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A shaft is a rotating member that transmits power. A shaft may be subjected to bending
moment as well as twisting moment. Gears, pulleys etc. are usually keyed to the shaft and
the shaft rotates in the bearings. An axle is chiefly subjected to bending moment. It may
carry freely rotating parts (without key) pulleys, gears etc. (e.g., industrial car wheels
freely rotates on their axle) and is used for transmission purposes.

1. Literature Survey
Crouse and Anglin et al states that, power produced by the engine will be transferred
to the wheel though propeller shaft. The usage of propeller shaft as a power transmitter in
automobile is more convenience because it is less likely to become jammed or broken
compared to chain drive. The construction features of propeller shaft used is different
depending on the drive train of the vehicle. Rear wheel drive (RWD) vehicle usually use
propeller shaft that has universal joint (U-joint) and slip joint at each end. As for front wheel
drive, (FWD) vehicle use propeller shaft called half shafts that has constant velocity joint at
each end. The function of the joint is to allow changes in suspension angle.

H. I. F. Evernden, et al states that, where the engine and axles are separated from
each other, as on four-wheel-drive and rear wheel- drive vehicles, it is the propeller shaft
that serves to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles. For its usage,
the optimal shaft is a short, bar-like product. The longer the bar, the more liable it is to sag
and sagging is further promoted when rotation is applied. Sagging causes vibration and
results in an increase in noise, to such an extent that the shaft is likely to break when the
critical speed is exceeded. The propeller shaft is naturally designed not to break when used
within the service limits expected of use. In addition. It is subjected to variation while the
remaining propeller shafts are rigid members; i.e. do not designed to suppress vibrations
arising from a wide range of causes.
P.K. Mallick et al states that, Power transmission can be improved through the
reduction of inertial mass and lightweight. Substituting composite structures for
conventional metallic structures has many advantages because of higher specific stiffness
and higher specific strength of composite materials. Composite materials can be tailored to
efficiently meet the design requirements of strength, stiffness and composite drive shafts
weight less than steel or aluminum of similar strength. It is possible to manufacture one
piece of composite drive shaft to eliminate all of the assembly connecting two-piece steel
drive shaft. In addition, composite materials typically have a lower modulus of elasticity. As
a result, when torque peaks occur in the driveline, the driveshaft can act as a shock absorber
and decrease stress on part of the drive train extending life.

Mutasher et al., has studied static torque and power transmission capacities of a
hybrid aluminium /composite drive shaft, fabricated by a wetted filament winding method.
Elasto-plastic properties were used for the aluminium tube and linear elastic for composite
materials. Good agreement was obtained between the finite-element predictions and
experimental results.

H. Bayrakceken, et al states that, Fatigue failure of the drive shaft. The complete
fracture occurs between the bearing and flange. The concept of fatigue is very simple, when
a motion is repeated; the object that is doing the work becomes weak. Fatigue occurs when
a material is subject to alternating stresses, over a long period. Examples of where Fatigue
may occur are springs, turbine blades, airplane wings, bridges and bones. Repeated cycling
of the load causes metal fatigue. It is a progressive localized damage due to fluctuating
stresses and strains on the material. Metal fatigue cracks initiate and propagate in regions
where the strain is most severe.

Asmamaw Gebresilassie et al states that, in current market, drive shaft is the most
important component to any power transmission application; automotive drive Shaft is one
of this. A drive shaft, also known as a propeller shaft or Cardan shaft, it is a mechanical part
that transmits the torque generated by a vehicle's engine into usable motive force to propel

the vehicle. Physically, it is tubular in design, with an outside and inside diameter, which
spins at a frequency governed by engine output. Drive shaft must operate in high and low
power transmission of the fluctuating load. Due this fluctuating load, it becomes fail and
tends to stop power transmission. Thus, it is important to make and design this shaft as per
load requirement to avoid failure. Nowadays two pieces steel shaft are mostly used as a drive
shaft. The two-piece steel drive shaft consists of three universal joints, a center supporting
bearing and a bracket, which increases the total weight of an automotive vehicle and
decreases fuel efficiency.

2. Static structural analysis

 Geometry ad meshing:

 Loading:

The layout of a shaft carrying two pulleys 1 and 2, and supported on two bearings A and
B is shown in Figure. The shaft transmits 7.5 kW power at 360 rpm from the pulley 1 to
the pulley 2. The diameters of pulleys 1 and 2 are 250 mm and 500 mm respectively. The
masses of pulleys 1 and 2 are 10 kg and 30 kg respectively. The diameter of shaft is 60
mm. The belt tensions act vertically downward and the ratio of belt tensions on the tight
side to slack side for each pulley is 2.5:1. Material: Stainless Steel

Mt= 60 x 10^6 x 7.5/ (2*pi*360)

= 198 Nm
Adding the weight and belt tensions, the forces are calculated to be 3811.71 N at point 1
and 2151.11 N at point 2.


 Total Deformation

 Von Mises stress

Yield strength of SS is 205 MPa (ASTM A240). The maximum stress is 118.7 MPa. Therefore,
design is safe.

 Equivalent strain

 Shear stress

3. Conclusion
The results of static structural analysis confirm the safety of the design. The shaft dimensions are
1000mm length and diameter 60 mm.