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Equation of a Circle Performance Task

Equation of a Circle Performance Task

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You are on page 1of 9

PA 1 – 1 and PA 1 – 2

Locating the Epicenter of an Earthquake Using Equations of Circles

INTRODUCTION

On December 26, 2004, an earthquake roared under the Indian Ocean, producing a series of large

tsunamis that broke records, as the deadliest tsunami in the world and the fourth largest earthquake

in the world, in terms of its magnitude measurement. The initial Richter scale reading was 9.0, which

is extremely high.

To understand the cause of the earthquake, scientists needed to find the epicenter. The epicenter

and is located directly above the focus of the earthquake. Experts use math to find the epicenter and

magnitude of earthquakes and are then able to determine the severity of the earthquake. We use

this system of measurements, epicenter and magnitude, to organize and classify earthquakes.

Moreover, this provides a concrete approach to analyzing earthquakes and gives experts a way to

explain earthquakes to the rest of the world, in terms of numbers. In this way, people can understand

how severe earthquakes are around the world and experts can make predictions based on historical

patterns of earthquakes.

TASKS

PA 1 – 1

Work with a partner and become virtual seismologists together by determining the epicenter of the

following earthquake simulations.

One method is by using triangulation. In order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using this

method, you will need to examine its seismograms as recorded by three different seismic stations.

On each of these seismograms you will have to execute the following steps.

a.) Estimate the time interval between the arrival of the P and S waves (the S-P interval) on the

seismogram. Measure the interval to the closest second. In the figure above, the S - P

interval is about 36 seconds. The vertical lines are placed at 2 second intervals.

b.) The S – P time interval will then be used to determine the distance the waves have traveled

from the origin to that station using the S – P graph tool.

c.) The actual location of the earthquake's epicenter could be anywhere on the circumference of

a circle drawn around the recording station. Graph this circle on the map using the distance

obtained in b.

d.) Remember that three stations are needed in order to "triangulate" the location. Repeat steps

a to d to the other two seismograms. The point of intersection among the three circles

produced determines the epicenter of the earthquake.

Earthquake 1: San Francisco

a.) Estimate the time interval between the arrival of the P and S waves on the seismograms below.

Measure the interval to the closest second.

b.) Determine the distance the waves have traveled from the origin to that station using the S – P

graph tool. Complete the table below also to approximate the equation of the circles around each

seismic station.

EPICENTRAL APPROXIMATE

APPROXIMATE S–P

DISTANCE EQUATION OF THE

STATION GPS INTERVAL

(in CIRCLE

COORDINATES (in seconds)

kilometers) (in standard form)

Center Radius

California 124° longitude)

Nevada 117° longitude)

Nevada 115° longitude)

c.) Using the epicentral distances obtained in b, graph the circles around the given locations in the

map below, with the aid of a compass. Use colored pencils or markers for distinction.

d.) Determine the epicenter by placing an “X” on the point of intersection of the three circles.

Earthquake 2: Japan

a.) Estimate the time interval between the arrival of the P and S waves on the seismograms below.

Measure the interval to the closest second.

b.) Determine the distance the waves have traveled from the origin to that station using the S – P

graph tool. Complete the table below also to approximate the equation of the circles around each

seismic station.

EPICENTRAL APPROXIMATE

APPROXIMATE S–P

DISTANCE EQUATION OF THE

STATION GPS INTERVAL

(in CIRCLE

COORDINATES (in seconds)

kilometers) (in standard form)

Center Radius

South Korea 129° longitude)

(36° latitude,

Tokyo, Japan

140° longitude)

(40° latitude,

Akita, Japan

140° longitude)

c.) Using the epicentral distances obtained in b, graph the circles around the given locations in the

map below, with the aid of a compass. Use colored pencils or markers for distinction.

d.) Determine the epicenter by placing an “X” on the point of intersection of the three circles.

PA 1 – 2

With your partner, create a brochure containing the answers to the following questions to spread

awareness about the importance of being prepared during natural phenomena such as earthquakes.

• Earthquakes

o What is an earthquake? What are seismic waves? What is a seismograph?

o Why do we need to determine the magnitude and epicenter of an earthquake?

• Epicenter and Magnitude

o How do we locate the epicenter of an earthquake?

o How do determine the magnitude of an earthquake?

• Strongest Earthquakes that Hit the Philippines

o What are the strongest earthquakes that hit the Philippines?

o Where are their epicenters and what are their magnitudes?

o What were the damages caused by these earthquakes?

• Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes

o What should we do before, during, and after an earthquake?

REFLECTION

1. How did your knowledge on circles and the equation of a circle help you in this activity?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________.

2. Where else can your knowledge on the equation of a circle be used in real life?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________.

3. What did you personally learn or realize about yourself or about Math through this activity?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________.

4. If you are to rate your level of involvement or participation in this activity, with 1 being the lowest

and 5 being the highest, what score will you give yourself and why?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________.

5. If you are to rate the level of involvement or participation of your groupmates in this activity, with

1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest, what score will you give yourself and why?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________.

SCORING GUIDE

Approaching Not

CRITERIA Advanced Proficient Developing

Proficiency Observed

PA 1 – 1 TASK COMPLETION

Evidence of Presents Presents Presents Presents Presents

Critical accurate accurate accurate accurate inaccurate

Thinking solutions to all solutions to solutions to solution to solutions to

four (4) tasks three (3) two (2) tasks one (1) task tasks and

(Accuracy of tasks problems

Solutions,

Meaningfulness

of Reflections) 15 14 13 12 11

Evidence of Completes all Completes Completes Completes Completes

Communication four (4) tasks three (3) two (2) tasks one (1) task tasks and

and and problems tasks and and problems and/or problems

Collaboration collaboratively problems collaboratively problem without

collaboratively collaboratively collaboration

(Collaborative

Completion of

Tasks) 5 4 3 2 1

PA 1 – 2 EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS BROCHURE

Includes all Includes Includes Includes a Includes

necessary majority of the some of the few of the none of the

information necessary necessary necessary necessary

Evidence of and elements information information information information

Critical of the project and elements and elements and elements and

Thinking in a logical of the project of the project of the project elements of

and in a logical in a logical in a logical the project

(Completeness interesting and and and in a logical

of Creative sequence interesting interesting interesting and

Output) sequence sequence sequence interesting

sequence

10 9 8 7 6

Presents Presents Presents Presents Presents

project with project with project with project with project

Evidence of

appropriate appropriate low quality missing without

Creative

and graphics and graphics and graphics and graphics

Thinking

interesting creative creative creative and creative

graphics and elements elements elements elements

(Aesthetics of

creative

Creative

elements

Output)

10 9 8 7 6

TOTAL

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