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МИНИCTEPCTBO ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«СЕВЕРО-КАВКАЗСКИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION


FEDERAL PUBLIC AUTONOMOUS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
OF HIGHER EDUCATION
«NORTH CAUCASUS FEDERAL UNIVERSITY»

ДЕТАЛИ МАШИН
ПРАКТИКУМ
(на английском языке)

Направление подготовки 21.03.01 – Нефтегазовое дело


Квалификация выпускника – Бакалавр

MACHINE ELEMENTS
GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORY WORK
AND PRACTICAL TRAINING

Direction of training 21.03.01 – Oil and gas engineering


Qualification – Bachelor

Stavropol
2016
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УДК 637.523.005 (075.8) Печатается по решению


ББК 62-2 я73 редакционно-издательского совета
К 65 Северо-Кавказского федерального
университета

Автор-составитель
д-р техн. наук, профессор В. Г. Копченков

К 65 Детали машин: практикум / авт.-сост. В. Г. Копченков. –


Ставрополь: Изд-во СКФУ, 2016. – 111 с.

Machine Elements: Guidelines for laboratory work and practi-


cal training for the discipline / developer V. G. Kopchenkov. –
Stavropol: Publisher NCFU, 2016. – 111 p.

Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями образова-


тельного стандарта высшего профессионального образования и
включает лабораторные и практические работы, в которых основное
внимание уделено экспериментальному изучению деталей и узлов
общего назначения, а также основ расчета и проектирования.
Предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлению
подготовки 21.03.01 – Нефтегазовое дело, квалификация выпуск-
ника – бакалавр.
УДК 637.523.005 (075.8)
ББК 62-2 я73

Рецензенты:
канд. техн. наук, доцент В. Г. Терещенко,
канд. техн. наук, профессор А. В. Орлянский (СГАУ)

© ФГАОУ ВО «Северо-Кавказский
федеральный университет», 2016

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INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to the State educational standard, laboratory works in


"Machines parts " are be performed by students majoring in 21.03.01
“Oil and Gas Engineering " in the 4th semester. The number of labs and
the time allotted for their implementation is set forth in the applicable
work programs.
The Guidelines focus on the fundamentals of designing machine
parts. It will allow students to see real, typical elements and obtain ap-
propriate skills for their design.
The purpose of the practical classes are consolidate, deepen and gen-
eralize the theoretical knowledge gained by students in the process of lis-
tening to the lecture course and independent study of specific topics.
Students are allowed to perform work only after a safety briefing,
with entering relevant data and signing a Safety Log. The experimental
part of the laboratory work is conducted under the guidance of a teacher
and staff of the sub-Department responsible for safety.
Upon completing an experiment, students file a report in accord-
ance with the guidelines requirements.
A laboratory work and practical classes is defended orally, based
on the report. Approved reports on each work remain with the students
until they complete all laboratory works and separately practical train-
ings. At the end of the semester all reports are filed in the journal of
laboratory work and separately practical trainings based on which cred-
its are obtained.

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Part 1. LABORATORY WORKS

1. WELDED JOINTS

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of welded joints and weld seams.
2. Study the calculation methods for welded joints.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
2.1. Types of welded joints
The following types of welded joints are important: a) Butt joint,
b) Lap (or fillet) joint, c)T-joint , d) Corner joint. See Fig. 1

Figure 1. Types of welded joints

2.2. Types of weld seams


The following types of weld seams exist: the butt seam (Fig. 1 a, с)
and fillet (or corner) seam (Fig. 1. b, d)
Depending to the direction of the force, welded seams can be:
transverse, flanking or parallel, oblique or combined.

a) single transverse, b) double transverse, c) parallel joint, d) oblique, e) combined


(depending on the edge conditioning)
Figure 2. Types of joints depending on the force direction
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The plate edges do not require beveling if the plate thickness is


less than 5 mm. If the plate thickness is 5 - 12.5 mm, the edges should
be beveled to V or U-groove on both sides.

The butt joints may look as shown in Fig.3

Figure 3. Types of butt joints; a) Square butt joint, (b) Single V-butt, (c)
Single U-butt ,(d) Double V-butt, (e) Double U-butt

2.3. Strength of butt joints


Butt joints and T- joints are made with a butt weld seam.
For butt joints, the seam length equals the width of plates, and the
weld thickness equals the thickness of plates.

Figure 4. Butt joint

Type 1. If butt welded joint is loaded under tensile force F, the


strength equation looks like this:
σP= F/A = F/sl ≤ [σP'] , (1)
where A = is weld seam area, l = length of weld seam, generally equal
to the plate width, s = plate thickness.
[σP']= permissible tensile stress of the weld seam

Type 2. Butt weld joint loaded with bending moment M, as shown


in Fig. 4, so the strength equation looks like this:
σP = M/W ≤[σP'] (2)
where M=Pa, a= weld length, W = cross section resistance modulus.
Here, W = ls2 /6.

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Type 3. Butt weld joint under tensile force F and bending moment
M, as shown in Fig. 4, so the strength equation looks like this:
σP = F/A + M/W ≤[σP'] (3)
therefore,
  ( F / sl )  (6M / ls 2 )   'p 
(4)
Type 4. Butt weld joint under tensile force F and bending moment
M, under force P, as shown in Fig. 5(1) so the strength equation looks
like this
σP = F/A + M/W ≤[σP'] (5)
where
M = P a, a = weld length,
W = cross section resistance modulus. Here W = ls2 /6.
Therefore,
σE = F/(sl) + 6(Pa)/(ls2) ≤[σP'] (6)

1). 2).
Figure 5. Butt joints

Type 5. Butt weld seam under tensile force F and bending moment
M are shown in Fig. 5(2).
σP = F/A + M/W ≤ [σP'] (7)
here, W = l2s /6.

2.4. Strength of Transverse Lap Welded Joint


Lap welded joints are made with corner (fillet) weld seam. The
transverse fillet welds are designed for tensile strength.

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Figure 6. Double transverse fillet welds

Type 1. Lap weld joint under tensile force F.


To determine the weld strength, we need to know the smallest area
of the weld seam. The length of the weld seam equals the plate width.
The thickness of the weld seam is the hypotenuse of a regular triangle
cross-section of the weld – see Fig. 6 (m-m). The minimum area of the
weld is taken as the stress is maximum at the minimum area.
The strength of the weld is calculated on shear (tangential) stress
The basic equation is used for strength calculation
τcр ≤ [τcр] (8)
where τcр is actual tangential stress, [τcр] is allowable stress.
Shear stress
τcp = F / A (9)
where F is force , A is area or cross-section of the weld seam.
If plate thickness s equals the size of weld seam k, in Fig. 6 we
find that thickness
h = s · sin 45° = 0.7· s
for a single weld seam
A = l ·h = l· s· sin 45° = 0.7 s· l. (10)
If s does not equal k
A = l ·h = l· k· sin 45° = 0.7· k· l. (11)
The total area for double weld seam
A = 2·0.7 s· l.

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Then
  F /(2hl )  F /(2  0, 7 sl )   ср' 
. (12)
For design calculation, the required length of the weld seam is de-
termined as follows:
l  F /(2  0, 7 s  ср
'
).
(13)
Type 2. Lap weld joint loaded only with bending moment M de-
termines force P, as shown in Fig. 7.(2), so the strength equation looks
as follows:
τcр = M/W ≤ [τcр] (14)
where M=P·a, a is weld length, W = the resistance modulus of the
cross section. Here, W = l2 0,7k /6
 M  M 2W  6Pa 2l 2 0,7k     (15)
Type 3. Lap weld joint under tensile force F bending moment M,
as shown in Fig. 7(1), so the strength equation looks as follows
τcр = F/A + M/W ≤ [τcр] (16)
where W is the resistance modulus of the cross section. Here,
W = l2 0,7k /6.

1) 2) .
Figure 7. Double transverse fillet weld seam

2.5. Permissible stress


Since the weld is weaker than the plate due to slag and blow holes,
the permissible stress in the calculation of welded joints is lower, in
percentage of the permissible stress for the base metal

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    р     ; 
   0,6 р      (17)
 
where  p  is the permissible stress for the base metal; φ is the coeffi-
cient of lowering the permissible stress.
 р   Т
S  , (18)
where
Т is yield strength of steel (table 2);
[S] is 1,2 ÷ 1.8 safety factor.
The coefficient φ takes into account the factors reducing the
strength of the weld: welding method; technological defects (slag and
gas inclusions, lack of penetration, etc); base material quality.
Table 1
Values of coefficient 
Welding method Values of coefficient 
Automatic submerged-arc manual electrode Э42А
1
and Э50А butt
Manual arc electrodes Э42 and Э50 or gas welding 0,9
Table 2
Yield strength of low carbon, medium carbon
and low alloy steels for welded structures
Steel
Ст3 Ст5 10 20 40 45 10Г2 10Г2С1 16Г2АФ
class
Yield
230 270 260 250 300 360 250 380 410
strength
Coefficient γ takes into account the nature of the load. The coeffi-
cient γ depends on the nature of the load. It is γ =1 when static load,
and if the variable load is determined by calculation.

3. Equipment and materials


For laboratory work, students receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Tables with samples of welded joints.
3. Caliper.
4. Safety instructions
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When performing the lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with training practice conducted by a respon-
sible Department employee.

5. Methodology and procedure


1. Study the main types of the welds and welded joints provided by
the teacher.
2. Make sketches of welded joints given by the teacher. Measure
their sizes using calipers. Show the type of loading
3. Calculate the permissible stress for the weld. The parts material,
the type of load, the type of the weld bead, the type of electrode are
given.
4. Calculate the permissible load (force and bending moment) for
welded joints.
5. Prepare a report on the laboratory work.
6. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.

6. Report contents and format


A report on the laboratory work includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Work objective.
3. Sketches of welded joints.
4. Table with given and calculated parameters.
5. Calculations.
6. Summary.
For an example of a laboratory work report (no calculation part),
see the Schedule.

7. Questions for the work defense


1. List the basic types of welded joints.
2. What butt weld sections do you know?
3. What are different methods of calculating the strength of welded
joints of butt and corner welds?
4. Methods of calculating permissible stress of the weld.
5. Show the sketches of dangerous cross-sections of a fillet weld.
6. How are flanking seams different from the front ones?
7. Write the equation of strength for butt joints under tensile force.
8. Write the equation of strength for butt joints under tensile force
and bending moment.
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9. Write the equation for the strength of lap joints under tensile
force.
10. Write the equation for the strength of lap joints under tensile
force and bending moment.

8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report on Laboratory Work 1

Laboratory work 1
Welded joints

1. Purpose.
1. Study the basic types of welded joints and weld beans.
2. Study the calculation methods for welded joints.
2. Work procedure
1. Study the main types of the welds and welded joints given by
the teacher.
2. Make sketches of welded joints given by the teacher. Measure
their sizes using calipers. Show the type of loading
3. Calculate the permissible stress for the weld. The material of the
parts, the type of load, the type of the weld bead, the type of electrode
are given.
4. Calculate the permissible load (force and bending moment) for
welded joints.

3. Contents
Table 1
Determining the permissible stress of the weld
Parameter Value, dimension
Elements material
Material yield point, Т, MPa
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Safety factor , [S]


Welding method
Electrode brand
Welded joint strength coefficient , 
Permissible stress for the parts material [р], MPa
Load factor
Permissible stress reduction factor 
Permissible tensile stress for the weld [`р], MPa
Permissible shear stress for the weld [τ`ср], MPa
Table 2
Permissible load for a welded joint
Sketches of Results of
welded joints measurements and calculations
1. Butt weld joint Parts thickness s, mm
Weld length b, mm
Permissible value of the load on the
welded joint [F], kN

2. Lap weld joint Parts thickness s, mm


Weld length l, mm
Weld cathetus k= s, mm
Permissible value of the load on the
welded joint [F], kN

3. T- weld joint Parts thickness s, mm


Weld length l, mm
Weld cathetus k= s, mm
Permissible value of the load on the
welded joint [F], kN

Calculations: ___________________________________

4. Conclusion.

Work performed by:_____________ Mark _______________

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2. METRIC THREAD

1. Purpose and contents


1. Study the basic types of threads and threaded joints.
2. Study the methods of threads calculation.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
2.1 Geometry of thread
Thread is obtained by cutting or rolling grooves along a helical
line on the outer surface of a cylindrical rod. For nuts, the thread is cut
on the inner surface of holes along a helical line.
The geometric basis of the thread is a helix. Thread line is the hy-
potenuse of the triangle OAB which turns on the cylinder (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Helices Figure 2.Basic profile of the thread

According to Figure 1, the elevation angle β of the helical line is


determined by the following formula
tg  p /(d 2 ) (1)
where p is the thread step (pitch); d2 is the average diameter of the
thread, β is the elevation angle of the helical line.
The basic geometrical dimensions of thread are standardized. The
following terms are used for screw threads, as shown in Fig. 2.
1. d - external (or nominal) diameter of thread. A screw is speci-
fied by this diameter. It is also known as outside diameter; in a nut and
bolt it is opposite.
2. d1 is the inner diameter of thread. It is also known as core or
root diameter. In a nut and bolt it is opposite.

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3. d2 is the average thread diameter; (in other countries, Pitch di-


ameter). In a nut and bolt they have the same size.
4. h is the height of the thread profile or Thread Depth. It is the
perpendicular distance between d and d1.
5. P is the thread step; Pitch. It is the distance from a point on one
thread to the corresponding point on the next one. This is measured in the
axial direction between corresponding points in the same axial plane.
6. Ph - Lead. It is the distance between two corresponding points
on the same helix. It may also be defined as the distance which a screw
thread advances axially in one rotation of the nut. Lead is equal to the
pitch in case of single start threads, it is twice the pitch in double start,
thrice the pitch in triple start, and so on.
7. α - thread profile angle; Angle of thread. It is the angle formed
by the flanks of the thread.

2.2. Designation
The size of the screw thread is marked “M” followed by the exter-
nal diameter and step (pitch), the two being separated by “x”. When the
pitch is not specified, it means a normal pitch is implied.
For nuts, the inner diameter is taken.
For example, a bolt thread of 6 mm size of normal pitch is marked
M6. A bolt thread of 10 mm with small pitch is marked M10 x1.25.

2.3. Thread strength calculation


What can happen to a connection? The destruction of the bolt,
shear (cut) of threads, crush of threads, a single turn of thread.
We need to determine the maximum load Fa on the bolt. Check the
thread for crushing strength and shear.
See the example. Given: Bolt M6, bolt material - Steel 3.

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Figure 3. Dangerous cross-sections in the destruction thread


Solution
1. Determine the maximum tensile load on the bolt.
1.1 Permissible stress in tension.
From table 1, select the yield strength of steel 3 σT=200 MPa.
From table 2, select the safety factor [s]=4
[σp] = σT/[s] = 200/4 = 50 MPa.
1.2 Equation of strength equivalent stresses
σэкв ≤ [σp]
σэкв = 1,3Fa/A
The 1.3 factor takes into account the shear stresses from the fric-
tion in the thread.
The area of dangerous section:
A = π d21 /4
where d1 =5,35 mm – see Table 3.
Maximum tensile load (substitute)
Fa = 1,3 [σp] A =1,3[σp] · π· d21 /4=1,3· 50· 3,14· 5.352 /4 =1836,9 Н
2. Define the maximum shear load of thread
2.1 Permissible stress in shear
[τcp] = 0,4 σТ = 0,4×200 = 80 MPa
2.2 Equation of shear strength
τcp ≤[τcp]
τcp = Fa/A
substitute
  
Fa

d1 HКК m
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where: Fa is the axial or tightening force, d1 - inner thread diameter, H is


the height of the nut H=0.8d; K – coefficient of thread fullness (for triangu-
lar thread K ≈ 0,87); Km ≈ (0.6÷0,7) – coefficient of the load distribution
along the thread, [τcp] – permissible shear (tangential) stress.
Maximum shear load:
Fa =[τcp] · π ·d1 ·H· K· Km=80 ·3,14· 5,35· 0.8 ·6· 0.87· 0.6=3367.3H

3. Determine the maximum load on the thread crush


3.1 Permissible stress
[σсм] = 0,8 σТ = 0,8×200 = 160 MPa
3.2 Equation of crush strength
σсм ≤ [σсм]
σсм = Fa/A
Area of dangerous section
A =z π (d2 - d12) /4
Where: z = 6 is the number of turns of the nut thread, d1 - inner
thread diameter, - outer thread diameter.
The maximum load on the crush (substitute)
Fa =[σсм] · z· π· (d2 - d12) /4 =160· 6 ·3.14· (62 -5.352)/4=5559.6H
Table 1
Mechanical properties of some materials
Var. Materials The yield strength σт , MPa
1 Steel: Ст3 200
2 10 220
3 20 240
4 30 300
5 45 360
6 60Г 420
7 40Х 650-900
8 30ХГСА 850-1500

Table 2
Safety factor
Bolt diameter, mm
Bolt material
6...16 16...30 30...60
Carbon steel (25, 30, 35, 45, etc.) 4...3 3..2 2...1.3
Alloy steel (40X, 40XH, etc.) 5...4 4...2.5 2.5

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Table 3
Basic dimensions of threads
Pitch Thread diameter
Р d external d1 average d2 internal

0.40 2.0 1.740 1.567


0.45 (2.2) 1.908 1.713
0.45 2.5 2.208 2.013 8
0.50 3.0 2.675 2.459
0.60 (3.5) 3.110 2.850
0.70 4 3.546 3.242 1
0.75 (4.5) 4.013 3.688
0.80 5 4.480 4.134 7
1 6 5.350 4.918
1.25 8 7.188 6.647
1.50 10 9.026 8.376 2
1.75 12 10.863 10.106
2 (14) 12.701 11.835
2 16 14.701 13.835 3
2.5 (18) 16.376 15.294
2.5 20 18.376 17.294 4
2.5 (22) 20.376 19.294
3 24 22.051 20.752 5
3 (27) 25.051 23.752
3.5 30 27.727 26.211 6

3. Equipment and materials


For laboratory work, students receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of bolts and screws.
3. Caliper.

4. Safety instructions
When performing the lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with training practice conducted by a respon-
sible Department employee.

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5. Methodology and work procedure


1. Study the main types of threads and thread joints given by the
teacher.
2. Make sketches of thread joints given by the teacher. (angle β is
formed by rolling the imprint on paper).
Measure their sizes using calipers. Show the type of loading.
3. Calculate the permissible stress for the thread. The bolts materi-
al, the type of load are given.
4. Calculate the permissible load on thread.
5. Prepare a report on the laboratory work.
6. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.

6. Contents of the report and its form


A report on the laboratory work includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Work objective.
3. Sketches of thread.
4. Tables with given and calculated parameters.
5. Calculations.
6. Summary.
For an example of a laboratory work report (no calculation part),
see the Schedule.

7. Questions for the defense of the work


1. What is understood as single start and double start threads?
2. Define the following sign :(d). (d1). (d2). (p). and (h) .
3. Explain the method of determining the maximum crush load on
the thread.
4. Explain the method of determining the maximum shear load on
the thread.
6. What does “bolt M 16” mean?
7. How can determine the permissible tensile stress?
8. Draw the area of dangerous shear section of the thread.
9. Explain the method of determining the bolt size when the load is
along the bolt axis.

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8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report for laboratory work 2

Laboratory work 2
Metric thread

1. Purpose
1. Study the basic types of the threads and threaded joints.
2. Study the methods of calculation of the threads.

2. Work procedure
1. Study the main types of threads and thread joints given by the
teacher.
2. Make sketches of thread joints given by the teacher. (angle β is
formed by rolling the imprint on paper).
Measure their sizes using calipers. Show the type of loading.
3. Calculate the permissible stress for the thread. The bolts materi-
al, the type of load are given.
4. Calculate the permissible load on thread.

3. Content
3.1 Sketch of the threaded element.

3.2 Primary geometric sizes:


Head height H=
Rod length L=
Length of threaded part l=
Outer diameter d =
Inner diameter d1 =
Average diameter d2 =
Thread step (pitch) p =
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Height of thread h =
Helix angle β =
Thread profile angle α=

4. Calculation of thread strength


4.1 Calculation of permissible stresses for tensile. shear and crush
strength.

4.2 Calculation of thread for shear.

4.3. Calculation of thread on crush.

4.4. Calculation of the bolt body on tensile with torsion.

5. Conclusion.

Work performed by:_____________ Mark ___________

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3. SPUR GEARS. GEOMETRY

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of spur gears.
2. Study the calculation methods for spur gear geometry.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
2.1. Geometry of spur gears. Speed Reduction Ratio.
Gears are used to change the speed of rotation of the driven gear
linked to the driving gear. In Figure l, if the smaller top gear, called a
pinion, is driving the larger lower gear, called simply gear, the larger
gear will rotate more slowly. Geometric dimensions of the pinion has
index "1" and the gear is "2"

Figure 1.Gear

The gear ratio depends on the ratios:


u = n1 /n2 =d1 /d2 = z2 /z1 (1)
where n1 ,n2 – rotation speed of pinion and gear, respectively,
d1 ,d2 - pitch circle of pinion and gear, respectively,
z2 ,z1 – number of teeth of gear and pinion, respectively.

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2.2. Terms and Geometry of Gears


Dividing (Pitch) circle. It is an imaginary circle which by pure
rolling action, would give the same motion as the actual gear.
Circular step (pitch). It is the distance measured on the dividing
(pitch) circle from a point on one tooth to the corresponding point on
the next tooth. It is usually marked as pc.

Figure 1. Terms

Figure 2. Geometry
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Part of the tooth above the pitch circle is called the tooth head. The
tooth part below the pitch circle is called the foot of a tooth.
Module. It is the ratio of the dividing circle diameter in millimeters
to the number of teeth. It is usually marked m. Mathematically,
m = d1/ z1, (2)
where z1 is the number of pinion teeth, d1 is the dividing circle diameter,
then
d1 = m z1.
Or it is the ratio of the step (pitch) in millimeters to π.
m p , (3)
NOTE: The recommended series of Standard modules are: 1, 1.25,
1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40 and 50 mm.
Two gears will mesh together correctly if the two wheels have the
same module.
Based on the values of the module and the number of teeth (z), the
remaining geometrical parameters of spur gear wheels are determined.
Here, the subscript "a" refers to the surface or the circle of the
tooth heads, "f" is the surface or the circle of the tooth bottom and foot.
Height of the spur head. It is the radial distance from the divided
circle to the top of the tooth, in mm
ha  m  ha*  m , (4)
where ha* is the ratio of the tooth head height, standard ha*=1.
The height of the foot of the tooth. It is the radial distance from
the divided circle to the bottom of the tooth, in mm
 
h f  m  ha*  c*  1 ,25 m
(5)
where c*=0.25 to the ratio of the radial clearance
Clearance. It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth of
pinion to the bottom of the tooth of gear, in a meshing gear.
Tooth of height in fractions of a module
h  ha  h f  2 ,25 m . (6)
Dividing diameter
d  mz . (7)
Circle diameter of top teeth (outside or Addendum). It
is the circumference drawn through the top of the teeth.
d a  d  2 ha  m  z  2 
(8)
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Circle diameter of the teeth foot (root), mm.


It is the circumference drawn through the bottom of the teeth.
d f  d  2 h f  m  z  2 ,5 
(9)
Center distance, mm,
d1  d2 m
aw   z 1  z 2 
2 2 (10)
where d1 and d2 are pitch diameters of pinion and gear, respectively.

Other terms
Pitch point. It is a common point of contact between two pitch cir-
cles. It is usually marked P.
Pressure angle or obliquity angle. It is the angle between the
common normal to two gear spurs at the point of contact and the com-
mon tangent at the pitch point. It is usually marked α. Standard pressure
angles are 20°.
Tooth thickness. It is the width of the spur measured along the
pitch circle
Tooth space. It is the width of space between the two adjacent
spurs measured along the pitch circle
Fillet radius. It is the radius that connects the root circle to the
spur profile.

Figure 3. A sketch of the wheel.


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3. Equipment and materials


To perform the laboratory work, students will receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of spur gears.
3. Caliper.

4. Safety instructions
When performing a lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with workplace training conducted by a re-
sponsible Department employee.

5. Methodology and work procedure


1. Find the number of teeth of the gears given by the teacher. Cal-
culate the gear ratio (formula 1).
2. Measure the tooth height h with the caliper. Calculate the mod-
ule m (normal module mn) gearing (formula 4). Use the standard value.
3. Calculate the geometrical parameters of gear wheels: d1; d2; da1;
da2; df1; df2; aw. ( formula 7, 8, 9, 10)
4. Make a sketch of the wheel.
5. Prepare a report for the laboratory work.
6. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.

6. Report contents and format


A laboratory work report includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Purpose of the work.
3. Table with given and calculated parameters.
4. Calculation part.
5. Sketches of the wheel.
6. Conclusion.

For an example of laboratory work report (no calculation part), see


the Schedule hereto.

7. Questions for the work defense


1. What are the main geometric parameters of gears?
2. What is step gearing?
3. What is module gear?
4. What is the height of the tooth head?
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5. What is the height of the tooth foot?


6. What is the dividing circumference diameter?

8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report for laboratory work 3

Laboratory work 3
Spur gears. Geometry

1. Purpose
1. Study the basic types of spur gears.
2. Study the calculation methods for the spur gears geometry.

2. Work procedure
1. Determine the number of teeth for the gears. Calculate the gear
ratio (formula 1).
2. Measure the tooth height h with the caliper. Calculate the mod-
ule m (normal module mn) gearing (formula 4).
Take the standard value.
3. Calculate the geometrical parameters of gear wheels: d1; d2; da1;
da2; df1; df2; aw. (formula 7, 8, 9, 10)
4. Draw a sketch of the wheel.

3. Contents
3.1. Table of given and calculated parameters
Symbol Formula Result Dimension
1 z1
2 z2
3 u
4 h
5 m

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6 d1
7 d2
8 da1
9 da2
10 df1
11 df2
12 aw

3.2. Wheel sketch

4. Conclusion

Work performed by:_______________ Mark ___________

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4. SPUR GEARS. FORCES IN GEARING

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of the spur gears.
2. Study the calculation methods for the forces in the spur gears.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
The forces acting in the mesh are applied to the pole P (Fig. 1).
The normal force Fn is decomposed into circumferential force Ft and
radial Fr.

Figure 1. Forces acting on spur gear

Based on the given values of power P1 (kW) and gear speed n1


(rpm), determine the torque on the gear, (Nm):
30 P1  10 3 . (1)
T1 
  n1
Forces in the mesh , (N)
circumferential force Ft
2T
Ft  1 , (2)
d1
radial Fr

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Fr  Ft  tg , (3)
normal force Fn
Fn  Ft cos  , (4)
where  = 20 is the mesh angle
Torque on the wheel, Nm:
T2  T1  u   зп   пп
2
, (5)
where u is the gear ratio of the transmission; зп is efficiency gearing
((зп = 0,96...to 0.97 for indoor and зп = 0,93...0,95– open gear); пп is
efficiency of a pair of rolling bearings (пп = 0,99...0,995).

Values for the forces on the Helical spur gear


Helical spur gears are differed by the orientation of their teeth. On
spur gears, the teeth are straight and parallel to the axis at the gear. On
helical gears, the teeth are inclined at an angle to the axis. This angle β
is called the incline (or helix) angle.

Figure 2. Forces on the Helical spur gear

Take the cross section of the tooth perpendicular to the axis of the
tooth.
The true normal force Fn is normal (perpendicular) to the curved
surface of the tooth. Divide it into three orthogonal components: the
tangential force Ft, the axial force Fa, the radial force Fr,
The tangential force (also called transmitting ), Ft is tangential to
the pitch surface of the gear and perpendicular to the axis of the shaft
gear. This force actually drives the gear. The magnitude of the tangen-
tial force.
Ft  2T1 / d1 (6)

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The axial force Fa is in the tangential plane parallel to the axis of


the shaft gear. It tends to push the gear along the shaft. Angle β be-
tween the tangential force and the fictitious tangential force (marked
Ft1 ) is the angle of the teeth incline.
Fa  Ft  tg  (7)
Radial force Fr. Acts toward the center of the gear along a radius
Fr  Ft 'tg  Ftg
t  / cos  (8)
True normal force Fn
Fn  Ft ' / cos   Ft /(cos  cos  ). (9)

3. Equipment and materials


To perform the laboratory work, students will receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of spur gears.
3. Caliper.

4. Safety instructions
When performing a lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with workplace training conducted by a re-
sponsible Department employee.

5. Methodology and work procedure


1. Determine the torques on the shafts and the acting forces. The
number of turns n1 and the power P1 on the gear shaft are given in Ta-
ble 1. (Angle β is determined by rolling imprint on paper).
2. Draw a sketch of the forces acting in the mesh
3. Prepare a report for the laboratory work.
4. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.

6. Report contents and format


A laboratory work report includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Purpose of the work.
3. Table with given and calculated parameters.
4. Calculation part.
5. Sketches of the wheel.
6. Conclusion.
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Table 1
Data for calculating gear (task)
Variant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
n1, rpm 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50
P1, kW 3,6 3,4 3,2 3,0 2,8 2,6 2,4 2,2 2,0 1,8
For an example of laboratory work report (no calculation part), see
the Schedule hereto.

7. Questions for the defense of the lab work


1. How is torque calculated?
2. How is the amount of radial force calculated?
3. What are the directions of the axial and radial forces?
4. What is the direction of the circumferential force?

8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report for the laboratory work 4

Laboratory work 4
Spur gears. Forces in gearing

1. Purpose
1. Study the basic types of the spur gears.
2. Study the calculation methods for the forces in the spur gears.

2. Work procedure
1. Determine the torques on the shafts and the acting forces. The
number of turns n1 and the power P1 on the gear shaft the are given in
Table 1.
2. Make a sketch of the forces acting in the mesh.

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3. Content
3.1. Table of the given and calculated parameters
Symbol Formula Result Dimention
1 P1
2 n1
3 d1
3 T1
4 T2
5 
6 β
7 Ft1
8 Ft1
9 Fr1
7 Fn1

3.2. Sketches of the forces acting in the mesh

4. Conclusion

Work performed by:_______________ Mark ___________

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5. WORM GEARS. GEOMETRY

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of the worm gears.
2. To study the methods of calculation of the geometry worm
gears.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
Worm gears geometry
The gear ratio:
u = n1 /n2 =d1 /d2 = z2 /z1 (1)
where n1 ,n2 is the rotation speed of worm and gear, respectively,
d1,d2 is the dividing circle of worm and gear, respectively,
z2,z1 is the number teeth of gear and number of starts worm, re-
spectively.
Geometry of the worm
 
  
ha
h

p
d a1
hf
d

d f1

b1
Figure 1. The geometry of the worm

Step (Pitch) p is the distance from a point on one tooth to the cor-
responding point on the next tooth, measured at the pitch line of the
axial plane of the worm.
Also,
p = πm, (2)
where m is the module selected under the standard.
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The geometric basis of the thread is a helix. The thread line is the
hypotenuse of the triangle OAB to screw on the cylinder. Here d =d1 is
the dividing diameter of the thread on the worm. Respectively, πd is the
length of the dividing circle.

Figure 2. The geometric basis of the worm

Lead (ph). It is the linear distance through which a point on a


thread moves ahead in one revolution of the worm. For single start
threads, lead equals the axial pitch, but for multiple start threads, lead
equals the product of axial pitch and number of starts. Mathematically:
ph = p z1 (3)
where p = Axial pitch; and z1 = Number of starts.
Lead angle. It is the angle between the helix on the pitch cylinder
and the plane normal to the axis of the worm. It is denoted by γ. From
the geometry of the figure, we find that
tg γ = ph/( πd1) = pz1/( πd1) = πmz1/( πd1)= mz1/ d1 (4)
where p is the thread pitch; d1 is the dividing diameter of the thread, γ is
the elevation angle of the helical line (Lead angle), z1 is the number of
starts.
From the equation, you can determine the dividing (pitch) diame-
ter of the worm:
m  z1
d1   mq . (5)
tg
where q is the coefficient of the worm diameter.
Coefficient of the worm diameter
q = z1 / tgγ (6)
q is standardized and associated with the module as per GOST 2144 - 76.

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Table 1
Values of m and q
m, мм 2; 2,5; 3,15; 4; 5; 6,3; 8; 10; 12,5; 16; 20; 25
q 8; 9; 10; 11,2; 12,5; 14; 16; 18; 20
The diameter of the tops of the worm turns
da1  d1  2ha  m(q  2) (7)
ha = m - height of the heads worm turns;
The diameter of a circle of the teeth foot (root)
d f 1  d1  2h f  m(q  2, 4) (8)
hf = 1.2 m - the height of the foots turns of the worm;
h= ha + hf =m+1.2m =2.2m (9)

1
2 aw

b2
daM 2

d2
d f2
d a2

Figure 3. The geometry of the worm wheel

The geometry of the worm wheel

z 2  z1u ,
where u is the gear ratio. Select from the standard range: 8; 10; 12,5;
16; 20; 25; 28; 31,5; 40; 50; 63; 80.
Dividing (Pitch) diameter
d 2  mz2 (10)
Circle diameters of the teeth tops
da 2  d2  2ha  m( z2  2) . (11)

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Circle diameter of the teeth foots


d f 2  d2  2h f  m( z2  2, 4) (12)
Maximum wheel diameter
daM 2  da 2  6m /( z1  2) (13)
Width when z1 = 1 and 2
b2  0,75da1 (14)
Centre distance
d1  d 2 m
a   q  z 2  (15)
2 2
The aw values are Standard center distance set to standard worm
gears and are selected from the series: 40; 50; 63; 80; 100; 125; 160;
200; 225; 250; 280; 315; 355; 400; 450; 500 mm.

Figure 4. A sketch of the worm wheel

3. Equipment and materials


To perform the laboratory work, students will receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of worm gears.
3. Caliper.

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4. Safety instructions
When performing a lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with the workplace training conducted by a
responsible Department employee.
5. Methodology and work procedure
1. Determine the number of teeth of the worm and wheels. To cal-
culate the gear ratio (formula 1).
2. To measure of the tooth profile height h of the. To calculate the
module m (normal module mn) gearing (formula 9). To accept the
standard value.
3. Determine the elevation angle of the helical line γ. (Angle γ is
determined by rolling the imprint on paper).
4. To calculate the geometrical parameters of the worm and gear
wheel: d1; d2; da1; da2; df1; df2; aw. (formula 5–15)
5. Draw a sketch of the wheel
6. Prepare a report for the laboratory work.
7. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.

6. Report contents and format


A laboratory work report includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Purpose of the work.
3. Table with given and calculated parameters.
4. Calculation part.
5. Sketches of the wheel.
6. Conclusion.
For an example of laboratory work report (no calculation part), see
the Schedule hereto.
7. Questions for the work defense
1. What are the main geometric parameters of gears?
2. What is step gearing?
3. What is module gear?
4. What is the height of the tooth head?
5. What is the height of the tooth foot?
6. What is the pitch circumference diameter?
3. What is the coefficient of the worm diameter?
3. What is the gear ratio?
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8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.
Report for the laboratory work 5

Laboratory work 5
Worm gears. Geometry
1. Purpose
1. Study the basic types of worm gears.
2. Study the calculation methods for worm gears geometry.
2. Work procedure
1. Determine the number of teeth of the worm and wheels. Calcu-
late the gear ratio (formula 1).
2. Measure of the tooth profile height h. Calculate the gearing
module m (normal module mn) (formula 9). Use the standard value.
3. Determine the elevation angle of the helical line γ. (Angle γ is
determined by rolling the imprint on paper).
4. Calculate the geometrical parameters of the worm and gear
wheel: d1; d2; da1; da2; df1; df2; aw. (formula 5-15)
5. Draw a sketch of the wheel

3. Contents
3.1. Table of given and calculated parameters
1 Symbol Formula Result Dimension
2 z1
3 z2
4 u
5 h
6 m
7 γ
8 q
9 d1
10 d2
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11 da1
12 da2
13 df1
14 df2
15 aw

3.2. Sketches of the wheel


4. Conclusion

Work performed by: ________________ Mark ___________

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6. WORM GEARS. FORCES IN GEARING

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of worm gears.
2. Study the methods of force calculation in worm gears.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.
2. Theoretical part
Forces Acting on Worm Gears
Using the given values of the power P1 (kW) and speed gear n1
(min-1) determine the torque on the gear, (Nm):
30 P1  10 3 (1)
T1 
  n1
where P1 is the power at the worm, kW; n1 is the rotational speed of the
worm, rpm.
T2  T1u чп , (2)
where чп is the worm gear efficiency, with the losses in the bearings.
чп  tg  tg     , (3)
where tgγ= z1 /q
 is the friction angle in the mesh, the value of which is given in
Table 1, pre-calculating the sliding speed in the gearing Vs.
d1n1
vs  (4)
60  10 3 cos 
A torque of magnitude (T1) produces the tangential force (Ft1) on
the worn. The tangential force (Ft1) bends the worn in the horizontal
plane. The tangential force (Ft1) on the worn equals the axial force on
the worn gear
Ft1  Fa 2  2T1 / d1 . (5)
The axial force or thrust on the worn equals the tangential force on
the worn gear
Ft 2  Fa1  2T2 / d2 (6)
where T1 is the torque on the worm; T2 is the torque on the wheel.

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Figure 1. Worm gearing forces scheme


The axial force on the worn induces the axial load on the bearings.
Radial or separating force on the worn.
This force bends the worn in the vertical plane
Fr1  Fr 2  Ft 2tg . (7)
Normal force to the surface of the tooth
Fn 2  Ft 2 /(cos  cos  ) . (8)
Table 1
Angle values 
vs , м/с  vs , м/с 
0,01 617…651 2,5 143…217
0,1 434…509 3 136…200
0,25 343…417 4 126…143
0,5 309…343 7 102…129
1 235…309 10 055…122
1,5 217…252 15 048…109
2 200…235

3. Equipment and materials


To perform the laboratory work, students will receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of worm gears.
3. Caliper.

4. Safety instructions
When performing a lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with the workplace training conducted by a
responsible Department employee.
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5. Methodology and work procedure


1. Determine the torques on the shafts and acting forces. The num-
ber of turns n1 and the power P1 on the gear shaft are given in Table 1.
(Angle γ is determined by rolling the imprint on paper).
2. Draw a sketch of the forces acting in the mesh
3. Prepare a report for the laboratory work.
4. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.
6. Report contents and format
A laboratory work report includes:
1. Report number and work title
2. Purpose of the work
3. Table with given and calculated parameters
4. Calculation part
5. Sketch of the forces acting in the mesh of the wheel
6. Conclusion
Table
Data for calculating gear (hometask)
Variant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
n1, rpm 2920 1450 965 2950 1440 950 2945 1460 956 1435
P1, кV 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8
For an example of laboratory work report (no calculation part), see
the Schedule hereto.
7. Questions for the work defense
1. How is torque calculated?
2. How is the radial force amount calculated?
3. What are the directions of the axial and radial forces?
4. What is the direction of the circumferential force?
5. Determine the torques on the shafts.
6. Why do we choose the number of starts of the worm?
7. Which material are the worms and worm wheels rims made of,
and what factors influence the choice of material?
8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of worm gears?
9. What correlations exist between the forces in the worm gear?
10. Why is not worm gear recommended for use at high powers?
8. List of recommended resources
1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
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2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.


Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report for Laboratory Work 6

Laboratory work 6
Worm gears. Forces in gearing

1. Purpose. 1. Review the basic types of the worm gears.


2. Study the methods of the forces calculation in the worm gears.

2. Work procedure
1. Determine the torques on the shafts and the acting forces. The
number of turns n1 and the power P1 on the shaft of the gear are given
in table 1. (The angle γ is determined by rolling imprint on paper).
2. Draw a sketch of the forces acting in the mesh.

3. Contents
3.1. Table with given and calculated parameters
Symbol Formula Result Dimention
1 P1
2 n1
3 d1
3 T1
4 T2
5 
6 γ
7 Ft1
8 Fr1
9 Fn1
3.2. Sketches of the forces

4. Conclusion

Work performed by:________________ Mark ___________

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7. STUDY OF ROLLER BEARINGS

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of threads and threaded joints.
2. Learn to select the type of bearing.
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
A bearing is a machine element which supports another moving
machine element (known as journal). A bearing ensures a relative mo-
tion between the contact surfaces of the parts, and transmits the load of
both. Due to the relative motion between the contact surfaces, a certain
amount of power is wasted in overcoming frictional resistance, and ac-
cordingly, heat is generated. A layer of fluid (known as lubricant) in
bearing is used to reduce frictional resistance and wear, as if the rub-
bing surfaces were in direct contact, there would be rapid wear. Be-
sides, in some cases, the layer of fluid damps down the heat generated.
The lubricant used to separate the journal and bearing is usually mineral
oil refined from petroleum.
The components of a typical
rolling contact bearing are: the
inner race (3), the outer race (1),
the rolling elements (2) and sepa-
rator (retainer) (4).
The load is transmitted from
the shaft, to the inner race, to the
balls or rollers and to the outer
race, and to the housing.

Figure 1. A typical rolling contact bearing

Classification Types of Rolling Contact Bearings


1.According to the shape of rolling elements, there are two types
of rolling contact bearings:
a). Ball bearings and b). Roller bearings.
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2. According to the load carried, they are classified as:


a) Radial bearings, b) Radial -Thrust, and b) Thrust bearings
In radial bearings, the load acts perpendicular to the axis of rota-
tion of the shaft (Fig. 2 (1, 2, 4, 7)).
In radial - thrust bearings, the load acts at the same time perpen-
dicular and along the rotation axis of the shaft (Fig. 2 (3, 5)).
In thrust or footstep bearings, the load acts along the axis of rota-
tion as shown in Fig. 2. (8). A thrust bearing is used to guide or support
the shaft, which is subjected to a load along the axis of the shaft.

Figure 2. Type of a Ball and roller bearings

According to numbers of the row:


a) Single row as shown in Fig. 2.1, 2.4, 2.7; b) double row bearing
as shown in Fig. 2.2, 2.6.
According to design:
a) self-aligning bearing in Fig. 2.6,
b) not self-aligning bearing,
According to the shape of rollers:
a) Cylindrical rollers Fig.2.4, b) spherical rollers Fig. 2.6, c) ta-
pered rollers Fig. 2.5, d) needle rollers Fig. 2.7

Designation of Bearings
The dimensions of bearing are standardized. The standard dimen-
sions are given in millimeters. There are standards only for the inner

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diameter of the inner race, the outer diameter of the bearing and its
width, but not for the size and number of steel balls.
The bearings are marked with a number. In general, the number
consists of three digits. Additional digits or letters are used to indicate
special features e.g. groove depth, filling notch etc. The last three digits
give the series and the dimensions of the bearing.
The last two digits from 04 onwards, when multiplied by 5, give
the inner diameter in millimeters. For example. If a bearing is marked
305, it means that the bearing is of medium series with inner diameter
05 x 5, i.e. 25 mm.
This rule excludes bearings with d ≤ 17 mm. For such, the numbers
on the right: 00; 01; 02; 03 correspond to the diameter: 10; 12; 15; 17 mm.
The third digits from the last designates the series of the bearing.
The most common ball bearings are available in four series as follows:
Extra light (1), Light (2). Medium (3), Heavy (4), Slightly wide
(5), Medium wide(6).
The fourth digit on the right indicates the type of the bearing:
0 – radial ball (sometimes not used); 1 – radial spherical ball; 2 – radial
with short cylindrical rollers; 3 - radial spherical roller; 4 – radial nee-
dle roller; 5 - radial roller bearing with helical rollers; 6 – angular con-
tact ball; 7 – roller cone (tapered); 8 – ball thrust; 9 – roller thrust
For example, 5 – 2308Л.
The figure with a dash before the marking indicates the accuracy
class of the bearing: 0, 6, 5, 4, 2 (increasing in accuracy and cost, re-
spectively).
The letter to the right of the main mark describes the features of
the bearing. For example, Б – separator of tin bronze; Е – separator
made of plastic metal; Л is a separator made of brass.

3. Equipment and materials


To perform the laboratory work, students will receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of bearings.
3. Caliper.

4. Safety instructions
When performing a lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with workplace training conducted by a re-
sponsible Department employee.
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5. Methodology and work procedure


1. Study the main types of bearings given by the teacher.
2. Measure their sizes using calipers.
3. Make sketches of bearings. Show the type of loading
4. Prepare a report on the laboratory work.
5. Be ready to defend the laboratory work.

6. Report contents and format


A laboratory work report includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Purpose of the work.
3. Tables with given and calculated parameters.
4. Sketches of the bearing.
5. Conclusion.

For an example of laboratory work report (no calculation part), see


the Schedule hereto.

7. Questions for the work defense


1. What are rolling bearings used for?
2. What elements comprise rolling bearings?
3. How are bearings classified?
4. How to decrypt the designation of bearings?

8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report on Laboratory Work 7

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Laboratory work 7
Study of roller bearings

1. Purpose. 1. Study the basic types of the threads and threaded


joints.
2. Learn to select the bearing type.

2. Work procedure
1. Study the main types of the bearing given by the teacher.
2. Measure their sizes using calipers.
3. Make sketches of bearing. Show the type of loading
4. To determine the type of bearing and give the characteristics us-
ing it the designation

3.Contents
3.1. Table 1
Geometric measurements
№ Measurement Designation Size
1 Outer diameter D
2 Thickness of the outer ring H
3 Inner diameter (boarding) d
4 Diameter of the rolling elements db
5 Width B

3.2. Table 2
Decoding the numbers of the bearing
№ Digit on the right Decoding
1
2
3
4
5

3.3. Sketch of bearing with dimensions

4. Conclusion.

Work performed by:_________________ Mark ___________

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8. STUDY DESIGN, DEFINITION


OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF GEAR REDUCERS

1. Purpose and content


1. Study the basic types of gearbox design
2. Determination of main parameters of gearboxes (gear reducers),
3. Study the calculation methods for kinematic and force of gear-
boxes (gear reducers),
The forming competences
The main result is the formation of a set of common cultural and
professional competences GSC-1, SC-25 future bachelor in the direc-
tion of training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

2. Theoretical part
Gearbox (or reducer) is a gear mechanism containing gear trans-
mission with a constant transmission ratio, enclosed in the housing and
intended to reduce speed and increase torque.
Gearbox engineering application is designed to drive various ma-
chines and mechanisms, to satisfy the complex technical requirements
common to most applications, Special gearbox (aviation, marine, auto-
motive, etc.) satisfy the specific requirements of specific industries.
A most widely-used type is a cylindrical gearbox shown in Fig. 1
(a – f). It has high load carrying capacity and efficiency. If the layout
requires orthogonal arrangement of the input and output shafts, use a
conical or conical-cylindrical one, as in Fig. 1 (g, h). Coaxial location
of the mechanism and engine rational and planetary wave reducers.
Reducers use a worm gear to provide a high gear ratio with a low
noise level, but have low efficiency and resource.
The most important characteristic, size, mainly determines the load
capacity, dimensions, weight reducer, and is called the main parameter
of a gearbox. The main parameter of cylindrical and worm gears is the
center distance a low-speed step, for planetary – radius r drive, for
conical – nominal external pitch diameter de2 of the wheel, for wave –
inner diameter d2 of the flexible wheel.
The real range of gear ratios (numbers) for reducers is from 1 to
100. The values of the gear ratios must satisfy a number R20 in the rec-
ommended numbers (GOST 8032-84).

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Mark the gearboxes: Ц – cylindrical, П – planetary, К –bevel,


Ч – worm, B – wave. If there are two gears or more, after the letter put
the corresponding number.

Fig.1. The most common gear schemes (here Б is a high-speed or input


shaft, Т-low-speed or output shaft): a) single step (reduction); b) two-
step (reduction); c) two – step coaxial; d). two- step with a forked step;
e) three- step; f) three- step with forked intermediate step; g) conical;
h) conical-cylindrical

Fig. 2. Worm gear layouts: a) single – step;


b) two step; c) worm-cylindrical
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The reducer marking should include the type of the gears so as to


be placed away from the engine, then the values of the main parameter,
then gear ratio, then designation of a variant of the Assembly of the
gearbox and then – the made standard.
Example of designation conical-cylindrical two-step gearbox with
the main parameter – distance on low-speed stages of 250 mm, a ratio
of 20, a variant of the Assembly 42, exact categories 1, and made
GOST 50891-96
Редуктор КЦ1-250-20-42-1 ГОСТ Р 50891-96.
The key power characteristic of a gearbox is the torque at the out-
put shaft:
Pвх
Tвых  u , (1)
вх
where Pвх is the power on a high-speed shaft; вх – angular speed high-
speed shaft; u – gear ratio;  - efficiency of the gearbox.
u  u1u2 ...un , (2)
where u1, u2, … un – gear ratio of the gear reducer;
  12 ...nпк m
, (3)
where 1, 2, …n –efficiency of the gears sequentially located in the
gearbox, пк – efficiency supports one shaft, m is the number of shaft.
Approximate values for the efficiency of gears is given in Table 1
Table 1
Approximate values for the efficiency of gears
Type drives Efficiency
Closed gear
with cylindrical wheels 0.96…0.98
with conical wheels 0.93…0.95
Open gear 0.92…0.95
Worm closed
a single-started worm 0.65…0.75
with a double- started worm 0.75…0.8
with Quadra- started worm 0.85…0.9
Here, we review the design of a single-stage helical gearbox (Fig.
3a). The gearbox consists of a cast housing 1 and cover 2. The material
for the housing is cast iron СЧ15 or СЧ21, aluminum alloy AK5M2, or

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at least, casting of carbon steels 15L, 20L. Sometimes body parts have
welds.

Figure 3. Design of a single-step helical gearbox

The housing and cover of the gearbox are connected by screws 3,


and tapered pins 19. The top of the cover has a hole for gear inspection
and pouring oil into the gearbox.
The hole is closed with a lid – outlet 4 that is fixed to the housing
cover with screws 5. Stopper 7 controls the level of oil. Oil is drained
through the hole in the bottom of the housing 1 which is closed by
stopper 8. The shafts are sealed with radial shaft seal 11.
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Gear shaft 9 (speed reducer shaft) rotates on two tapered roller


bearings 10. The gear is meshed with gear wheel 13. The wheel con-
nects to the output shaft 16 with a key 17. The output shaft also rotates
on two tapered bearings 18. Bearing assemblies have close fitting lids
12 and 14. Covers can be applied, i.e. fixed to the housing with screws.
The bearing is adjusted with a set of thin (0.1 mm) metal strips 15.
Joined flanges of the housing and housing cover are covered with a
sealant to ensure the tight connection. The release screw 6 is for easy
removal of the cover when disassembling the gearbox
A sketch of the gearbox is shown in Fig. 3.

3. Equipment and materials


To perform the laboratory work, students will receive:
1. Instruction materials.
2. Samples of gearboxes.
3. Caliper, ruler, a compass

4. Safety instructions
When performing a lab work, students should follow the safety
regulations in accordance with workplace training conducted by a re-
sponsible Department employee.

5. Methodology and work procedure


1. Make a kinematic scheme of a reducer given by the teacher
2. Measure the main parameters of the gearbox with a caliper.
3. Write the gearbox symbol.
4. Determine the type of gearbox, gear ratios of the every trans-
mission and the total gear ratio (Formula 1, 2, 3).
5. Define speed, power and torques on the shafts of the gearbox.
The values of the rotational speed n1 and the power P1 to the input shaft
given by the teacher. (Table 2).
6. Make a sketch of the reducer given by the teacher. (Draw on a
separate sheet)
7. Prepare a report on the laboratory work.
8. Prepare to defend the laboratory work.
Table 2
Initial data for calculation
Variant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
n1, rpm 2880 2850 1430 1420 950 955 720 700 550 540
P1, кV 5.5 2.2 4 1.1 4 3.0 4 0.75 3.2 0.55
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6. Contents and format of the report


A laboratory work report includes:
1. Report number and work title.
2. Purpose of the work.
3. Table with given and calculated parameters.
4. Calculation part.
5. Sketches of a reducer
6. Conclusion.
For an example of laboratory work report (no calculation part), see
the Schedule hereto.

7. Questions for the work defense


1. How to determine gear ratio of one stage and the whole gear-
box?
2. How can you distinguish a high-speed shaft of a low-speed
gear?
3. Why can’t the cover of the gearbox be installed with the rubber
gasket in the plane of the connector body?
4. What methods of lubricating bearings is used in gearboxes?
5. What are the ways to regulate axial bearing clearance?
6. What adjustment does transmission require during assembly?

8. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

Report for the laboratory work 8

Laboratory work 8
Study design, definition and main characteristics of gear reducers

1. Purpose 1. Review the basic types of gearbox design.


2. Establish the key parameters of gearboxes
3. Study the methods, kinematic and force calculations of gearboxes.
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2. Work procedure. Part 1


1. Make a kinematic scheme of a reducer given by the teacher
2. Measure the main parameter of the gearbox with a caliper.
3. Write the gearbox symbol.

4. Determine the type of gearbox, gear ratios of the every trans-


mission and the total gear ratio (Formula 1,2,3).
5. Define speed, power and torques on the shafts of the gearbox.
The values of the rotational speed n1 and the power P1 to the input
shaft given by the teacher. (Table 2).

Work procedure. Part 2


1. Make a sketch of the reducer given by the teacher. (Draw on a
separate sheet)

3. Contents
3.1. Kinematic scheme
3.2. Main parameter of a gearbox
3.3. Symbol of a gearbox
3.4. Gear ratios
u  u1u2 
3.5. Efficiency of the gearbox
=
3.5. Torque at the output shaft
T2= Tвых=
3.6. Sketch of a reducer and its main elements (Draw on a separate
sheet)

4. Conclusion

Work performed by:________________ Mark ___________

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Part 2. PRACTICAL TRAINING

1. THE RIVETED JOINTS

1. Purpose
Get the skills of calculation of riveted joints.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part
A riveted joint may fail in the following ways:
1. Tearing of the plate across a row of rivets. Due to the tensile
stresses in the main plates, the main plate or cover plates may tear off
across a row of rivets as shown in Fig. 1. It is cross-section AA. In such
cases, we consider only one pitch length of the plate, since every rivet
is responsible for that much length of the plate only.

Figure 1. Tearing of the plate across the rows of rivets

The resistance offered by the plate against tearing is known as


tearing resistance or tearing strength or tearing value of the plate.
The equation is used for strength calculation
𝐹 𝐹
𝜎𝑝 = 𝐴 = 𝑆(𝑏−𝑛𝑑) ≤ [𝜎𝑝 ] , (1)
Where t = Pitch of the rivets,
d = Diameter of the rivet hole,
S= Thickness of the plate, and
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[ σp] = Permissible tensile stress for the plate material.


b = plate width,
n = Number of rivets per pitch length under crushing.
We know that tearing area
A = (b - nd)S.
When the tearing resistance [ σp] is greater than the applied stress
σp, then this type of failure will not occur.
2. Shearing of the rivets. The plates which are connected by the
rivets exert tensile stress on the rivets, and if the rivets are unable to
resist the stress, they are sheared off as shown in Fig. 2.

Figure 2. Shearing and crushing of the rivets

It may be noted that the rivets are in single shear in a lap joint and
in a single cover butt joint, as shown in Fig. 2. But the rivets are in
double shear in a double cover butt joint as shown in Fig. 1. The re-
sistance offered by a rivet to be sheared off is known as shearing re-
sistance or shearing strength or shearing value of the rivet.
The equation is used for strength calculation
𝐹
𝜏ср = = [𝜏ср ] , (2)
𝐴𝑖
where τcр – actual Number of rivets tangential stress,– Safe permissible
shear stress for the rivet material, i - Number of area shearing rivets.
We know that shearing area
A = πd2 /4 (3)
where d = Diameter of the rivet.
For design calculation is determined by permissible the force
F = Ai[τcр] (4)

3. Crushing of the plate or rivets. Sometimes, the rivets do not ac-


tually shear off under the tensile stress, but are crushed as shown in Fig. 2.
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Due to this, the rivet hole becomes of an oval shape and hence the joint
becomes loose. The failure of rivets in such a manner is also known as
bearing failure. The area which resists this action is the projected area
of the hole or rivet on diametral plane.
The resistance offered by a rivet to be crushed is known as crush-
ing resistance or crushing strength or bearing value of the rivet.
The equation is used for strength calculation
𝐹 𝐹
𝜎см = = ≤ [𝜎см ]
𝐴 𝑛𝑆𝑑
Where d=Diameter of the rivet hole
S = Thickness of the plate,
n = Number of rivets per pitch length under crushing,
[ σp] = Safe permissible crushing stress for the rivet material or
plate material, depend which material have got less strength.
We know that crushing area per rivet (i.e. projected area per rivet).
A =S∙ d.
Total crushing area A =n·d·S
When the crushing stress is greater than the safe permissible stress,
then this type of failure will occur.

4. Calculation example
Example 1
A single riveted butt joint is made between s mm thickness and b
mm width plates. The rivet diameter and pitch are d mm and t mm ac-
cordingly. Material plates and rivets are steel St2 and St3 accordingly .
1.Find the maximum force which will transmit the joint.
2.Find the maximum force which will transmit the joint if the riv-
ets is made from a different materials.
Solution. 1. Given: s = 6 mm, d = 12 mm, t = 24 mm, b = 60 mm,
n=2 ; material plates – steel Ст3, material rivets – steel Ст3.
before loading

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after loading greater permissible

Figure 3. Shearing and crushing of the rivets

Minimum force which will failure the joint.


1. Maximum values tearing force. Since the permissible tensile
stresses are given, therefore we shall find the maximum values of the
tearing force of the joint plate.
The equation is used for strength calculation
𝐹 𝐹
𝜎𝑝 = 𝐴 = 𝑆(𝑏−𝑛𝑑) ≤ [𝜎𝑝 ] , (5)
Where d = Diameter of the rivet hole, S= Thickness of the plate,
[σp] = Permissible tensile stress for the plate material, b = plate width
and n = Number of rivets per pitch length under crushing, tearing area
A = (b - nd)S.
Permissible tensile stress for the plate material. For the steel Ст3
from table 2
[σp] = σT/s =240/1,5 =160 MPa
F= A × [σp] = S× (b - n×d) [σp] = 6 (60 - 2×12)160=34560 N=
=34.5 kN

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2. Maximum values crushing force of the rivets


The equation is used for strength calculation
𝐹 𝐹
𝜎см = = 𝐴 𝑛𝑆𝑑
≤ [𝜎см ] (5)

where d=Diameter of the rivet hole, S = Thickness of the plate, n =


Number of rivets under crushing, [ σcm] = permissible crushing stress
for the rivet material or plate material, depend which material have got
less strength.
Permissible crushing stress
For the steel rivets Ст3 from table 2
[σp] = σT/s =240/1,5 =160 MPa.
from table 1
[ σcm] =1,75[ σP]=1,75× 160 =280MPa

We know that crushing area per rivet (i.e. projected area per rivet).
A =S d.
Total crushing area A = n.d.S
F = A× [ σp] =n×d×S [ σp] = 2×12×6 × 280 =40320N =40.3kN

3. Maximum values shearing force of the rivets


The equation is used for strength calculation on shearing strength
𝐹
𝜏ср = = [𝜏ср ]
𝐴𝑖
where τcр – actual tangential stress, [τcр]– permissible shear stress for
the rivet material, A = shearing area of the rivets, i - Number of area
shearing rivets.
Permissible shear stress for the steel rivet from table 1
[τcр]=0,6 [ σP]= 0,6 ×160 = 100MPa
We know that shearing area A = πd2 /4
where d = Diameter of the rivet.
For design calculation is determined of the permissible force
F = A i [τcр]= πd2 /4×i [τcр]=3,14× 4×122 /4× 100=45216 N = 45.2 kN

Ans. From above we see that the minimum force which will failure
the joint is 34.5 kN.

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Appendix
Table 1
Relationship of the stress
Permissible stress Relationship
Permissible tensile stress [σp] = σT/s
Permissible shear stress [τcр]=0,6 [ σP]
Permissible crushing stress [ σcm] =1,5…1,75[ σP]

Table 2
Mechanical properties of some materials
The yield The limit
Tensile strength
Materials strength σт , of endurance σ-1
σв, МПа
МПа МПа
Steel:
Ст3 ,10 380-470 200-240 120-160
20 420 - 500 240 120-160
30 500-600 300 170-210
45 610-750 360 190-250
60Г 710 420 250-320
40Х 730-1050 650-900 240 - 340
30ХГСА 1100-1700 850-1500 340-500
Iron:
Сч15 147 _
Сч35 340
Brass L68 320 90 120
(Латунь Л68):
Bronze
БрОФ10-1 250 _ _
БрОЦС5-5-5 200 40-50 _
БрАЖ9-4 550 200 -
Cotton belt. [σp] =36 Mpa
Aluminum [σp] =95 Mpa.

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5. Task for the calculation


Variant Rivet diame- Thickness Material rivet The factor of
ter, mm S, mm safety [s]
1 5 3 сталь 10 1,5
2 8 6 сталь 30 1,5
3 10 8 Bronze 10 2.0
4 12 10 сталь 25 1,5
5 14 10 Bronze 5 2.0
6 16 10 сталь 35 1,5
7 12 10 Aluminum 3.0
8 10 6 Bronze 10 2.0
9 8 10 Aluminum 3.0
10 6 6 Aluminum 3,2
11 6 3 сталь 10 1,5
12 9 6 сталь 30 1,5
13 11 8 Bronze 10 2.0
14 13 10 сталь 25 1,5
15 15 10 Bronze 5 2.0
16 17 10 сталь 35 1,5
17 13 10 Aluminum 3.0
18 11 6 Bronze 10 2.0
19 9 10 Aluminum 3.0
20 8 6 Aluminum 3,2

6. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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2. KEYED AND SPLINED JOINTS

1. Purpose
Get the skills of calculation of keyed and splined joints.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part
3.1. Types of Keys
The following types of keys are important:
1. Prismatic Sunk keys, 2. Saddle keys, 3. Tangent keys, 4. Round
keys.

3.2. Strength of a Straight Sunk Key


Cross-section key (b × h) and the depth of the groove of the shaft t
is a standard. They are selected depending on the diameter of the shaft
of the tables according to ГОСТ 23360-78 and IS : 2292 and 2293-
1992
A key connecting the shaft and hub is shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. A key connecting the shaft and hub 1- hub, 2- shaft, 3 – key

All standard keys are equally strength (full-strength) on all types


of stress. Therefore, the strength is calculated for crushing the key only.

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The equation is used for strength calculation


  см
F 2T 4Tк
 см  t  
Aсм d  0,5hl p dhl p
(1)
where σcм = crushing stresses,
Aсм = Area resisting crushing .
T=Torque transmitted by the shaft.
Ft = Tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft.
d = Diameter of shaft.
lр = l – b = working Length of key.
b = Width of key.
h = Thickness of key,
and [σcм] –– permissible crush stress for the material of key
The design calculation is to determine the Length of key
4T
l  b  lст ,
dh см  (2)
where, lст = hub length (wheel, sprocket, couplings, and so on).
The resulting value lст is taken according with standard lengths of
keys.

3.3. Splines
Sometimes, keys are made integral with the shaft which fits in the
keyways broached in the hub. Such shafts are known as splined shaft.
These shafts usually have four, six, ten or more splines. The splined
shafts are relatively stronger than shafts having a single keyway. By
using splined shafts, we obtain axial movement.
Consideration show that due to the power transmitted by the shaft,
the spline may fail due to shearing or crushing.
Cross-section spline is selected depending on the diameter of the
shaft according to ГОСТ .
All standard spline have equal strength on all types of stress.
Therefore, the strength is calculated for crushing the spline only.
  см
Ft 2T
 см   (3)
Aсм d ср zhlK H
where σcм = crushing stresses,
Aсм = Area resisting crushing,
T = Torque transmitted by the shaft,
Ft = Tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft,
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Dd
d cp  = medium diameter of spline,
2
z = number of splines,
l = working Length of spline,
Dd
h = height of spline,
2
KH = the coefficient of uneven distribution of load between the
teeth (0,7 ÷ 0,8).
[σcм] – permissible crush stress for the material

4. The calculation example


Example 1
Need. To choose according to GOST 10748 – 79 the straight sunk
key and find its length.

Given. Torque T = 420 Nm, shaft diameter d = 52 mm. Material of


shaft – steel 30, heat treatment – normalizing. Permissible crush stress
for the material of key [σсм] =100 MPa

Solution
Consideration show that due to the power transmitted by the shaft,
the key may fail due to shearing or crushing.
All standard keys are equally Strength (full-strength) on all types
of stress. Therefore, the strength is calculated for crushing the key only.
1. The equation is used for strength calculation prismatic
σc ≤ [σc]

  с
Ft 2T
с  
Aс d  h  t1 l р
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where σc = crushing stresses,


Aс = Area resisting crushing.
T = Torque transmitted by the shaft.
Ft = Tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft.
d = Diameter of shaft.
lр = l – b = working Length of key.
b = Width of key.
h = Thickness of key,
t1 = depth the key way of the shaft
and [σc] –– permissible crush stress for the material of key
The design calculation is determine the Length of key
When the shaft diameter d = 52 mm according to GOST 23360-78
take dimensions of the cross section of the key from table 2: b = 16
mm; h = 10 mm; t1 = 6 mm. If shaft key with rounded ends, the re-
quired working length of key is
l = lр + b
2 Т 2  420 103
l b   16  56,38 мм
d  (h  t1 )  [ см ] 52  (10  6) 100

2. From standard range of lengths of keys: 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 36,
40, 45, 50, 56, 63, 70...100 mm accept l = 56 mm.

Example 2
Need. The splined shaft of block-gear choose according to GOST
1139-80 and check it for strength.
Given. Transmitted torque T = 2000 Nm, outer diameter D = 60
mm, the length of the l = 50 mm. Material of the connection is steel 45,
heat treatment – improvement, [σс] = 80...120 MPa.

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Consideration show that due to the power transmitted by the shaft,


the spline may fail due to shearing or crushing.
Cross-section spline is selected depending on the diameter of the
shaft according to ГОСТ .
All standard spline have equal Strength on all types of stress,
therefore the strength is calculated for crushing the spline only.

Solution
1. The equation is used for strength calculation prismatic
σc ≤ [σc]

  с
Ft 2T
с  
Aс d ср zhlK H
where σc = crushing stresses,
Aс = Area resisting crushing .
T = Torque transmittedby the shaft.
Ft = Tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft.
Dd
d cp  = medium diameter of spline.
2
l = working Length of key.
Dd
h = height of spline,
2
KH = the coefficient of uneven distribution of load between the
teeth (0,7 ÷ 0,8).
[σcм] – permissible crush stress for the material .
When the shaft diameter d = 60 mm according to GOST 1339-80
from table 3 take rectangular splined connection with dimensions
d×D×z = 50 × 60 × 8,.
2Т 2  2 106
 см    79,36МПа,
dср  z  h  l  K З 56  8  3  50  0, 75
where the average diameter dср = 0,5(d + d) = 0,5(52 + 60) = 56 mm,
Working height of the tooth
h = [0.5(D – d)] = [0,5(60 – 52)] = 3 mm.
The strength of the connection is ensured, as σс < [σс] = 100 MPa.

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Appendix 1
The keyed connections with parallel keys according to
GOST 23360
The main dimensions of the keys and cross-sections of grooves.

Table 1
The main dimensions of the keys
The shaft The key Key The groove The depth
diameter width b, height h, depth of the groove
d, mm mm mm shaft t1, mm of the hub t2, mm
св. 12 до 17 5 5 3,0 2,3
св. 17 до 22 6 6 3,5 2,8
св. 22 до 30 8 7 4,0 3,3
св. 30 до 38 10 8 5,0 3,3
св. 38 до 44 12 8 5,0 3,3
св. 44 до 50 14 9 5,5 3,8
св. 50 до 58 16 10 6,0 4,3
св. 58 до 65 18 11 7,0 4,4
св.65 до 75 20 12 7,5 4,9
св. 75 до 85 22 14 9,0 5,4
св. 85 до 95 25 14 9,0 5,4
св. 95 до 110 28 16 10,0 6,4
св. 119 до 130 32 18 11,0 7,4

Several lengths of keys : 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 36,
40, 45, 50, 56, 63, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220,
250, 280

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Table 2
Spline rectangular shafts
Series Nominal size b
z×d×D
Easy 8 × 36 × 40 7
8 × 42 × 46 8
8 × 46 × 50 9
Average 8 × 36 × 42 7
8 × 42 × 48 8
8 × 46 × 54 9
Heavy 10 × 36 × 45 5
10 × 42 × 52 6
10 × 46 × 56 7

5. Task for the calculation


Variant Date for №1 Date for №2
Т, Нм d, мм [σсм], МПа Т, Нм D, мм l, мм
1 655 62 105 438 42 52
2 928 75 92 342 40 46
3 582 66 108 275 40 45
4 354 42 109 429 46 42
5 771 62 105 316 48 47
6 908 78 93 468 52 62
7 287 45 98 475 42 65
8 566 65 97 306 42 63
9 828 82 95 487 46 54
10 956 86 108 589 48 68
11 432 63 102 496 52 72
12 307 48 106 339 48 62
13 563 78 97 386 40 79
14 657 65 92 568 42 78
15 700 67 99 650 48 68
16 600 62 105 438 42 52
17 900 75 92 342 40 46
18 500 66 108 275 40 45
19 300 42 109 429 46 42
20 800 62 105 316 48 47

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6. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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3. CALCULATION SCREWED JOINTS

1. Purpose
Get the skills of calculation of screwed joints.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part
3.1 Calculation of tightened threaded joints loaded External Forces
This case is typical of fastening of covers of vessels, brackets etc.

Figure 1. Loaded bolt

The following stresses are induced in a bolt, screw or stud when it


is screwed up tightly:
1. Tensile stress due to stretching of bolt.
2. Torsional shear stress caused by the frictional resistance of the
threads during its tightening.
Tensile stress. The tensile stress for the bolt in the thread part is
obtained by using the relation:
4 Fз
 сж 
d12 (1)
where d1= inner diameter of the thread, FЗ = force.

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Torsional shear stress. The torsional shear stress caused by the


frictional resistance of the threads during its tightening may be obtained
by using the torsion equation. We already know that
d2
Fз tg (    )
Tp 2
 
W 0,2d13 (2)
Maximum normal equivalent stresses (according to energy theory
of strength)
 E   2  3 2  1,3 (3)
where 1,3 is the coefficient which show the percentage the torsional
shear stress.
The equation is used for strength calculation
σE ≤ [σp] , or (4)
1,3  4 Fз
E    р 
 d12 (5)
where [σp] –– permissible tensile (normal) stress.
The calculation of screwed joints are subjected to direct shearing
loads

a) bolt fitted without a clearance


Sometimes, the bolts are used to prevent the relative movement of
two or more parts, as in case of flange coupling, then the shear and
crush stress is induced in the bolts.
It should be noted that when the bolts are subjected to direct shear-
ing loads, they should be located in such a way that the shearing load
comes upon the body (or shank) of the bolt and not upon the threaded
portion. In this case, the tightening is not, therefore the finished bolts
should be fitted to the reamed holes without a gap.

Figure 2. Bolt connection without clearance


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The shear stress for the bolt is obtained by using the relation:
 ср 
4F
d 2 zi
 
  ср
(6)
d = external (major) diameter of the bolt,
z = Number of bolts, i = the number of resistance cross-sections.
[τcp] – permissible shear (tangential) stress.
For design calculations determine the diameter of the shank of the
bolt
4F
d0 
 zi  ср 
(7)
The equation is used for strength calculation for crush stress
  см
F
 см 
d 0  hi (8)
where h1 = the smallest thickness of the connected parts,
[σcм] –– permissible crush stress.

b) a clearance between fitted bolt and hole

Figure 3. Bolt connection with a clearance


In this case, the external load F is equal or more then forces of fric-
tion Fтр between the joined parts. It is necessary for the working of this
joint
Fтр  FK з ,
(9)
where Kз = 1,2 ÷ 1,5 – coefficient (factor) of the safe
Forces of friction Fтр between the joined parts. The frictional force
created by the force Fз when bolt is tightened
Fтр  Fз fzi,
(10)
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where f = the coefficient of friction in the joint; z = number of bolts, i =


the number of the areas slip.
From equations follows that
FK з  Fз fzi (11)
then the necessary tightening force
КзF
Fз 
fzi (12)
This force induce stress in the bolt. Stress must not be larger than
that permissible/
1,3  4 Fз 5,2 К з F
Е     Р 
d12 d12 fzi (13)
For design calculations determine the inner diameter of the shank
of the bolt
5,2 К з F
d1 
fzi  (14)
Then in the ГОСТ table is found the nearest more value of the
nominal diameter d1.

4. The calculation example


Example 1. To calculate the disc bolts of the coupling. The calcu-
lation of the bolts to fulfill for two cases when its installed into the
holes in coupling half without clearance and with clearance.
Given. Transmitted by the clutch power P = 40 kW; rotation speed
of the connected coupling shafts 300 rpm; the diameter of the circle
centers of the bolts D0 = 240 mm; the number of bolts z = 4; bolt mate-
rial – Ст3 steel. The static load.

Figure 4.The coupling: 1 - couplings; 2 - bolt; 3 - key; 4 - shaft

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Solution
1. The torque transmitted by the clutch, formula [ˈfɔːmjʊlə]
T = P/ω,
where P- power, KW and T— torque Нм;
ω = π n/30 1/с;
Т = P/ (π n/30) = 40×103 ×30/(3,14×300)= 1270 Nm.
2. The calculation torque equal to the torque multiplied by the fac-
tor for save,
Tр = кТ = 1270 •1.0 =1270 Nm.
In accordance with a given static load up to take K = 1,0.
3. Circumferential force acting on the bolts from torque
Q = 2Tp/D0 = 2 • 1270/0,240 = 10600N=10,6 kN.

4. Force per bolt (circumferential force in the plane of the joint)


F = Q/z = 10,6/4 = 2,65 kN.
5. Determine the permissible stress for СтЗ steel. Yield point σт =
200 MPa (see table.1) and uncontrollable tightening. For the case of
installation of the bolt with a gap assume that the diameter of the bolt
corresponds to the thread M16 — M30, and the table given the safety
factor S = 3. (see table.2)
Then
5.1. Permissible stress in tension. [σр] = σт /S = 200/3 = 65 МПа;
5.2. Permissible stress in shear
[τcp] = 0,4 σT = 0,4• 200 = 80 МПа;
5.3. Permissible crush stress
[σсм] = 0,8 σТ = 0,8×200 = 160 MPa
6. Calculate bolt mounted without clearance
6.1. Determine the minimum diameter when calculating shear of
bolt
6.2. Equation of shear strength
τcp ≤[τcp]
τcp = F/A

  ср 
4F
 ср 
d 2i
here d is the bolt diameter, i =1, as the bolt is cut on one plane

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From this
4F 4  2.65 103
d    6.5mm
i  3.14  1  80
Accept M8 screws.
From the condition of the required thickness of the disks of the
coupling halves determine the minimum size on the crush bolt
Equation of crush strength
σсм ≤ [σсм]
σсм = F/A
  см
F
 см 
d 0  hi
where is the thickness of the disk of the coupling halves
F 2,65  103
h   2,07 мм
d 0   см  8  160
The thickness of the disks of the coupling halves taken from de-
sign considerations (h>8...10 mm).
But if the thickness of the disk of the coupling halves is known, it
is necessary to calculate the crush stress σсм and compare them with
permissible [σсм]
7. Calculate the inner diameter of the bolt threads inserted with the
clearance
Taking the coefficient of friction between the steel half couplings
f =0.15 and the safety factor against shifting coupling halves in the joint
under static conditions Кз = 1,5. The condition of the torque transmission
Fтр  FK з ,
The frictional force Fmp created by the force Fз when bolt is
tightened
Fтр  Fз fzi,
where f = 0,15 the coefficient of friction in the joint; z=4 -number of
bolts, i =1 - the number of the areas slip.
From equations follows that
FK з  Fз fzi
then the necessary tightening force
КзF
Fз 
fzi

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This force induce stress in the bolt. Stress must not be larger than
that permissible.
1,3  4 Fз 5,2 К з F
Е     Р 
d12 d12 fzi
The required bolt diameter
5,2 К з F 5,2 1,5  2,65 103
d1    9,5 мм
fzi  3,14  0,15  4 1  120
In the table 3, select the bolt with the next larger internal diameter
d1 = 10.106 mm: thread M12 (d - 12 mm)
We see the advantage of the bolts installed without a gap (compare
M8 and M12).
Appendix
Table 1 Table 2
Mechanical properties The factor of safety
of some materials
The material
Var. Materials The yield of the bolt The bolt diameter, mm
strength σт , 6...16 16...30 30...60
МПа Carbon steel 4...3 3..2 2...1,3
1 Steel: 200 (25, 30, 35,
Ст3 45, etc.)
2 10 220 Alloy steel 5...4 4...2,5 2,5
3 20 240 (40X, 40XH,
etc.)
4 30 300
5 45 360
6 60Г 420
7 40Х 650-900
8 30ХГСА 850-1500
Table 3
Basic dimensions of threads
Step The diameter of the thread
Р d external d1 average d2 internal
0,40 2,0 1,740 1,567
0,45 (2,2) 1,908 1,713
0,45 2,5 2,208 2,013 8
0,50 3,0 2,675 2,459
0,60 (3,5) 3,110 2,850

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0,70 4 3,546 3,242 1


0,75 (4,5) 4,013 3,688
0,80 5 4,480 4,134 7
1 6 5,350 4,918
1,25 8 7,188 6,647
1,50 10 9,026 8,376 2
1,75 12 10,863 10,106
2 (14) 12,701 11,835
2 16 14,701 13,835 3
2,5 (18) 16,376 15,294
2,5 20 18,376 17,294 4
2,5 (22) 20,376 19,294
3 24 22,051 20,752 5
3 (27) 25,051 23,752
3,5 30 27,727 26,211 6

5. Task for the calculation


diameter
power N, rotation bolt number of the circle cen-
Variant
kW speed, rpm material of bolts ters
of the bolts
1 40 200 Ст3 4 240
2 30 200 Ст10 4 200
3 20 150 Ст20 4 200
4 60 300 40 6 300
5 48 300 Ст3 6 260
6 50 450 40 6 260
7 35 200 Ст20 4 240
8 80 200 Ст3 4 240
9 60 200 Ст10 4 200
10 40 150 Ст20 4 200
11 120 300 40 6 300
12 100 300 Ст3 6 260
13 90 450 40 6 260
14 70 200 Ст20 4 240
15 75 200 Ст3 4 240
16 90 200 Ст10 4 200
17 50 150 Ст20 4 200
18 100 300 40 6 300
19 110 300 Ст3 6 260
20 80 450 40 6 260
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6. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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4. MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION. KINEMATIC


AND FORCE CALCULATIONS
1. Purpose
Get the skills kinematic and force calculations of the mechanical
transmission.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.
3. Theoretical part and a calculation example
Example 1
The drive station in-
cludes an electric motor 1,
the belt drive 2 and gear
reducer 3.
To perform kinematical
Figure 1. The cylindrical reducer and force calculations of a
drive station according to
the data presented in table,
where: PM – power shaft of
the machine; nM – fre-
quency of rotation (angular
velocity) of the shaft of the
machine/
Figure 2. The conical reducer

Figure 3. Wormgear
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Kinematic and force calculations of a drive station

Given. PM = 1,8 к W- power shaft of the machine; nM =125 rpm –


rotation speed (frequency of rotation) of the shaft of the machine; To
perform kinematical and force calculations of a drive station.
Should:
1. To determine the total efficiency of the drive station.
2. To determine the shaft power of the motor.
3. To select a standard motor.
4. To determine the total gear ratio of the driving station
5. Divide the total gear ratio on the steps of the driving station.
6. To determine the frequency of rotation of the shafts driving station.
7. Find torque on the shafts driving station with account of effi-
ciency.
8. To perform a test calculation.

Solution
1. Define the total efficiency of the driving station
  1 23  0,95  0,97  0,99  0,903
2 2

where η1 = 0,95 – efficiency belt drive; η2 = 0,97 – efficiency cylindri-


cal transmission; η3 = 0,99 – efficiency pairs of bearings.
The values of efficiency taken from table 1 based on the type of
gear and belt drive.
2. The required power of the electric motor
РМ 1,8
Pтр    1,993кВт .
 0,903
3. In table 2 we select the nearest motor more power. Suitable en-
gine type 4А90L4 capacity of 2.2 kW and a rotational speed of the
shaft nдв = 1425 rpm.
*Worm gearbox should use the engine with the maximum fre-
quency of rotation of the shaft (for example, type 4А90L2 with nдв =
2840 rpm).
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4. Total gear ratio driving station


nдв 1425
u   11, 4
nм 125
5. Divide the total gear ratio on the steps of the drive stations. Ac-
cording to the standard (table 3) accept cylindrical gear ratio transmis-
sion u2 = 5, then the gear ratio belt transmission
u 11, 4
u1    2, 28,
u2 5
that is included in the recommended value for belt drives (uрем = 1,5… 4).

6. Determine the frequency of rotation of the shafts driving station:


motor shaft: nдв = 1425 rpm;
the drive shaft of the gearbox:
n1 = nдв/u1 = 1425/2,28 = 625 rpm ;
driven shaft of the gearbox:
n2 = n1/u2 = 625/5=125 rpm .
7. Torques on the shafts driving station:
on the motor shaft:
30 РТР 30 1,993 103
Tдв    13,365Нм ;
 nдв 3,14 1425
the drive shaft of the gearbox:
Т1  Т дв  u1 1  13,365  2, 28  0,95  28,95Hм ;
on the driven shaft of the gearbox:на ведомом валу редуктора:
Т 2  Т1u22 2  28,95  5  0,97  0,992  137,6 Hм .
8. Check:
30 РМ 30 1,8 103
T2    137,6 Нм ,
 nМ 3,14 125
that corresponds to the value before obtained
Table 1
The values of the coefficient efficiency of mechanical gears
mechanical drive efficiency
Gear:
cylindrical 0,97…0,98
conical 0,96…0,97
worm (z1 = 2) 0,8…0,85
belt drive 0,95…0,97
Chain drive 0,9…0,95
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Table 2
Characteristics of the electric motor type 4A...
Power, The The fre- The motor The fre- The The fre-
кВт motor quency of type quency of motor quency of
type rotation of rotation of type rotation of
the motor the motor the motor
shaft, rpm shaft, rpm shaft, rpm
1,1 4А71В2 2810 4А80A4 1420 4А80B6 920
1,5 4А80А2 2850 4А80B4 1415 4А90L6 935
2,2 4А80В2 2850 4А90L4 1425 4А100L6 950
3,0 4А90L2 2840 4А100S4 1435 4А112M 955
А
4,0 4A100S2 2880 4A100S4 1430 4A112M 950
В
5,5 4A100S2 2880 4A112M4 1455 4A132S6 965

Table 3
Standard values of gear ratios
Transmission type Standart gear ratios

Cylindrical 1,25; 1,6; 2,0; 2,5; 3,15; 4,0; 5,0; 6,3; 8,0
Conical 1,25; 1,6; 2,0; 2,5; 3,15; 4,0; 5,0; 6,3; 8,0
Worm 8; 10; 12,5; 16; 20; 25; 31,5

4. Task for the calculation


Varian № scheme Рм, кW nм, rpm
1 1 1,9 120
2 2 3,4 118
3 3 2,4 52,5
4 1 3,2 106
5 2 1,8 163,9
6 3 2,5 36
7 1 2,6 187
8 2 3,4 68,6
9 3 1,6 31
10 1 3,4 67,6
11 2 2,6 180
12 3 2,4 30

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13 1 1,86 80
14 2 2,65 122
15 3 3,38 37
16 1 1,85 125
17 2 3,6 112
18 3 2,5 56
19 1 3,72 98
20 2 1,84 162
21 3 2,52 46
22 1 2,62 190
23 2 3,46 70
24 3 1,63 33
25 1 3,72 62
26 2 2,54 164
27 3 2,43 32
28 1 1,91 78
29 2 2,68 125
30 3 3,40 38

5. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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5. SCREW DRIVES

1. Purpose
Get the skills of calculation of screwed joints.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part and a calculation example


Example 1
Need. To calculate the transmission screw-nut of the screw jack.
Load Fa = 50 kN. Material of screw is steel 45, heat treatment – nor-
malization, Material of nut – bronze БрОФ10-1.

1. Cup at the top of head


for the load,
2. Head at the top of the
screwed spindle for handle.
3. Handle
4. Screwed spindle having
square threaded screws.
5. Nut and collar for nut.
6. Body of the screw jack.

Figure 1. Screw jack

Solution
The main criterion of performance a screw power is wear re-
sistance. The pressure in the thread. (Limiting values of bearing pres-
sures) should not provide the extrusion lubricant.

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 q
Fa Fa
q  (1)
A d 2 Hz
where Fa - the axial force; A - the area of the bearing surface threads,
d2 - the average thread diameter; H - the height of the profile; z = H/p is
the number of turns of the thread in the nut (where H is the height of
the nut).
Substitute in formula H = ψH d2 , and H = ψh p,
where ψH = the coefficient of the height of the nut, ψh = the coefficient
of the height of the thread profile
get
 q
Fa
q (2)
d 2  h  H
2

1. Define the geometric dimensions of the thread.


Taken solid nut with the coefficient of the height of the nut
ψН = 1,8, and the trapezoidal thread with the coefficient of the height of
the thread profile ψh = 0,5. For a pair of non-hardened steel-bronze
permissible pressure [p] = 9 MPa.
The average diameter of the thread
Fa 50 103
d2    44,34 мм. (3)
      h   p  1,8  0,5  9
Taken according to GOST 9484-81 (table) trapezoidal thread with
an outer diameter d = 48 mm and pitch p = 8 mm.
The inner and the average diameter of the thread:
d1  d  p  48  8  40 мм, (4)
d2  d  0,5 p  48  0,5  8  44 мм (5)
that corresponds to the calculated value of d2 = 44,34 mm.
2. Check the condition of self-locking.
For greater gains in force accept single thread. Find the angle of
elevation helix
tg  p /  d2  8 /   44  0, 0579. (6)
Then ψ = arctg 0,0579 = 3,3140.
If periodic lubrication, the friction coefficient is f = 0.1 . Find the
given friction angle for trapezoidal thread with profile angle α = 300

 '  arctgf '  arctg[ f /(cos )]  arctg[0,1/(cos150 )]  5,910. (7)
2
Since ρ' > ψ, the condition of self-locking is ensured.
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3. Efficiency of screw drives.


  tg / tg (  ' )  tg 3,3140 / tg (3,3140  5,910 )  0,356, (1)
or 35.6 % only
3. The size of the nut.

Nut height
H г   H  d2  1,8  44  79, 2 мм,
accept H = 80 mm.
The number of turns of the thread z = H/p = 80/8 = 10, that per-
missible (zmax = 10).
The outer diameter of the nut can be obtained from the strength
calculation taking into account torsion stress. Permissible stresses of the
stretching for bronze [σр] = 34...44 MPa.
The outer diameter of
Step (Pitch) р, мм
the thread, мм
1 number 2 number
trapezoidal buttress
of prefe of prefe metric
thread
rence rence
10 – 1,5; 2* 2 1,5; 1,25; 1; 0,75; 0,5
12 – 2; 3* 2; 3* 1,75; 1,5; 1,25; 1; 0,75;0,5
– 14 2; 3* 2; 3* 2; 1,5; 1,25; 1; 0,75; 0,5
16 – 2; 4* 2; 4* 2; 1,5; 1; 0,75; 0,5
– 18 2; 4* 2; 4* 2,5; 2; 1,5; 1; 0,75; 0,5
20 – 2; 4* 2; 4* 2,5; 2; 1,5; 0,75; 0,5
– 22 3; 5*; 8 3; 5*; 8 2,5; 2; 1,5; 0,75; 0,5
24 – 3; 5*; 8 3; 5*; 8 3; 2; 1,5;
– 26 3; 5*; 8 3; 5*; 8 –
– 27 – – 3; 2; 1,5; 1; 0.75

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28 – 3; 5*; 8 3; 5*; 8 –
– 30 3; 6*; 10 3; 6*; 10 –
30 – – – 3,5; 2; 1,5; 1; 0.75
32 – 3; 6*; 10 3; 6*; 10 –
– 34 3; 6*; 10 3; 6*; 10 –
36 – 3; 6*; 10 3; 6*; 10 4; 3; 2; 1.5; 1
– 38 3; 7*; 10 3; 7*; 10 –
40 – 3; 7*; 10 3; 7*; 10 –
– 42 3; 7*; 10 3; 7*; 10 –
44 – 3; 7*; 12 3; 7*; 12 –
– 46 3; 8*; 12 3; 8*; 12 –
48 – 3; 8*; 12 3; 8*; 12 –
– 50 3; 8*; 12 3; 8*; 12 –
52 – 3; 8*; 12 3; 8*; 12 –
– 55 3; 9*; 14 3; 9*; 14 –
60 – 3; 9*; 14 3; 9*; 14 –
– 65 4; 10*; 16 4; 10*; 16 –
70 – 4; 10*; 16 4; 10*; 16 –
– 75 4; 10*; 16 4; 10*; 16 –
80 4; 10*; 16 4; 10*; 16 –

5, 2Fa 5, 2  50 103
D  d2   482  66,14 мм. (8)
   p    40
Take D = 68 mm.
Determined the diameter of flange nuts. Make the calculation the
nut support surface on crushing ( for bronze [σсм] = 35...45 MPa):
4Fa 4  50 103
Dб   D2   682  78,84 мм, (9)
   см    40
accept Dб = 80 mm.
Nominal flange thickness δ = (0,25...0,3)Hг= (0,25...0,3)80 =
= 20...24 mm, take δ = 22 mm.
Check the strength of the thread on the shear stress
Fa 50 103
 ср    9,8МПа, (10)
  d  H г  K  K m 3,14  48  80  0,65  0,65

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where K – coefficient of fullness of the thread (for trapezoidal thread


K ≈ 0,65); Km ≈ (0.6÷0,7) – coefficient of the distribution of load
along the thread.
that is less than the permissible value [τср] = 20...25 MPa.
4. Make a drawing of the nut on the calculation results. Show basic
dimensions (the nut on the drawing is placed horizontally).
Appendix.
Table 1. The diameters and steps single thread (GOST 9484-81)
Notes: 1. The first range of diameters to be preferred to the second.
2. The steps marked with a * are preferred when developing new
designs.
4. Task for the calculation
Variant Load Capacity of Material screw Material nut
the Jack, kN
1 48 сталь 30 БрО10Ф1
2 46 сталь 45 БрО4Ц7С5
3 58 сталь 20 БрА9Ж3Л
4 62 сталь 25 БрО4Ц4С17
5 44 сталь 30 БрС30
6 52 сталь 35 БрО10Ф1
7 39 сталь 40 БрС30
8 47 сталь 45 БрО4Ц7С5
9 55 сталь 50 БрА9Ж3Л
10 42 сталь 55 БрО4Ц4С17
11 63 сталь 30 БрС30
12 52 сталь 45 БрО10Ф1
13 47 сталь 20 БрС30
14 40 сталь 25 БрО4Ц7С5
15 53 сталь 30 БрА9Ж3Л
16 37 сталь 35 БрО4Ц4С17
17 45 сталь 40 БрС30
18 57 сталь 45 БрО10Ф1
19 44 сталь 50 БрС30
20 49 сталь 55 БрО4Ц7С5
21 63 сталь 30 БрА9Ж3Л
22 54 сталь 45 БрО4Ц4С17
23 41 сталь 20 БрО10Ф1
24 43 сталь 25 БрС30
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25 56 сталь 30 БрА9Ж3Л
26 61 сталь 35 БрО4Ц7С5
27 48 сталь 40 БрО10Ф1

5. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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6. PROJECT (APPROXIMATE) CALCULATION OF SHAFTS

1. Purpose
Get the skills of project (approximate ) calculation of shafts.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part

Figure 1.The elements of a common shaft: 1,2) the seat for the bearing
(pivot journal), 3) the seat of the belt or chain pulley, 4) transitional
grooves with sharp fillet, 5) transitional grooves with well-rounded
fillet,6) transitional fillet, 7) for the lock nut, 8) pinion.

Calculation of the shafts is done at a reduced permissible torsional


shear stresses without bending stresses. Strength condition has the form
τкр ≥ [τкр]
T 16T T
 кр      кр 
Wp  d 3
0, 2d 3  
(1)
where T is twisting moment (or torque) acting upon the shaft; d is the
diameter of the shaft; [τкр] = 12 ÷ 25 MPa permissible stress torsion.
Where the diameter of the shaft
d  3 T 103 /(0, 2  кр  )
(2)
The resulting value of d is taken up to the next higher standard
value. On the chosen value of d designate other dimensions. Then de-
velop, design and make up a design model.

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4. The calculation example


The purpose of this calculation is the determination of the diameter
of individual sections of the shafts at a reduced permissible stress tor-
sion [τкр], (excluding the effect of bending stresses).

Figure 2. Drive design

Given: To calculate the shafts single-stage cylindrical gear includ-


ed in the driving station, if these shafts are torque: Т1 = 137 N·m;
Т2 = 526 N·m.

1. The calculation of the driving shaft of the gearbox

Figure 3.The schema of the driving shaft

Strength condition has the form


T 16T T
 кр   3   кр 
Wp  d 0, 2d 3  
(3)
where [τкр] = 20 MPa permissible stress torsion, d is the diameter
of the shaft; T1 is twisting moment (or torque) acting upon the shaft;
Define the diameter of the output end of the shaft:
16Т1 16 137 103
dв1  3 3  32, 68 мм . (4)
  кр  3,14  20
on a range Ra 40: 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 24;
25; 26; 28; 30; 32; 34; 36; 38; 40; 42; 45; 48; 50; 52; 55; 60; 63; 65; 70;
75; 80; 85; 90; 95; 100 мм…,take dв1 = 34 мм.

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The diameter of the shaft under the bearing


dп1  dв1  2t  34  2  3,5  41мм, (5)
where in table 1, with dв1 = 34 mm t = 3.5 mm.
Since under the bearings of the shaft diameters times the digit 5,
then take dп1 = 40 mm.
Table 1
The dimensions of the parts of the shaft
17- 24- 32- 40- 45- 52- 60- 67- 80- 90-
d,mm
22 30 38 44 50 58 65 75 85 95
t 3 3,5 3,5 3,5 4 4,5 4,6 5,1 5,6 5,6
r 1,5 2 2,5 2,5 3 3 3,5 3,5 2,7 4
f 1 1 1,2 1,2 1,6 2 2 2,5 2,5 3
The diameter of the flange behind the bearing
dб1  dп1  3r  40  3  2,5  47,5 мм. (6)
Accept dб1 = 48 mm.
According to this data, you can perform a working drawing of the
drive shaft (Fig.3).

2. The calculation of the driven shaft of the gearbox


We define the diameter of the output end of the shaft:
16Т 2 16  526 103
dв 2  3 3  47,5 мм . (7)
  кр  3,14  25

Figure 4. The scheme of the driven shaft

On a range of Ra 40 accept dв2 = 48 mm.


The diameter of the shaft under the bearing
dп 2  dв 2  2t  48  2  4  56 мм, (8)
where t = 4 mm dв2 = 48 mm according to table 1.

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Since under the bearings of the shaft diameters times the digit 5,
then take dп2 = 55 mm.
The diameter of the shaft under the wheel:
dк 2  dп 2  3r  55  3  3  64 мм. (9)
Accept dк2 = 65 mm.
The diameter of the flange behind the wheel
dб 2  dк 2  3 f  65  3  2  71мм. (3)
Accept dб1 = 70 mm.
This data is required to perform a working drawing of the driven
shaft.
You need to perform a working drawing of the driven shaft from
these data (Fig. 4).

5. The instructions on the order of fulfillment of work


1. To calculate the all required diameters of the driving shaft of the
gearbox.
2. Need to perform a working drawing of the driving shaft from
these data.
3. To calculate the all required diameters of the driven shaft of the
gearbox.
4. Need to perform a working drawing of the driven shaft from
these data.

6. Task for the calculation


Data for calculation shafts take from practical work № 4 “Mechan-
ical transmission. Kinematic and force calculations”

7. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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7. DETERMINATION OF SUPPORT REACTIONS


AND STATIC CALCULATION OF THE SHAFT

1. Purpose
Get the skills of determination of support reactions and static cal-
culation of the shaft.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part and a calculation example


3.1 Determination of support reactions
Example. To determine the support reactions for the driven shaft
of the gearbox. To perform a static calculation of the diameter of the
shaft in a dangerous section. If d2 = 200 mm, β=11,470 , shaft material
steel 50, the fatigue-limit (or limit of endurance) σ-1 = 261 MPa.
The distance between the supports is taken as equal to 0,75d2
(where d2 is the pitch diameter of the wheel).
Given. Reducer helical. T2 = 526 N·m; d2 = 200 mm, β=11,470
Shaft material steel 50, the fatigue-limit of endurance σ-1 = 261 MPa

1. Define forces in mesh wheels for cylindrical helical gear:


circumferential force: Ft = 2T2/d2 = 2·526·103 / 198,8 = 5286 N;
radial force: Fr = Ft tgα/cosβ = 5286·tg200/cos11,470 = 1964 N;
axial force: Fa = Fttgβ = 5286·tg11,470 = 1072 N.
To spur gear angle β=00.
The axial force is absent for chevron gear.

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Figure 2. Calculation scheme of the driven shaft

2. Determine support reactions:


in the plane xOz:
Rx1  Rx 2  Ft / 2  5286 / 2  2643H .
in the plane yOz:
ΣM(2) = 0
Ry1 (a  b)  Fr  b  0,5  Fa  d2  0.
Fr b  0,5  Fa  d 2 1964  75  0,5 1072  200
Ry1    271H . .
ab 75  75
ΣM(1) = 0
Ry 2  (a  b)  Fr  a  0,5d2  Fa  0.
Fr a  0,5d 2  Fa 1964  75  0,5  200 1072
Ry 2    1693H .
ab 75  75

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Check:
ΣF(Y) = 0;
ΣF(Y) = 0; Ry1  Fr1  Ry 2  271  1964  1693  0 ;
Determine the total support reactions (radial load):
Rr1  Rx21  Ry21  26432  2712  2656,86 H . ;
Rr 2  Rx22  Ry22  26432  16932  3138,7 H .
Axial load Fa = 1072 N.

3.2. Static calculation of the driven shaft of the gearbox


Find the value of the bending moments acting in the vertical YOZ
and XOZ horizontal planes.
A radial force Fr act in the plane YOZ and axial force Fa creates
a concentrated bending moment. From the condition of equilibrium of
forces in the cross section in front of the toothed wheel is
My1 =Ry1· а =271· 75 = 20325Nm.
Draw of the bending moment diagram.
Moment acting in cross section at the middle of the gear
My2 =Ry1· а +Fa d2/2 =271· 75 +1072· 200/2=127525 Nm.
Draw of the bending moment diagram .
A circumferential force Ft act in the plane XOZ
Mх1 = Rx1· а = 2643· 75 =198225 Nm.
Draw of the bending moment diagram which on the second part
will be similar.
Determine the total bending moment in dangerous section under
gear
М и  М х  М у2  127,52  198,22 =235 Nm
2

The torque T act until the middle of the gear seat. Draw of the
torque moment diagram.
Find the equivalent moment, which account action of the torque.
М E  М и  0,75Т 2  2352  0,75  5262  459,1 Нм
2

The 0.75 coefficient takes into account the addition of torsional and
bending moments in accordance with the “Energy theory of strength”.
Strength condition
σE ≥ [σи ]

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Permissible fatigue bending stress of the shaft


[σи ]= σ-1 /(s кσ )= 261/(2 ·1,9) =68,8 МПа
where σ-1 – the limit of endurance
S = 2 is the factor of safety
кσ = 1,9 – coefficient taking into account the weakened section of
the shaft transitional groove.
σE =МE /W0 = МE/0.1d3 ≥ [σи ]
W0 =0.1d –axial moment of resistance of circular cross-section of
3

the shaft.
Then the diameter of the shaft will be
МE 459,1103
d3  3  40, 4 mm
0,1  и  0,1 68,8
Accept standard diameter d = 40mm
(on a range Ra 40: 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 24;
25; 26; 28; 30; 32; 34; 36; 38; 40; 42; 45; 48; 50; 52; 55; 60; 63; 65; 70;
75; 80; 85; 90; 95; 100 мм…,)

4. Task for the calculation


Table 1
Task
Variant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T2, Nm; 420 480 550 600 620 580 650 440 460 700
Variant 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
T2, Nm; 400 500 800 850 750 450 380 470 820 870

5. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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8. SELECTION OF BEARINGS

1. Purpose
Get the skills of selection of bearings.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part
3.1. Classification Types of Rolling Contact Bearings
1.According to shape of rolling elements are the two types of roll-
ing contact bearings:
a). Ball bearings; and b). Roller bearings.
2. According to the load to be carried they are classified as:
a) Radial bearings, b) Radial -Thrust, and b) Thrust bearings
When a ball bearing supports only a radial load (Fr) the plane of
rotation of the ball is normal to the center line of the bearing, as shown
in Fig. 1(1,2,4,7)

Figure 1. Type of a Ball and roller bearings

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The radial and thrust loads both may be carried together. Point
loaded contact is shifted from the plane of rotation of the balls or roll-
ing on the angle α as shown in Fig. 1.2.2, 1.2.3, 1.2.5.
The action of thrust load (Fa) is perpendicularly the plane of rota-
tion of the balls, as shown in Fig. 1.2.8
According to number of the row:
a) single row as shown in Fig. 1.2.1, 1.2.4, 1.2.7, b) double row
bearing as shown in Fig. 2.2, 2.6.
According to design:
a) self-aligning bearing is shown in Fig. 1.2.6
According to shape of the rollers:
b) cylindrical rollers Fig.1.2.4 , b) spherical rollers Fig.1. 2.6, c)
tapered rollers Fig. 1.2.5, d) needle rollers Fig. 1.2.7

3.2. Selection of rolling bearings


Bearing calculation is a selection of bearings for the service life.
The service life of the bearing in the real operation conditions may
be defined as the
p
106  С 
Lh  а1а23   (1)
60n  P 
where а1 is the coefficient of reliability; а2 - coefficient depending on
the type of bearing, the quality of the metal and the operating condi-
tions; n - rotational speed of the shaft; p - exponent ( p = 3 for ball and
p = 10/3 for roller bearings) ; C - dynamic bearing capacity or load rat-
ing; P - equivalent dynamic load;
The basic dynamic load rating C is defined as the constant station-
ary radial load (in case of radial ball or roller bearings) or constant axial
load (in case of thrust ball or roller bearings) which bearing with sta-
tionary outer ring can stand for a rating life of one million revolutions
(which is equivalent to 500 hours of operation at 33.3 r.p.m.) with only
10 per cent failure.
The basic dynamic load rating C in Newton for ball and roller
bearings may be obtained as reference value from the table.
The dynamic equivalent load (P) may be defined as the constant
stationary radial load (in case of radial ball or roller bearings) or axial
load (in case of thrust ball or roller bearings) which, if applied to a
bearing with rotating inner ring and stationary outer ring, would give

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the same life as that which the bearing will have under the actual condi-
tions of load and rotation.
The dynamic equivalent radial load (Fr) for radial and angular
contact bearings, except the filling slot types, under combined constant
radial load (Fr) and constant axial or thrust load (Fa) is given by
Р  ( XVFr  YFa ) K Б KT (2)
where V=a rotation factor depending on which race rotation
V = 1, for all types of bearings when the inner race is rotating.
КБ is a coefficient of safety which takes into account the dynamic
load;
КТ – coefficient taking into account the effect of temperature.
The values of radial load factor (X) and axial or thrust load factor
(Y) for the dynamically loaded bearings may be taken from the special-
ly table.
The result should be
Lh ≥ L (3)
where L is necessary life.

4. The calculation example


The main criterion of operability of rolling bearings is the durabil-
ity (life in hours). Life of reducers general purpose is 25 to 50 thousand
hours. It is recommended that the bearing life was a multiple or equal to
the life of the designed gear.
Given: T2 = 526 N·m; n2 = 120 min-1; d2 = 200 mm, β =11,470
The distance between the supports is taken as equal to 0,75d2
(where d2 is the pitch diameter of the wheel).
Need. Bearings durability should be 25 to 50 thousand hours.

1. We define forces in mesh wheels for cylindrical helical gear:


circumferential force: Ft = 2T2/d2 = 2·526·103 / 200 = 5286 N;
radial force: Fr = Ft tgα/cosβ = 5286·tg200/cos11,470 = 1964 N;
axial force: Fa = Ft tgβ = 5286·tg11,470 = 1072 N.

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Note. To spur gear angle β=00. The axial force is absent for chev-
ron gear.

Figure 2. Calculation scheme of the driven shaft

2. Determine support reactions:


The driven wheel is located in the middle of the supports, so
a = b = 0,75d2/2 = 0,75 · 200/2= 75mm
in the plane xOz:
Rx1  Rx 2  Ft / 2  5286 / 2  2643H .
in the plane yOz:
ΣM(2) = 0
Ry1 (a  b)  Fr  b  0,5  Fa  d 2  0.
Fr b  0,5  Fa  d 2 1964  75  0,5 1072  200
Ry1    271H .
ab 75  75
ΣM(1) = 0
Ry 2  (a  b)  Fr  a  0,5d2  Fa  0.
F a  0,5d 2  Fa 1964  75  0,5  200 1072
Ry 2  r   1693H .
ab 75  75
Check:
ΣF(Y) = 0;
ΣF(Y) = 0; Ry1  Fr1  Ry 2  271  1964  1693  0 ;
Determine the total support reactions (radial load):
Rr1  Rx21  Ry21  26432  2712  2656,86 H . ;

Rr 2  Rx22  Ry22  26432  16932  3138,7 H .


Axial load Fa = 1072 N.
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3. Define the diameter of the output end of the shaft (from practical
work #6)
16Т 2 16  526 103
dв 2  3 3  47,5 мм .
  кр  3,14  25
On a range of Ra 40 accept dв2 = 48 mm.
The diameter of the shaft under the bearing
dп 2  dв 2  2t  48  2  4  56 мм,
where t = 4 mm (according to table 1 from practical work #6).
Since under the bearings of the shaft diameters times the digit 5,
then take dп2 = 55 mm.
4. According to the results select the bearings for the driven shaft
of the gearbox.
According to the standard (see table 1) taken as bearings single-
row radial ball light series number 211 because dn2 = 55 mm
In this case, the coefficient X = 1, Y = 0, so the equivalent dynam-
ic radial load on the most loaded bearing is
RE2 =XV R r2 Кб КT =1· 1· 3138.7·1,2·1 =3766.44N
where V= 1 is the coefficient taking into account that the inner ring ro-
tates, Кб = 1,2 – coefficient dynamic load; КT = 1 – temperature coeffi-
cient , Rr2– radial load on more loaded support 2.
Table 1
The parameters of single-row radial bearings (GOST 27365-87)*
Marking Dimensions Dynamic load rating кN
d D B C
204 20 47 14 6,2
205 25 52 15 6,95
206 30 62 16 10,0
207 35 72 17 13,7
208 40 80 18 17,8
209 45 85 19 18,6
210 50 90 20 19,8
211 55 100 21 25,0
212 60 110 22 31,0
213 65 120 23 34,0
214 70 125 24 37,5
215 75 130 25 41,0
216 80 140 26 45,0

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217 85 150 28 53,0


218 90 160 30 62,0
219 95 170 32 69,5
220 100 180 34 79,0

5. Define the service life of a bearing in a support 2 in hours


3
106  C 
3
106  25000 
L10h        40645,5ч
60n2  RE 2  60  120  3766,44 
This corresponds to a required operability 25...50 10 3 hours
6. Draw a diagram of the cross section of the bearing and specify
its basic elements.

4. Task for the calculation


Table 1
Task
Variant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T2, Nm; 420 480 550 600 620 580 650 440 460 700
Variant 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
T2, Nm; 400 500 800 850 750 450 380 470 820 870
Remaining data identical with example

5. List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.

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9. SHAFT COUPLINGS

1. Purpose
Get the skills of calculation and selection of shaft couplings.

2. The forming competences


The students receive knowledge and skills in the process of learn-
ing. The main result is the formation of common cultural and profes-
sional competences GSC-1, SC-25 by future bachelor in the direction of
training 21.03.01 “Oil and gas engineering “.

3. Theoretical part and a calculation example


Example.1. Determine the torque transmitted with the single-disk
friction clutch (see Fig. 1). It has an asbestos cover. The diameters of
the disk - outer D1 = 220 mm, inner D2 = 140 mm; rotational speed
n = 750 min-1, the factor of safety KZ = 1,3; number of starts per hour of
not more than 50.

Figure 1. The friction clutch

Solution
1. The average diameter of the working surfaces of the discs
Dср = (D1 +D2 )/2= (220 + 140)/2 = 180 mm =0.18m
2. The circumferential speed at the average diameter
Vcp = π Dср n/60 = = 3,14•0,180•750/60 = 7,06 m/s.
3. Permissible pressure [p] = 0.25 MPa accept by tab. 1;
then, the calculated allowable pressure based
[рр] = [р] Kv Кt = 0,25•0,71 • 1 = 0,177 МPа
correction factor Kv=0,71 and Kt =1 taken from table. 2,
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3. Determine pressing force


From the condition of strength

  
F 4F
p   pp .
A  D12  D22 
Pressing force

D  D22  p p   220  140  0.177  4029 N
3.14
F 2
1
4 4
5. Design frictional torque
Tp =T/kЗ
where T is the between the discs
Tp=k•Dcp•z•f/2• kЗ = 4029•180•1•0,3/2•1,3 = 83,67 Nm
Table 1
Permissible pressure (p) and coefficients of friction clutch couplings
in the presence of a lubricant (numerator) and without lubricant
(denominator)
Material [р], MPa f
Hardened steel, hardened steel 0,6-0,8 0,06
Cast iron — cast iron or hardened steel 0,6-0,8/0,2-0,3 0,08
The PCB (Текстолит) — steel 0,4-0,6 0,12/0,15
Cermet — hardened steel 0,8-1,0/0,3-0,4 0,10/0,40
Extruded material with a basis of asbes-
0,2-0,3 0,30-0,35
tos — steel or cast iron

Table 2
Parameter of couplings
Parameter Value
V, m/s to 2,5 3 4 6 8 10
Kv 1 0,94 0,86 0,75 0,68 0,63
coefficient taking into ac-
count the peripheral speed
of the clutch
Z 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

KZ 1 0,97 0,94 0,91 0,88 0,85 0,82 0,79 0,76


coefficient taking into ac-
count the number of disks z
(if the number of starts per
hour 50 -100).
For couplings operating without lubricant, take KZ= 1.

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Example.2 Calculate the disc bolts of the coupling. Transmitted


by the clutch power N = 40 kW; rotation speed of the connected cou-
pling shafts 300 rpm; the diameter of the circle centers of the bolts
D0 = 240 mm; the number of bolts z = 4; bolt material — Ст3 steel.
The static load. The calculation of the bolts to fulfill for two cases in-
stall them into the holes in coupling half: without clearance (gap) and
with clearance (gap)

Figure 2. The coupling: 1 - coupling; 2 - bolt; 3 - key; 4 - shaft

1. The torque transmitted by the clutch,


Т = N/ω,
where Т- Нм; N — Вт;
ω = π n/30; 1/с;
Т = N/ (π n/30) = 40×103 ×30/(3,14×300)= 1270 Нм.
2. The calculation torque equal to the torque multiplied by the fac-
tor for save, Tр = кТ. In accordance with a given static load up to take
K = 1,0.
3. Circumferential force acting on the bolts from torque
Q = 2Tp/D0 = 2 • 1,27 • 103/0,240 = 10,6 kN.
4. Force per bolt (circumferential force in the plane of the joint)
F = Q/z = 10,6/4 = 2,65 kN.

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4. Task for calculation № 1


№ D1, mm D2, mm n, rpm Materials
1 220 120 500 Hardened steel, hardened steel
2 220 120 500 Cast iron — cast iron or hardened steel
3 220 120 500 The PCB (Текстолит) — steel
4 220 120 500 Cermet — hardened steel
Extruded material with a basis of asbes-
5 220 120 500
tos — steel or cast iron
6 240 150 700 Hardened steel, hardened steel
7 240 150 700 Cast iron — cast iron or hardened steel
8 240 150 700 The PCB (Текстолит) — steel
9 240 150 700 Cermet — hardened steel
Extruded material with a basis of asbes-
10 240 150 700
tos — steel or cast iron
11 300 150 1000 Hardened steel, hardened steel
12 300 150 1000 Cast iron — cast iron or hardened steel
13 300 150 1000 The PCB (Текстолит) — steel
14 300 150 1000 Cermet — hardened steel
Extruded material with a basis of asbes-
15 300 150 1000
tos — steel or cast iron

4. Task for calculation № 2


Diameter
Power Rotation Bolt Number
Variant of the circle centers
n, kw speed, rpm material of bolts
of the bolts
1 40 500 Ст3 4 240
2 30 400 Ст10 4 200
3 20 500 Ст20 4 200
4 60 550 40 6 300
5 48 600 Ст3 6 260
6 50 750 40 6 260
7 35 400 Ст20 4 240

List of recommended resources


1. R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Gupta. ATextbook of Machine Design. 14-th.
Edition. New Delhi. Eurasia publishing house (pvt.) ltd. 2005
2. Mott Robert L.. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design.
Fourth Edition.
University of Dayton, Pearson Education USA, Inc. 2004.
3. Lectures «Machine elements in mechanical design». Kopchen-
kov V.G. – notes or printouts.
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CONTENTS

Introduction …………………………………………………. 3
Part 1. Laboratory work
1. Welded joints ……………………………………………… 4
2. Metric threads ……………………………………………… 14
3. Spur gears. Geometry ……………………………………… 22
4. Spur gears. Forces in gearing. …………………………….. 29
5. Worm gears. Geometry ……………………………………. 34
6. Worm gears. Forces in gearing ……………………………. 41
7. Design of roller bearings ………………………………….. 45
8. Study design and determine the key characteristics
of gear reducers ……………………………………………………. 50

Part 2. Practical training


1. Riveted joints …………………………………………….. 57
2. Keyed and splined joints ………………………………….. 64
3. Calculation screwed joints ……………………………….. 72
4. Mechanical transmission. Kinematic and force
calculations ……………………………………………………….. 81
5. Screw drives ………………………………………………. 86
6. Project (approximate) calculation shafts …………………. 92
7. Determination of support reactions and the static
calculation of the shaft ……………………………………………. 96
8. Selection of bearings …………………………………….. 100
9. Shaft couplings …………………………………………….. 106

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Учебное издание

ДЕТАЛИ МАШИН
ПРАКТИКУМ
(на английском языке)

MACHINE ELEMENTS
GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORY WORK
AND PRACTICAL TRAINING

Автор-составитель
Копченков Вячеслав Григорьевич

Редактор, технический редактор, компьютерная верстка М. И. Толмачёв


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110