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Advance Design of

R i f

Reinforced

d Concrete

C t

Structures

CE-5115

By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali

Civil Engineering Department

NWFP UET Peshawar

drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 1

Course Content

y Introduction

I t d ti

y Materials

y Serviceability Requirement

1

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Course Content

y Analysis and Design of Indeterminate Beams and

Frames

y Flat

Fl t slab,

l b Flat

Fl t plate

l t and

d Waffle

W ffl slab

l b

loading

Course Content

y Special

S i l Topics:

T i

z Shear friction, corbels, ledge beams, strut and tie models:

deep beams

y Case Studies

2

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Grading Policy

y Mid Term

T = 30 %

y Final Term = 50 %

y Assignment = 10 %

y Term Project = 10 %

Lecture-1

Introduction

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 6

3

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed

y Historical Development

p of Cement,, Concrete and

Reinforced Concrete

y Objectives of Design

y Design Process

Topics Addressed

y Structural Safety

4

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Historical Development of

cement, concrete and

reinforced concrete

y Cement

z In 1824 Joseph Aspdin mixed limestone and clay and heated

them in a kiln to produce cement.

Historical Development of

cement, concrete and

reinforced concrete

y Reinforced Concrete

z Joseph Monier, owner of a French nursery garden reinforced

concrete tubs with iron.

E Ward,

E. W d a mechanical

h i l engineer.

i

around 1894 was universally used till 1950.

5

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code

y General Building Codes

z Cover all aspects of building design and construction from

architecture to structural to mechanical and electrical---,

NBC, SBC, UBC and IBC 2000 of USA, Eurocode etc.

y Seismic Codes

z Cover only seismic provisions of buildings such as SEAOC

and NEHRP of USA

code

y Material Specific Codes

z Cover design and construction of structures using a specific

material such as ACI, AISC, AASHTO etc.

z Cover minimum design

g load requirement,

q , Minimum Design

g

Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE7-02)

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code

y General Building Codes in USA

z The National Building Code (NBC),

z published by the Building Officials and Code Administrators

International is used primarily in the northeastern states

z published by the Southern Building Code Congress International is

used primarily in the southeastern states

mainly in the central and western United States

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 13

code

y General Building Codes in USA

z The International Building Code IBC

z published by International Code Council ICC for the first time in 2000,

revised every three years.

z The IBC has been developed to form a consensus single code for USA.

z UBC 97 is the last UBC code and is still existing but will not be updated.

Similarly NBC, SBC will also be not updated

7

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code

y Seismic Codes in USA

z NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program)

Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for

New Buildings developed by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management

Agency)

z The NBC, SBC and IBC have adopted NEHRP for seismic design

(SEAOC), has its seismic provisions based on the Recommended Lateral

Force Requirements and Commentary (the SEAOC “Blue Book”) published

by the Seismology Committee of SEAOC

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 15

code

y Building Code of Pakistan

z Building Code of Pakistan, Seismic Provision BCP-SP-07

has adopted the seismic provisions of UBC 97 for seismic

design of buildings

input data required by IBC for seismic design does not exist

in Pakistan.

8

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code

y The ACI Code

z ACI MCP contains 150 ACI committee reports; revised every

three years

z ACI 318: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

z ACI 349:

349 Code

C d Requirement

R i t for

f N l

Nuclear S f t Related

Safety R l t d Concrete

C t

Structures

z Many others

code

y The ACI 318 Code

z The American Concrete Institute “Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08),”

referred to as the code, provides minimum requirements for

structural concrete design or construction.

structural concrete

concrete” is used to refer to all plain or

reinforced concrete used for structural purposes.

z Prestressed concrete is included under the definition of reinforced

concrete.

9

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code

y The ACI 318 Code

z 7 parts, 22 chapters and 6 Appendices

code

y The ACI Code

z The ACI 318 code has no legal status unless adopted by a

state or local jurisdiction.

a legally adopted general building code, that general building

code may modify some provisions of ACI 318 to reflect local

conditions and requirements.

10

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code

y The Compatibility Issue

z The UBC 97 has reproduced ACI 318-95 in Chapter 19 on

concrete. The load combinations and strength reduction

factors of ACI 318-02 are not compatible with UBC 97 and

hence BCP-SP-07.

is revised and hence are fully compatible.

code

y The Compatibility issue

of RC structures using load combination and Strength

Reduction Factors of chapter 5 of BCP (UBC 97 load

combinations).

11

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

structure not only

the structural design

whose members work together to design a building,

bridge, or other structure

Objectives of Design

1. Appropriateness: This include

z Functionality, to suit the requirements

2. Economy

z The overall cost of the structure should not exceed the client

client’s

s budget

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Objectives of Design

3. Structural Adequacy (safety)

z Strength

z Serviceability

4. Maintainability

z The structure should be simple so that it is maintained easily

1. The client’s needs and priorities

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Reinforced concrete

Limit State

z When a structure or structural elements becomes unfit for its

intended use, it is said to have reached a limit state.

Reinforced concrete

The three limit states

1. Ultimate Limit States

14

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Reinforced concrete

The Ultimate Limit States

z These involve a structural collapse of part or all of the

structure.

occurrence, since it may lead to loss of life and major

financial losses

Reinforced concrete

The major UL States are

z Loss of equilibrium

z Rupture

z Instability

z Progressive collapse

z Fatigue

15

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Reinforced concrete

Serviceability Limit States

z These involves disruption of the functional use of the

structure, but not collapse.

of occurrences can generally be tolerated than in the case

of an ultimate limit state.

Reinforced concrete

The SL States are

z Excessive deflections

z Undesirable vibrations

16

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Reinforced concrete

Special Limit States

z This class of limit states involves damage or failure due to

abnormal conditions or abnormal loadings

Reinforced concrete

The SpL States include

z Damage or collapse in extreme earthquakes.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Reinforced concrete

Limit state design of RC building

z RC structures are designed for ULS

z N t SLS and

Note: d nott ULS may be

b governing

i LS for

f structures

t t such

h as

water retaining structures and other structures where deflection and

crack control are important

Capacity and Demand

forces deflection,

forces, deflection vibration

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Capacity and Demand

z Capacity < Demand is failure

scientific rationale.

Capacity and Demand

y φ Mn ≥ Mu (α Ms )

y φ Vn ≥ Vu (α Vs )

y φ Pn ≥ Pu (α Ps )

y φ Tn ≥ Tu (α Ts )

y φ strength

t th reduction

d ti factor

f t

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety

y Variability in resistance

z The actual strengths (resistances) of beams,

beams column,

column or

other structural members will almost always differ from the

values calculated by the designer. The main reasons for this

are as follows

z variability of the strength of the concrete and reinforcement

structural drawings,

member resistance.

Structural Safety

y Variability in resistance

z effects of simplifying

assumptions

z Comparison of measured

(Mtest) and computed

(Mn) failure moments for

RC beams

20

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety

y Variability in loads

z All loadings are variables,

variables especially live loads and

environmental loads due to snow, wind, or earthquakes

assumptions and approximations made in carrying out

structural analysis lead to differences between the actual

p

forces and moments and those computed byy the designer.

g

Structural Safety

y Variability in loads

z Fig shows variation of Live

loads for office building

0.060

z Average load is 13 psf

Frequency

0.040

z 1% of measured loads

exceeded 44 psf 0.020

for such buildings (ASCE 7- Load Intensity (psf)

Structures)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 42

21

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety

there is definite chance that a weaker-than-average

weaker than average

structure will be subjected to a higher- than-average

load.

to reduce the probability of failure to a very small

level.

Factors

y R = The distribution of a population

of resistance of a group of similar

structure

load effects, S, expected to occur on

those structure during their life times

corresponds to a load effect equal to

the resistance (S = R).

greater than resistance & S < R is

Safety

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 44

22

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Factors

y The term Y = R – S is called the

safety margin.

margin

y Failure will occur if Y is negative,

represented by the shaded area in

βσY

fig .

Frequency

y The probability of failure, Pf, is the Y

of R and S will give a negative value

of Y.

Y

0 Y=R-S

y Pf is equal to the ratio of the shaded P[(R - S) < 0] = shaded area = Pf

Safety margin

in fig

y The function Y has mean value Ŷ = 0

+ β σY, where β = Ŷ/ σY.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 45

Factors

by increasing the resistance, thereby

making Ŷ larger, β will increase, and

the shaded area, Pf is a function of β.

The factor β is called the safety

index.

y If β = 3.5, it means that 1 in every

10,000 structural members designed

on the basis that β = 3.5 will fail due

to excessive load or under strength

sometime during its life time.

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Factors

y The appropriate values of Pf and hence of β are

chosen by bearing in mind the consequences of

failure.

3 and 3.5 for ductile failure with average

consequences of failure and between 3.5 and 4 for

sudden failure or failures having serious

consequences.

Factors

y Because the strength and loads vary independently,

it is desirable to have one factor or a series of

factors, to account for the variability in resistances

and a second series of factors to account for the

variability in load effects.

reduction factors (also called resistance factors), Ø

and load factors, α.

24

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

the ACI Code

y ACI sections 9.1.1 and 9.1.2 presents the basic limit

states design philosophy of the code.

z 9.1.1- structures and structural members shall be designed to

have design strengths at all sections at least equal to the

required strength calculated for the factored loads and forces

in such combinations as are stipulated in this code.

9.1.2

code to ensure adequate performance at service load levels.

the ACI Code

y This process is called strength design in the ACI

code.

z In the AISC Specifications for steel design, the same

design process is known as LRFD (Load and Resistance

Factor Design).

design except that primary attention is always placed on

design,

the ultimate limit states, with the serviceability limit

states being checked after the original design is

completed.

25

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

code Section 9.2

y U = 1.4(D + F)

code Section 9.2

y Load types

z Dead (D) z Wind (W)

shrinkage (T)

26

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

the ACI Code, Section 9.3

φ

Tension-controlled 0.90

Compression-controlled

0.70

(spiral)

Compression-controlled

0 65

0.65

(other)

Bearing 0.65

Other Structures

y Dead Loads

z The dead loads defined in ASCE 7-02

7 02 section 3.1

31

z Dead loads (D) consist of the weight of all materials of construction

incorporated into the building including but not limited to walls, floors,

roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other

similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed

service equipment including the weight of cranes. (Table C 3-1 for

details)

=24kN/m3

z (Table C 3-1 for details of other material

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 54

27

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structures

y Live Loads

z The live loads defined in ASCE 7-02

7 02 section 4.1

41

z Live loads (L) are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the

building or other structure and do not include construction or

environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake

load, flood load, or dead load. Live loads (Lr) on a roof are those

produced (1) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and materials,

and (2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as

planters and by people.

Structures

y Live Loads

z In general,

general a building live load consists of a sustained

portion due to day-to-day use and a variable portion.

the maximum sum of these loads that will occur on a small

area during the life of the building.

psf UDL

28

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structures

y The live load reduction

applies only to live loads due

to use and occupancy (not for

snow, etc.). No reduction is

made for areas used as

places of public assembly, for

garages, or for roofs

Structures

y Live Loads

z Concentrated Live Loads

z The ASCE document requires that office and garage floors and

sidewalks be designed to safely support either the uniform design

loads or a concentrated load of 1000 to 8000 lb (depending on

occupancy), spread over an area of 30 in. by 30 in., whichever causes

the worse effect.

z The

e co

concentrated

ce t ated loads

oads a

are

e intended

te ded to represent

ep ese t heavy

ea y items

te s suc

such as

office safes, pianos, car wheels, and so on.

29

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structures

y Rain Load (R)

z ASCE requires that roofs be able to support the load of all

rain water that could accumulate on a particular portion of a

roof if the primary roof drains were blocked.

Structures

y Construction Loads

z During the construction of concrete buildings,

buildings the weight of

the fresh concrete is supported by formwork, which

frequently rests on floors lower down in the structure.

z No construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead

load plus specified live load shall be supported on any unshored portion

of the structure under construction, unless analysis indicates adequate

strength to support such additional loads

30

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structures

y Self-Equilibrating Loads (T)

z ACI section 9.2.1

9 2 1 uses the symbol T to refer to the forces and

moments resulting from imposed or restrained deformations

and assigns them a load factor of 1.2. This section states,

z Estimations of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage, expansion of

shrinkage-compensating concrete, or temperature change shall be

based on a realistic assessment of such effects occurring in service.

z The term realistic assessment is used to indicate that the most probable

values rather than the upper bound values of the variable should be

used.

Construction Tolerance

y Difference in Working and As-Built Drawings’

Dimensions

z The actual as-built dimensions will differ slightly from those

shown on the drawings, due to construction inaccuracies.

tolerances on cross-sectional dimensions of concrete

columns and beams as ± ½ in.

in and on the thickness of slabs

and walls as ± ¼ in.

31

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Construction Tolerance

y Difference in Working and As-Built Drawings’

Dimensions

z For footings, they recommend tolerances of +2 in. and – ½

in. on plan dimensions and – 5 percent of the specified

thickness.

tolerance for concrete construction and materials

32