron, aluminum with handle and a rounded bottom
porridge - a broth or stew of vegetables

Information Sheet 2.1

Preparing Fish and Shellfish

Fish and shellfish are cleaned properly before cooking. Fish is


generally cooked for consumptions but some fish delicacies are raw. Raw fish
has a translucent flesh. During cookery, this becomes opaque and the
muscles are easily flaked. These are indications of doneness by moist and
dry methods.

The homemaker usually buys fish cleaned and dressed from the
market.

Cleaning fish
First, wear a pair of canvas gloves, if available. If not, dip your hands in
salt before you handle the fish so that it will not slip and slide. Place
the fish on the table and hold it firmly by the head with one hand.
With the other hand, scrape the scales with a blunt knife working from
tail to head. This can be done easily if the fish is soaked in cold water.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 116
Cut off the head and tail and remove the blood line. Then wash it in
running water.
Rub both hands and utensils with moistened salt to remove odors before
you apply any soap. Finally rinse it in salt and warm water before
putting them in the regular dish water. Save lemon rinds to use on
your hands in order to remove any remaining fish odors.

Shellfish, like mussels, is soaked in water with salt to remove the sand
inside the organism. This is done in a short time only.

Cooking Fish and Shellfish

Fish requires less cooking time because it has no connective tissues.


The fish is cooked when it flakes easily and the eyeballs come out. When
done, fish should be chalk-white in color.

Shellfish like shrimps, crabs, lobsters and clams require only short
cooking time. Cooking should be done in the shortest time to avoid loss of
moisture, flavor and nutritive value. Shellfish cooked in many different ways,
depending upon the kind to be cooked.

Shrimp. Shrimp is usually boiled either with the shell or already shucked.
Bring to a boil at enough water to cover the shrimp. Season as desired.
Cook shrimp. It may be iced and served as a cocktail.

Shrimp Creole – in a rich tomato sauce and served on rice.


Paella – a Spanish dish made with shrimp, with fresh vegetables
and rice.
Shrimp Curry – a spicy, hot dish from India.

Lobster and Crab. They are boiled the same way as shrimp. Enough water
must be used to completely cover the shellfish. When the water boils,
drop the live lobster or crab with its head first. Simmer for 12-15
minutes. Do not overcook.
Lobster is served in many ways, it is served just as it comes
from the boiling water, with a little melted butter and lemon on the
side.
Crab may be served whole, or the meat may be removed and
mixed with sauce for crab bisque. Crab cakes fried in deep fat are also
popular.

Oysters, Clams and Scallops


Oysters are served raw as an appetizer, either on the half shell
or in a cocktail glass. They can be baked, stuffed, poached, or fried.
Oysters also make delicious bisque and stews.
Clams are served raw like oyster, or fried, steamed, or cooked in
chowder.
Scallops should be slightly sweet, lean, juicy and tender with
cream – colored flesh. They may be cooked in chowders and soups, or
broiled on a skewer.

Methods of Cooking
Dry Heat Method. This includes broiling, baking, frying, and toasting. In
dry heat cookery of fish, it is important to avoid overcooking, otherwise
the fish would be dry and less acceptable.

Module yr | Lesson 2 11
4th 7
Broiling or “ihaw” is usually done on live coal and is conveniently done
outdoors or in an open shed. Fish to be broiled may be wrapped in
fresh banana leaves to prevent it from scorching. Aluminum foil
may also be used.
Baking is done in an oven with a temperature from 135oC to 177oC
(270oF to 350oF). Baked fish looks best with head and tails intact.
Frying is cooking in small amount of oil just enough to cook one side
of the fish. To completely fry it, the fish must be turned over with a
pair of tongs or turner.
Toasting is easily done in a round bottom frying pan or wok without
the addition of water or oil. Dried anchovies or dilis may be toasted
in a kawali or wok prior to serving.

Moist Heat Method. Moist heat cookery of fish involves water. Some examples
of this type of cookery are paksiw, sinigang and pesa. It is very
important that the fish is not overcooked otherwise it loses its shape
and also its eye appeal.

“Paksiw” na isda is cooking fish in vinegar, some water, sliced ginger,


salt, pepper and other spices. It is actually a form of pickling. It is
served after the vinegar has penetrated the fish for sometime. Due
to its acidic nature, it does not spoil easily.
“Sinigang na isda” is cooking fish in considerable amount of water,
some vegetables and an acidifying agent such as unripe tamarind.
Kangkong is commonly used as vegetable for this recipe. The liquid
portion is large enough to serve as soup out of it.
“Pesa” is usually a dalag cooked in rice washing, ginger and
considerable amount of water to make a thin porridge. Vegetable
and onion are also added.
Steaming is another moist heat method of cookery appropriate for
cooking large fishes such as lapu-lapu and apahap. Plain water
may be used for steaming but the fish will acquire better flavor if
herbs and vegetables are added to the water to make an aromatic
broth.

Some local fish recipes involve both frying and moist cookery.
Examples are sarciado, escabeche, dalag in pinakbet, bangus in tausi,
relleno and quekiam.
As a rule, fat fish tastes better when cooked by dry heat method.

SELF-CHECK

Direction: Read the following questions correctly and choose the letter of the
correct answer. Write your answer in your test notebook.

1. Which of the following is used before handling the fish?


a. pair of glove c. oil
b. soap d. water

2. What is used in removing any remaining fish odors?


a. lemon rind c. sugar
b. salt d. vinegar
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 118
3. What method of cooking is appropriate for cooking large fish such
as lapu-lapu?
a. boiling c. steaming
b. frying d. toasting

4. The fish is cooked in small amount of water, vinegar, salt, sliced


ginger, pepper and other spices. This moist heat method is ______.
a. paksiw c. sinigang na isda b. pesa d. steaming

5. Fat fish tastes better when cooked by ______.


a. dry heat method c. steaming
b. moist heat method d. toasting

REFERENCES

DORA S. LEWIS, et al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY, Copyright 1955,


pp. 257 – 266

SONIA Y. De Leon, Ph. D., MBM, et al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS
Copyright 1999, pp. 211 – 229

Activity Sheet 2.1

BAKED FISH

TOOLS AND INGRIDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 1 whole bangus
gas or electric stove 2 pcs green onions (chopped)
knife 2 pcs. lemon slices
chopping board ⅛ tsp. seasoning
measuring cup 1½ tsp. salt
measuring spoon 2 tbsps. butter
wooden spoon 1 big tomato (chopped)
oven dash of pepper
baking pan 1 pc. onion (chopped)
aluminum foil

Procedure:

Rub fish inside and out with lemon slices. Sprinkle with salt. Let stand
for about 30 minutes.
Combine tomato, onions, green onion, pepper, and salt.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 119
Stuff inside stomach cavity of fish.
Preheat oven at 400F. Brush fish with melted butter, place in a baking
pan lined with greased aluminum foil and bake for 30 minutes or until
fish flakes easily when pricked with fork.
Baste with butter while baking. Serve hot. Good for 6 to 8 persons.

Activity Sheet 2.2

FISH ESCABECHE MACAO

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 1 large large fish
gas or electric stove 5 tbsp. vinegar
knife 1 large onion
chopping board 4 tbsp. brown sugar
measuring cup 2 large green and red
measuring spoon 2 tbsp. cornstarch
wooden spoon sweet pepper(cut into strips)
vetsin to taste
5 tbsp. soy sauce
pinch of black pepper (pounded)

Procedure:

Clean and fry fish and set aside.


Fry garlic, onions and sweet pepper. Make a medium thick gravy from the
mixture of water, vinegar, soy sauce and cornstarch.
Add the fried garlic, onions, sweet pepper and boil for 3 minutes. Season
with vetsin.
Place the fish on a platter, pour the gravy over it and garnish with onions
and parsley. Serve hot.
Good for 6 to 8 persons.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 120


Activity Sheet 2.3

STIR FRIED SQUID

INGREDIENTS
TOOLS AND
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
EQUIPMENT

casserole 750 g squid


gas or electric stove 5 tablespoons cooking oil
knife 1 tablespoon lime juice
chopping board to taste salt
measuring cup 1/2 teaspoon clear stock
measuring spoon 250 cc basil leaves
wooden spoon 50 g salt for rubbing the squid
frying fan fried shallots, for garnishing

Spices (ground)
8 pcs. red chilies
fresh ginger,
1/2 teaspoon chopped
4 cloves garlic
8 pcs. shallots
1/2 teaspoon shrimp paste

PROCEDURE:

Thoroughly wash the squid and remove the membrane. Discard the head,
ink bag and transparent white spine. Cut out the eyes and discard. Rinse
and drain. Rub the squid with lime juice and salt. Set aside to stand for 20
minutes. Heat a wok with oil and sauté the spices until fragrant. Add the
chilies and squid. Continue to stir until the spices are absorbed. Add the
stock and cook until the gravy has thickened. Add basil leaves, reduce heat
and continue cooking. When ready to serve, garnish with fried shallots.

Activity Sheet 2.4

TAHONG AFRITADA

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 1½ kilo tahong
gas or electric stove 1 8-oz can Del Monte tomato sauce
knife 1 cup mussel broth
chopping board 200 grams potatoes, diced and fired
measuring cup 1 tbsp. bread crumbs
measuring spoon 200 grams Baguio beans, cut diagonally
wooden spoon 1 tbsp. peanuts, ground
frying fan 2 tsps. ginger juice
2 tsps. salt
4segments garlic, crushed
¼ tsp. vetsin (optional)

Module 4th yr | Lesson


2 121
1 pc. onion, chopped
¼ cup oil
1 pc. red bell pepper; cut into strips
4 tsp. atsuete juice

PROCEDURE:

Steam to open tahong in boiling water.


Remove meat from shell. Set aside.
Sauté garlic, onions and tahong.
Add ginger juice and stir. Pour tomato sauce, tahong, broth and atsuete
juice. Add the vegetables. Season.
Simmer for 3 minutes. Add peanuts, bread crumbs and potatoes.
Mix to combine all ingredients. Simmer for 5 minutes more, Serve hot.
(Good for 6 persons)

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Prepare the ingredients, tools and equipment. Perform the


following:
Baked Fish
Fish Escabeche Macao
Stuffed Squid
Tahong Afritada

RESOURCES:
Equipment
Freezer
Refrigerator
Gas Range
Oven

Basin
Casserole
Frying pan
Bowls
Ladle
Knife
Chopping board Supplies and Materials
Fresh fish
Fresh shellfish
Spices
Fresh vegetables

REFERENCES:

DORA S. LEWIS, et al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY, Copyright 1955,


pp. 257 – 266

SONIA Y. De Leon, Ph. D., MBM, et al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS
Copyright 1999, pp. 211 – 229
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 122
LESSON 3

PRESENTING AND SERVING FISH AND SEAFOOD

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the proper presentation and serving fish using
garnishing techniques according to recipe and enterprise standard.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

Fish and seafood are prepared, presented and served considering


the following criteria:
0 Palatability
1 Visual appearance
2 Harmony of ingredients
3 Comparative sizes between dishes and garnish
4 Quality and taste
Suitable sauces and dips are prepared according to recipes and
enterprise standards.
Presentation and garnishing techniques are selected and used
according to recipes and enterprise standards.
Services are carried out according to enterprise methods and
standards.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

garnish – a way of decorating food using additional food items.


Mise en place – basic preparation procedure prior to operation.

Information Sheet 3.1

Garnishes and Sauces Suited for Fish and Shellfish

Good garnishes are: beets, carrots (sticks, curls, or shredded), celery,


sliced cucumbers, green pepper rings, hard-cooked eggs, parsley, lemon,
lettuce, paprika, pickles and watercress.
Garnishes and sauces add to the appearance, color, and flavor of fish
and shellfish. Seafood seems to use a special accent.
Sauces that are especially well suited are: butter, Hollandaise, tomato,
chili, lemon and butter, mayonnaise, egg and olive.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 123


Criteria for Judging the Presentation and Serving
Cooked Fish and Shellfish

Good ( Fair Poor


Product
5) (3) (1)
a) General Appearance:
Attractive and appealing to __________ _________ _________
appetite __________ _________ _________
Pleasing and has a good color __________ _________ _________
combination
Ingredients cooked just right
b) Palatability
Delicious taste
c) Nutritive Value

Green salads are a “must” for fish. Tossed salads, coleslaw, cucumber
salads, tomato combinations, assorted raw vegetables, grated carrots, onion
and orange salad are especially good if served with a tart dressing.

Lobsters are presented and served in many ways. They are served just
as they come from the boiling water, with a little melted butter and lemon on
the side.
Crabs may be served whole, or the meat may be removed and mixed
with sauce for crab bisque. Crab cakes fried in deep fat are also popular.

SAMPLE RECIPE OF FISH WITH GARNISHES

Broiled Fish with Garnishes

INGREDIENTS
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 1½ pounds fillets pinch salt
gas or electric stove 4 tbsp. butter
knife parsley or water cuss
chopping board lemon
measuring cup sauce
measuring spoon pepper
wooden spoon

PROCEDURE:

Grease the broiler pan and place it 2 inches below flame.


Set the broiler at 350F and preheat.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 124


Wash and cut fish in serving – sized pieces.
Place fish or preheated broiler pan with the skin side toward the flame.
Brush the fish with melted fat and broil until slightly brown.
Turn it carefully and baste with the fat.
Broil for 5 to 8 minutes. Test to see if done.
When done, season it with salt and pepper, and move it to a hot
serving platter.
Garnish it with lemon and parsley.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Perform the following:


Prepare one fish dish together with appropriate sauce and garnish.
Present and serve attractively with suitable garnishes and sauces.

RESOURCES:
Equipment
0 Gas range
1 Table appointments Tools and Utensils
Knife
Serving plates/trays
Casseroles

Ingredients for the recipe

REFERENCES:

Dora S. Lewis, et al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY Copyright 1955


257 – 266

www.shutterstock.com

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 125


ti
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: PREPARE AND COOK VEGETABLES, FRUITS, AND EGG DISHES

Module Title: Preparing and Cooking Vegetables, Fruits, and Egg


Module No.: 6 Dishes
Nominal Duration: 50 Hrs.

Module 4th yr | Lesson


2 126
PREPARE AND COOK VEGETABLES, FRUITS AND EGG DISHES

Module Title: PREPARING AND COOKING VEGETABLES, FRUITS, AND


EGG DISHES

Module Introduction:

The module covers the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required in


preparing various vegetables, fruits, egg, and starch dishes in a commercial
kitchen or catering operation.

Expected Outcome

After completing this module, you should be able to:


prepare and cook vegetables and fruit dishes;
prepare and cook starch dishes;
prepare and cook egg-based dishes; and
store vegetables, fruits, eggs, starch, and other food stuff properly.

PRE-TEST

Direction: Read each of the following items carefully and choose the
letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in your test booklet.

How can you avoid loss of nutrients during vegetable preparation?


0 wash them before paring and cutting.
1 soak in lukewarm water after cutting.
2 blanch them first before paring and slicing.
3 rub the surface with plenty of salt after paring.

Squash contains Vit. A, which is a fat-soluble vitamin, therefore it is better to


cook it as
0 bulanglang
1 ginisang kalabasa
2 pinakbet
3 sautéed Squash with Tofu

Why do camote tops turn brownish green when added to fish or pork
sinigang?
0 it is an indication that the vegetable is overcooked.
1 it is a normal reaction of the chlorophyll with the acetic acid in
vinegar.
2 the compounds in vegetables react with the medium where it is
cooked.
3 the brownish green color indicates that the chlorophyll content is
enhanced.

Cabbage develops strong flavors when cooked because of the sulfur


compounds that give it a unique characteristics. To avoid this, you should
0 add fats to the recipe
0not overcook the vegetable
1lengthen the cooking time of the food.
2use plenty of water in cooking the vegetable.
What must be done to inactivate the enzyme and avoid browning of fruits
like santol after paring?
0 soak in water with alum.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 127


b. blanch for a few minutes.
c. boil until the tissue softens.
d. cool in the refrigerator for several minutes before paring.

6.Which of the following plants is rich in protein?


a. sweet potato c. radish
b. legumes d. lettuce
Which part of the egg is considered the rich source of
7.cholesterol?
a. air cell b. shell c. white d. yolk

How can you facilitate ease in removing the shell of hard boiled eggs?
0 dip in cold water.
1 immerse in vinegar.
2 coat the shell with some cake flour.
3 put inside the refrigerator for 3 minutes.

Eggs are used in baking of the products to


0 promote tenderness
1 enhance their flavor.
2 bind the ingredients together.
3 prolong their keeping quality.

In food storage, FIFO rule or the first in, first out rule means to
0 use the oldest products first.
1 consume first the most expensive products.
2 use the most recently purchased supplies first.
3 consume the products stored at the innermost part of the cabinet.

LESSON 1

PREPARING AND COOKING VEGETABLE AND FRUIT DISHES

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the classification of plant parts in market forms.
It includes the different terms related to the preparation of fruits and
vegetables.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Vegetables and fruits are selected according to season availability,


quantity, quality and price
Vegetables, fruits, and potato accompaniments are selected to
complement and enhance menu items
Variety of vegetables and fruit dishes are prepared using suitable
cookery methods to preserve optimum quality and nutrition
Vegetables and fruits are attractively presented using suitable
garnishes.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 128
DEFINITION OF TERMS

vegetables – the edible parts of plant including the leaves, tubers,


bulbs, stems and stalks, shoots, roots and flowers.
preserve - to keep safe, free from spoilage
frozen - process to prolong shelf life, covered with ice to prevent
spoilage and the growth of micro organism temperature of 0oF (8oC)
or below.
appetizers - a portion of food or drinks served before the main course
braise - to cook slowly in covered utensils in a small amount of liquid
broil - to cook directly over a live coal
garnish - to decorate dishes with pieces of colorful and contrasting
food,

Information Sheet 1.1

Among the most versatile of nature’s many food substances are the
fruits and vegetable. They can be eaten cooked or raw; in their native state or
in a completely changed appearance; by themselves or in combination with
other
food items. Almost any way, shape, or fashion of preparation or serving is
possible and appropriate for these food items.
Fruits and vegetables give color, flavor and texture to our meals. In
addition, fruits and vegetables are important sources of vitamins and
minerals needed for growth and normal physiologic functioning of the body.
The diverse and interesting flavors of fruits and vegetables make our meals
more appetizing.

CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES

Vegetables are classified according to parts of plants used, chemical


composition, and nutritive value.

According to Parts of Plant Used

Roots are underground parts of the plant. Example: cassava, sweet


potato, taro, radish, yam beans, togue and ube.
Tubers are short thickened, fleshy parts of an underground stem like
potato.
Bulbs are underground buds that send down roots and are made up of
very short stems covered with layers. Example : garlic, onion, leeks,
chives and shallots
Seeds are parts from which a new plant will grow. Example mungbean,
garbanzos, cow pea, kidney bean, soy bean, white bean.
Stem and shoots are stalks supporting leaves, flowers, and fruits
Leaves include alugbati, ampalaya leaves camote tops, kangkong, celery,
spinach, cabbage, mustard, petchay, pepper leaves.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 129


Fruits include ampalya upo, sayote, cucumber, eggplant, bread fruit ,
okra, patola, squash, tomato and sweet pepper.
Flowers are exemplified by cauliflower, squash flower and caturay.

According to Chemical Composition

Carbohydrate rich – examples: seeds, roots and tubers


Protein rich - include seeds such as legumes and pulses
Fat rich – examples: nuts, olives and avocado
High moisture content – examples: mushrooms, tomatoes, celery,
cauliflower, radish, lettuce, and cabbage

According to Nutritive Value

Minerals
Vitamins
Other carbohydrates

According to pigment or color

Green color pigment – CHLOROPHYL – peas, asparagus, green bean,


cabbage, spinach, broccoli, green pepper
Yellow and Orange pigment – CAROTENOIDS – carrots, yellow camote,
squash, ripe papaya, corn.
Red color pigment – ANTHOCYANINS– (red, blue and purple) red
cabbage, beets, red pepper, pamintom, tomatoes, red water melon.
White color pigment – ANTHOXANTHINS – potatoes, yellow skinned
onions, cauliflower.

Flavonoids- are pigments widely distributed in plants and include


ANTHOCYANINS and ANTHOXANTHINS.

According to flavor and aroma


mild
strong
pungent

Texture and Characteristic of Vegetables and Fruits

Toughness
Stringiness
Slicing quality
Crispness

Major Flavor Component of Fruits

Sugar
Acids
Sulfur compound
Tannins
Some volatile constituents
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 130
Standard for Cooked Vegetables
Cooked vegetables which are not starchy should be tender but still slightly
crisp.
The starchy vegetables such as potato should be soft throughout.
Cooked vegetables should be flavored and pleasant to the taste.
Seasonings and sauces should not dominate the natural flavor of the
vegetables but complement it.
Color is very important to the appearance of vegetables.

REMINDERS IN THE PREPARATION OF VEGETABLE DISHES

The best vegetables to serve are those that have fresh garden
look
and taste
Cook vegetables whole or in big pieces, Use a little amount of
water unless it is soup or sauce, and cover the pot while cooking.
Cook legumes like monggo, garbanzos, and sweet peas, initially
in high heat. When the water is already boiling, lower the heat to
simmering point.
You may combine legumes with meat and other vegetables or
they may be cooked in a syrup and served as dessert.
Vegetables that are eaten raw, like lettuce and tomatoes, should
be well washed even though they do not look dirty.

Cooking root crops and cereals

Minimize the starchy taste that is commonly present in root crops,


such as ube, sweet potatoes, togue, potatoes and many others like
cereals.
Cook these until the starch and carbohydrates present are cooked.
When cooked, the shape and size vary; rice for instance, when cooked
becomes swollen, soft and opaque. Don’t overcook cereals so it will
not become mushy, watery or soggy.

Buying fruits and vegetables

High quality fresh fruits and vegetables are firm and heavy for their
size but must be matured to a stage where ripening is assured. The color of
high quality of fruits and vegetables is bright and the skin is unmarked and
without blemishes.

Ways of cooking vegetables


Blanching

Frying
0 Stir frying using a small amount of fat.
1 Deep fat frying.
Deep fat is used to cover or float vegetables
Broiling
Cooking over direct heat like that of cooking “inihaw na talong.”
Braising
Place food in a covered pan or skillet with about 2 tbsp. butter
or moist drippings 1 or 2 tbsp. water.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 131


Steaming
Pressure cooking
Nutrients are often conserved due to shorter cooking time
required and the use of a small amount of cooking liquid.

FRUITS

These are the fleshy, juicy seed containing part of the plant usually
taken as dessert at the end of the meal or as an ingredient.

Factors to be considered in selecting fruits

Variety of the fruits, example: Saba banana, lakatan


Maturity or degree of ripeness
Freshness
Size

Market forms of fruits

Fresh
Canned
Frozen
Dried

Methods of cooking / preparing fruits

Baking
Broiling
Sautéing
Stewing

Uses of fruits

Salads and spreads


Juices and jams
Ice cream
Candies
Preserves
Wine-making
Marmalades
Desserts
Pickle
Candy

SELF- CHECK

Directions: Answer this question on a separate sheet of paper.


What are the factors to consider in choosing fruits and vegetables to be
cooked?
How are fruits and vegetables classified?
How can you preserve the nutritive value of fruits and vegetables
during preparation and cooking?
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 132
REFERENCES:

De Leon, Chavez, Claudio Guzman, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS, 3rd


Edition pp. 334, 336, 497, 509

Leticia Navarro, Josephine De Guzman, Eden Diaz, HOME MAKING FOR


YOU, FOOD AND NUTRITION II, pp. 45

D. S. Lewis, Gladys Citek Peckham, Helen Stone Hovey, Family Measures


Hospitality, Revised edition, pp. 78-79

Rosario P. Nem Singh, COOK BOOK RECIPES AND NUTRITION TIPS,


Copyright 2005, pp. 1-70

F. P. Sandoval, P.G. Malig, N. B. Cudal, A. D. Tindok, R. S. Banes, HOME


ECONOMICS I, Copyright 1985, pp. 61 – 62

Activity Sheet 1.1

CHOPSUEY

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
2 tbsp. cooking oil
casserole 2 tbsp. sesame oil (optional)
gas or electric stove 3 gloves garlic crushed
knife 2 pcs. onion (large)
chopping board ¼ kilo pork, cubed
measuring cup 2-3 pcs. chicken giblets and liver
measuring spoon chicken wings cut into small pieces
wooden spoon ¼ kilo fresh shrimps, shelled
oven 2 tbsp. fish sauce (patis)
1 tbsp MSG
¼ kilo snow peas (sitsaro)
10 pieces bitchuelas
2 pieces bell pepper, red and green big slices
medium sized carrot, round thin
1 piece slice
¼ kilo cabbage, chopped 1-1/2 squares
¼ kilo cauliflower broken into flowerets
2-3 stalk leeks, chopped 1 inch long
2-3 stalks celery, chopped 1 inch long
2 cups chicken or meat broth
1 tbsp. cornstarch, dissolved in ¼ c. water

PROCEDURE:

Sauté garlic until brown adds onions. When half-cooked stir in pork,
giblets, liver, chicken and shrimps, sauté for 2 minutes and pour in fish
sauce. Boil then season with salt and MSG; add all of the vegetables. Cook
until half done. Thicken with dissolved cornstarch. Do not over cook
vegetables. Serve hot.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 133
Activity Sheet 1.2

GUYABANO JUICE

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
strainer 1 pc. fully ripe guyabano
measuring cup 1 cup white sugar
spoon ½cup warm water
container ½ cup calamansi juice
refrigerator/
chiller

PROCEDURE:

Wash the guyabano and divide it into two equal parts.


Get all the pulp and crush in about 5 cups of water.
Strain to remove all the seeds and the hard portion.
Add the rest of the water .Mix with calamansi juice and sugar.
Chill and serve cold or with ice.

Activity Sheet 1.3

PAPAYA ALE

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION

strainer 1 cup mashed ripe papaya pulp


measuring cup ½cup white sugar
spoon 3 cups cold water
container 3 tbsp. calamansi juice
refrigerator/
chiller
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 134
PROCEDURE:

Strain the mashed papaya. Add the sugar, calamansi and water.
Mix well and chill.
Serve cold.

Activity Sheet 1.4

BUTTERED MIXED VEGETABLE

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 120 g./ 4 oz frozen sweet corn
knife 120 g./ 4 oz frozen broad beans
strainer 120 g./ 4 oz frozen French beans
chopping board 45 g./ 1 ½ oz butter
measuring cup to taste salt
measuring spoon to taste pepper
wooden spoon parsley chopped
sauté pan ice cold water
gas or electric stove

PROCEDURE:
1. Bring water to the boil in a saucepan and, when boiling, add the
vegetables. Cook for about 5-8 minutes.
Transfer to ice cold water. Drain and leave to dry.
Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the vegetables. Heat slowly, tossing or
stirring occasionally, until heated through. Add salt and pepper to taste and
stir in the parsley. Serve immediately.

SELF- CHECK
Direction: Prepare the utensils/ equipment, ingredients, and perform
the recipe following the standard procedure. Evaluate the finished
product using the checklist below.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 135


Evaluation Checklist of Finished Product
EVALUATION CHECKLIST Yes No

Basic principles of cooking were followed in


1. preparing
food
2. Food was prepared within the allotted time
3. Expenses were kept within the food budget.
4. The dish prepared looked good and palatable.
5. The dish was toothsome and appetizing.
6. Ingredients were properly combined.
7. Foods were arranged attractively on serving plates.
8. The dish satisfied the diners’ appetite.
9. Preservation of food nutrients in preparing the food
was considered.

Numerical Value:
9- Very good
6- Fair
3- Poor

RESOURCES:

RESOURCES:
Equipment
0 Gas range
1 Table appointments Tools and Utensils
Knife
Serving plates/trays
Casseroles

Ingredients for the recipe

REFERENCES:

De Leon, Chavez, Claudio Guzman, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS, 3rd


Edition pp. 334, 336, 497, 509

Leticia Navarro, Josephine De Guzman, Eden Diaz, HOME MAKING FOR


YOU, FOOD AND NUTRITION II, pp. 45

D. S. Lewis, Gladys Citek Peckham, Helen Stone Hovey,


FAMILY MEASURES HOSPITALITY, Revised Edition, pp. 78-79

Rosario P. Nem Singh, COOK BOOK RECIPES AND NUTRITION TIPS,


Copyright 2005, pp. 1-70

F. P. Sandoval, P.G. Malig, N. B. Cudal, A. D. Tindok, R. S. Banes, HOME


ECONOMICS I, Copyright 1985, pp. 61 – 62
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 136
LESSON 2

PREPARING AND COOKING STARCH DISHES

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the preparation of the varieties of starch-rich


food, and the different sauces and accompaniments appropriate to starch-
based dishes.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Variety of starch foods are selected, prepared, and cooked according to


enterprise recipes.
Optimum quality of starch food is ensured using appropriate methods
and standard procedures.
Cooked starch dishes are presented attractively.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Starch – nutrient carbohydrates found notably in corn, potatoes, wheat


and rice, and is commonly prepared as a whole tasteless powder.
Viscosity –measures the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by
tensile stress.
Gel – jelly-like mixture formed when the particles of a colloidal become
relatively large.
Gelatinization – a point when jelly is form.
Amorphous – lacking definite organization or form.

Birefringence – is defined as double refraction of light in a transparent


molecularly order material that is caused by the existence of orientation-
dependent differences in refractive index.

Information Sheet 2.1

Starch exists in nature as the main component of cereals and tubers.


It plays an important role in achieving the desired viscosity in manufactured
and processed foods like corn starch pudding, sauces, pie filling and gravies.
Starch is the source of up to 80% of calories worldwide.

Starchy foods
rice
corn
cassava
wheat
potato
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 137
Common source of manufactured food starch

corn
potato
tapioca (cassava)

Starches are named after its plant sources


corn starch from corn
rice starch from rice
tapioca from cassava

Classification of Starch

Native Starch refers to the starches as originally derived from its plant
source.
Modified Starches are those with structures altered by treatment with
physical or chemical agents.

Starch Properties and Reactions

Gelatinization. Native starch granules are insoluble solids. When


suspended in water, one gram of starch can associate with 0.5 to 1.0 g
water, swelling very slightly.

Viscosity. When the newly gelatinized starch is stirred, more swollen


granules break and more starch molecules spill causing increase in viscosity
or thickness. This increase in viscosity is a characteristic of gelatinized
starches.

Characteristics of complete gelatinization

Loss of birefringence, which is evident only when viewed with a polarizing


microscope.
Increase in viscosity is readily observed.
Increase in clarity, also easily observed.

High viscosity – the gel is firm and resists flow.


Low viscosity - the gel flows

The type of sugar influences the temperature and rate of


gelatinization. The effect of sugar is attributed to competition for water.
It was observed that sugar actually interacts with the amorphous
areas of the starch granules.

Different sweeteners added to starch gel preparation.

honey
molasses
panutsa or granulated sugar

Factors Affecting Starch Paste Viscosity and Starch Gel Strength


Stress (Stirring)- Granules in gelatinized cornstarch dispersion break
apart due to stirring.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 138


0 Kind and Amount of Starch will influence paste viscosity and gel
strength.
With “native starches” the greater the amount of amylopectin the more
viscous the starch paste, whereas, the greater the amount of amylose
the firmer the gel (greater gel strength).

1 Heating rate-the faster starch-water dispersion is heated the thicker it


will be at the identical endpoint temperature.

2 Endpoint Temperature
0 Each type of starch has a specific endpoint temperature at which it
will undergo optimum gelatinization.
1 Incompletely gelatinized starch will not attain optimum starch paste
viscosity or gel strength.
2 Over gelatinization results in decreased starch paste viscosity and
gel strength because the swollen granules fragmented with stirring
and/or imploded due to the extensive loss of amylase from the
granule.

3 Cooling and storage conditions


0 If cooled too fast, the amylase will not have time to form the vital
micelles necessary for the three dimensional structure.
1 If cooled too slowly, the amylase fractions will have a chance to
align too much and become too close together and the liquid portion
will not be trapped in the micelles. In both instances there will be
weeping and syneresis.

4 Ingredients added (acid, enzyme, sugar, fat and emulsifiers a. Addition


of acid or enzyme can also cause dextrinization.
0Dextrin – a pale powder obtained from starch, used mainly as
an adhesive.
1In making kalamansi pudding or pie, if the juice is added early
in the gelatinization process, dextrinization of the starch will
occur resulting in decreased viscosity and gel strength.
2Sugar will delay or inhibit gelatinization of starch.
3Starch pudding with excess sugar will be less viscous or form
less firm gel.
4A cake may collapse as the structural contribution of starch is
delayed or inhibited.
5Decreased starch paste viscosity and gel strength results
because the sugar competes for water won’t be available for
gelatinization.
The kind of sugar used also affect viscosity.
6Fat and surfactants, will serve to “waterproof” the starch
granules so that water will not penetrate as readily during the
gelatinization process.

Retrogadation when cooled, gelatinize amylase-


containing starches set into a rigid gel.

Retroradation is defined as the reassociation of the linear amylase chains


by hydrogen bonding.

The rate of staling is dependent on the product formation, the


baking process, and the storage conditions.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 139
Syneresis is characterized by the expulsion of moisture from the gel.

This reaction occurs in all kinds of gels:


0 puddings
1 jellies
2 custards
3 gelatin
4 agar
Dextrinization
Dextrins – are partially hydrolyzed starches that are prepared by
dry roasting starch. In home kitchens, dextrinization is achieved by
toasting of flour for polvoron, rice flour for kare-kare sauce and
bread slices for breakfast.

Hydrolysis Starches undergo hydrolysis during cooking or processing and


during storage of food.
0 Prolonged heating of starches with acid will promote hydrolysis.
This can happen when cooking an acidic food, such as:
0 Pineapple pie resulting in reduced viscosity or firmness of
the pie filling.

Modified Starches – are starches that have been altered physically or


chemically to modify on or more of its key chemical and/or physical
property.

Functional Properties of Starches


Starch plays various roles in food, a typical multi-tasker.
Thickeners in gravies, sauces and pudding. It absorbs water and
become a gel when cooked.
Colloidal stabilizers
Moisture retainer
Gel forming agents
Binders
Package
Flavor carriers

Flavor carriers – its ability to trap oils and fats, which absorb flavoring
substances more efficiently.

Starches – are added to processed meats (luncheon meats, hot dogs,


sausages, etc.) as a filler, binder, moisture, retainer, and fat substitute.

Functions of Starch and Application in Filipino Dishes

Functions of
Starch Type of Food Preparation Recipes

Thickening Sauces, Gravies, Pie fillings Sauces: Sweet sour,


and soups lechon, lumpia, kare-
kare, palabok
Pie filling: mango, buko,
apple, pineapple
Soups: Arroz caldo,
cream soups.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 140
Gelling Puddings, kakanin Bread pudding, maja
blanca, sapin-sapin,
kutchinta, cassava
bibingka
Binding and filling Meat loaves and meat Luncheon meat, hot
emulsions dogs, Vienna sausage,
chicken nuggets,
chicken
balls, Ukoy, tempura
Stabilizing Beverage, syrup, salad Chocolate drinks, fruits
dressing drinks, yogurt drinks,
cooked dressings
Moisture retaining Cake fillings, candies Cake rolls, cream fillings
Coating or ducting Breads, confectionery, Pan de sal, Biscuits,
pastries cansies, espasol
Diluent Baking powder, Cupcake

Coloring Toasts, bread crumbs Polvoron, Lechon sauce,


Kare-kare sauce,
breadings

Common Problems in Starch Cookery

Thinning of Gel. This problem is usually encountered when using acid or


acid ingredients such as lemon or vinegar.
Weak Gel. Weak gel results if there is too much liquid in relation to the
starch
Skin Formation. Skin formation is due to loss of water from the starch
and protein molecules near the surface of the mixture. To reduce this
problem, cover container of the starch gel with a waterproof cover.
Scorching. This can be avoided by temperature control and constant
stirring so the starch granules do not settle at the bottom of the
cooking pan.
Raw Starch Flavor. This is due to ungelatinized starch.
Nutritional Significance of Noodles and Pasta

The Physiological function of noodles and pasta will depend on its


starch and other constituents. Since it is basically a starchy food, the
nutritional significance discussed for starches also applies. In addition to
starches, including resistant starches I(RS), noodles and pasta may contain
other fibers and some proteins and fat as well.

Nutrients contain:
Water
Protein
Fat
Carbon
Calcium
Phosphorous
Iron
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 141
Dried Noodles and Pasta
 Macaroni • Miki
• Chicken
 Spaghetti Mami
 Pancit Canton • Linguini
 Bihon • Lasagna
Sotanghon
Miswa

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions. Write your answer on a


separate sheet of paper.

What are the common problems in starch cookery?


How can these problems be remedied?
What are the factors affecting starch paste viscosity and gel strength?

REFERENCES:

Sonia Y. De Leon, Lilia L. Chavez, Virginia S. Claudio, Matilde P.


Guzman,BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO, 4TH Edition, Copyright 2006,
pp. 158-175

Rosario P. Nam Singhs, COOKBOOK RECIPES AND NUTRITION TOPS, pp.


228 – 235

Activity Sheet 2.1

FETTUCCINE ALFREDO

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION

casserole 250 ml. heavy cream


gas or electric stove 60 g. butter
knife 700 g. fresh fettuccine
chopping board 250 ml. heavy cream
measuring cup 175 g. freshly grated parmesan chess
measuring spoon to taste salt
wooden spoon to taste pepper
grater
sauce pan

PROCEDURE:

Combine the cream and butter in a sauté pan. Bring to a simmer,


reduce by ¼, and remove from heat.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 142
Drop the noodles into salted boiling water. Return to full boil in
drain. The noodles must be slightly undercooked because; they
will be cooked in a cream.
Put the drain noodles in a pan with hot cream and butter. Overlong
heat tosses the noodles with two forks until they are well coated
with the cream.
Add the remainder of the cream and the cheese and toss to mix
well.
Add salt and pepper to taste.
Plate and serve immediately

SELF- CHECK

Direction Assemble and prepare your materials/ cooking outfit and


ingredients needed to prepare Fettuccine Alfredo.

Evaluate your work properly by marking the appropriate column that will
best describe your output.

EVALUATION CHECKLIST GOOD FAIR POOR


Color – appealing to the eyes
Texture – fine, not overcooked
Flavor – aroma arouse the appetite

RESOURCES:
Equipment
0 Gas range
1 Table appointments Tools and Utensils
Knife
Serving plates/trays
Casseroles

Ingredients for the recipe

REFERENCES:

Sonia Y. De Leon, Lilia L. Chavez, Virginia S. Claudio, Matilde P. Guzman,


BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO, 4TH Edition, Copyright 2006, pp. 158-
175

Rosario P. Nam Singhs, COOKBOOK RECIPES AND NUTRITION TOPS,


228 – 235 www.google

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 143


LESSON 3

PREPARING AND COOKING EGG-BASED DISHES

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the preparation and cooking egg-based dishes
on the standard recipes and the use of different methods in preparing eggs
as food, garnishes and as ingredients.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Variety of egg dishes are prepared and cooked according to


standard recipes, using a range of methods.
Egg dishes are correctly prepared and cooked to ensure optimum
and desired quality, consistency, and appearance.

Eggs are used for a variety of culinary uses.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
boiling – cooking in liquid at a temperature of 200°F.
poaching – cooking in an open pan at simmering points with
sufficient seasoned liquid to cover.
frying – the process of cooking food in hot fat or oil.
scramble – to cook egg while stirring together white and yolk
baked (shirred) – cooking in the oven by dry heat.
bind – to fasten or encircle
setting –putting in a particular place or position
coating – covering food which is to be fried with flour, eggs or bread
crumbs
enrich – improve quality, productivity, decoration or nutritive value.
emulsify – to disperse uniformly
glaze – to cover with a smooth surface or coating
clarify– to make clean, trim impurities
garnishing – is a way of decorating food by the addition of other
items.
thicken– to make food creamy, or viscous.

Information Sheet 3.1

EGGS

Eggs are poultry products from chicken, ducks and quail that are eaten as
food. Chicken eggs is the most widely consumed type of eggs in the world,
while duck egg is the next most popular.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 144


Nutritive Value of Egg

Eggs are protein foods


Fresh eggs contain all the vitamins except Vitamin C.
They are important sources of iron, phosphorous and trace minerals.
It contains low calcium found in the shell which is not edible.
It is also a source of Vitamin D.
The egg yolk has iron and riboflavin.

Preparing and cooking egg according to standard recipes

Grading
0 Marketing
0 sorting
1 characteristics – quality and weight
1 Grading according to
0 egg shell color
1 characteristics – quality and weight
2 quality – grouping and sorting

Cookery Method
a. Preparation of egg and uses
0 food
1 garnishes
2 ingredients

CLASSIFICATION OF EGG COOKERY

Egg cooked in the shell – a good cooked egg is tender. The yolk is well
centered, completely coagulated and has no yolk darkening. It is easy to
peel.

Boiled Egg as garnish for


pansit
paella
embutido
sarciado
relyeno
morcon
tamales

Note: Peeling ability of eggs is improved by bringing egg temperature to room


temperature prior to cooking and cooling. The cooked egg is immediately
placed in tap running water.

Egg cooked out of the shell


0Peeled eggs are broken out of the shell and carefully dropped into
boiling water.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 145
Fried eggs are sometimes called eggs cooked sunny side up. The eggs are
broken out of the shell and pan fried in a small amount of cooking oil
without breaking the yolk.

Scrambled eggs are prepared by whipping the whole egg out of the shell and
then pan frying just like fried egg.
0 As thickening agent (like in custard)

0 Leche flan

Pudding

Masapan

FUNCTIONS OF EGGS
food color
leavening agent

Preparation:
slightly beaten egg white
shift foam
stiff egg

STORAGE OF EGGS

Preservation – During the dry season, when there is an abundance of eggs,


preservation measures to prolong keeping quality may be applied through
the following:

1. Refrigeration which involves a temperature of 4°C (40°F).

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 146


Salt curing whereby eggs are preserved in saturated salt solution for 2
weeks, the salt gradually penetrates the egg through its porous shell.

Pickling whereby hard cooked eggs are placed in glass jars and garnished
with green and red pepper, pickling solution consists of vinegar,
refined sugar, salt and juices.

Oil coating involves clogging the egg shell pores by submerging the eggs in
mineral oil to prevent moisture loss during storage.

More Tips about Eggs

Overcooking toughens eggs. Cook them under low to medium heat. But if
you want sunny-side-ups that are curved up at the edges drop them
into boiling hot oil.

“Balut” and ordinary chicken eggs have the same nutrient. Although balut
has more vitamin A and calcium. Open your “balut” at the rounded
end and get its full sumptuous taste by putting it whole in the mouth.

Eggs are easy to digest and so may be eaten even by infants, some babies,
though, may have an allergy, so don’t give them eggs too early.

Dip hard boiled eggs immediately in cold water to peel the shell easily.
This also prevents a dark ring from forming around the yolk.

People with hypertension should limit or avoid the yolk where the fat is.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions in your test booklet.

What are the important functions of eggs particularly in baking?


How can we prolong the shelf life of eggs?
Why should eggs and egg-dishes be avoided by people with hypertension?

REFERENCES:

S.Y. De leon, Ph. D. M.P. Guzman, L.L. Chavez, V.S. Claudio, BASIC FOOD
FOR PHILIPPINES, 3rd Edition, Copyright 1990, pp. 275-295

Mary Frey Ray, Evelyn Jane Lewis, EXPLORING PROFESSIONAL COOKING


Revised, pp. 298

L.S. Maravic, J.D. Icasiano, J.G. De Guzman, HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND
ME, FOOD AND NUTRITION II, pp. 45
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 147
Activity Sheet 3.1

LECHE FLAN (CUSTARD)

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 2cups evaporated milk
gas or electric stove 8pcs egg yolks
knife 1tsp. lemon rind or vanilla
chopping board 1cup sugar
measuring cup 1/2cup caramel syrup
measuring spoon
wooden spoon
skillet

PROCEDURE:
Scald the milk in a double boiler for 15 minutes. Beat egg yolks.
Add the sugar, milk and flavoring. Pour into mold lined with
caramelized baine-marie sugar.
Place this in a bigger pan half-filled with water.
Steam or bake for about 1 hour or until mixture becomes firm.
Cool before removing from the molder.Serve.

Activity Sheet 3.2

ROYAL STUFFED EGGS

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 6pcs cooked eggs, shelled, halves
gas or electric stove ½ cup canned tuna fish, drained and flaked
knife ½ cup finely chopped celery
chopping board 1tbsp. chopped green pepper
measuring cup 2tbsp. mayonnaise
measuring spoon Baguio lettuce
wooden spoon
skillet
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 148
PROCEDURE:
Mash the boiled egg yolk then mix it with tuna fish, flavored
with chopped green pepper and chopped celery and add
mayonnaise.
Stuff halved egg whites the mixture.
Line a serving dish with baguio lettuce.
Arrange stuff eggs attractively.

Activity Sheet 3.3

CRAB-STUFFED EGG

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT
QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 4pcs. hard boiled eggs
gas or electric stove 1tbsp. mayonnaise
knife 1/2tsp. salt
chopping board 1tbsp. lemon or calamansi juice
measuring cup 1cup freshly cooked crab meat
measuring spoon 2 slices bread, quartered and toasted
wooden spoon 1/4cup grated cheese
skillet
oven

PROCEDURE:
Remove eggs from the shell and cut in halves lengthwise, then carefully
remove yolks and press through a sieve.
Add mayonnaise, salt and lemon juice to sieve yolks and blend
thoroughly. Add crab meat.
Lightly lift crab mixture back into egg whites and place on slices of toast.
Arrange in a single layer in a Pyrex baking dish.
Pour tomato sauce over the arranged food sprinkle with cheese.
Bake in a moderately heated oven (375F) for 15 to 20 minutes.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Assemble and prepare your materials/ cooking outfit and


ingredients needed to prepare:

Poached egg
Fried egg
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 149
After the preparation, make your evaluation using the criteria:

Appearance ---------- - 30
Taste ---------- - 25
Preparation ---------- - 20
Cost ---------- - 15
Time ---------- - 10
TOTAL ----------- 100

RESOURCES:
Equipment
0 Gas range
1 Table appointments Tools and Utensils
Knife
Serving plates/trays
Casseroles

Ingredients for the recipe

REFERENCES:

S.Y. De leon, Ph. D. M.P. Guzman, L.L. Chavez, V.S. Claudio, BASIC FOOD
FOR PHILIPPINES, 3rd Edition, Copyright 1990, pp. 275-
295

Mary Frey Ray, Evelyn Jane Lewis, EXPLORING PROFESSIONAL


COOKING Revised, pp. 298

L.S. Maravic, J.D. Icasiano, J.G. De Guzman, HOMEMAKING FOR


YOU AND ME, FOOD AND NUTRITION II, pp. 45

LESSON 4

STORING VEGETABLES, FRUITS, EGGS, STARCH,


AND FOOD STUFFS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the proper storage of vegetables, fruits, eggs, and
starch foodstuffs to prolong their shelf life.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Fresh and processed eggs, vegetables, and fruits are stored at proper
temperature.

Optimum freshness and quality are maintained in accordance with


enterprise storing techniques and procedure

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 150


Fresh and processed eggs, vegetables, and fruits are kept in
accordance with the required conditions.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

techniques – a method of accomplishing a desired product


quality – essential character; nature, degree or grade of excellence.
enterprise – a business organization, especially when directed toward
profit.
fresh – not stale or spoiled.
package – a commodity or a unit of product; uniformly wrapped or
sealed.
freeze –to become frozen; to make extremely cold.

Information Sheet 4.1

PROPER FOOD HANDLING

Proper food handling includes protecting food from possible contamination


during the processing and storage prior to serving.

Keep hands clean and touch food with hands as little as possible.
0 Make sure that food workers wash hands in warm soapy water before
handling food.

Separate the preparation of meats (potentially hazardous foods) from other


foods.
0 To prevent cross contamination do not prepare fruits and vegetables
on surface used for the preparation of uncooked meats, poultry or fish.
1 To prevent bacterial growth, frequently clean preparation surface and
utensils with a sanitizing solution.

Do not let anyone with skin infection, open sore or illness handle food.
0 If food workers are sick, send them home or assign them to non-food
related duties.

Great tasting fruits and vegetables begin with proper storage at home.
Use the FIFO rule. (First In, First Out). Use whatever is oldest first and
continually rotate
your stock to ensure freshness and reduce waste.

GENERAL RULES FOR STORING FOOD

All foods must be cleaned first before they are stored.


Hot foods should be cooled before covering and storing.
Food must be placed in appropriate containers, properly wrapped and
packed, using plastic bags, aluminum foil or wax paper.
Strong flavored food should be carefully covered or wrapped if placed in
the refrigerator to avoid contaminating other foods. Odor absorbent
materials

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 151


should be placed inside the refrigerator like a piece of charcoal or hard
pandesal.

THREE CATEGORIES OF STORAGE EQUIPMENT

Refrigeration and freezing storage


Heated cabinets and serving counter for cooked foods.
Refrigerated and heated carts and trucks used to deliver prepared food
from a central production unit of various facilities or units where food
is served.

FIFO RULES APPLY TO ALL TYPES OF FOODS

1. FRESH FOODS – are best used within the day of purchase or within
several days, like potato, carrots, which can be kept longer if stored
properly.

Different requirements in the storage of fresh products items.


0 Peaches, plums and nectarines, can be left at room temperature
while ripe, are refrigerated until ready to use.
1 Tomatoes should never be refrigerated because cold damages
texture and ultimately the taste.

FROZEN FOODS – should be stored at 0oF or less.


The maximum length of storage for frozen items varies, but for most
fruits and vegetables, a good rule is six months.

3. CANNED FOODS – have a shelf life of about two years. If they are stored
at a constant temperature of about 75oF, and as long as the can is not
leaking or bulging. Check canned foods periodically rotate stock using the
FIFO rule and discard any leaking, bulging dented cans (dent - depression
on a surface made by pressure or below)

DRIED foods should be stored in cool, dark areas.


Storing in airtight containers in the refrigerator is a great option.
Recommended storage times for dried foods range from 4 months to 1
year. Because food quality is affected by heat, the storage temperature
helps determine the length of storage. The higher the temperature, the
shorter the storage time.

PROPER FOOD STORAGE TIPS

Organize fruits and veggies


We often store fruits and vegetables into crispers together, but
apples and some other fruits produce juice called ethylene, that
speeds ripening in vegetables. Store them separately so that
vegetables will not ripen too fast.

Know which food needs room temperature.


We tend to keep most of our fruits and vegetables in the
refrigerator. But cold temperatures can actually damage some
produce like squash, tomatoes and oranges.
Use oven packaging. This flimsy package from the butcher protects
your meat from freezer burn. Put it in a vacuum sealed or, zip
lock bag with the air squeezed out.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 152


Protect your dry goods.
Dry kitchen products like flour, cornmeal and other grains can
attract bugs that make them unusable. Store them in the
refrigerator or in the freezer where they will be safe from pests.
0 Chill your banana. Most of us keep our bananas on the counter.
But it seems like they spoil almost as room as they ripen.
Instead, store them in your refrigerator once they have ripened.
The skin will turn brown but their inside lasts a lot longer.

Shield leftovers from the air.


Many of us end up throwing out leftovers because they went
bad. To prevent it, don’t just cover the top of the bowl with foil
and plastic wrap. Instead, transfer your leftovers to an airtight
food storage container to keep them fresh.

STORAGE OF EGGS

Eggs are stored according to the processors recommendations. The safe


internal temperature of egg is 71C.
Egg whites solids are kept dry, as stable during storage even at room
temperature.
Spray dried egg white with glucose removed has an almost infinite shelf
life.
Dried whole egg and yolks solids should be kept cool, less than 10C to
maintain quality.
Once containers of egg solids have been opened, they should be resealed
tightly to prevent contamination and absorption of moisture.
If dried eggs are combined with any ingredients and held for storage, they
should be sealed tightly in a closed container and stored in the
refrigerator at 0 to 10C.

Reconstituted eggs should be used immediately.

SAFE STORAGE OF EGGS AT HOME

Take eggs straight home and store them immediately in the refrigerator
at 40oF or slightly below. Store them in the grocery carton in the coldest part
of the refrigerator, not at the door. Do not wash eggs, because it could
remove the protective mineral oil coating on the shells.

FREEZE EGGS FOR LONGER STORAGE

Eggs should not be frozen in their shells. To freeze whole eggs, beat
yolks and white together. Egg whites and yolks can also be frozen until
needed. Defrost in the refrigerator. Discard any with cracked shells.

Storing Starch Food stuff


Seal and place it in a room temperature which is free from any chemical
elements that cause spoilage.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 153


For Starch Foodstuff
Transfer the foodstuff in a clean container and cover the container with
foil or wrap it with a foil then place it inside the refrigerator for storage.

SELF- CHECK

A. Direction: Answer the following questions in a sheet of paper.

0 What are the proper ways of storing the following foodstuffs?


0 fruits and vegetables
1 eggs and starch dishes
1 Why is instituting FIFO rules important?

Direction: Do the following activities.

0 Bring fresh fruits, vegetables, and eggs. Prepare your materials


needed in wrapping and sealing foods ready to be stored.
1 Demonstrate the wrapping and sealing process and to be presented
to your teacher for evaluation.

RESOURCES:

Learning materials
Supplies/ Materials/ Equipment
Personal protective equipment

REFERENCES:

Joseph Linford A. Ditar, FUNDAMENTAL OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE AND


SERVICE OPERATION, Copyright 2007, pp. 25 – 31

S.Y. The Lion, L.L Chaves, V.S. Claudio, M.P. Guzman, BASIC FOOD FOR
FILIPINOS 3rd Edition, Copyright 1999, pp. 292 – 293 and 479 – 484

WWW.Sbephd or glehsl proper, htm…

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 154


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: PREPARE HOT, COLD, AND FROZEN DESSERTS

Module No.: 7 Module Title: Preparing Hot, Cold, and Frozen Desserts
Nominal Duration: 50 hours

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 155


PREPARE HOT, COLD, AND FROZEN DESSERTS Module

Title: PREPARING HOT, COLD, and FROZEN DESSERTS Module

Introduction:

The module deals with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in
the preparation of a variety of hot, cold, and frozen desserts in a commercial
kitchen or catering operation.

Expected Outcome

After completing the module, you should be able to:


prepare and produce desserts;
prepare sweet sauces;
prepare accompaniment; and
store desserts.

PRE-TEST
Directions: Read the questions carefully and choose the letter of the
correct answer. Write it in your test notebook.
1. Which does NOT belong to the group?
a. rich sauce c. hot fudge b. light sauce d. sweet

The purpose of storing dessert is to


0 increase it’s volume
1 soften food tissues
1 improve the palatability
2 enhance freshness and quality

Which of the following packaging materials is NOT used for storing


desserts?
a. aluminum foil c. glass jars
b. plastic cellophane d. ceramic bowls

What must be done with the vegetables and fruit carvings used in
garnishing to make them look fresh?
0 soak in iced water for at least 10 minutes
1 refrigerate for 5 minutes
1 sprinkle with clean tap water
2 immerse in a salt solution

How can we prevent apples from turning brown?


0 soak in water with sugar
1 rinse in diluted lemon juice
1 refrigerate overnight
2 wash with lukewarm water

Which sauce will you prepare if the dessert available is a simple


dessert?
a. cold c. hot fudge
b. light d. rich
Module 4th
yr |
Lesson 2
156
7. The following are thickening agents used in the preparation of
sauce, EXCEPT
a. baking powder c. cream
b. cornstarch d. flour

8. Which of the following is considered the simplest dessert? a. custard


c. gelatin b. fruits d. puddings

9. All of the following are characteristics of good


fruit desserts, EXCEPT
a. appetizing aroma c. simple and attractive
b. slightly chilled temperature d. moderately sweet

10. A good baked custard has


a. irregular shape b. c. soft texture
smooth texture d. thin syrup

LESSON 1

PREPARING AND PRODUCING DESSERTS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the different types of desserts, their


characteristics, ingredients and the equipment used in preparing and
producing desserts.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Ingredients are selected, measured, and weighed according to


recipe requirements.
Appropriate equipment are selected and used in accordance with
manufacturers manual.
Standard or enterprise recipes are used.
Creative and innovative desserts are produced.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
dessert - the last course of a meal; usually sweet such as pies, cakes,
chocolates, puddings, and fruits.
blancmange- a French milk pudding or custard usually flavored with
almonds.

Information Sheet 1.1

The choice of a dessert depends on the type of a meal. A light meal is


to be followed by a substantial dessert such as blancmange with chocolate
sauce and a heavier meal by fruit or a fruit dessert.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 157
TYPES OF DESSERTS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

I. Fruits
The simplest dessert and one of the best are fruits because they are
nutritious, appetizing, and easy to prepare and serve.

Characteristics of good fruit desserts:


appetizing aroma
simple
clean washed appearance
slightly chilled

II. Cheese
Cheese is another excellent dessert that is ready to serve. It is made in
all parts of the world from a variety of milks from cow, goat, sheep, llama,
reindeer and buffalo. Cheese differs depending on the kind of milk used. The
kinds of fungi and bacteria that develop them, the kinds of cheese-making
procedures used, the seasonings and the ripening processes also distinguish
its variety. Each variety has a definite character, a special appeal, and
particular uses.

The three general types of cheese based on consistency are:

0 Soft
23 unripened cheese
24 ripened by bacteria

1 Semi – hard
23 ripened by mold
24 ripened by bacteria

2 Hard
23 with gas holes b. without gas holes

III. Gelatin Dessert

These are easily prepared, economical and vary in many ways. Gelatin
is marketed in two forms. First, the unsweetened, granular type that must be
softened in water before use, and second the fruit gelatin to which flavor,
color, and sugar have already been added.

IV. Custard

Baked and soft custards vary in so many ways that an endless number
of desserts can be prepared. Creamy, delicate, baked custards may be served
in their baking cups or may be unmolded and served with fruit garnishes or
with dessert sauces. The soft or “stirred” custard is incorrectly called the
“boiled” custard. The ingredients are the same as those used for baked
custard but the cooking process is different.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 158
Characteristics of baked custard
firmness of shape
smooth, tender texture
rich and creamy consistency
excellent flavor

Characteristics of soft custard


velvety smooth texture
rich flavor
has pouring consistency of heavy cream

V. Puddings
Puddings are relatively simple to prepare and vary with sauces. These
are classified as:

Cornstarch pudding, sometimes called blancmange


Rice pudding
Bread pudding

Characteristics of Pudding
0 attractive appearance
1 excellent consistency
2 well – blended flavor
3 firmness of shape
4 an accompanying sauce to add interest

VI. Fruit Cobblers


These are not fruit pies. They have a depth of two or three inches and
are topped with biscuit dough rather than being made with pie crust. They
may be served either hot or cold.

VII. Frozen Desserts

Ice cream- smooth frozen mixture of milk, cream, sugar, flavorings and
sometimes eggs.

Sherbet and Ices – made from fruit juices, water and sugar. American
sherbet contains milk and cream and sometimes egg white. The egg
whites increase smoothness and volume. Ice contains only fruit juice
water, sugar and sometimes egg white.

Frozen Soufflés and Frozen Mousses – made like chilled mousses and
Bavarians, whipped cream, beaten egg whites or both are folded to give
lightness and allow to be still frozen in an ordinary freezer.

EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND UTENSILS FOR DESSERTS

cooking range saucepan


refrigerator spatula
measuring cups/spoons grater
bowls knife
beater wooden spoon
molder strainer
fork
Module
4th
yr | Lesson 2 15
9
SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the following questions. Write your answer on a


sheet of paper.

Why are fruits considered the simplest dessert?


What are the characteristics of well baked custard?
How are cheeses classified?

REFERENCES

Lewis, Dora S. et. al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY, pp. 96 – 105.

Belmonte, Leonarda R. et. al, PHILIPPINE FIESTA RECIPES pp. 114 –


122.

Activity Sheet 1.1

FRUIT COCKTAIL

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
ripe papaya, peeled and
casserole 2 cup cubed
gas or electric stove 1 tsp. citric acid
knife 1 tsp. calamansi juice
chopping board 1tbsp. almond extract
measuring cup 1 tbsp. honey
measuring spoon 4 slices canned pineapple, tidbits
wooden spoon ⅔ c. sugar sugar
refrigerator/chiller 1 cup water

PROCEDURE:

1. Cook cubed papaya in syrup made of 2/3 c. sugar and ½ c.


water.
Add ½ tsp. citric acid.
When cooked, add ¼ almond extract.
Cook singkamas similarly. Combine all the fruits and mix well.
Chill before serving. For dressing, use honey-calamansi juice
mixture.
Add mixture to fruits before serving.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 160
Activity Sheet 1.2

MOLDED FRUIT GULAMAN

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 4 slices ripe mangoes (scoop the flesh)
gas or electric stove 2 bars gulaman, torn into pieces
knife ½ cup pineapple (diced)
chopping board ½ c. milk (evaporated milk or fresh)
measuring cup 1 pc. banana (neatly cut)
measuring spoon 2 cup water
wooden spoon
molder
refrigerator/chiller

PROCEDURE:

Boil sugar and gulaman in two cups water. Remove from fire,
strain through a sieve. Add milk and put half of the mixture in a wet
mold. Put in a cool place to jell. When partly jelled, arrange fruits in
mold and pour the remaining gulaman. Chill until firm. Serve cold.

Activity Sheet 1.3

SOFT CUSTARD

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY
eggs, slightly beaten (or 6
sauce pan 3 pcs yolks)
double boiler 3tbps. sugar
measuring cups 2cups milk, scalded
wooden spoon 1tps. whipped cream ( optional)
egg beater pinch of salt
spoon for testing
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 161
PROCEDURE:

Scald the milk in a sauce pan over low fire.


Combine the eggs, salt and sugar.
Gradually stir in the milk and cook on top of the double boiler for 5
minutes. Stir constantly to avoid scorching.
Test with a spoon to see if done. If done, the spoon is well-coated with
the custard. Add vanilla and cool quickly.
Serve in well-chilled glass dish or tall glass. Top with whipped cream, if
desired.

Note: If you accidentally overcook the custard and it curdles, set the pan in
cold water and beat smoothly with an egg beater.

Activity Sheet 1.4

MAJA BLANCA

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 4 cups coconut cream
gas or electric stove 10 pcs. young corn on the cob
knife -or-
chopping board 1 cup creamed corn
measuring cup 3 cups sugar
measuring spoon 4 cups coconut finely grated
wooden spoon
oven

PROCEDURE:
Scrape corn kernels from the cob.
Pound or put through a food processor.
Strain and squeeze through cheesecloth.
0 Mix with coconut cream.
1 Add 2 cups sugar and cook in a saucepan.
2 Stir continuously until thick.
3 Pour into a mold.

For topping, toast grated coconut in a frying pan. Add remaining cup of
sugar and cook until golden brown. Sprinkle over pudding.

*Note: Skip steps 2-3 if using creamed corn.


Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 162
Activity Sheet 1.5
FRESH PEACH COBBLER

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
knife 3 cups peeled sliced peaches
large saucepan 1 cup sugar
2 mixing bowls 1 cup water
measuring cups 1 tbps. cornstarch
measuring spoons 1 tbps cold water
baking dish – 6x8 inches 1 tps. butter
or 8 inches. round
pan ½ tps cinnamon
sifter (heavy cream, if desired )
pastry blender or knives BISCUIT DOUGH
spoon
1 cup sifted enriched flour
½ tps salt
1½ tps baking powder
3 tbps fat
½ cup milk

PROCEDURE:
Set the oven at 400oF.
Heat the peaches, sugar and water. Blend the cornstarch and 2
tablespoons water and add to the peaches then, cook about 5
minutes.
Place the peaches in the bottom of the baking dish and dot the mixture
with butter and cinnamon.
Prepare the biscuit dough – sift the dry ingredients, cut in the fat until
the mixture resembles cornmeal, add the milk all at once, and mix.
Drop the biscuit mixture on top of the peaches by spoonfuls.
Bake for 30 minutes.
Serve hot, cut into squares and top with some of the juice in the pan.
Serve with thick cream, if desired.

Activity Sheet 1.6

CHOCOLATE MOUSSE

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
weighing scale 500 g. bittersweet chocolate
mixing bowl 125 g. butter
utility tray 180 g. egg yolks
rubber scraper 250 g. egg whites
electric mixer 75 g. sugar
refrigerator/chiller 250 ml. heavy cream

PROCEDURE:
Melt chocolate over hot water.
Remove from heat and add butter. Stir until the butter is melted and
completely mixed in.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 163


0 Add the egg yolks one at a time. Mixed in egg yolk completely before
adding the next.
Beat the egg whites until they form peaks. Add the sugar and beat until
the egg whites form stiff but moist peaks. Do not over beat.
Fold the egg whites into the chocolate.
Whip the heavy cream until it form soft peaks. Fold it into the chocolate
mixture.
Spoon the mousse into serving dishes or use a pastry bag fitted with a
star tube.
Chill the mousse well before serving.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Prepare the utensils/ equipment, ingredients, and perform the recipe
following the standard procedure.

Group I - Fruit dessert


Group II - Gelatin dessert
Group III - Pudding
Group IV - Frozen dessert

CRITERIA FOR JUDGING THE FINISHED PRODUCT

Product Good Fair ( 3 )Poor (1 )


(5)
1. Fruit
a. appetizing aroma
b. simple
c. clean
d. slightly chilled
TOTAL
Gelatin dessert
0 attractive color
1 excellent flavor
2 firm, easily cut
3 well-distributed fruits
4 interesting shape
TOTAL
Pudding
0 attractive appearance
1 excellent consistency
2 well-blend flavor
3 accompanying sauce to add interest
TOTAL

Frozen
0 attractive appearance
1 excellent consistency
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 164
well-blend flavor
accompanying sauce to add interest
TOTAL

RESOURCES:

The following resources are needed:

cooking range
chiller/refrigerator

Tools/utensils
 measuring cups/spoons mixing bowls
strainer/colander
beater
grater
molder
saucepan
wooden spoon
fork
spatula

Supplies and materials


fresh fruits
gelatin
milk
cheese
eggs
cornstarch
rice starch
bread flour
sugar

REFERENCES

Lewis, Dora S. et. al, Family Meals and Hospitality, pp. 96 – 105.
Belmonte, Leonarda R. et. al, Philippine Fiesta Recipes,
pp. 114 – 122.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 165


LESSON 2:

DECORATING, PORTIONING, PRESENTING DESSERTS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the study that deals with the portioning of
desserts and the current trends and the preparation of desserts.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Desserts are decorated appropriately to enhance presentation.


Desserts are portioned according to enterprise standards.
Desserts are presented attractively in accordance with enterprise
presentation techniques.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

parfait – frozen dessert made of a sweet egg yolk foam and whipped
cream. peach Melba – vanilla ice cream with peaches and
raspberry sauce. sherbet – American term for a frozen dessert but
containing a small
amount of dairy.
mousse – French word means “lather” or “foam” prepared food that
incorporates air bubble to give a light and airy texture.

Information Sheet 2.1

Something sweet like desserts are served after the meal to close the
appetite. Understanding sugar cooking likes syrup is important in the
preparation and presentation of hot and cold desserts. Testing the
temperature with a candy thermometer is the most accurate way to
determine the desired doneness of syrup.

Stages of Doneness in Sugar Cooking

Temperature
Stage
°F °C
Thread 230 110
Soft ball 240 115
Firm ball 245 118
Hard ball 250-260 122-127
Small crack 265-270 130-132
Crack 275-280 135-138
Hard crack 290-310 143-155
Caramel 320-340 160-170

Measure syrups, toppings, and garnishes for portion control. For


syrups, use pumps that dispense measured quantities or use ladles.

Standard Scoops for Portioning Ice Cream Desserts


Banana Split
Parfait
– 3 no. 30 scoops
– 3 no. 30 scoops

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 166


A la Mode topping for pie or – 1 no. 20 scoops
cake – 2 no. 20 scoops
Sundae – 1 no. 10, 12 or 16 scoops
Plain dish of ice cream

Ways of Presenting Ice Cream Desserts

Parfaits are made by alternating layers of ice cream and fruit or


syrup in a tall, narrow glass. There are usually named after
the syrup or topping.
Example: a chocolate parfait comprises three scoops of
vanilla or chocolate ice cream alternating with
layers of chocolate syrup and topped with
whipped cream and shave chocolate.

Sundaes or coupes consists of two or more ice cream or sherbet


in a dish or glass and topped with syrup, fruits, toppings and
garnishes. These can be prepared in unlimited variety like
serving in an ordinary soda fountain glass, or a crystal
champagne glass.
Examples:
Peach Melba – vanilla ice cream topped
a fresh, poached or canned peach half.
Napped with sweetened raspberry puree
(Melba Sauce) and garnish with slivered
almonds.
Pear Belle Helene – vanilla
ice cream topped with a poached or canned
pear half napped with chocolate sauce and
garnish with toasted slice almonds.
Bombs are ice cream modes made by lining a chilled mold with
softened ice cream, freezing it hard, and then filling the
center with another flavor of ice cream or sherbert and
freezing it again. The dessert is unmolded unto a cold platter
for service and decorated as desired with whipped cream,
fruits or confections.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Choose any of the ice cream desserts you would like to
perform. Prepare and present in accordance with enterprise
presentation techniques.

RESOURCES
Equipment
Refrigerator/freezer

Tools and utensils


Ice cream scooper
Sherbert glass
Knife
Chopping board
Utility tray

Supplies and Materials


Ingredients for frozen desserts

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 167


REFERENCES:
Gisslen, Wayne; PROFESSIONAL COOKING Copyright 2007 pp
106-124

LESSON 3
PREPARING SWEET SAUCES

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the kinds and variety of sauces, different
thickening agents, preparing sweet sauces, and storing to retain desired
quality and characteristics.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Range of hot and cold sauces are produced to desired


consistency and flavor.
Thickening agents suitable for sweet sauces are appropriate.
Sauces are stored properly to retain desired quality and
characteristics.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

sauce - a flavored liquid blend of ingredients that adds flavor and


enhances the appearance of the food.
fudge - a soft confection made of butter, sugar, chocolate.

Information Sheet 3.1

Sauces can give an entirely different appearance, flavor, color, and


moisture to desserts.

Kinds and Varieties of Sauces


Rich sauce is well suited to a simple dessert.
Light sauce is suited to a rich dessert.
Hot fudge is a delightful contrast to a cold cornstarch pudding or to
vanilla ice cream.

Hot sauces are made just before they are to be used.


Cold sauces are cooked ahead of time, then cooled, covered and put in
the refrigerator to chill.

Thickening Agents for Sauces

Thickening agents improve the quality of the sauces.


1.starch 5. flavor
2.cream 6. grains
7.
3.eggs cornstarch
4.rice
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 168
Most dessert sauces fall into one of three categories:

Custard Sauces
Vanilla custard sauce, or crème anglaise, dessert cookery.
Chocolate or other flavor may be added to create varieties.
Fruit Purees
These are simply purees of fresh or cooked fruits, sweetened with
sugar.
Other flavorings and spices are sometimes added.
Syrups
Includes such products as chocolate sauce and caramel sauce.

Guidelines in Preparing Vanilla Custard Sauce or Crème Anglaise

1. Use clean, sanitized equipment and follow strict sanitation


procedure.

When combining the egg yolks and sugar, whip the mixture as soon as
the sugar is added. Letting the sugar and egg yolks stand together with
out mixing creates lumps.

Heat the milk in scalding before combining with the yolks.

Slowly beat the hot milk into the beaten eggs and sugar.

Set the bowl containing the egg mixture in a pan of simmering water
and stir constantly to prevent curdling.

To test for doneness, the mixture lightly coats the back of the spoon.

Immediately cool the sauce by setting the pan or bowl in ice water. Stir
occasionally to cool evenly.

If the sauce curdles, immediately stir in one (1) to two (2) ounces cold
milk, transfer the sauce to a blender, and blend at high speed.

Storage of Sauces

Sauces should be kept in airtight containers and stored in a cold dry


place away from moisture, oxygen, light and pests. Food made with starches
that contain egg, milk, cream and other dairy products are prone to bacterial
contamination and to food- borne illness. Sauces made with these
ingredients should be kept out of the temperature danger zone. Thickened
sauce should also be prepared, served and stored with caution. These
products should be stored in the refrigerator and never left to stand at room
temperature too long.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 169
SELF-CHECK

Directions: Read the following questions carefully and choose the letter of
the correct answer. Write it in your test notebook.

This is a flavored liquid blend of ingredients that adds flavor and enhances
the appearance of the food.
a. Appetizer b. Dessert
c. Sauce d. Stock

2.Which of the following sauces is suited to a simple dessert?


a. cold sauce c. light sauce
b. hot fudge sauce d. rich sauce
This is a delightful contrast to a cold cornstarch pudding or vanilla ice
3. cream.
a. Hot fudge c. Rich sauce
b. Hot sauce d. Light sauce

4. The following are thickening agents for sauce, EXCEPT


a. baking powder c. Cream
b. cornstarch d. flour

5.Which of the following containers is used to store sauces?


a. airtight jar c. Medium-sized bowl
b. Plastic bottle d. Small plastic bag

REFERENCE:

Lewis, Dora S. et. al, Family Meals and Hospitality, pp. 105 - 106.

Activity Sheet 3.1

EXAMPLE OF STANDARD RECIPES FOR SAUCES

CHOCOLATE SAUCE

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION
casserole 4squares (4 oz.) unsweetened chocolate
gas or electric stove 1½ cups sugar
knife 2 cups hot water
chopping board 1 T light corn syrup
measuring cup 2T cold water
measuring spoon 2T cornstarch
wooden spoon 1T butter
skillet 1½ t vanilla
pinch salt
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 170
PROCEDURE
Cut the chocolate into small pieces. Melt on top of the double boiler.
Gradually add the hot water, stirring until the mixture is well blended.
Dissolve the cornstarch in cold water and combine with the chocolate
mixture.
Add sugar, corn syrup and salt. Mix until well blended.
Boil for 10 minutes or until the starch is thick and smooth.
Add butter and vanilla.
Let cool. Place in a covered jar and store in the refrigerator.

Activity Sheet 3.2

STRAWBERRY SAUCE

TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS


EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION

casserole ¾ cup sugar


gas or electric stove 1 ½ tbsp.. cornstarch
knife 1 cup strawberries, pitted, crushed
chopping board 2tbsp. lemon juice
measuring cup
measuring spoon
wooden spoon
skillet

PROCEDURE
Combine the sugar and cornstarch.
Stir in the crushed fruit.
Bring to a boil and stir constantly. Cook until clear.
Remove from fire. Add lemon juice and serve hot or cold.
This sauce may be stored in a covered jar and placed in the refrigerator.

Note: Any fruit or fruit juice may be substituted for strawberries

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Plan and prepare sauces suited to light and rich dessert.
Evaluate the finished product using the criteria below.

GOOD QUALITY DESSERT SAUCE

Characteristics Good (5) Fair (3) Poor (1)


1.Attractive color

2.Correct consistency
pouring consistency
like heavy cream
Defined, well-seasoned flavor
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 171
RESOURCES:
Equipmen
t Tools and Utensils
-measuring
 cooking range cup/spoon
 refrigerator/chiller -wooden spoon
-knife
-bowl
-spatula

Supplies and Materials


ingredients for sauces
0 flour
1 salt
2 sugar
3 cream
4 flavorings

REFERENCE:

Lewis, Dora S. et. al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY, pp. 105 - 106.

LESSON 4

PREPARING ACCOMPANIMENTS, GARNISHES,


AND DECORATIONS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the different kinds of accompaniments,


garnishes and decorations, and their methods of preparations.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Accompaniment, garnishes, and decorations are used to enhance
taste, texture and balance.

Flavor and textures of garnishes are added to complement


dessert.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

garnish – to decorate with flavorsome or colorful trimmings for a


dish or dessert.
accompaniment – enriching or supporting the main dish part.
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 172
Information Sheet 4.1

Accompaniments, Garnishes and Decorations for Desserts

Dessert Syrup – flavored simple syrup used to moisten and flavor some
cakes. Flavorings may be extracts like vanilla, liquors
like rum. Add flavorings after the syrup has been
cooled because flavor may be lost if they are added to
hot syrup. Syrups may also be flavored by boiling
them with lemon or orange rind.

Cream Anglaise – stirred vanilla custard sauce;


2. consists
of milk, sugar, egg yolks and vanilla stirred over low
heat
until lightly thickened.
3. Pastry Cream – contains starch thickeners as well as
eggs, resulting in a much thicker and more stable
product. It is used as a cake and pastry filling for
cream
pies and as pudding. With additional liquid, it is
used as
custard sauce.
Custards – consists of milk, sugar, eggs and
4. flavorings.
(Whole eggs are used for greater thickening power).
Used
as pie fillings, as a dessert by itself and as a basis
for
many bake puddings.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Answer the question in your test note book.

1. What are the different garnishes for desserts? Identify each.

REFERENCE:

Gisslen, Wayne; PROFESIONAL COOKING, Copyright 2007


pp.1006-1007

Activity Sheet 4.1

CREAM ANGLAISE
TOOLS AND INGREDIENTS
EQUIPMENT QUANTITY DESCRIPTION

mixing bowl 12 egg yolk


mixer 250 g. sugar
double boiler 1 liter milk
wire whisk 15 ml. vanilla
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 173
PROCEDURE:
Combine egg yolk and sugar in a stainless steel bowl. Whip until
thick and light.
Scald the milk in a boiling water bath or over direct heat.
Very gradually pour the scalded milk into the egg yolk mixture
while stirring constantly with the whip.
Set the bowl over simmering water. Heat it slowly, stirring
constantly until it thickens enough to coat the back of a
spoon (until it reaches 185°F or 85°C).
Immediately remove the bowl from the heat and set it in a pan of
cool water. Stir in the vanilla. Stir the sauce occasionally as it
cools.

SELF- CHECK

Direction: Prepare the utensils/ equipment, ingredients and perform the


recipe: Cream Anglaise

RESOURCES:
Equipmen
t Tools and Utensils
-measuring
 cooking range cup/spoon
-wire whisk
-double boiler
Supplies and Materials
ingredients for Cream Anglaise

REFERENCE: Gisslen, Wayne; PROFESIONAL COOKING, Copyright 2007


pp.1006-1007

LESSON 5
STORING DESSERTS

INTRODUCTION

The lesson deals with the proper storage of desserts.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Dessert is stored at appropriate temperature and under the


correct conditions to maintain quality, freshness and
customer appeal.
Suitable packaging is selected and used to preserve taste,
appearance, and other characteristics

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Chill – moderately cold


Safeguard – protect

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 174


Packaging Materials for Storing Desserts
glass container
plastic container
plastic/cellophane
aluminum foil
packaging tapes
boxes

Equipment
chiller
freezer
refrigerator

Sanitary Practices When Storing Desserts


Handle the food properly to prevent spoilage and contamination.
Wash utensils and equipment thoroughly.
Keep away from food when you are ill.
Store foods and ingredients properly.
Safeguard the food during distribution and service.

Storage Techniques
Refrigerate – to keep cold or cool
Cold Storage – the process of storing food by means of refrigeration
Chilling – to refrigerate or to reduce the temperature of food

SELF- CHECK

A. Direction: Answer the following items on a sheet of paper.

0 What are the sanitary practices to observe in storing desserts?


1 How do storage techniques differ from one another? B. Direction:

Demonstrate how to store desserts properly.

Good quality Good (5) Fair (3) Poor (1)


Accompaniments
Attractive color
Defined well-
seasoned flavor
Well curved and
shaped

RESOURCES:
Equipment
chiller
refrigerator

Tools and Utensils


packaging materials
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 175
Supplies and materials
prepared desserts
pictures of dessert for mock simulation

REFERENCE:
SEDP Series, Technology and Home Economics III pp, 65 – 66

ANSWER KEY

Module Module
Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 4 Module 5 Module 6 7
1c 1a 1d 1a 1b 1a 1d
2a 2a 2c 2b 2b 2a 2d
3b 3c 3b 3d 3d 3a 3d
4d 4c 4b 4d 4c 4b 4a
5a 5d 5b 5a 5c 5b 5b
6d 6a 6a 6d 6d 6b 6d
7b 7a 7d 7c 7d 7d 7a
8a 8d 8b 8a 8b 8a 8b
9c 9a 9b 9b 9b 9c 9b
10 a 10 b 10 a 10 d 10 d 10 a 10 b
11 d 11 a 11 c
12 d 12 b 12 a
13 a 13 c 13 c
14 c 14 d 14 c
15 c 15 d 15 a
16 d 16 d 16 a
17 c 17 a 17 a
18 a 18 c 18 c
19 a 19 b 19 d
20 d 20 a 20 d

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 176


REFERENCES

Chavez, Lilia L. & de Leon, Sonia; BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS 4th Edition

Gisslen, Wayne; PROFESSIONAL COOKING 5TH Edition

The Major Kitchen Culinary Arts Center; MANAGING A FOOD – SAFE


KITCHEN

Ingram, Gays G.; ESSENTIAL DICTIONARY OF CULINARY ARTS

Sandoval, Maria Teresa G., CULINARY ARTS I AND II, 1993

Navarro, Leticia S. et al., HOMEMAKING FOR YOU AND ME III; FOOD


MANAGEMENT AND CONSUMERISM

De Leon, Sonia Y., Ph.D et al., BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINO, 1999

Lewis, Dora S. et al., FAMILY MEALS HOSPITALITY

Leuterio, Florida C., TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION FOR


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, 2005, pp. 121

Brown, Amy, UNDERSTANDING FOOD PRINCIPLES AND PREPARATION


SECOND EDITION, pp. 275-280

Dora S. Lewis, et al, FAMILY MEALS AND HOSPITALITY Copyright 1955

Sonia Y. De Leon, Ph. D. et al, BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS Copyright


1999

Leonard M. Belmonte, Perla B. Del Mundo, PHILIPPINE FIESTA RECIPE


COPYRIGHT 1993

Maya Kitchen; FOOD SERVICE AND CATERING MANAGEMENT

D. S. Lewis, Gladys Citek Peckham, Helen Stone Hovey,


FAMILY MEASURES HOSPITALITY, Revised Edition,

Rosario P. Nem Singh, COOK BOOK RECIPES AND NUTRITION TIPS,


Copyright 2005

F. P. Sandoval, P.G. Malig, N. B. Cudal, A. D. Tindok, R. S. Banes, HOME


ECONOMICS I, Copyright 1985,

Joseph Linford A. Ditar, FUNDAMENTAL OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE AND


SERVICE OPERATION, Copyright 2007S.Y.

The Lion, L.L Chaves, V.S. Claudio, M.P. Guzman,


BASIC FOOD FOR FILIPINOS 3rd Edition, Copyright 1999,

WWW.Sbephd or glehsl proper, htm…


www.google.com.ph
Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 177
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

These learning materials were developed by the following:

FOOD TECHNOLOGY GROUP

JESUSA S. LAGUNA (Master Teacher I) R.E.S.P.S.C.I.

MARITES P. ROMEN (Head Teacher I) R.E.S.P.S.C.I.

MYLENE T. MOTAS (Teacher III) Malvar National H.S.

VEE LARISE P. BALI (Teacher III) Nambaran Agro-Inds. N.H.S.

Module 4th yr | Lesson 2 178