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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P.

University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Advance Design of
R i f
Reinforced
d Concrete
C t
Structures
CE-5115
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
NWFP UET Peshawar
drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 1

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Course Content

y Introduction
I t d ti

y Materials

y Design for Flexure and Axial Load

y Serviceability Requirement

y Design for Shear and Torsion

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 2

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Course Content
y Analysis and Design of Indeterminate Beams and
Frames

y Concrete Building Systems

y Analysis and Design of Two way slab systems

y Flat
Fl t slab,
l b Flat
Fl t plate
l t and
d Waffle
W ffl slab
l b

y Analysis and Design of RC frames for earthquake


loading

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 3

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Course Content

y Special
S i l Topics:
T i
z Shear friction, corbels, ledge beams, strut and tie models:
deep beams

y Case Studies

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 4

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Grading Policy

y Mid Term
T = 30 %

y Final Term = 50 %

y Assignment = 10 %

y Term Project = 10 %

z Attendance = 75 % is must to pass the course

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 5

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture-1

Introduction

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 6

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed
y Historical Development
p of Cement,, Concrete and
Reinforced Concrete

y Building Codes and the ACI code

y Objectives of Design

y Design Process

y Limit States and the Design of Reinforced Concrete

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 7

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics Addressed
y Structural Safety

y Probabilistic Calculation of Safety Factors

y Design Procedure Specified in the ACI Building Code

y Load Combination and Strength Reduction Factors

y Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 8

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Historical Development of
cement, concrete and
reinforced concrete
y Cement
z In 1824 Joseph Aspdin mixed limestone and clay and heated
them in a kiln to produce cement.

z The commercial production started around 1880.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 9

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Historical Development of
cement, concrete and
reinforced concrete
y Reinforced Concrete
z Joseph Monier, owner of a French nursery garden reinforced
concrete tubs with iron.

z The first RC building in USA was a house built in 1875 by W.


E Ward,
E. W d a mechanical
h i l engineer.
i

z Working stress design method developed by Coignet in


around 1894 was universally used till 1950.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 10

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y General Building Codes
z Cover all aspects of building design and construction from
architecture to structural to mechanical and electrical---,
NBC, SBC, UBC and IBC 2000 of USA, Eurocode etc.

y Seismic Codes
z Cover only seismic provisions of buildings such as SEAOC
and NEHRP of USA

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 11

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y Material Specific Codes
z Cover design and construction of structures using a specific
material such as ACI, AISC, AASHTO etc.

y Others such as ASCE


z Cover minimum design
g load requirement,
q , Minimum Design
g
Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE7-02)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 12

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y General Building Codes in USA
z The National Building Code (NBC),
z published by the Building Officials and Code Administrators
International is used primarily in the northeastern states

z The Standard Building Code (SBC)


z published by the Southern Building Code Congress International is
used primarily in the southeastern states

z The Uniform Building Code (UBC)

z published by the International Conference of Building Officials, is used


mainly in the central and western United States
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 13

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y General Building Codes in USA
z The International Building Code IBC
z published by International Code Council ICC for the first time in 2000,
revised every three years.

z The IBC has been developed to form a consensus single code for USA.

z Currently IBC 2009 is available

z UBC 97 is the last UBC code and is still existing but will not be updated.
Similarly NBC, SBC will also be not updated

z In future only IBC will exist

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 14

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y Seismic Codes in USA
z NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program)
Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for
New Buildings developed by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management
Agency)

z The NBC, SBC and IBC have adopted NEHRP for seismic design

z SEAOC “Blue Book Structural Engineers Association of California


(SEAOC), has its seismic provisions based on the Recommended Lateral
Force Requirements and Commentary (the SEAOC “Blue Book”) published
by the Seismology Committee of SEAOC

z The UBC has adopted SEAOC for seismic design


Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 15

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y Building Code of Pakistan
z Building Code of Pakistan, Seismic Provision BCP-SP-07
has adopted the seismic provisions of UBC 97 for seismic
design of buildings

z IBC 2000 could not be adopted because some of the basic


input data required by IBC for seismic design does not exist
in Pakistan.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 16

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y The ACI Code
z ACI MCP contains 150 ACI committee reports; revised every
three years
z ACI 318: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

z ACI 315: The ACI Detailing Manual

z ACI 349:
349 Code
C d Requirement
R i t for
f N l
Nuclear S f t Related
Safety R l t d Concrete
C t
Structures

z Many others

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 17

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y The ACI 318 Code
z The American Concrete Institute “Building Code
Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08),”
referred to as the code, provides minimum requirements for
structural concrete design or construction.

z The term “structural


structural concrete
concrete” is used to refer to all plain or
reinforced concrete used for structural purposes.
z Prestressed concrete is included under the definition of reinforced
concrete.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 18

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y The ACI 318 Code
z 7 parts, 22 chapters and 6 Appendices

z Brief visit of the code

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 19

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y The ACI Code
z The ACI 318 code has no legal status unless adopted by a
state or local jurisdiction.

z It is also recognized that when the ACI code is made part of


a legally adopted general building code, that general building
code may modify some provisions of ACI 318 to reflect local
conditions and requirements.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 20

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y The Compatibility Issue
z The UBC 97 has reproduced ACI 318-95 in Chapter 19 on
concrete. The load combinations and strength reduction
factors of ACI 318-02 are not compatible with UBC 97 and
hence BCP-SP-07.

z The IBC adopts the latest ACI code by reference whenever it


is revised and hence are fully compatible.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 21

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Building codes and the ACI


code
y The Compatibility issue

z BCP chapter 7 can be used for earthquake resistant design


of RC structures using load combination and Strength
Reduction Factors of chapter 5 of BCP (UBC 97 load
combinations).

z The chapter is compatible with ACI 318-05

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 22

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

The Design & Design team

y The design covers all aspects of structure,


structure not only
the structural design

y The structural engineer is a member of a team


whose members work together to design a building,
bridge, or other structure

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 23

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Objectives of Design

Four major objectives of design


1. Appropriateness: This include
z Functionality, to suit the requirements

z Aesthetics, to suit the environment

2. Economy
z The overall cost of the structure should not exceed the client
client’s
s budget

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 24

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Objectives of Design

Four major objectives of design


3. Structural Adequacy (safety)
z Strength

z Serviceability

4. Maintainability
z The structure should be simple so that it is maintained easily

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 25

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

The Design Process

Three major phases of design are:


1. The client’s needs and priorities

2. Development of project concept

3. Design of Individual systems

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 26

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
Limit State
z When a structure or structural elements becomes unfit for its
intended use, it is said to have reached a limit state.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 27

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
The three limit states
1. Ultimate Limit States

2. Serviceability Limit States

3. Special Limit States

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 28

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
The Ultimate Limit States
z These involve a structural collapse of part or all of the
structure.

z Such a limit state should have a very low probability of


occurrence, since it may lead to loss of life and major
financial losses

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 29

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
The major UL States are
z Loss of equilibrium

z Rupture

z Formation of plastic mechanism

z Instability

z Progressive collapse

z Fatigue

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 30

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
Serviceability Limit States
z These involves disruption of the functional use of the
structure, but not collapse.

z Since there is less danger of loss of life, a higher probability


of occurrences can generally be tolerated than in the case
of an ultimate limit state.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 31

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
The SL States are
z Excessive deflections

z Excessive crack widths

z Undesirable vibrations

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 32

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
Special Limit States
z This class of limit states involves damage or failure due to
abnormal conditions or abnormal loadings

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 33

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
The SpL States include
z Damage or collapse in extreme earthquakes.

z Structural effects of fire, explosions, or vehicular collisions.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 34

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Limit State and the Design of


Reinforced concrete
Limit state design of RC building
z RC structures are designed for ULS

z Subsequently checked for SLS

z Under special condition also checked for SpLS

z N t SLS and
Note: d nott ULS may be
b governing
i LS for
f structures
t t such
h as
water retaining structures and other structures where deflection and
crack control are important

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 35

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Basic Design Relationship: The


Capacity and Demand

Capacity ≥ Demand (same units)

z Demand: An imposed action on structure

z Capacity: The overall resistance of structure

z Load Effects: Bending, torsion, shear, axial


forces deflection,
forces, deflection vibration

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 36

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Basic Design Relationship: The


Capacity and Demand
z Capacity < Demand is failure

z Capacity > Demand is success with FOS

z Capacity=Demand is success without FOS

z Working Stress Design approach

z Capacity is reduced by half

z Limit State Design approach

z Capacity is reduced and demand is increased based on


scientific rationale.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 37

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Basic Design Relationship: The


Capacity and Demand
y φ Mn ≥ Mu (α Ms )

y φ Vn ≥ Vu (α Vs )

y φ Pn ≥ Pu (α Ps )

y φ Tn ≥ Tu (α Ts )

y φ strength
t th reduction
d ti factor
f t

y α load amplification factor

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 38

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety
y Variability in resistance
z The actual strengths (resistances) of beams,
beams column,
column or
other structural members will almost always differ from the
values calculated by the designer. The main reasons for this
are as follows
z variability of the strength of the concrete and reinforcement

z differences between the as-built dimensions and those shown on the


structural drawings,

z effects of simplifying assumptions made in deriving the equations for


member resistance.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 39

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety

y Variability in resistance
z effects of simplifying
assumptions
z Comparison of measured
(Mtest) and computed
(Mn) failure moments for
RC beams

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 40

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety
y Variability in loads
z All loadings are variables,
variables especially live loads and
environmental loads due to snow, wind, or earthquakes

z In addition to actual variations in the loads themselves, the


assumptions and approximations made in carrying out
structural analysis lead to differences between the actual
p
forces and moments and those computed byy the designer.
g

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 41

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety
y Variability in loads
z Fig shows variation of Live
loads for office building
0.060
z Average load is 13 psf
Frequency

0.040
z 1% of measured loads
exceeded 44 psf 0.020

z Building code specify 50 psf 0 10 20 30 40 50 60


for such buildings (ASCE 7- Load Intensity (psf)

02 Minimum Design Loads (a) Area = 151 ft2

for Buildings and Other


Structures)
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 42

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Safety

y Due to the variability of resistances and load effects,


there is definite chance that a weaker-than-average
weaker than average
structure will be subjected to a higher- than-average
load.

y In extreme cases, failure may occur.

y The load factors and resistance factors are selected


to reduce the probability of failure to a very small
level.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 43

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Probabilistic Calculation of Safety


Factors
y R = The distribution of a population
of resistance of a group of similar
structure

y S = Distribution of the maximum


load effects, S, expected to occur on
those structure during their life times

y The 45° line in this figure


corresponds to a load effect equal to
the resistance (S = R).

y S > R is failure i.e., load effects


greater than resistance & S < R is
Safety
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 44

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Probabilistic Calculation of Safety


Factors
y The term Y = R – S is called the
safety margin.
margin
y Failure will occur if Y is negative,
represented by the shaded area in
βσY
fig .

Frequency
y The probability of failure, Pf, is the Y

chance that a particular combination


of R and S will give a negative value
of Y.
Y
0 Y=R-S
y Pf is equal to the ratio of the shaded P[(R - S) < 0] = shaded area = Pf
Safety margin

area to the total area under the curve


in fig
y The function Y has mean value Ŷ = 0
+ β σY, where β = Ŷ/ σY.
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 45

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Probabilistic Calculation of Safety


Factors

y If the distribution is shifted to the right


by increasing the resistance, thereby
making Ŷ larger, β will increase, and
the shaded area, Pf is a function of β.
The factor β is called the safety
index.
y If β = 3.5, it means that 1 in every
10,000 structural members designed
on the basis that β = 3.5 will fail due
to excessive load or under strength
sometime during its life time.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 46

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Probabilistic Calculation of Safety


Factors
y The appropriate values of Pf and hence of β are
chosen by bearing in mind the consequences of
failure.

y Based on current design practice, β is taken between


3 and 3.5 for ductile failure with average
consequences of failure and between 3.5 and 4 for
sudden failure or failures having serious
consequences.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 47

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Probabilistic Calculation of Safety


Factors
y Because the strength and loads vary independently,
it is desirable to have one factor or a series of
factors, to account for the variability in resistances
and a second series of factors to account for the
variability in load effects.

y These are referred as to, respectively, as strength


reduction factors (also called resistance factors), Ø
and load factors, α.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 48

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Procedures Specified in


the ACI Code
y ACI sections 9.1.1 and 9.1.2 presents the basic limit
states design philosophy of the code.
z 9.1.1- structures and structural members shall be designed to
have design strengths at all sections at least equal to the
required strength calculated for the factored loads and forces
in such combinations as are stipulated in this code.

z 9 1 2- members also shall meet all other requirements of this


9.1.2
code to ensure adequate performance at service load levels.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 49

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Procedures Specified in


the ACI Code
y This process is called strength design in the ACI
code.
z In the AISC Specifications for steel design, the same
design process is known as LRFD (Load and Resistance
Factor Design).

z Strength design and LRFD are methods of limit-state


design except that primary attention is always placed on
design,
the ultimate limit states, with the serviceability limit
states being checked after the original design is
completed.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 50

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Load Combinations in the ACI


code Section 9.2
y U = 1.4(D + F)

y U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

y U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) +(1.0L or 0.8W)

y U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

y U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S

y U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H

y U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 51

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Load Combinations in the ACI


code Section 9.2

y Load types
z Dead (D) z Wind (W)

z Live (L) z Seismic (E)

z Roof live (Lr) z Soil (H)

z Snow (S) z Fluid (F)

z Rain (R) z Temperature, creep,


shrinkage (T)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 52

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Strength Reduction Factors in


the ACI Code, Section 9.3

φ
Tension-controlled 0.90

Compression-controlled
0.70
(spiral)
Compression-controlled
0 65
0.65
(other)

Shear and torsion 0.75

Bearing 0.65

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 53

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and


Other Structures
y Dead Loads
z The dead loads defined in ASCE 7-02
7 02 section 3.1
31
z Dead loads (D) consist of the weight of all materials of construction
incorporated into the building including but not limited to walls, floors,
roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other
similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed
service equipment including the weight of cranes. (Table C 3-1 for
details)

z Reinforced Concrete Density = 150 pcf =2450 kg/m3


=24kN/m3
z (Table C 3-1 for details of other material

z Brief visit of ASCE 7-02


Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 54

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures
y Live Loads
z The live loads defined in ASCE 7-02
7 02 section 4.1
41
z Live loads (L) are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the
building or other structure and do not include construction or
environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake
load, flood load, or dead load. Live loads (Lr) on a roof are those
produced (1) during maintenance by workers, equipment, and materials,
and (2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as
planters and by people.

z Table 4-1 lists minimum UDL and point loads

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 55

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures
y Live Loads
z In general,
general a building live load consists of a sustained
portion due to day-to-day use and a variable portion.

z The loading given in building codes is intended to represent


the maximum sum of these loads that will occur on a small
area during the life of the building.

z Non permanent partition walls are treated as live loads of 20


psf UDL

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 56

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures

Live Load Reduction


y The live load reduction
applies only to live loads due
to use and occupancy (not for
snow, etc.). No reduction is
made for areas used as
places of public assembly, for
garages, or for roofs

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 57

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures
y Live Loads
z Concentrated Live Loads
z The ASCE document requires that office and garage floors and
sidewalks be designed to safely support either the uniform design
loads or a concentrated load of 1000 to 8000 lb (depending on
occupancy), spread over an area of 30 in. by 30 in., whichever causes
the worse effect.

z The
e co
concentrated
ce t ated loads
oads a
are
e intended
te ded to represent
ep ese t heavy
ea y items
te s suc
such as
office safes, pianos, car wheels, and so on.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 58

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures
y Rain Load (R)
z ASCE requires that roofs be able to support the load of all
rain water that could accumulate on a particular portion of a
roof if the primary roof drains were blocked.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 59

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures
y Construction Loads
z During the construction of concrete buildings,
buildings the weight of
the fresh concrete is supported by formwork, which
frequently rests on floors lower down in the structure.

z ACI section 6.2.2 states the following:


z No construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead
load plus specified live load shall be supported on any unshored portion
of the structure under construction, unless analysis indicates adequate
strength to support such additional loads

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 60

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures
y Self-Equilibrating Loads (T)
z ACI section 9.2.1
9 2 1 uses the symbol T to refer to the forces and
moments resulting from imposed or restrained deformations
and assigns them a load factor of 1.2. This section states,
z Estimations of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage, expansion of
shrinkage-compensating concrete, or temperature change shall be
based on a realistic assessment of such effects occurring in service.

z The commentary for this section states,


z The term realistic assessment is used to indicate that the most probable
values rather than the upper bound values of the variable should be
used.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 61

Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Customary Dimensions and


Construction Tolerance
y Difference in Working and As-Built Drawings’
Dimensions
z The actual as-built dimensions will differ slightly from those
shown on the drawings, due to construction inaccuracies.

z ACI standards 347 on formwork gives the accepted


tolerances on cross-sectional dimensions of concrete
columns and beams as ± ½ in.
in and on the thickness of slabs
and walls as ± ¼ in.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 62

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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P. University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Customary Dimensions and


Construction Tolerance
y Difference in Working and As-Built Drawings’
Dimensions
z For footings, they recommend tolerances of +2 in. and – ½
in. on plan dimensions and – 5 percent of the specified
thickness.

z ACI Committee 117 has published a comprehensive list of


tolerance for concrete construction and materials

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali 63

32