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B.L.D.E.

Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

MICROWAVEs & ANTENNAs


Semester: VII Year: 2018-19
Subject Code: 15EC71 IA Marks: 20
Total Contact Hours: 50 hrs Hours per week: 4
VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

Module – I

Microwave Tubes: Introduction, Reflex Klystron Oscillator, Mechanism Of Oscillations, Modes Of


Oscillations, Mode Curve (Qualitative Analysis Only).
Microwave Transmission Lines: Microwave Frequencies, Microwave Devices, Microwave Systems,
Transmission Line Equations And Solutions, Reflection Coefficient And Transmission Coefficient,
Standing Wave And Standing Wave Ratio, Smith Chart, Single Stub Matching 10 Hours

Module – II

Microwave Network theory: Symmetrical Z and Y-Parameters for Reciprocal Networks, S matrix
representation of Multi-Port Networks.
Microwave Passive Devices: Coaxial Connectors and Adapters, Attenuators, Phase Shifters,
Waveguide Tees, Magic tees. 10 Hours

MODULE – III

Strip Lines: Introduction, Micro Strip lines, Parallel Strip lines, Coplanar Strip lines, Shielded Strip
Lines.
Antenna Basics: Introduction, Basic Antenna Parameters, Patterns, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity,
Beam Efficiency, Directivity and Gain, Antenna Apertures, Effective Height, Bandwidth, Radio
Communication Link, Antenna Field Zones & Polarization. 10 Hours

Page No. 1
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

MODULE – IV
Point Sources and Arrays: Introduction, Point Sources, Power Patterns, Power Theorem, Radiation
Intensity, Field Patterns, Phase Patterns, Arrays of Two Isotropic Point Sources, Pattern Multiplication,
Linear Arrays of n Isotropic Point Sources of equal Amplitude and Spacing.
Electric Dipoles: Introduction, Short Electric Dipole, Fields of a Short Dipole (General and Far Field
Analyses), Radiation Resistance of a Short Dipole, Thin Linear Antenna (Field Analyses), Radiation
Resistances of Lambda/2 Antenna. 10 Hours

Module - V
Loop and Horn Antenna: Introduction, Small loop, Comparison of Far fields of Small Loop and Short
Dipole, The Loop Antenna General Case, Far field Patterns of Circular Loop Antenna with Uniform
Current, Radiation Resistance of Loops, Directivity of Circular Loop Antennas with Uniform Current,
Horn antennas Rectangular Horn Antennas.
Antenna Types: Helical Antenna, Helical Geometry, Practical Design Considerations of Helical
Antenna, Yagi-Uda array, Parabola General Properties, Log Periodic Antenna. 10 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
T1. Microwave Engineering – Annapurna Das, Sisir K Das TMH Publication, 2nd, 2010.
T2. Microwave Devices and circuits- Liao, Pearson Education.
T3.Antennas and Wave Propagation -John D. Krauss, Ronald J. Marhefka and Ahmad S.Khan,4th
Special Indian Edition , McGraw- Hill Education Pvt. Ltd., 2010.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
R1. Microwave Engineering – David M Pozar, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. 3rdEdn, 2008.
R2. Microwave Engineering – Sushrut Das, Oxford Higher Education, 2ndEdn, 2015.
R3.Antennas and Wave Propagation – Harish and Sachidananda: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Page No. 2
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

1. Prerequisites for the course


This subject requires the students to know the following:
1. Basic knowledge of electric and magnetic field (Field Theory).
2. Propagation of waves through wave guide.
3. The students should have the basic knowledge of communication system.
4. The description of Electromagnetic waves in terms of Maxwell equation.
5. A basic knowledge of mathematical analysis in terms of differential equation.

2. Overview of the course


The course is designed to provide basic knowledge of Microwave and Antenna propagation.
Various types of antennas will be discussed for various applications. The students will be exposed to
the phenomenon of radiation, radiation patterns from an antenna, design of antennas for specific
application; etc. It is designed to enable the students to have steep knowledge of Microwave
transmission lines, waveguides, devices and components with its applications. This course is designed
to present the basic principles, characteristics and applications of commonly used microwave devices
and to explain the techniques for designing microwave circuits. It plays an important role in RF circuit
design as well as application in VLSI RF chip design.

3. Course outcomes
Course Outcomes: At the end of the course, students will be able to:
1. Describe the use and advantages of microwave transmission
2. Analyze various parameters related to microwave transmission lines and waveguides
3. Identify microwave devices for several applications
4. Analyze various antenna parameters necessary for building an RF system
5. Recommend various antenna configurations according to the applications

Page No. 3
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

4. Relevance to this Programme


This course is designed for understanding the process of designing a broad variety of antenna systems
using principles. It also enabled students to develop the fundamental 'Pocklington Equation' for wire
antennas which leads to the powerful computer based 'Moment Method' of analysis. This course plays
an important role in RF circuit design as well as application in VLSI RF chip design. Analogue RF
design require the concept of High frequency.
5. Applications
 The subject has got wide applications in many fields where the wireless communication is
major requirement.
 The design of antennas for mobile communication is one of the major applications, where care
has to be taken to reduce the antenna size and increase the efficiency.
 Nowadays in all areas we are going for wireless communication, starting from small playing
articles to major applications like satellite communication, so, the subject has got important role in
modern days.
 Microwave techniques have been increasingly adopted in such diverse applications as radio
astronomy, long distance communications, space navigation, radar systems, medical equipment and
missile electronic systems.

 Because of their short wavelengths, microwaves are capable of free propagation through ionized
layers in the atmosphere. This facilitates radio astronomic research of space, communication between
the ground stations and space vehicles. As molecular, atomic and nuclear systems exhibits resonances
in the microwave range; microwaves become a powerful tool in microwave radio spectroscopy for
material analysis.

 Microwaves are widely used in domestic microwave ovens for rapid cooking and also in
industrial and medical uses for microwave heating.

 Microwave engineering played a very important role in the development of microwave antennas
and high resolution radar systems capable of detecting and locating enemy planes and ships.

Page No. 4
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

 The commercial applications includes drying machines- for textile, food and paper industry for
drying clothes, potato chips, printed matter etc.Food processing industry- precooling/ cooking,
pasteurizing/ sterility, heat frozen/refrigerated precooled meats, roasting of food grains/beans. Rubber
industry/plastics/chemical/forest product industries.

 Biomedical applications include- deep electromagnetic heating for treatment of cancer,


hyperthermia, and electromagnetic transmission through human body has been used for monitoring of
heart beat, lung water detection etc.

 A light generated charge carrier in a microwave semiconductor makes it possible to create a


whole new world of microwave devices, fast jitter-free switches, phase shifters, tuning elements etc.

6. Module Wise Plan


Module I: Microwave Tubes and Microwave
Number of Hours: 10
Transmission Lines

Learning Objective:
At the end of this Module students will be able to:
1. Do the mathematical analysis of transmission lines and their properties.
2. Use of Smith Charts for impedance matching of transmission lines.
3.Differentiate between transmission coefficient, propagation constant and lumped element and
distributed element
4. Different types of microwave coaxial connectors

Lesson Plan:
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Reference book/
Topics covered
no Method attained attained chapter no
L1 Introduction Chalk & Board a,k 1 T1/CH-9

L2 Reflex Klystron Oscillator Chalk & Board 3 T1 /CH-9

L3 Mechanism Of Oscillations Chalk & Board 3 T1 /CH-9

L4 Modes Of Oscillations Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-9

L5 Mode Curve Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-9

L6 Microwave Transmission Chalk & Board 1,2 T2/CH-0


Lines: Microwave Frequencies
Page No. 5
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

L7 Microwave Devices, Chalk & Board 2,3 T2 /CH-0


Microwave Systems
L8 Transmission Line Equations Chalk & Board 1 T2 /CH-3
And Solutions, Reflection
Coefficient And Transmission
Coefficient
L9 Standing Wave And Standing Chalk & Board 1 T2/CH-3
Wave Ratio
L10 Smith Chart, Single Stub Chalk & Board 2 T2/CH-3
Matching

Question Bank COs


Attained
1. From ∆z section of transmission line with wave propagation in +ve Z direction; Obtain 1
Transmission line equations in both time & frequency domains.
2. Define reflection co-efficient and transmission coefficient and derive relation between 2
them.
3. How standing waves are formed? And explain it for lossy line w.r.t open & short circuited 2
cases.
4. Write five properties of the SMITH CHART. 2
5. From the solution of Transmission line equations obtain an expression for Zo. 1
6. Derive an equation for voltage and current at any point on a transmission line. 2
7.A transmission line has following primary constants per km of the line, R = 8Ω,G = 0.1 2
μΩ, L = 3 MHz and C = 9 nF. Calculate Zo, α, β, λ and Vpat w = 5000 rad/sec.
8. A load impedance of ZR = 60-j80 Ω is required to be matched to a 50Ω coaxial line using 2
a short circuited stub of length L located at a distance d from the load. The wave length of
the operation is 1 meter. Using smith chart find d and L.
9. Write a note on impedance matching for transmission lines. 1

Page No. 6
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Module II: Microwave Network theory &


Number of Hours: 10
Microwave Passive Devices

Learning Objective:
At the end of this module students will be able to:

1. Know the relation between reciprocal and non-reciprocal circuits.


2. Know the relation between circuit parameters (like Z, Y parameters. (etc) and Microwave circuit
parameters (like S-parameters).
3. S-parameter representation of multi-port microwave networks and passive devices.
4. Know the construction and working principle of coaxial connectors and adapters.
5. Know the construction and working of phase shifters.
6. Know the construction and working of wave guide Tees and Magic Tees.
7. S-parameter representation of wave guide Tees and Magic Tees.

Lesson Plan:

Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Reference


Topics covered book/
no Method attained attained
chapter no
Microwave Network theory: Chalk & Board a,e 2 T1/ CH-6
L11 Symmetrical Z for Reciprocal
Networks,
Y-Parameters for Reciprocal Chalk & Board 2 T1/ CH-6
L12
Networks
S matrix representation of Chalk & Board 2 T1/ CH-6
L13
Multi-Port Networks.
Microwave Passive Devices: Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6
L14
Coaxial Connectors
L15 Adapters Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6

L16 Attenuators Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6

L17 Phase Shifters Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6

L18 Waveguide Tees Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6

L19 Magic tees Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6

Page No. 7
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

L20 Problems Chalk & Board 3 T1/ CH-6

Question Bank CO’s


Attained
1. Obtain S-parameters for a multi-port microwave network. 2
2. Explain the relation between S-parameters and Z-parameters. 2
3. Explain the relation between S-parameters and Y-parameters. 2
4. Explain how the multi-port network can be represented by S-parameters. 2
5. Explain the different rules to be followed for S-parameter representation of 2
Microwave network.
6. Explain the relation between incident and reflected waves in terms of scattering 2
parameters for a two port network.
7. Explain the significance of S- parameters. 2
8. Express s-parameters in terms of impedances. 2
9. Obtain S-parameters for a Magic Tee. 3
10. Obtain S-parameters for a E-plane Tee. 3
11. Obtain S-parameters for a H-plane Tee. 3
12. Explain the construction and working of Phase shifters. 3
13. Explain different types of coaxial connectors and adapters. 3
14. . Explain with neat sketch a precision type variable attenuator. 3
15. Explain with sketches different coaxial connectors used for microwave 3
applications.
16. What is Hybrid Tee? Derive its scattering matrix. 3
17. Explain Magic Tee and its application 3

Page No. 8
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Module III: Strip Lines and Antenna


Number of Hours: 10
Basics

Learning Objective:
At the end of this module students will be able to:
1. Define antenna and explain in detail.
2. Explain different types of radiations from antenna.
3. Define & explain beam area, radiation intensity, beam efficiency, gain.
4. Define & explain antenna apertures, effective height, bandwidth, radiation efficiency.
5. Explain antenna temperature and field zones.
6. Explain different types planar transmission line.

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics covered book/
no Method attained attained
chapter no
L21 Introduction Chalk & Board 3 T2/CH-11
Micro Strip lines, Parallel Chalk & Board
L22 3 T2/CH-11
Strip lines
Coplanar Strip lines, Chalk & Board
L23 3 T2/CH-11
Shielded Strip Lines.
L24 Antenna Basics: Introduction Chalk & Board 4 T3/CH-2

L25 Basic Antenna Parameters Chalk & Board 4 T3/CH-2

Chalk & Board a, b, c,e, T3/CH-2


L26 Patterns, Beam Area 4
h, i
Radiation Intensity, Beam Chalk & Board T3/CH-2
L27 4
Efficiency
L28 Directivity and Gain Chalk & Board 4 T3/CH-2

Antenna Apertures, Effective Chalk & Board T3/CH-2


L29 4
Height, Bandwidth
Radio Communication Link, Chalk & Board
L30 Antenna Field Zones & 4 T3/CH-2
Polarization.

Question Bank: CO’s


Attained
Page No. 9
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

1. Define the terms Normalized field Pattern, Beam efficiency, Aperture efficiency, 4
Directivity, Effective height of an antenna
2. Write brief notes on – Antenna Field Zones & Antenna Temperature 4

3. Explain the following as related to antenna systems: Gain , Beam width, half power 4
beam width and Band width.
4. The effective apertures of transmitting and receiving antennas in communication 4
system are 8λ and 12λ respectively, with a separation of 1.5 Km between them. The
EM wave is travelling with a frequency of 6 MHz and the total input power is 25 KW.
Find the power received by the receiving antenna.
5. Obtain an expression for maximum effective aperture for λ/2 dipole. 4
6. With the help of Maxwell’s equation, explain how radiations and reception of EM 4
takes place.
7. Derive Friis transmission formula. 4

8. Explian field patterns of microstrip line. 3

9. What is the necessity of planar transmission line at microwave frequencies explain 3


following planar transmission
1. Microstrip line 2. Strip line 3 .Parallel strip line

Page No. 10
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Module IV: Point Sources and Arrays Number of Hours: 10

Learning Objective:
At the end of this module students will be able to:

1. Draw radiation pattern of antenna array, considering each antenna as a point source.
2. Prove power theorem as applicable to antennas.
3. Analyze the array of two and ‘n’ isotropic point sources
4. Explain short electric dipole and its field components.
5. Derive expressions of radiation resistance of short electric dipole, λ/2 antenna and
thin linear antenna.

Lesson Plan:

Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Reference


Topics covered book/
no Method attained attained
chapter no
L31 Introduction, Point Sources. Chalk & Board b , c , d, 4 T3/CH-5
L32 Power Patterns, Chalk & Board h, e ,k 4 T3/CH-5
L33 Power Theorem. Chalk & Board 4 T3/ CH-5
Radiation Intensity, Field Chalk & Board 4 T3/ CH-5
L34
Patterns, Phase Patterns.
Array of Two Isotropic Point Chalk & Board 4 T3/ CH-5
L35
Sources.
Array of Two Isotropic Point Chalk & Board 4 T3/ CH-5
L36
Sources Continued
Endfire Array and Broadside Chalk & Board 4 T3/ CH-5
L37
Array.
Short Electric Dipole, Fields Chalk & Board 4,5 T3/ CH-6
L38
of a Short Dipole.
Radiation Resistance of Chalk & Board 4, 5 T3/ CH-6
L39
Short Dipole.
L40 Radiation Resistances of λ/2 Chalk & Board 4,5 T3/ CH-6
Antenna, Thin Linear
Page No. 11
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Antenna.

Question Bank CO’s


attained
1. State and explain power theorems in terms of power density and radiation 4
intensity.
2. Derive an expression for total field and draw the field pattern, in case of two 4
isotropic point sources with same amplitude and opposite phase. Plot the relative
field pattern when these two isotropic sources are separated λ/2 apart.
3. Derive an expression for the field intensity in the case of ‘n’ number of 4
isotropic sources with uniform spacing.
4. Derive an expression for power radiated from an isotropic point source with 4
“sine squared power pattern”. Also find the directivity “D” and draw power
pattern.
5. Show that the directivity for unidirectional operation is 2(n+1) for an 4
intensity variation of U=Um CosnѲ .
6. Show that the beam width between first nulls for broad side array of ‘N’ 4
elements is given by 2 λ /Nd.
7. Find the directivity for an intensity variation, U=Um sinθsin2Φ, where θ and 4
Φ ranges between 0 and π.
8. Obtain the electric field intensity in the case of a thin linear antenna. 4,5
9. Derive an expression for radiation resistance of a short electric dipole. 4,5
10. Obtain the value of directivity when two isotropic sources oppositely 4
excited.
11. A dipole antenna of length 5 cm is operated at a frequency of 100 MHz with 4,5
terminal current Io = 12 mA. At time t = 1sec, θ=45ْ and r = 3m, find i) Er ii) Eθ iii)
HΦ.
12. Show that the resistance of a half wave (λ/2) dipole antenna is 73Ω. 5
13. A magnetic field strength of 20 µA/m is required to be produced at appoint 4,5
2.5 km from the antenna in the broadside plane, in free space . How much power is
transmitted by
a) Hertzian dipole , with l= λ/15.b) Half wave dipole and c) Monopole antenna

Modue V : Loop and Horn Antenna , Antenna Types Number of Hours: 10

Learning Objective:

Page No. 12
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

At the end of this module students will be able to:


1. Derive expressions of fields from small loop.
2. Derive expression of radiation resistance of loop antennas.
3. Explain Babinet’s principle as applicable to complementary antennas.
4. Obtain Impedance of complementary and slot antennas, patch antennas.
5. Explain horn antennas, helical antenna, Yagi-Uda array, corner reflectors, parabolic
reflectors, log periodic antenna etc with respect to their applications and advantages.

Lesson Plan
Teaching PO’s CO’s Reference
Lecture
Topics Covered Method attained attained book/
No
chapter no
Chalk & b,c,d,e.i 4 T3 /CH-7
L41 Introduction , Small Loop
Board k
Comparison of Far Fields of Chalk & 4,5 T3/CH-7
L42
Small Loop And Short Dipole Board
Chalk & 5 T3/CH-7
L43 Loop Antenna General Case
Board
Far Field Patterns of Circular Chalk & 4 T3/CH-7
L44
Loop with Uniform Current, Board
Chalk & 4 T3/CH-7
L45 Radiation Resistance of Loops
Board
Directivity of Circular Loop Chalk & 4 T3/CH-7
L46
Antennas with Uniform Current Board
Horn Antennas & Rectangular Chalk & 5 T3/CH-7
L47
Horn Antennas. Board
Helical Antenna, Helical Chalk & 5 T3/CH-8
Geometry, Practical Design Board
L48
Considerations of Helical
Antenna
Yagi-Uda array, Parabola Chalk & 5 T3/CH-7 &
L49 Board CH-9
General Properties
Chalk & 5 T3/CH-11
L50 Log Periodic Antenna.
Board

Page No. 13
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Question Bank CO’s


Attained
1. Derive the expression for instantaneous electric field and magnetic field at a 5
large distance ‘r’ from a loop antenna of radius ‘a’.
2. Compare the far fields of small loop and a short dipole. 5
3. Describe the important features of Pyramidal Horn antenna. 5
4. Obtain the field components for small loop antenna 5
5. Derive expression for radiation resistance of small loop antenna. 5
6. State and explain Babinet’s principle as applicable to antennas. 5
7. Find the radiation efficiency of a 1m diameter loop (c=π m) of 10 mm 5
diameter copper wire at i) 1 MHz ii) 10 MHz.
8. Define rectangular horn antenna. Explain various types of horn antennas 5
with neat diagrams.
9. Give the brief account of design considerations of Log-periodic array. 5
10. Find the length , L , H-Plane aperture and flare angles ѲE and ѲH of a 5
pyramidal horn for which E –Plane aperture id 10λ . Horn is fed by a rectangular
waveguide with TE10 mode. Assume δ = 0.2 λ in E-Plane and 0.375λ in H-Plane .
Also find E-Plane , H-Plane beam widths and directivity.
11. “Helical antennas are indispensable for space communication applications”. 5
Justify the statement in brief.
12. A helical antenna has 10 turns, 100 mm diameter and 70 mm turn spacing. 5
The operating frequency is 1 GHz. What is the directivity and the polarization
state.
13. Determine the cut-off frequencies and band pass of a log periodic dipole 5
array with a design factor of 0.7. Ten dipoles are used in the structure, the smallest
having a dimension ½ equals to 0.3 m.
14. With a neat figure , explain the working of Yagi-Uda antenna . Write the 5
design formulae for different components , used in Yagi –Uda antenna. Also
mention the applications of Yagi-Uda antennas.

Assignment I COs
Attained
1. Define reflection co-efficient and transmission coefficient and derive relation 2
between them.
2. How standing waves are formed? And explain it for lossy line w.r.t open & 2
Page No. 14
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

short circuited cases and write five properties of the SMITH CHART.
3. Explain the significance of S- parameters , Y-Parameters and Z-Parameters 2
4. Explain the construction and working of Phase shifters & different types of 3
coaxial connectors and adapters.
5. Explain Magic Tee , Hybrid Tee and its application 3

Assignment II CO’s
Attained
1. Define the terms Normalized field Pattern, Beam efficiency, Aperture 4
efficiency, Directivity, Effective height of an antenna ,Gain , Beam width, half power
beam width and Band width , Antenna Field Zones & Antenna Temperature.

2. Obtain an expression for maximum effective aperture for λ/2 dipole. 4


3. What is the necessity of planar transmission line at microwave frequencies 3
explain following planar transmission a. Microstrip line b. Strip line c. Parallel strip
line
4. State and explain power theorems in terms of power density and radiation 4
intensity.
5. Derive an expression for the field intensity in the case of ‘n’ number of 4
isotropic sources with uniform spacing.

Assignment III CO’s


Attained
1. Derive the expression for instantaneous electric field and magnetic field at a 5
large distance ‘r’ from a loop antenna of radius ‘a’.
2. Show that the beam width between first nulls for broad side array of ‘N’ 4
elements is given by 2 λ /Nd.
3. Describe the important features of Pyramidal Horn antenna. 5
4. Give the brief account of design considerations of Log-periodic array. 5
5. Define rectangular horn antenna. Explain various types of horn antennas with 5
neat diagrams.

Page No. 15
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

7. Portion for Internal Assessment Test

Test Units CO’s Attained

First IA Test Module I & II 1,2,3


Second IA Test Module III, IV (1/2) 3,4
Third IA Test Module IV (1/2) , V 4,5
8. List of Program Outcomes

a. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering.


b. An ability to design and conduct experiments as well as to analyse and interpret data in the field
of Electronics & Communication engineering.
c. An ability to design a system, component or process to meet desired needs within realistic
constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety
manufacturability and sustainability.
d. An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
e. An ability to identify, formulate and solve Electronics & Communication engineering related
problems.
f. An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.
g. An ability to communicate effectively.
h. The broad education necessary to understand the impact of Electronics & Communication
engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental and societal context.
i. A recognition of the need for and an ability to engage in lifelong learning.
j. A knowledge of contemporary issues in Electronics & Communication engineering.
k. An ability to use the techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for Electronics
& Communication engineering practices.

Page No. 16
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING


Semester: VII Year: 2018-19

Subject Code: 15EC72 IA Marks: 20


Total Contact Hours: 50 hrs Hours per week: 4
VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

1. SYLLABUS

MODULE – I

Digital Image Fundamentals: What is Digital Image Processing?, Origins of Digital Image
Processing, Examples of fields that use DIP, Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing,
Components of an Image Processing System, Elements of Visual Perception, Image Sensing and
Acquisition, Image Sampling and Quantization, Some Basic Relationships Between Pixels, Linear and
Nonlinear Operations. [Text: Chapter 1 and Chapter 2: Sections 2.1 to 2.5, 2.6.2]
10 Hours

MODULE – II

Spatial Domain: Some Basic Intensity Transformation Functions, Histogram Processing,


Fundamentals of Spatial Filtering, Smoothing Spatial Filters, Sharpening Spatial Filters Frequency
Domain: Preliminary Concepts, The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of Two Variables, Properties of
the 2-D DFT, Filtering in the Frequency Domain, Image Smoothing and Image Sharpening Using
Frequency Domain Filters, Selective Filtering.
[Text: Chapter 3: Sections 3.2 to 3.6 and Chapter 4: Sections 4.2, 4.5 to 4.10]
10 Hours

Page No. 17
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

MODULE – III

Restoration: Noise models, Restoration in the Presence of Noise Only using Spatial Filtering and
Frequency Domain Filtering, Linear, Position-Invariant Degradations, Estimating the Degradation
Function, Inverse Filtering, Minimum Mean Square Error (Wiener) Filtering, Constrained Least
Squares Filtering. [Text: Chapter 5: Sections 5.2, to 5.9] 10 Hours

MODULE – IV

Color Image Processing: Color Fundamentals, Color Models, Pseudocolor Image Processing.
Wavelets: Background, Multiresolution Expansions.
Morphological Image Processing: Preliminaries, Erosion and Dilation, Opening and Closing, The
Hit-or-Miss Transforms, Some Basic Morphological Algorithms.
[Text: Chapter 6: Sections 6.1 to 6.3, Chapter 7: Sections 7.1 and 7.2, Chapter 9: Sections 9.1 to 9.5]
10 Hours

MODULE – V

Segmentation: Point, Line, and Edge Detection, Thresholding, Region-Based Segmentation,


Segmentation Using Morphological Watersheds.
Representation and Description: Representation, Boundary descriptors. [Text: Chapter 10: Sections
10.2, to 10.5 and Chapter 11: Sections 11.1 and 11.2] 10 Hours
TEXT BOOKS:
T1. Digital Image ProcessingRafel C Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, PHI 3rd Edition 2010.

REFERENCE BOOK:
R1. Digital Image Processing- S.Jayaraman, S.Esakkirajan, T.Veerakumar, Tata McGraw Hill
2014.
R2. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing-A. K. Jain, Pearson 2004.

Page No. 18
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

2. Prerequisites for the course


The study of image processing subject requires knowledge of
 Mathematics.
 Probability theory.
 Signal processing concepts.

3. Overview of the course


The image processing subject deals with the basic steps used in processing of a digital image. This
subject covers an introduction to digital image, image transformations, enhancement of image in spatial
and frequency domain, segmentation and representation. The course also covers a little introduction to
color image processing such as color image representation and some basic operations on color image.

4. Relevance of the course to this Program

The image processing has wide applications and it demands efficient solutions to the problems of day
to day life from an electronics and communication engineers with a strong background of signal
processing. Students can apply knowledge of mathematics and signal processing while studying and
analyzing this subject. This subject also helps the students to develop interdisciplinary projects during
their final year project.

5. Course Outcomes (COs):

After studying this course the student will be able to


1. Explain basic concepts of image processing, steps used in digital image processing, concept of
image capturing, sampling, quantization and different relation among the pixels of an image.
2. Apply the techniques used in spatial domain and frequency domain image
enhancement/filtering.
3. Summarize the concepts of image restoration.
4. Explain color image processing techniques, wavelets and morphological processing.
5. Comprehend image segmentation, representation and description.

Page No. 19
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

6. Applications
The image processing has wide range of applications. Some of the important applications are listed
below.
 Medical field
 Industries
 Security related applications
 Multimedia applications
 Publishing industry
 Digital water marking
 Content based searching

7. MODULEWISE PLAN

Module I: Digital Image Fundamentals Number of Hours: 10

Learning Objectives:
After studying this module students will be able to:
1. Define digital image processing and fundamental steps used in digital image
processing
2. Describe the components required for image processing and elements of visual
perception
3. Explain image sensing and acquisition methods.
4. Comprehend the concept of image sampling and quantization.
5. Describe basic relationship between pixels.
6. Distinguish linear and non-linear operations on the image.

Page No. 20
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
What is Digital Image Chalk & Board
L1 1 T1/1&2
Processing. .
Fundamental Steps in Digital Chalk & Board 1
L2 T1/1&2
Image Processing
Fundamental Steps in Digital Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2
L3
Image Processing
Components of an Image Chalk & Board a, b, c
L4 1 T1/1&2
processing system
Components of an Image Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2
L5
processing system
L6 Elements of Visual Perception. Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2

L7. Image Sensing and Acquisition. Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2


Image Sampling and Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2
L8.
Quantization.
Some Basic Relationships Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2
L9.
Between Pixels.
Linear and Nonlinear Chalk & Board 1 T1/1&2
L10.
Operations.

Page No. 21
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

MODULE II: Spatial & Frequency domain Image Processing Number of Hours: 10

Learning Objectives:
After studying this unit students will be able to:
1. Describe different image enhancement methods in spatial domain.
2. Explain gray level transformations.
3. Apply histogram processing for an image.
4. Apply image enhancement techniques in spatial and frequency domain.

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
Some Basic Intensity Chalk & Board
L11 2 T1/3&4
Transformation Function
Some Basic Intensity Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4
L12
Transformation Function a, b, h
L13 Histogram Processing Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4

Fundamentals of Spatial Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4


L14
Filtering
Smoothing Spatial Filters and Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4
L15
Sharpening Spatial Filters
Frequency Domain: Preliminary Chalk & Board T1/3&4
Concepts, The Discrete Fourier 2
L16
Transform (DFT) of Two
Variables
L17 Properties of the 2-D DFT Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4

Filtering in the Frequency Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4


L18
Domain
Image Smoothing and Image Chalk & Board T1/3&4
L19 Sharpening Using Frequency 2
Domain Filters
L20 Selective Filtering Chalk & Board 2 T1/3&4

MODULE III: Image Restoration Number of Hours: 10

Page No. 22
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Learning Objectives:
After studying this unit students will be able to:
1. Model degradations in images.
2. Explain image restoration in the presence of noise.
3. Describe periodic noise reduction by frequency domain filtering.
4. Explain linear position invariant degradation.
5. Describe inverse filtering and Weiner filtering.
6. Apply Minimum Mean Square Error (Wiener) Filtering, Constrained Least Squares
Filtering

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
Model of image degradation/ Chalk & Board
L21 3 T1/5
restoration process
L22 Noise models. Chalk & Board 3 T1/5

L23 Noise models. Chalk & Board 3 T1/5

Restoration in the Presence of Chalk & Board a, e, h, k 3


L24 T1/5
Noise only using spatial filter
Restoration in the Presence of Chalk & Board 3
L25 Noise only using frequency T1/5

domain filter.
Linear Position-Invariant Chalk & Board 3 T1/5
L26
Degradations
Estimating the Degradation Chalk & Board 3
L27
Function
L28 Inverse Filtering. Chalk & Board 3 T1/5

Minimum mean square error Chalk & Board 3


L29
(Weiner) Filtering.
Constrained Least Squares Chalk & Board 3
L30
Filtering.

Page No. 23
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

MODULE IV: Color image processing Wavelets and Morphological


Image Processing Number of Hours: 10

Learning Objectives:
After studying this unit students will be able to:
1. Explain different color models used for image processing
2. Describe pseudo color image processing.
3. Explain basics of color image processing.
4. Explain the concepts of wavelets and morphological operations on image.

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
L31 Color Fundamentals. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9
L32 Color Models. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

L33 Pseudo color Image Processing. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9
a, b, e, h
L34 Wavelets Background. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

L35 Multiresolution Expansions. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

Morphological Image Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9


L36
Processing.
L37 Erosion and Dilation. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

L38 Opening and Closing. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6

L39 The Hit-or-Miss Transforms. Chalk & Board 4 T1/6

Some Basic Morphological Chalk & Board 4 T1/6


L40
Algorithms.

MODULE V: Image segmentation, Representation and Description Number of Hours: 10

Learning Objectives:
After studying this unit students will be able to:
1. Explain point, line and edge detection.
2. Describe the thresholding and region based segmentation.
Page No. 24
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

3. Explain segmentation using morphological watersheds.


4. Explain the concepts representation and description.

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
L41 Point and Line segmentation Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9
L42 Edge Detection Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

L43 Thresholding Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

L44 Region-Based Segmentation Chalk & Board a, b, e, h 4 T1/6,7 and 9

Segmentation Using Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9


L45
Morphological Watersheds
Segmentation Using Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9
L46
Morphological Watersheds
L47 Image Representation Chalk & Board 4 T1/6,7 and 9

L48 Image Representation Chalk & Board 4 T1/6

L49 Boundary descriptors Chalk & Board 4 T1/6

L50 Boundary descriptors Chalk & Board 4 T1/6

Assignments Questions

Assignment – I COs attained

1. Explain fundamental steps used in digital image processing. 1


2. Explain the concept of homomorphic filtering. 2
3. Explain basic grey level and piecewise linear transformations. 2
4. Explain the concept of image sampling and quantization. 1
5. Explain spatial domain smoothing and sharpening filters with masks 2
Assignment – II COs attained
6. Explain frequency domain filters. 2
7. Explain histogram equalization. 2
8. With neat diagram explain different noise models. 3
9. Explain inverse filtering and winier filtering. 3
10. Explain different type of filters used for image restoration in the presence of noise. 3
Assignment – III COs attained
11. Explain RGB, CMY and HSI color models. 4
Page No. 25
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

12. Explain RGB to HSI and vice-versa conversions. 4

13. Explain pseudo color image processing with diagram. 4

14. Explain different morphological operations. 4

15. Explain point, line and edge detection in an image. 5

8. Portion for IA Test:

TEST MODULES COs attained


First IA Test 1 and 2 1,2
Second IA Test 2 and 3 2,3
Third IA test 4 and 5 4,5

Page No. 26
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

9. Program Outcomes:

a. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering.


b. An ability to design and conduct experiments as well as to analyse and interpret data in the field of
Electronics & Communication engineering.
c. An ability to design a system, component or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints
such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety manufacturability and
sustainability.
d. An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
e. An ability to identify, formulate and solve Electronics & Communication engineering related
problems.
f. An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.
g. An ability to communicate effectively.
h. The broad education necessary to understand the impact of Electronics & Communication
engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental and societal context.
i. Recognition of the need for and an ability to engage in lifelong learning.
j. Knowledge of contemporary issues in Electronics & Communication engineering.
k. An ability to use the techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for Electronics &
Communication engineering practices.

Page No. 27
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

POWER ELECTRONICS
Semester: VII Year: 2018-19

Subject Code: 15EC73 IA Marks: 20


Total Contact Hours: 50 hrs Hours per week: 4
VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

1.SYLLABUS

Module-1
Introduction - Applications of Power Electronics, Power Semiconductor Devices, Control
Characteristics of Power Devices, types of Power Electronic Circuits, Peripheral Effects. Power
Transistors: Power BJTs: Steady state characteristics. Power MOSFETs: device operation, switching
characteristics, IGBTs: device operation, output and transfer characteristics, di/dt and dv/dt limitations.
(Text 1) L1, L2
Module-2
Thyristors - Introduction, Principle of Operation of SCR, Static Anode-Cathode Characteristics of
SCR, Two transisitor model of SCR, Gate Characteristics of SCR, Turn-ON Methods, Turn-OFF
Mechanism, Turn-OFF Methods: Natural and Forced Commutation – Class A and Class B types, Gate
Trigger Circuit: Resistance Firing Circuit, Resistance capacitance firing circuit, UJT Firing Circuit.
(Text 2) L1, L2, L3
Module-3
Controlled Rectifiers - Introduction, Principle of Phase-Controlled Converter Operation, Single-Phase
Full Converter with RL Load, Single-Phase Dual Converters, Single-Phase Semi Converter with RL
load.
AC Voltage Controllers - Introduction, Principles of ON-OFF Control, Principle of Phase Control,
Single phase controllers with resistive and inductive loads. (Text 1) L1, L2,L3

Module-4
DC-DC Converters - Introduction, principle of step-down operation and it’s analysis with RL load,
principle of step-up operation, Step-up converter with a resistive load, Performance parameters,
Converter classification, Switching mode regulators: Buck regulator, Boost regulator, Buck-Boost
Regulators, Chopper circuit design. (Text 1) L1, L2

Page No. 28
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Module-5
Pulse Width Modulated Inverters- Introduction, principle of operation, performance parameters,
Single phase bridge inverters, voltage control of single phase inverters, current source inverters,
Variable DC-link inverter, Boost inverter, Inverter circuit design.

Static Switches: Introduction, Single phase AC switches, DC Switches, Solid state


relays, Microelectronic relays. (Text 1) L1, L2

Text Books:
1. Mohammad H Rashid, Power Electronics, Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3rd/4th
Edition, Pearson Education Inc, 2014, ISBN: 978-93-325-1844-5.
2. M.D Singh and K B Khanchandani, Power Electronics, 2nd Edition, Tata Mc-Graw Hill,
2009, ISBN: 0070583897

Reference Books:
1. L. Umanand, Power Electronics, Essentials and Applications, John Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, 2009.
2. Dr. P. S. Bimbhra, “Power Electronics”, Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 2012.
3. P.C. Sen, “Modern Power Electronics”, S Chand & Co New Delhi, 2005.
4. Earl Gose, Richard Johnsonbaugh, Steve Jost, Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, ePub
eBook.

Page No. 29
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

2) Prerequisites for the course

The student should have knowledge of the following subjects

1) Analog electronic circuits


2) Semiconductor devices
3) Network analysis
4) Control Theory

3) Course Overview
Power electronics deals with power, electronics, control; this course is an insight of principle involved
in switching converters, solid state devices, and commutation circuits. Variable speed drives etc Power
electronics may be defined as application of solid state electronics for control & conversion of power.
Now a days power electronics uses the concept digital control techniques for conversion & control of
power. As the advancement in microprocessor/microcontroller technology has given a great advantage
of control, synthesizing, control strategy for power semiconductor devices.

4) Relevance to this course:


Power electronics plays important role in the field of electronics and communication like design of
power supplies in satellite launching vehicle ,solar power supplies for charging battery and mobile
chargers ,many electronic gadget power supply design, Inverter ,etc

5) Course Outcomes: At the end of the course students should be able to:
1. Describe the characteristics of different power devices and identify the various applications
associated with it.
2. Illustrate the working of power circuit as DC-DC converter.
3. Illustrate the operation of inverter circuit and static switches.
4. Determine the output response of a thyristor circuit with various triggering options.
5. Determine the response of controlled rectifier with resistive and inductive loads.

Page No. 30
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

6) Applications

Power electronics have already found an important place in modern technology and are now used in
great variety of power products including
1. Heat controls
2. Light controls
3. Motor controls
4. Power supplies
5. Vehicle propulsion systems
6. High voltage current systems (HVDC).
7. AC drives.
It is difficult to draw the boundaries for the applications of power electronics. Especially with
present trend in the development of power devices and microprocessors.

7) MODULEWISE PLAN
MODULE: 1

Planned hours:10
Chapter 1: Introduction

Learning Objective
After studying this chapter students will be able to

1) Power electronics applications.


2) Control characteristics of power semiconductor devices
3) Types of power electronic circuits.
4) Peripheral effects in power electronic circuits.
5) Explain various power semiconductor devices V-I characteristics such as BJT, MOSFFT, IGBT.
6) Plot V-I characteristics of power BJT, MOSFFT, IGBT define different areas of operation such
as Saturation,cutoff,active.
7) di/dt and dv/dt limitations of power semiconductor devices.

Page No. 31
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Lesson plan
Class No. Portion covered/hour (approximately)

Lno Topics Covered Teaching Po’s Co’s Text,ref


method attained
attained book/chp no
L1 Introduction,Applications of power Chalk&board b 1 T1(Chp1)
electronics
L2 Power semiconductor devices, Chalk&board
L3 Control characteristics, Chalk&board
L4 Types of power electronics circuits, Chalk&board
L5 Peripheral effects. Chalk&board
L6 PowerTransistors:PowerBJTs: Chalk&board
Steady state characteristics.
L7 Steady state characteristics. Power Chalk&board
MOSFETs:
L8 device operation, switching Chalk&board
characteristics
L9 IGBTs: device operation, output and Chalk&board
transfer characteristics
L10 di/dt and dv/dt limitations Chalk&board

Page No. 32
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronics & Communication Engineering

QUESTION ABNK:

Questions Co’s attained

1) Explain various applications of power electronic circuits.


2) Explain control characteristics of power semiconductor devices.
3) Explain different power electronic circuits with waveform. 1
4) Explain peripheral effects of power electronic circuits.
5) Explain Steady state characteristics of BJT
6) Explain switching characteristics of BJT
7) Explain switching limits in BJT
8) Explain steady state characteristics of MOSFET
9) Explain switching characteristics of MOSFET
10) Differentiate between power BJT & power MOSFET.
11) Explain construction and operation of IGBT.
12 ) Explain input & o/p characteristics of Following devices 1) BJT.
2) MOSFET 3) IGBT

Page No. 33
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

MODULE: 2

Planned hours:10
Thyristors - Introduction

Learning Objective
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1)Explain operation of thyristor and static anode cathode characteristic of scr
2) Explain two transitor analogy of scr and turn on and turn off methods of scr
3) classify different types of commutation and condition for commutation
4) design different types of triggering vircuit for scr turn on like resistor, resistor capacitor etc.

Lesson plan
Class No. Portion covered/hour (approximately)

L no Topics Covered Teaching Po’s Co’s Text,ref


method attained attained book/chp no
L11 Principle of Operation of SCR, Chalk&board a,b. 4 T1(Chp4,7)
Static Anode-CathodeCharacteristics
of SCR.
L12 Static Anode- Chalk&board
CathodeCharacteristics of SCR.
L13 Two transisitor model of SCR Chalk&board
L14 Gate Characteristics of SCR Chalk&board
L15 Turn-ONMethods,Turn-OFF Chalk&board
Mechanism
L16 Turn-OFF Methods: Natural and Chalk&board
Forced Commutation
L17 Class A and Class B types, Chalk&board
L18 GateTriggerCircuit:Resistance Chalk&board
FiringCircuit,Resistance
capacitance firing circuit
L19 GateTriggerCircuit:Resistance Chalk&board
FiringCircuit,Resistancecapacitance
firing circuit.
L20 UJT Firing Circuit Chalk&board

QUESTION BANK:

Page No. 34
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

Questions Co’s attained

1) Explain V-I characteristics of SCR. 4


2) Explain different turn on methods of thyristors 4
3) Explain dv/dt and di/dt protection in thyristors 4
4) Explain thyritor firing methods or Explain Gate triggering methods of 4
thyristors
5) Derive the relation for IA in SCR using Two Transistor thyristor analogy. 4
6) What are thyristors? Draw thyristor symbol & its semiconductor structure 4
sketch static anode v-I characteristics of unidirectional switching triode thyristor
device and indicate different regions on characteristic mention the different
modes of operation of thyristors.

7) Compare holding & latching current 4


8) What is need for protection for thyristor 4
9) With neat sketch explain static characteristics of an SCR what are significance 4

of latching current and holding current & break over voltage

10)With neat sketch Explain static characteristics of an SCR? What are 4


significance of latching current & holding current and Break over voltage

11)A latching current of SCR with dc voltage source of 200 v is 100 mA 4


Compute the minimum width of gate pulse current required to turn on trigger
pulse in case the load consist of (1) R=20Ω in sense with L=0.24 (2) R=20Ω in
series with L=2.04H

12)Define commutation? What are different types of commutation are available 4


for SCR turn off.

13) What do you mean by commutation what are conditions satisfied for 4
commutating thyristor

14) In the figure initial capacitor voltage vo=500v capacitance C=25µf and 4
inductance

L=10µH determine peak resonant current and conduction time of thyristor T1

Determine expressions used.

15) What is forced commutation? Discuss the following forced commutation 4


techniques
Page No. 35
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
1)Self commutation 2) impulse commutation.

16) Discuss the process of tryristor commutation and differentiate between. 4

1) Natural commutation & forced commutation

MODULE:3
Planned hours:10
Controlled Rectifiers

Learning Objective
After studying this chapter students will be able to:

1) Explain principle of phase controlled converter operation


2) Explain controlled rectifier with R & RL load & significance of freewheeling diode in case
of inductive load.
3) Explain dual convertors, 1  semicinverters application in power electronic ckt
4) To explain principle of Ac voltage controllers

5) Differentiate between on off control & phase control


6) List the applications of Ac voltage controllers

Page No. 36
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Lesson plan
Class No. Portion covered/hour (approximately)

Ln Topics Covered Teaching Po’s Co’s Text,ref


method attained
o attained book/chp no

L21 Introduction, Principle of Phase- Chalk&board


Controlled Converter Operation
L22 Single-Phase Full Converter with RL Chalk&board
Load
L23 Single-Phase Dual Converters, Single- Chalk&board
Phase Semi Converter with RL load.
L24 Single-Phase Dual Converters, Single- Chalk&board
Phase Semi Converter with RL load.
L25 Single-Phase Dual Converters, Single- Chalk&board
T1(Chp5,6
Phase Semi Converter with RL load. a,b.e. 5
L26 AC Voltage Controllers Introduction, Chalk&board )
Principles of ON-OFF Control
L27 AC Voltage Controllers- Introduction, Chalk&board
Principles of ON-OFF Control
L28 Principle of Phase Control Chalk&board

L29 Single phase controllers with resistive Chalk&board


and inductive loads
L30 Single phase controllers with resistive Chalk&board
and inductive loads

QUESTION BANK:

Questions Co’s attained

1) Explain principle of controlled rectifiers 5

2) Explain Single phase semi converter with R and RL load and derive 5
the

relation for Vdc, Vrms .

3)Explain the single phase full converter with R-RL load and derive the 5
relation for vrms Vdc.

4)Show the circuit diagram of single phase semi converter and explain 5
Page No. 37
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
the operation of assuming constant load current sketch waveforms of o/p
voltage and current for one SCR for a firing angle α=450.

5) Single phase full wave converter is operating from 120v 50Hz supply 5
and provides an average load current of 5A at delay angle of L=30 0 X
ripple content of load current is negligible calculate.a)dc load voltage and
d.c output power

b) The quantities in freewheeling diode is connected across o/p for same


load resistance and delay angle.

6) Draw the circuit diagram of single phase semi converter with R-L load 5
sketch the wave forms of input voltage o/p voltage of converter 1, o/p
voltage of converter 2 and voltage across circulating inductor assume
x=600 mention any advantage of circulating current mode operation of
dual converter.

7) Briefly explain RC triggering circuit for full wave control. 5

8) Explain single phase dual converter with highly inductive load 5

9) The single phase full wave converter is as shown operating from 120v, 5
50Hz

supply and provides an average load current of 5A delay angle of


α=300 if

ripple content load is negligible calculate.

a) Dc load voltage and dc o/p power

b)The quantities in (1) if a freewheeling diode is connected across the o/p

for same load resistance and delay angle and

c) The D.C load voltage and current

10) Explain operation of on off control & derive the o/p expression 5

11) For ac voltage controller discuss difference in performanance between 5


single phase bidirectional controller RL load and bidirectional controller
for resistive load with circuit diagram & o/p voltage waveforms.

Page No. 38
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
12) For a circuit do on off control input voltage of 230v 50Hz connected 5
in resistive load of 20Ω the ckt is operating switch on for 30 cycles &
OFF- for 30Cycles Determine

1)Rms o/p current ON cycles n=30

2) i/p power factor OFF cycles m=3

13) Draw the circuit of single phase Ac voltage controller explain 5


principle of on-off control with help of relevant waveform Derive
expression for Rms voltage interms of Rms supply voltage & duty cycle
operation of controller.

14) The single phase full wave Ac voltage controller operates on single 5
phase supply voltage of 230V Rms at 50Hz X triac is triggered at an
delay angle of 450. During born the half cycle of i/p supply calculate.

1) Rms value of o/p voltage


2) Rms values of current through heater
3) Average value of Triac current
4) Rms value of Triac current
5) Input PF
6) Derive expressions used
15) Explain why short duration pulse are not suitable for Ac voltage 5
controller with inductive load?

16) Single phase full wave a.c. voltage controller has resistive load of 5

50hm with input voltage of 120v 50Hz The delay angles  1   2  2


3
deremine 1) Rms o/p voltage 2) average current through thynstors 3)
input PF

17) with diagram explain single phase. Bidirectional Ac voltage controller 5


with Resistance load

MODULE: 4

Page No. 39
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Planned hours:10
DC-DC Converters

Learning Objective
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1) Explain principle involved in chopper ckt.
2) Classify types of chopper & application of chopper ckts.
3) Classify the choppers depending on quadrant of operation & application of each class
of chopper
4) Explain vatious types of dc converters like Buck regulator, Boost regulator, Buck-
Boost Regulators,

Lesson plan
Class No. Portion covered/hour (approximately

Ln Topics Covered Teaching Po’s Co’s Text,ref


o method attained attained book/chp no
L31 Introduction, principle of step-down Chalk&board
operation
L32 step-down operation and it’s analysis Chalk&board
with RL load.
L33 Principle of step-up operation, Step-up Chalk&board
converter with a resistive load.
L34 Performance parameters, Converter Chalk&board
classification
L35 Performance parameters, Converter Chalk&board
T1(Chp9)
classification a,b,c,e 2
L36 Performance parameters, Converter Chalk&board
classification
L37 Switching mode regulators: Buck Chalk&board
regulator.
L38 Boost regulator Chalk&board

L39 Buck-Boost Regulators Chalk&board

L40 Chopper circuit design Chalk&board

QUESTION BANK:
Questions Co’s attained

1)Explain principle of step up chopper and down chopper devlop an 2

Page No. 40
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
o/p voltage equation.

2) Explain principle of step down chopper with R load & devlop an 2

Expression for 1)Dc o/p voltage

3)An ideal class A chopper operator at V5=220Volts R=52 calculate 2

1) I min, & Imax

4) Explain operation of impulse commutated chopper.

5) With help circuit and quadrantal diagrams explain working of a 2


class E chopper mention the device that provide path for the current
in each quadrant.

6) A chopper fuding an RL load as shown the chopper 2


frequency1khz and duty cycle K=0.5

Page No. 41
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
MODULE:5

Planned hours:10
Pulse Width Modulated Inverters

Learning Objective
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1) Explain principle of operation of inverter
2) List the applications of inverter
3) Types of inverter configurations like
Voltage source inverter
Current sourse invert
Variable dc link inverter
4) Explain different types of switches

Lesson plan
Class No. Portion covered/hour (approximately

Ln Topics Covered Teaching Po’s Co’s Text,ref


method attained
o attained book/chp no
L41 Pulse Width Modulated Inverters- PPT
Introduction, principle of operation
L42 performance parameters, Single PPT
phase bridge inverters
L43 voltage control of single phase PPT
inverters
L44 current source inverters PPT T1(Chp10
a.b.c.e 3
)
L45 Variable DC-link inverter PPT
L46 Boost inverter PPT
L47 Inverter circuit design. PPT
L48 Static Switches: Introduction PPT
L49 Single phase AC switches PPT
L50 DC Switches, Solid state relays PPT
Microelectronic relays.

Page No. 42
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

QUESTION BANK:

Questions Co’s attained

1) Explain the basic principle of operation of 3


a) Single phase full bridge inverter
With help of appropriate circuit diagram & waveform.

2) With neat circuit diagram and waveforms explain the operation of single 3

phase bridge inverter feeding resistive load of additional diodes are

connected across the switches what are their functions

3) Briefly explain how o/p is controlled in single phase bridge 3

inverter.

4) What do you mean by inverter? Explain single phase bridge 3

inverter draw the load Current waveforms for R. RL, RLC

loads?

5) Explain the performance parameters of inverters 3

6) Explain different methods of voltage control of single phase inverters 3

7) Explain variable dc link inverter. 3

8) Compare VSI and CSI 3

9) Explain basic principle of boost inverter with circuit diagram 3

10) What are the steps involved in desining of inverter circuit 3

Page No. 43
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

1st ASSIGNMENT:
1) Explain control characteristics of power semiconductor devices.
2) Explain switching characteristics of BJT.
3) Explain different turn on methods of thyristors.
4)Differentiate between SCR,BJT,MOSFET.
2nd ASSIGNMENT:
1) Explain Single phase semi converter with R and RL load and derive the relation for V dc,
Vrms .
2) What do you mean by commutation what are conditions satisfied for commutating thyristor,
3) For ac voltage controller discuss difference in performanance between single phase
bidirectional controller RL load and bidirectional controller for resistive load with circuit
diagram & o/p voltage waveforms.
3rd ASSIGNMENT:
1) Explain principle of step up chopper and down chopper devlop an o/p voltage equation.
2) Explain operation of impulse commutated chopper.
3) Explain the basic principle of operation of Single phase hall bridge inverter
4)differentiate between current source inverter and voltage source inverter

8).Portion for IA Test


TEST UNITS COs attained

First IA Test Module1.module2, 1,4

Second IA Test Module3,.module4, 5,2

Third IA test Module4,Module5. 2.3

Page No. 44
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

9)List of Programme Outcomes:

a. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics ,science and engineering.


b. An ability to design and conduct experiments as well as as to analyze and
interpret data in the field of Electronics& Communication engineering.
c. An ability to design a system ,component or process to meet desired needs
within realistic constraints.
d. An ability to function on multidisciplinary teams.
e. An ability to identify, formulate and solve Electronics& Communication
engineering related problems.
f. An understanding of professional &ethical responsibility
g. An ability to communicate effectively.
i. A recognition of the need for an ability to engage in life long learning
process.
j . A knowledge of contemporary issues in Electronics & Communication
k. An ability to use techniques skills and modern engineering tools
necessary for electronics &communication engineering

Page No. 45
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

10. MODEL QUESTION PAPER


MODEL QUESTION PAPER
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
Note:(i) Answer Five full questions selecting any one full question from each module
(ii) Question on a topic of a module may appear in either its 1st or 2nd question.

Module 1

1 a Expalin different types of power electronic converter circuits with neat 8


circuit diagram and input output waveforms also mention application of
each.

b For the swiching circuit of Bipolar transistor is specified to have βin the 8
range of 12 to75 if Vcc=40V Rc=1.5Ω, VB=6v, VCE(SAT)=1.2V.VBE(SAT)=1.6V
Rb=0.7Ω, Calculate 1)overdrive factor 2)forced β3) total power dissipation

OR

2 a Explain switching characteristics MOSFET transient model 8

b Draw the symbol and control characteristics of following power 5


semiconductor devices.

1)SCR 2)MOSFET 3)MCT/GTO 4)SITH 5)BJT

c Define power electronics,and any two applications of power electronics 3

Module 2

3 a) With two transistor analogy of thyristor obtain the equation of IA 6

b) Define the holding & latching current of SCR 2

c) What are the conditions for successful commutation,differentiate between


forced commutation and natural commutation.

OR

4 a) Explain dynamic characteristics of SCR during Turn on and Turn off with 8
suitable waveforms.

Page No. 46
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
b) Design a UJT relaxation trigger circuit for SCR with VBB=20V, η=0.6, 6
IP=10µA,Vv=2V, IV=10Ma,the frequency of oscillations 100Hz and
triggering pulse width should be 50µsec.

c) What is necessity of commutation mention different types of commutation? 2

Module 3

5 a) Explain the working and derive the equation of VDC of single phase full 8
converter with RL load.

b) Explain the operation of full wave AC voltage controller with R load 8

OR

6 a) With neat circuit and wave form explain single phase dual converter with its 10
advantages

b) Explain ON off control and derive the equation of o/p voltage of on off 6
control

Page No. 47
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

Module 4

7 a) Derive an expression for peak to peak ripple current ΔI for a stepdown 10


chopper with RL load

b) With neat circuit diagram Explain operation Buck regulator 6

OR

8 a) What is switching mode regulator with the help of circuit diagram and 10
waveforms explain the working of boost regulator with continous current IL

b) Explain operation of step up chopper 6

Module 5

9 a) Explain performance parameters of inverter 6

b) Expalin working single phase AC switch with R and RL load 10

10 a) Explain working of transistorized current source inverter 06

b) Explain the following microelectronic relays 10

1) Photovoltaic relay 2) Photovoltaic isolator

Page No. 48
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
CRYPTOGRAPHY
Semester: VII Year: 2018-19

Subject Code: 15EC744 IA Marks: 20


Total Contact Hours: 40 hrs Hours per week: 4
VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

1. Course Details
1.1 Syllabus
Module – 1

Basic Concepts of Number Theory and Finite Fields: Divisibility and the divisibility algorithm,
Euclidean algorithm, Modular arithmetic, Groups, Rings and Fields, Finite fields of the form
GF(p), Polynomial arithmetic, Finite fields of the form GF(2n)(Text 1: Chapter 4) 08 Hours

Module – 2

Classical Encryption Techniques: Symmetric cipher model, Substitution techniques,


Transposition techniques, Steganography (Text 1: Chapter 2)
SYMMETRIC CIPHERS: Traditional Block Cipher structure, Data Encryption Standard
(DES) (Text 1: Chapter 3: Section1, 2) 08 Hours

Module – 3

SYMMETRIC CIPHERS: The AES Cipher. (Text 1: Chapter 5: Section 2, 3, 4) Pseudo-


Random-Sequence Generators and Stream Ciphers: Linear Congruential Generators, Linear
Feedback Shift Registers, Design and analysis of stream ciphers, Stream ciphers using LFSRs
(Text 2: Chapter 16: Section 1, 2, 3, 4) 08 Hours

Module – 4

More number theory: Prime Numbers, Fermat’s and Euler’s theorem, Primality testing,
Chinese Remainder theorem, discrete logarithm. (Text 1: Chapter 8)
Principles of Public-Key Cryptosystems: The RSA algorithm, Diffie - Hellman Key Exchange,
Elliptic Curve Arithmetic, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Text 1: Chapter 9, Chapter 10: Section
1, 3, 4) 08 Hours

Page No. 49
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Module – 5
One-Way Hash Functions: Background, Snefru, N-Hash, MD4, MD5, Secure Hash Algorithm
[SHA],One way hash functions using symmetric block algorithms, Using public key
algorithms, Choosing a one-way hash functions, Message Authentication Codes. Digital
Signature Algorithm, Discrete Logarithm Signature Scheme (Text 2: Chapter 18: Section 18.1
to 18.5, 18.7, 18.11 to 18.14 and Chapter 20: Section 20.1, 20.4) 08 Hours

Text Book:
1. William Stallings,“Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice”,
Pearson Education Inc., 6th Edition, 2014, ISBN: 978-93-325-1877-3
2. Bruce Schneier, “Applied Cryptography Protocols, Algorithms, and Source code in C”,
Wiley Publications, 2nd Edition, ISBN: 9971-51-348-X

1.2. Prerequisites for the Course:


1. Knowledge on Mathematics
2. Concept of random processes.
3. Basic knowledge of computer, Email etc.
4. Basic concepts of Security

1.3. Overview of the course


The course deals with pseudorandom number generators required for cryptography,
authentication and protection of encrypted data, IP and Web security. This course is designed
for studying several approaches for securing the data.

Page No. 50
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

1.4. Relevance of the course to this Program


Communications security is increasing in importance as a result of the use of electronic
communications in more and more business activities. Cryptography is the only practical
means to provide security services in many applications.
1.5 Course outcomes
At the end of this course, the students will be able to:

1. Use basic cryptographic algorithms to encrypt the data.


2. Generate some pseudorandom numbers required for cryptographic applications.
3. Provide authentication and protection for encrypted data
1.6. Applications
1. Integrity in Transmission
2. Secrecy in transmission
3. Secrecy in storage
4. Authentication of Identity

2. Module wise Plan


Module -1: Basic Concepts of Number Theory
Number of hours: 08
and Finite Fields:

a. Learning Objectives: At the end of this chapter student will be able to:
1) Understand the concept of divisibility and the division algorithm.
2) Understand how to use the Euclidean algorithm to find the greatest common divisor.
3) Present an overview of the concepts of modular arithmetic.
4) Explain the operation of the extended Euclidean algorithm.
5) Distinguish among groups, rings, and fields.
6)Define finite fields of the form GF(p) and GF(2n)

Page No. 51
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

1) Lesson Plan:
Teachin Reference
Lecture PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered g book/
No. Attained Attained
Method chapter No.
Divisibility and the divisibility Chalk &
L1 1 T1/4
algorithm, Board
Chalk & 1 T1/4
L2 Euclidean algorithm,
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/4
L3 Modular arithmetic,
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/4
L4 Groups,
Board a, b,e, h,
Chalk & i 1 T1/4
L5 Rings and Fields,
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/4
L6 Finite fields of the form GF(p),
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/4
L7 Polynomial arithmetic
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/4
L8 Finite fields of the form GF(2n)
Board

C .Question Bank

Questions COs attained

MODULE 1:
1) Briefly define a field, group and ring. 1
2) List three classes of polynomial arithmetic. 1

3) What is the difference between modular arithmetic and 1


ordinary arithmetic?
4) Does the set of residue classes (mod3) form a group 1
a. with respect to modular addition?
b. with respect to modular multiplication?
5) Using the extended Euclidean algorithm, find the multiplicative 1
inverse of
a. 1234 mod 4321

Page No. 52
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
b. 24140 mod 40902

6) Demonstrate that the set of polynomials whose coefficients form a 1


field is a ring.

Module -2: Classical Encryption Techniques: Number of hours: 08

a.Learning Objectives: At the end of this chapter student will be able to:
1. Present an overview of the main concepts of symmetric cryptography
2. Explain the difference between cryptanalysis and brute-force attack.
3. Understand the operation of a monoalphabetic substitution cipher.
4. Understand the operation of a polyalphabetic cipher.

5. Explain the difference between cryptanalysis and brute-force attack.


6. Present an overview of Data Encryption Standard (DES).

b.Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No. Method Attained Attained
chapter No.
L9 Symmetric cipher model, Chalk & 1 T1/2
Board
Substitution techniques Chalk & 1 T1/2
L10
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/2
L11 Transposition techniques,
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/2
L12 Steganography
Board
SYMMETRIC CIPHERS: 1 T1/3
Chalk & a, b, e,
L13 Traditional Block Cipher
Board f,g,h,i
structure,
Chalk & 1 T1/3
L14 Continued
Board
L15 Data Encryption Standard Chalk & 1,2 T1/3
(DES) Board

Page No. 53
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Chalk & 1,2 T1/3
L16 Continued.
Board

C .Question Bank

MODULE 2:

1) List and briefly define types of cryptanalytic attacks based on what is 1


known to the attacker.
2) What is a transposition cipher? 1

3) Explain Symmetric Cipher model. 1

4) What is the difference between a monoalphabetic cipher and a 1


polyalphabetic cipher?
5) What is the difference between a block cipher and a stream cipher? 1

6) Explain Data Encryption Standard (DES). 1,2

Module -3 : Symmetric Ciphers: Number of hours: 08

a.Learning Objectives: At the end of this chapter student will be able to:

1. Explain AES Cipher

2. Explain Design and analysis of stream ciphers,

3. Understand Linear Feedback Shift Registers

4. Understand Pseudo-Random-Sequence Generators

5. Understand Linear Congruential Generators

b.Lesson Plan:

Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No. Method Attained Attained
chapter No.
L17 The AES Cipher. Chalk & a,c,d,e,g, 1,2 T1/5
Board k

Page No. 54
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Chalk & 1,2 T1/5
L18 Continued
Board
Pseudo-Random-Sequence Chalk & 2 T2/16
L19
Generators and Stream Ciphers:, Board
Chalk & 2 T2/16
L20 Linear Congruential Generators
Board
Chalk & 2 T2/16
L21 Linear Feedback Shift Registers,
Board
Design and analysis of stream Chalk & 2 T2/16
L22
ciphers, Board
Chalk & 2 T2/16
L23 Stream ciphers using LFSRs
Board
Chalk & 2 T2/16
L24 Continued
Board

C .Question Bank

MODULE 3:

1) Explain AES Cipher mechanism. 1,2

2) Explain Linear Congruential Generators 2

3) Explain Feedback Shift Registers 2

4) Explain (i) Geffe generator (ii) Generalized Geffe generator 2

5) Explain Beth-Piper Stop-and-Go Generator 2

6) What is Summation Generator? 2

Module -4: More number theory: Number of hours: 08

a. Learning Objectives: At the end of this chapter student will be able to:
1) Explain the concepts of randomness and unpredictability with respect to random numbers.
2) Present an overview of requirements for pseudorandom number generators.
3)Understand the differences among true random number generators,
4) Discuss key concepts relating to prime numbers.
5) Understand Fermat’s theorem and Euler’s theorem
6) Present an overview of the basic principles of public-key cryptosystems

Page No. 55
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
7) Present an overview of the RSA algorithm

b.Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No. Method Attained Attained
chapter No.
Prime Numbers Chalk &
L25 2 T1/8
Board
Fermat’s and Euler’s theorem, Chalk & 1 T1/8
L26
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/8
L27 Primality testing,
Board
Chalk & 1 T1/8
L28 Chinese Remainder theorem,
Board
a, b,e, h,
Chalk & 1 T1/8
L29 Discrete logarithm. i, j,k
Board
Principles of Public-Key Chalk & 1,3 T1/9
L30 Cryptosystems: The RSA Board
algorithm,
Chalk & 3 T1/10
L31 Diffie - Hellman Key Exchange,
Board
Elliptic Curve Arithmetic, Elliptic Chalk & 3 T1/10
L32
Curve Cryptography Board

C .Question Bank

MODULE 4:

1) What is a primitive root of a number and prime number? 1

2) The Miller-Rabin test can determine if a number is not prime but 1


cannot determine if a number is prime. How can such an algorithm be
used to test for primality?
3) What is the difference between an index and a discrete logarithm? 1

4) Use Fermat’s theorem to find a number a between 0 and 72 with a 1


congruent to 9794 modulo 73..
5) In a public-key system using RSA, you intercept the ciphertext C = 1,3
10 sent to a user

Page No. 56
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur – 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
whose public key is e = 5, n = 35. What is the plaintext M?
6) Briefly explain Diffie-Hellman key exchange 1,3

Module -5 One-Way Hash Functions: Number of hours: 08


Learning Objectives: At the end of this chapter student will be able to:
1. Understand Snefru, MD4,MD5
2. Explain Secure Hash Algorithm [SHA],
3. Understand the process of Message Authentication Codes.
4. Applying Digital Signature Algorithm for security

Lesson Plan:
Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No. Method Attained Attained
chapter No.
L33 Background, Snefru Chalk &
1,3 T2/18
Board
L34 N-Hash, MD4, Chalk & 1,3 T2/18
Board
L35 MD5, Secure Hash Algorithm Chalk & 1,3 T2/18
[SHA], Board
L36 One way hash functions using Chalk & 1,3 T2/18
symmetric block algorithms Board
a, b,e, f,
L37 Using public key algorithms, Chalk & 1,3 T2/18
g,h, i, k
Board
L38 Choosing a one-way hash Chalk & 1,3 T2/18
functions, Board
L39 Message Authentication Codes. Chalk & 1,3 T2/18
Board
L40 Digital Signature Algorithm, 1,3 T2/20
Chalk &
Discrete Logarithm Signature
Board
Scheme

C .Question Bank

MODULE 5:

1,3
1) Describe Snefru technique.
2) Describe N-Hash, MD4 and MD5 approaches of securing 1,3

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
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mechanisms.
1,3
3) Outline the improvements of MD5 over MD4
1,3
4) Explain the mechanism of one way hash functions.
1,3
5) Explain DSA mechanism.
1,3
6) Describe the Discrete Logarithm Signature scheme.

3. Modules for Internal Assessment Test:


Test Module No. CO’s attained
First IA Test Module 1 & 2 1&2
Second IA Test Module 2 & 3 1&2
Third IA Test Module 4 & 5 1,2 & 3

4. Assignment Questions
I Assignment

Q.No. CO
For each of the following equations, find an integer x that satisfies the 1
equation.
1.
a. 5x≡ 4 (mod 3)
b. 7x≡ 6 (mod 5)
2. Determine gcd(24140, 16762). 1

3. Find the multiplicative inverse of each nonzero element in Z5. 1,2


Using the Vigenère cipher, encrypt the word “explanation” using the key 1,2
4.
leg.
5. What is the difference between diffusion and confusion? 1

II Assignment

Q.No. CO
1. Show that DES decryption is, in fact, the inverse of DES encryption. 1
2. State Fermat’s Theorem and Euler’s Theorem 1,2

3. Explain Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm. Users A and B use the 1,2
Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique with a common prime q=71 and
primitive root g=7. If user A has private key x=5, what is A’s Public Key
Page No. 58
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
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R1? If user B has private key y=12, what is B’s public key R2? What is the
shared secret key?
4. Define a feedback shift register and mention its two types. 1,2

5. Determine whether following integers pass the fermat primality test: 1,2

110,130,150. Use base 2.

III Assignment

Q.No. CO
Determine whether following integers pass the miller-rabin primality test: 1
1. 110,130,150. Use base 2

2. Write an algorithm for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 1,3

3. List the various schemes of digital signature. 2,3

4. Discuss clearly Secure Hash Algorithm 1,3

5. Discuss MD4, MD5, Snefru approaches. 1,3

Page No. 59
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
5. Question Papers

Answer any one full question from each module


Time : 3hrs Max Marks: 80
Module 1

Q1. a. Define ring, group and field. 3 Marks

b. For each of the following equations, find an integer x that satisfies the equation.
a. 5x ≡4 (mod 3)
b. 7x ≡ 6 (mod 5)
c. 9x≡ 8 (mod 7) 7 Marks

c. For polynomial arithmetic with coefficients in Z10, perform the following


calculations.
a. (7x + 2) - (x2 + 5)
b. (6x2 + x + 3) * (5x2 + 2) 6 Marks

OR
Q2. a. Determine the gcd of the following pairs of polynomials.
a. x3 + x + 1 and x2 + x + 1 over GF(2). 5 Marks

b. Using the extended Euclidean algorithm, find the multiplicative inverse of


a. 1234 mod 4321
b. 24140 mod 40902. 5 Marks
c. Determine the multiplicative inverse of x3 + x + 1 in GF(24) with m(x) = x4 + x + 1.
6 Marks

Module 2
Q3. a. Briefly define the Caesar cipher, monoalphabetic cipher and Playfair cipher.
5 Marks
b. Encrypt the message “this is an exercise”using one of the following ciphers. Decrypt
the message to get the original plain text.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
a. Addditive cipher with key=20
b. Multiplicative cipher with key=15
c. Affine cipher with key=(15,20) 6 Marks
c. Construct a Playfair matrix with the key occurrence. Make a reasonable assumption
about how to treat redundant letters in the key. 5 Marks

OR

Q4. a. Explain DES algorithm. 6Marks

b. Use hill cipher to encipher the message: “We live in an insecure world”. Use the
following key:

03 02

05 07 5Marks

c. Use Vigenere cipher with keyword “HEALTH” to encipher the message “Life is full of
surprises”. 5Marks

Module 3

Q5. a. Which four tasks are performed in each round of AES Cipher? Explain
. 10marks

b. Define a feedback shift register and mention its two types


6Marks

OR

Q6. a. Explain the Key Expansion process in AES.


6Marks

b. What are the various block cipher design principles? Explain how different
cryptographic algorithms use Fiestel Cipher Structure? 10Marks

Module 4
Q7. a. Explain the concept of elliptic curve cryptography. 6Marks

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
b. Explain Chinese Remainder Theorem. Using CRT find ‘x’ from the equations x  11
mod 12 and x  7 mod 13 5Marks

c. What are discrete logarithms? Explain how are they used in Public Key Cryptography?

5Marks

OR

Q8. a. Describe Diffie Helman key exchange. 5 Marks


b. Give the structure of AES. Explain how Encryption/Decryption is done in AES
5
Marks
c. What are the attacks that are possible on RSA? 6
Marks
Module 5
Q9. a. What are the main features of Kerberos Version 5? 5 Marks

b. Write briefly about the signature based Intrusion Detection Systems. 5


Marks

c. Briefly explain the different message authentication functions with neat diagrams.
6 Marks

OR

Q10. a. Describe the steps in finding the message digest using SHA-512 algorithm. What is
the order of finding two messages having the same message digest? 6
Marks

b. Describe the digital signature schemes DSS, Schnorr and ElGamal. 5


Marks

c. Explain the compression of Secure Hash Algorithm. 5 Marks

List of PO’s:
a: An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering.

b: An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data.
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
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c: An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within
realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health
and safety, manufacturability and sustainability.

d: An ability to function on multidisciplinary teams.

e: An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems.

f: An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility

g: An ability to communicate effectively

h: The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a


global, economic, environmental and societal context.

i: A recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning.

j: A knowledge of contemporary issues.

Page No. 63
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

REAL TIME SYSTEMS


Semester: VII Year: 2018-19
Subject Code: 15EC743 IA Marks: 20
Total Contact Hours: 40 hrs Hours per week: 4
VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

1. Syllabus

PART-A
MODULE I:
Introduction to Real-Time Systems: Historical background, Elements of aComputer Control
System, RTS- Definition, Classification of Real-time Systems, Time Constraints, Classification
of Programs.

Concepts of Computer Control: Introduction, Sequence Control, Loop Control, Supervisory


Control, Centralized Computer Control, Hierarchical Systems. (Text Book: 1.1 to 1.6 and 2.1
to 2.6) ---8 Hours

MODULE II :
Computer Hardware Requirements for Real-Time Applications:

Introduction, General Purpose Computer, Single Chip Microcomputers and Microcontrollers,


Specialized Processors, Process-Related Interfaces, Data Transfer Techniques,
Communications, Standard Interface.(Text Book: 3.1 to 3.8) ---8 Hours

MODULE III :
Languages for Real-Time Applications: Introduction, Syntax Layout and Readability,
Declaration and Initialization of Variables and Constants, Modularity and Variables,
Compilation of Modular Programs, Data types, Control Structures, Exception Handling, Low-
level facilities, Co-routines, Interrupts and Device Handling, Concurrency, Real-Time Support,
Overview of Real-Time Languages. (Text Book: 5.1 to 5.14) ---8 Hours

Page No. 64
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
MODULEIV :
Operating Systems: Introduction, Real-Time Multi-Tasking OS, Scheduling Strategies,
Priority Structures, Task Management, Scheduler and Real-Time Clock Interrupt Handler,
Memory Management, Code Sharing, Resource Control, Task Co-Operation and
Communication, Mutual Exclusion.(TextBook: 6.1 to 6.11) ---8 Hours

MODULE V :
Design of RTS – General Introduction: Introduction, SpecificationDocument, Preliminary
Design, Single-Program Approach, Foreground/Background System.

RTS Development Methodologies: Introduction, Yourdon Methodology, Ward and Mellor


Method, Hately and Pirbhai Method. (Text Book: 7.1 to 7.5 and 8.1, 8.2, 8.4,8.5) ---8 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:
1.Real-Time Computer Control, by Stuart Bennet, 2nd Edn. Pearson Education. 2008.

Reference Books:

1. C.M. Krishna, Kang G. Shin, “Real –Time Systems”, McGraw –Hill International Editions,
1997.

2. Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Phillip. A. Laplante, second edition, PHI, 2005.

3. Embedded Systems, Raj Kamal, Tata McGraw Hill, India, third edition, 2005.

2. Prerequisites for the course

This subject requires the student to know about the

 Basic concepts of operating systems.

 Preliminary knowledge of terminology used in Real time systems.

Page No. 65
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
3. Overview of the course
Real time systems implies deterministic and reliable nature. The real time systems are very
much different from general purpose system in terms of Operating system, programming
language, underlying hardware, control. These concepts have been included in the course of
Real time systems. Also the course gives an overview of design of real time systems.

4. Relevance to this program


Being an electronics engineer, one may have to work on highly critical time constrained
systems in the future. In order operate such systems, it is very much essential to know to
operating principals of underlying real time system. The scope of real time systems is very
wide, spans almost all the fields. Nowadays, life would not be so easy without real time
systems. In our day to day life, we rely upon many real time systems, but most of us are
unaware of it.

5. Course Outcomes
After studying this course the student will be able to
1. Understand the fundamentals of Real time systems and its classifications.
2. Understand the concepts of computer control, operating system and the
suitablecomputer hardware requirements for real-time applications.
3. Develop the software languages to meet Real time applications.
4. Apply suitable methodologies to design and develop Real-Time Systems.

6. Applications
The applications of Real-Time Systems are found in all the user application program execution
on the computer systems like controlling of chemical plant, C programs, playing audio and
video etc. These concepts can be applied to a variety of applications, including military and
government systems.
The meta-operating system concept might be applied to tactical situations in which there are a
large number of sensors deployed, only some of which are useful at a given time, or for which
particular personnel are appropriately cleared.
1) Chemical plant control
2) Automatic lighting control through computer
3) Nuclear power plant controlling through computer
Page No. 66
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

7. Modulewise Plan

Module I : Introduction to Real-Time Systems Number of Hours: 8

Learning Objectives:
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1.Discuss the historical background of Real-time systems
2.Know the classification of real time system
3. Describe the concepts of computer control for Real-Time Application.

Lesson Plan:
Lecture PO’s CO’s Text Book/
Topics Covered Teaching Method
No Attained Attained chapter no
L1 Historical background Chalk & Board 1 T1/Ch-1

Elements of aComputer Chalk & Board 1 T1/Ch-1


L2
Control System
RTS- Definition, Classification Chalk & Board 1 T1/Ch-1
L3
of Real-time System
Time Constraints, Chalk & Board 1 T1/Ch-1
L4 Classification of Programs.

Concepts of Computer Chalk & Board 1,2 T1/Ch-2


L5
Control: Introduction
Sequence Control, Loop Chalk & Board 1,2 T1/Ch-2
L6 a,e
Control, Supervisory Control
Centralized Computer Control Chalk & Board 1,2 T1/Ch-2
L7

Hierarchical Systems Chalk & Board 1,2 T1/Ch-2


L8

Module II : Computer Hardware Requirements for


Real-Time Applications: Number of Hours: 8

Learning Objectives:
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1. Describe the hardware components for real time systems
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
2. Learn the communication and standard interfaces

Lesson Plan:

Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Text Book/


Topics Covered
No Method Attained Attained chapter no

L9 Introduction, General Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3


Purpose Computer
L10 Single Chip Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3
Microcomputers and
L11 Specialized Processors Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3
L12 Process-Related Interfaces Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3

L13 Data Transfer Techniques Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3

a,i
Communications Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3
L14

L15 Standard Interface Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3

L16 Standard Interface Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-3

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering

Module III : Languages for Real-Time


Number of Hours: 8
Applications.

Learning Objectives:
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1. Discuss the languages to develop software for Real-Time Applications.

2. Understand the programming aspects such as syntax, data types, variables

Lesson Plan:
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Text Book/
Topics Covered
No Method Attained Attained chapter no
Languages for Real- Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5
L17 Time Applications:
Introduction

Syntax Layout and Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5


Readability, Declaration
L18
and Initialization of
Variables and Constants
a,c
L19 Modularity and Variables Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5

Compilation of Modular Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5


L20
Programs

Data types, Control Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5


L21
Structures

Exception Handling, Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5


L22
Low-level facilities

L23 Co-routines, Interrupts Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5


and Device Handling

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Concurrency,RealTime Chalk & Board 3 T1/ Ch-5

L24 Support, Overview of

Real-Time Languages.

Module IV: Operating Systems Number of Hours: 8

Learning Objectives:
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1.Explain the concepts of operating system
2.Understand Scheduling and memory management
Lesson Plan:

Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Text Book/


Topics Covered
No Method Attained Attained chapter no
Operating Systems: Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6
L25 Introduction, Real-Time
Multi-Tasking OS
Scheduling Strategies, Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6
L26
Priority Structures
Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6
L27 Task Management, Scheduler

Real-Time Clock Interrupt Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6


L28 Handler

Memory Management Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6


L29

Code Sharing, Resource Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6


L30 Control
Task Co-Operation and Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6
L31
Communication

Mutual Exclusion Chalk & Board 2 T1/ Ch-6


L32

Page No. 70
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Module V : Design of RTS Number of Hours: 8

Learning Objectives:
After studying this chapter students will be able to:
1.Explain the conceptof RTS development methodologies
2.Understandsingle program approach, foreground/background approach.
Lesson Plan:

Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s Text Book/


Topics Covered
No Method Attained Attained chapter no

Design of RTS – General Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-7


L33
Introduction: Introduction
SpecificationDocument, Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-7
L34
Preliminary Design
L35 Single-Program Approach Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-7

Foreground/Background Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-7


L36 c,d
System
RTS Development Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-8
L37 Methodologies:
Introduction
Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-8
L38 Yourdon Methodology

L39 Ward and Mellor Method Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-8

Chalk & board 4 T1/Ch-8


L40 Hately and Pirbhai Method

Assignments -I
Assignment Questions COs attained
1. Define Real time systems, classify it. What are the basic elements 1
present in a real time system.
2. Describe loop control with respect to real time systems. 1,2
2. Describe supervisory control with respect to real time systems. 1,2
4. Explain the specialized processors that are used in Real time 1,2
systems.
5. ExplainData transfer techniques 1,2

Page No. 71
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
Assignments -II
Assignment Questions COs attained
1. DescribeModularity and Variables of RTS 3

2. Explain Exception Handling, Low-level facilities in RTS 3

3. DiscussReal-Time multi-tasking OS 2

4.Explain task co-operation and communication in RTS 2

5. Write a Short note on the concept of minimum kernel 2

Assignments -III
Assignment Questions COs attained
1.Explain Preliminary design in Real-Time Systems 4

2. ExplainYourdon Methodology for development of RTS 4

3. Explain ExplainPirbhai Method for development of RTS. 4

Page No. 72
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
8. Portion for IA Test:

TEST Module No. CO’ s Attained


First IA Test I,II 1,2
Second IA Test III,IV 2,3
Third IA test V 4

9. Program Outcomes:

a. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering.


b. An ability to design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data in
the field of Electronics & Communication engineering.
c. An ability to design a system, component or process to meet desired needs within
realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health
and safety manufacturability and sustainability.
d. An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
e. An ability to identify, formulate and solve Electronics & Communication engineering
related problems.
f. An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.
g. An ability to communicate effectively.
h. The broad education necessary to understand the impact of Electronics &
Communication engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental and
societal context.
i. A recognition of the need for and an ability to engage in lifelong learning.
j. A knowledge of contemporary issues in Electronics & Communication engineering.
k. An ability to use the techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for
Electronics & Communication engineering practices.

Page No. 73
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
2. VTU Question Paper

3.

Page No. 74
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Programme: B.E in Electronic & Communication Engineering
4.

Page No. 75
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Programming MQTT clients and MQTT server. Introduction to IoT privacy and security.
Vulnerabilities, security requirements and threat analysis, IoT Security Tomography and layered
attacker model. L1, L2, L3

Module-4

Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks:

Challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks, Enabling Technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks.

Architectures: Single-Node Architecture - Hardware Components, Energy Consumption of Sensor


Nodes, Operating Systems and Execution Environments, Network Architecture-Sensor Network
Scenarios, Optimization Goals and Figures of Merit, Design principles for WSNs, Service interfaces
of WSNs Gateway Concepts. L1, L2, L3

Module-5

Communication Protocols:

Physical Layer and Transceiver Design Considerations, MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor
Networks, Low Duty Cycle Protocols and Wakeup Concepts - S-MAC, The Mediation Device
Protocol, Wakeup Radio Concepts, Contention based protocols (CSMA, PAMAS), Schedule based
protocols (LEACH, SMACS, TRAMA) Address and Name Management in WSNs, Assignment of
MAC Addresses, Routing Protocols- Energy-Efficient Routing, Geographic Routing, Hierarchical
networks by clustering. L1, L2, L3

TEXT BOOKS:

T1. Raj Kamal, ‖Internet of Things-Architecture and design principles‖, McGraw Hill Education.
T2. Holger Karl & Andreas Willig, "Protocols And Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks" ,
John Wiley, 2005.
T3. Feng Zhao & Leonidas J. Guibas, ―Wireless Sensor Networks- An Information Processing
Approach", Elsevier, 2007.

Page No. 77
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


REFERENCE BOOKS:
R1. Kazem Sohraby, Daniel Minoli, & Taieb Znati, ―Wireless Sensor Networks- Technology,
Protocols, And Applications‖, John Wiley, 2007.
R2. Anna Hac, ―Wireless Sensor Network Designs‖, John Wiley, 2003.

1.2 Prerequisite:
The prerequisite for this subject includes

1) Arduino basics
2) Network protocols (OSI and TCP/IP) model
3) Electronic circuits
4) Programming: Python/C++/Ruby on Rails

Overview of the course


What if an umbrella could sense the local weather and remind the user if it is needed to be carried
along that day; or if some kind of variable device could monitor a patient’s health and when it is
about to deteriorate, communicate the nature of emergency to the doctor directly and promptly; or if
a car could have some computation and predictive analytics system which could inform the user
about the upcoming servicing schedules to avoid any sudden component failures beforehand?
This course is designed to be as the answers to the aforementioned issues. Internet of Things
(IoT) and Internet connected Cloud Platforms-as-a-Service (PaaS) can make the above cases come
true as real-life situations.

Relevance of the course to this Program


IoT is now widely researched and being rapidly implemented as well. Some of the Indian
Government initiatives like Smart Cities and Make in India, there is a huge demand for startups in
the field of IoT. Moreover, due atomization, lots of job requirements are open for the experts in the
field. This course would definitely make the students to be future ready and imbibe the skills which
are currently required in the industries.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Course Outcomes (COs):

At the end of the course, students will be able to:


1. Understand the overview, design principles, OSI Model and communication protocols for the
IoT/M2M Systems.
2. Understand the architecture and design principles for IoT along with the importance of Data
Collection, Storage and Computing using a Cloud Platform.
3. Learn the prototyping and designing software for IoT Applications.
4. Gain insight into the wireless sensor networks and their architectures.
5. Identify the communication protocols which best suits the WSNs.

1.6 Applications

1. Smart Homes.
2. Smart Transportation.
3. Smart Healthcare.
4. Smart Industries.
5. Smart Farming.
6. Smart Grids.
7. Smart Waste Management.
8. Smart Supply Chain.
9. Smart Cities.

Page No. 79
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering

2. MODULEWISE PLAN

Module 1: Overview of Internet of Things Number of Hours : 08

a. Learning Objectives:

1. Describe the basics, definition and vision of IoT.


2. Analyse IoT in terms of a suggested IoT conceptual framework.
3. Explain the suggested architectural views for IoTs amid diverse technologies.
4. Describe enabler technologies which are used in designing of: (i) IoT devices,
(ii) Communication methods between devices and remote server, cloud and applications.
5. Categorise the resources which enable the development of IoT prototype and product.
6. Outline the functions of M2M architectural domains and relationships of an M2M system
with an IoT system.
7. Summarise IoT examples of usage in wearable devices, smart cities, and understand the
architectural frameworks for smart homes and smart cities.
8. Summarise recent initiatives of international organisations for design standardisations of
IoT/M2M architectural layers and domains.
9. List functions of data-adaptation layer, devices and gateway domain.
10. Extend the understanding of web communication protocols used by connected
IoT/M2M devices.
11. Illustrate the usage of messaging protocols between connected devices and the web.

b. Lesson Plan:

CO’s Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained
Attained chapter no
IoT Conceptual Framework, IoT Chalk a, b
L1 1 T1/01
Architectural View, and Talk
L2 Technology Behind IoT, Sources Chalk 1 T1/01
of IoT, M2M communication, and Talk
Examples of IoT.

Page No. 80
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Modified OSI Model for the Chalk
L3 IoT/M2M Systems, data and Talk 1 T1/02

enrichment,
data consolidation and device Chalk
L4 management at IoT/M2M and Talk 1 T1/02

Gateway,
web communication protocols Chalk
L5 used by connected IoT/M2M and Talk 1 T1/03

devices,
web communication protocols
Chalk
L6 used by connected IoT/M2M 1 T1/03
and Talk
devices,
Message communication
protocols (CoAP-SMS, CoAP- Chalk
L7 1 T1/03
MQ, MQTT, XMPP) for and Talk
IoT/M2M devices.
Message communication
protocols (CoAP-SMS, CoAP- Chalk
L8 1 T1/03
MQ, MQTT, XMPP) for and Talk
IoT/M2M devices.

c. Question Bank

Question Bank COs attained


1. What is vision of IoT? How does the vision reflect in use of IoT
1
in a smart street lighting?
2. What are the open-source software components for developing 1
IoT applications
3. Describe the sources for device platform development for 1
developing IoT applications.
4. Explain UART and I2C bus interface. When and where these 1
interfaces used?
5. Why are the device management functions required? 1

Module 2: Architecture and Design Principles for IoT and Data


Number of Hours : 08
Collection, Storage and Computing using a Cloud Platform.
Page No. 81
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


a. Learning Objectives:
1. Explain Internet connectivity protocols-IP, IPV6, RPL, 6LoWPAN, TCP/IP suite, TCP and
UDP.
2. Describe the functions of IP address, MAC address, DNS and DHCP.

3. Explain the functions of Application Layer protocols-HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, Telnet and Ports.

4. Outline Cloud computing paradigm for data collection, storage and computing services.
5. Describe cloud computing service models in a software architectural concept, everything as a
service (XAAS).
6. Explain the usages of cloud platforms for IoT applications and services with the examples of
Xively (Pachube/COSM) and Nimbits.
b. Lesson Plan:

Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
Architecture and Design a, b, c, e
Principles for IoT: Internet Chalk and
L9 2 T1/04
connectivity, Internet-based Talk
communication,
IPv4, IPv6,6LoWPAN protocol, Chalk and
L10 2 T1/04
IP Addressing in the IoT, Talk

Application layer protocols: Chalk and


L11 HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TELNET 2 T1/04
Talk
and ports.
Data Collection, Storage and
Computing using a Cloud
L12 Chalk and
Platform: Introduction, Cloud 2 T1/06
Talk
computing paradigm for data
collection,
Chalk and
L13 storage and computing, 2 T1/06
Talk
Chalk and
L14 Cloud service models, 2 T1/06
Talk
L15 IoT Cloud- based data Chalk and 2 T1/06
collection, Talk
Page No. 82
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


storage and computing services Chalk and
L16 2 T1/06
using Nimbits. Talk

c. Question Bank

Question Bank COs attained


1. Describe the three conceptual frameworks using equations which
2
give steps at various levels or layers in IoT applications.
2. How does Internet of Things differ from Internet-controlled 2
devices?
3. List the features of Oracle IoT architecture. 2
4. Specify functions of CoAP, RESTful HTTP, MQTT and XMPP 2
in IoT applications.
5. What are the modifications in OSI model for IoT? 2

Module 3: Architecture and Design Principles for IoT, Data Number of Hours :
Collection, Storage and Computing using a Cloud Platform. 08

a. Learning Objectives:
1. Develop the codes, design and test the embedded devices for IoT and M2M using the IDEs
and development platforms.
2. Analyse and program the devices, gateways, Internet connectivity, web and cloud
applications using the open-source implementations of Eclipse IoT stack.
3. Explain the requirements of privacy and security, vulnerabilities from threats and threat
analysis in IoT.
4. Outline security tomography of large networks and layered attacker model.

b. Lesson Plan:

Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
Prototyping and Designing a, b, c, e
Software for IoT Applications:
L17 Hands-on 3 T1/09
Introduction, Prototyping
Embedded device software,
L18 Programming Embedded Device Hands-on 3 T1/09
Arduino Platform using IDE,
Page No. 83
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Reading data from sensors and Hands-on
L19 3 T1/09
devices, Devices, Gateways,
Internet and Web/Cloud services Hands-on
L20 3 T1/09
software development.
Programming MQTT clients and Hands-on
L21 3 T1/09
MQTT server.
Introduction to IoT privacy and Chalk and
L22 3 T1/10
security. talk
Vulnerabilities, security Chalk and
L23 3 T1/10
requirements and threat analysis, talk
IoT Security Tomography and Chalk and
L24 3 T1/10
layered attacker model. talk

Page No. 84
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


c. Question bank

Question Bank COs attained


1. What are the five levels in software development for IoT applications
3
and services?
2. Why it is necessary to write the test function? Why are debugger and 3
emulators used?
3.List the Ethernet and Wi-Fi functions for IoT systems. 3

4. Why are misuse cases important for security threats? 3

5. Describe access-autherisation methods. 3


4

Module 4: Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks and Number of Hours :


Architectures. 08

a. Learning Objectives:

1. Outline the challenges faced by the Wireless Sensor Networks.


2. Describe the enabling technologies for wireless sensor networks.
3. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of the nodes in a sensor network.
4. Describe and outline the Hardware Components, Energy Consumption of Sensor Nodes,
Operating Systems and Execution Environments
5. Appreciate the basic networking “philosophy” followed by wireless sensor network
research.

b. Lesson Plan:

Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
Overview of Wireless Sensor a, b, c, e
Chalk and
L25 Networks: Challenges for 4 T2/01
talk
Wireless Sensor Networks,
L26 Enabling Technologies for Chalk and 4 T2/01
Wireless Sensor Networks. talk

Page No. 85
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Architectures: Single-Node
Chalk and
L27 Architecture - Hardware 4 T2/02
talk
Components,
Energy Consumption of Sensor
Chalk and T2/02
L28 Nodes, Operating Systems and 4
talk
Execution Environments,
Network Architecture-Sensor Chalk and T2/03
L29 4
Network Scenarios, talk
Optimization Goals and Figures Chalk and T2/03
L30 4
of Merit, talk
Chalk and T2/03
L31 Design principles for WSNs, 4
talk
Service interfaces of WSNs Chalk and T2/03
L32 4
Gateway Concepts. talk
c. Lesson Plan:

Question Bank Cos attained


1. List and explain Challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks. 4
2. What are the Enabling technologies for wireless sensor networks? 4

3. With neat diagram, explain the architecture of a WSN. 4

4. Explain the design principles of WSNs. 4

5. What is a Gateway in WSN? 4

Module 5: Communication Protocols Number of Hours : 08

a. Learning Objectives:
1. Understanding of some fundamental concepts related to digital communications over wireless
channels.
2. Describe specific constraints of wireless sensor networks (regarding, for example, energy and
node costs) in turn shape the design of modulation schemes and transceivers.
3. Understanding on some of the fundamental trade-offs regarding transmission robustness and
energy consumption and how these are affected by the power-consumption properties of
transceiver components.
4. Understand fundamentals of MAC protocols and explain the specific requirements and
problems these protocols have to face in wireless sensor networks
b. Lesson Plan:
Page No. 86
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Reference
Lecture Teaching PO’s CO’s
Topics Covered book/
No Method Attained Attained
chapter no
Communication Protocols: Physical Chalk
L33 Layer and Transceiver Design and talk 5 T2/04
Considerations,
MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Chalk
L34 Networks, Low Duty Cycle Protocols and talk 5 T2/05
and Wakeup Concepts - S-MAC,
The Mediation Device Protocol, Chalk
L35 5 T2/05
Wakeup Radio Concepts, and talk
Contention based protocols (CSMA, Chalk
L36 5 T2/05
PAMAS), and talk a, b, c, e
Schedule based protocols (LEACH, Chalk
L37 5 T2/05
SMACS, TRAMA) and talk
Address and Name Management in Chalk
L38 5 T2/07
WSNs, and talk
Assignment of MAC Addresses, Chalk
L39 Routing Protocols- Energy-Efficient and talk 5 T2/07
Routing,
Geographic Routing, Hierarchical Chalk
L40 5 T2/07
networks by clustering. and talk

c. Questions Bank
Questions Bank COs attained
1. Give the classification of communication protocols used for WSNs 5

2. What are the design parameters that are to be considered for WSNs? 5
3. Explain S-MAC protocol, and show how wakeup concept is used in it. 5
4. Explain CSMA as contention based protocol. 5
5. Explain how address and name management is done in WSNs. 5

3. Portion for I.A Test:

Test Modules COs


Page No. 87
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


I I.A Test Module 1,2 1,2

II I.A Test Module 3,4 3,4

III I.A Test Module 5 5

4. Assignment Questions

Assignment - I COs attained


1. Describe the three conceptual frameworks using equations which give steps
1
at various levels or layers in IoT applications.
2. Describe IETF proposed six-layer model for IoT. How does the IoT model
1
relate to the OSI seven-layer model for computer networks?
3. Draw message exchanges between devices, MQTT broker and web
1
applications.
4. Show and explain the header fields in a 6LoWPAN frame, IP packet and TCP
2
stream.
5. Describe the features of HTTP. 2
Assignment – II COs attained
1. What are the functions of Arduino IDE that enable the programing tasks
3
simpler at Arduino platform.
2. How are pins programmed for digital IO and UART serial IOs at Arduino
3
platform?
3. Why are used? Describe the ways of implementing APIs for device platform
3
clients and a server for application/service ends.
4. What are the important characteristics of WSNs that are considered as
4
challenges?
5. List and explain the various requirements for WSNs. 4
Assignment – III COs attained
1. Give the classification of MAC layer protocols for WSNs. 5
2. Explain the requirements of MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks. 5
3. With timing diagram explain the mediation device protocol for WSNs. 5
4. Explain the LEACH protocol used for WSNs. 5
5. What is geographic routing? Explain Simple greedy geographic forwarding. 5

List of PO’s:
a: An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering.
b: An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data.
Page No. 88
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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


c: An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic
constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety,
manufacturability and sustainability.
d: An ability to function on multidisciplinary teams.
e: An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems.
f: An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
g: An ability to communicate effectively
h: The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global,
economic, environmental and societal context.
i: A recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning.
j: A knowledge of contemporary issues.

Page No. 89
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering

ADVANCED COMMUNICATION LAB


Semester: VII Year: 2018-19
Subject Code: 15ECL76 IA Marks: 20
VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

PART-A: Following Experiments No. 1 to 4 has to be performed using discrete


components.
1. Time Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing of two bandlimited signals.
2. ASK generation and detection
3. FSK generation and detection
4. PSK generation and detection
5. Measurement of frequency, guide wavelength, power, VSWR and attenuation in
microwave test bench.
6. Measurement of directivity and gain of microstrip dipole and Yagi antennas.
7. Determination of.
a. Coupling and isolation characteristics of microstrip directional coupler.
b. Resonance characteristics of microstrip ring resonator and computation of
dielectric constant of the substrate.
c. Power division and isolation of microstrip power divider.
8. Measurement of propagation loss, bending loss and numerical aperture of an optical fibre.

PART-B: Simulation Experiments using SCILAB/MATLAB/Simulink or LabView


1. Simulate NRZ, RZ, half-sinusoid and raised cosine pulses and generate eye
diagram for binary polar signaling.
2. Simulate the Pulse code modulation and demodulation system and display the waveforms.
3. Simulate the QPSK transmitter and receiver. Plot the signals and its constellation diagram.
4. Test the performance of a binary differential phase shift keying system by
simulating the non-coherent detection of binary DPSK.

Page No. 90
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Course outcomes: On the completion of this laboratory course, the students will be able to:
1. Determine the characteristics and response of microwave devices and optical
waveguide.
2. Determine the characteristics of microstrip antennas and devices and compute
the parameters associated with it.
3. Simulate the digital modulation schemes with the display of waveforms and
computation of performance parameters.
4. Design and test the digital modulation circuits/systems and display the
waveforms.

Page No. 91
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering

VLSI LAB
Semester: VII Year: 2018-19

Subject Code: 15ECL77 IA Marks: 20


VTU Exam Marks: 80 Exam: 3 Hours

Expt.No. Name of the Experiment Week

PART A

ASIC DIGITAL DESIGN

1 Write Verilog Code for the following circuits and their Test Bench for I

verification, observe the waveform and synthesise the code with


technological library with given Constraints*. Do the initial timing
verification with gate level simulation of an inverter.
2 A Buffer` II

3 Transmission Gate III

4 Basic/universal gates IV

5 Flip flop RS, D, JK, MS, T V

6 Serial & Parallel adder VI

7 4-bit counter [Synchronous and Asynchronous counter] VII

8 Successive approximation register [SAR] VIII

PART B

ANALOG DESIGN

9 Design an Inverter with given specifications**, completing the design flow IX


mentioned below:
a. Draw the schematic and verify the following
i) DC Analysis
ii) Transient Analysis
b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC
c. Check for LVS
d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the Design
Page No. 92
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


e. Verify & Optimize for Time, Power and Area to the given constraint*

10 2. Design the (i) Common source and Common Drain amplifier and (ii) A X
Single
Stage differential amplifier, with given specifications**, completing the
design flow mentioned below:
a. Draw the schematic and verify the following
i) DC Analysis
ii) AC Analysis
iii) Transient Analysis
b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC
c. Check for LVS
d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the design

11 3. Design an op-amp with given specification** using given differential XI


amplifier
Common source and Common Drain amplifier in library*** and
completing the
design flow mentioned below:
a. Draw the schematic and verify the following
i) DC Analysis
ii). AC Analysis
iii) Transient Analysis
b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC
c. Check for LVS
d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the Design

12 Design a 4 bit R-2R based . DAC for the given specification and XII
completing the
design flow mentioned using given op-amp in the library***.
a. Draw the schematic and verify the following

i) DC Analysis
ii) AC Analysis
iii) Transient Analysis

Page No. 93
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC

13 For the SAR based ADC mentioned in the figure below draw the mixed XIII
signal
schematic and verify the functionality by completing ASIC Design FLOW.
[Specifications to GDS-II]

* Appropriate specification should be given. ** Applicable Library should be added &


information should be given to the Designer. *** An appropriate constraint should be given

Page No. 94
B.L.D.E. Association’s
V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology, Vijayapur– 586 103
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Programme: BE in Electronics and Communication Engineering


Course outcomes: On the completion of this laboratory course, the students will be able to:
1. Write test bench to simulate various digital circuits.
2. Interpret concepts of DC Analysis, AC Analysis and Transient Analysis in analog circuits.
3. Design and simulate basic CMOS circuits like inverter, common source amplifier and
differential amplifiers.
4. Use basic amplifiers and further design higher level circuits like operational amplifier and
analog/digital converters to meet desired parameters.
5. Use transistors to design gates and further using gates realize shift registers and adders to
meet desired parameters.

Page No. 95