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International Journ al of Trend in Scientific Research and D evelopment (IJTSRD) Internat tional Open Access
International Journ al of Trend in Scientific Research and D evelopment (IJTSRD)
Internat tional Open Access Journal | www.ijtsr d.com
ISSN No: 245 6 - 6470
|
Volume - 2 | Issue – 6
|
Se p – Oct 2018
A Survey on Clustered and Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for
Wi reless Sensor Networks

Diks ha Pandita 1 , Ravi Kumar Malik 2

1 Re search Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor Departm ent of ECE, Geeta Engineering College, Panipat Kuruk shetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

ABSTRACT

The main issue in WSN is en nergy limited characteristic of the sensor node. So the
The main issue in WSN is en nergy limited
characteristic of the sensor node. So the
have the routing protocol in such the
problem is to
manner that it
should be energy efficient in order to in crease the life
time of the whole WSN. Hierarc hical routing
architecture divides the whole network
of cluster and only cluster head is
in to a group
responsible to
randomly deployed over an
forwarding the data to base station d irectly or via
seismic events, temperature,
other cluster heads. In location based
routing, localization of the sensor node
architecture of
is to be used
to compute the path to the sensed da ta. During the
creation of network topology, the pro cess of setting
[2]. Unstructured WSN – it
up routes in WSNs is usually influen ced by energy
considerations, because the power con sumption of a
wireless link is proportional to square
or even higher
is left unattended to perform
order of the distance between the s ender and the
receiver. Hierarchical routing can be
non- centralized. In non-centralized
centralized or
hierarchical
routing, the sensor nodes self-confi gures for the
failures) is quite difficult in
cluster head on the basis of selecti ng a random
number. They don’t consider the ca se of residual
nodes are placed at specific
energy. But in centralized routing the
base station is
responsible to create cluster. In hierar chical routing
areas in unstructured WSN.
architecture, sensor nodes self-configu re themselves
for the formation of cluster heads. In
this paper, we

network lifetime. These requ irements should be met

in routing protocols of wi reless sensor network.

Wireless sensor network con sist of tiny nodes called

sensor nodes. These nodes a re battery powered and

have limited energy for use . Also these nodes are

area to monitor the

happenings in the environm ent such as humidity,

pollution, fire detection

etc [1]. These nodes are mo bile or static depending

on the physical phenomeno n monitored. There are

two types of WSN- unstructu red and structured WSN

is the one containing a

large collection of tiny sen sor nodes. The sensor

nodes are deployed randomly in the area. The network

monitoring and reporting

functions. Whereas in structu red WSN, all the nodes

are deployed in a pre-plan ned manner. Network

maintenance (managing con nectivity and detecting

unstructured WSN than

structured WSN. Also, in stru ctured WSN, the sensor

positions which help in

providing full coverage, wher eas there are uncovered

The primary function of a se nsor node is to collects

have studied different types of hierar chical routing

data and sent it to the base

station. A sensor node

protocols for wireless sensor networks.

contains three basic compone nts [3]:

Keywords: WSN, hierarchical routing , SEP, TEEN, Issues in WSN, Applications of WSN

1. INTRODUCTION

The scattered nature and active topolo gy of wireless sensor network (WSN) have so me particular requirements that are as follows – the r educed energy consumption of the network, and m aximizing the

  • A. Sensing Subsystem: - It i s used for acquisition of data from the physical en vironment where nodes are deployed.

  • B. Processing Subsystem: - I t is used for storing the data and local data proces

  • C. Wireless Communication for data transmission.

ing is carried out.

Subsystem: - It is used

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International Journal of Trend in

Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Also a power source consisting of no n rechargeable batteries supplies the energy needed t o
Also a power source consisting of no n rechargeable
batteries supplies the energy needed t o perform the
communication. Once th e nodes are organized
into clusters each cluster head creates a schedule
programmed task. As it is inconvenie nt to recharge
the batteries because nodes when once
unreachable to users. In some cases it
scavenge the energy from the external
deployed are
is possible to
environment,
for all the nodes belonging
B. Low Energy Adaptive
Centralized (Leach-C):
energy buffers are sometimes needed a s well. But in
any case, energy resource is very vita l resource and
must be used carefully. There fore, energy
conservation is the key issue in the des ign of systems
based on wireless sensor network. T o prolong the
lifetime of network different technique es are applied.
problem of determining
heads in every round.
to its cluster.
Clustering Hierarchy
-Since LEACH has a
the number of cluster
For the formation of
clusters, LEACH-C utilize s the base-station [6]. In
LEACH the nodes config ure themselves to form
clusters, but in LEACH -C at each iteration or
round the base-station
first receives the
For example, energy efficient protocols
are aimed for
information about locatio n, state and the energy
level of the nodes. This in formation is used then to
minimizing the energy consumption d uring network
activities.
calculate the mean value
of network node energy;
and base-station finds pr edetermined number of
cluster heads and hence
configures the network
2.
HIERARCHICAL PROTOCOLS
into clusters [6]. The no des that are selected as
It is also known as Cluster Based
Routing. The
cluster head have highe
energy level that the
routing protocols in this category force a structure on
the wireless sensor networks to pr ovide energy
efficient communication and scala bility to the
network. The network nodes are o rganized into
mean energy value. LEAC H-C is an improvement
over LEACH by the fol lowing points: First, to
produce clusters that re quire less energy for
transmission Base-Statio n utilizes it global
clusters and based on some criteria a c luster head for
each cluster is selected [5] i.e. higher
energy nodes
are used to route the data, and lower en ergy nodes are
used to sense the area. Figure 1
illustrates the
knowledge of the net work, Second, unlike
LEACH where the numb er of cluster head varies
from round to round d ue to lack of global
coordination amongst no des, in LEACH-C the
clustering based scheme of the w ireless sensor
network. The cluster heads are then r esponsible for
number of cluster heads
in each round equals a
predetermined optimal val ue [7].
organizing the activities within the cl uster. Here, in
hierarchical routing the number of me ssages that are
transferred to the base-station are dec reased due to
fusion and data aggregation thus it low ers the energy
consumption and hence helps to impro ve the lifetime
of the network [5]. In such protocols the
the base station and cluster head will
energy faster than all the other nodes.
nodes around
exhaust their
Some of the well known protocols und er this section
are: -
A. Low Energy Adaptive Clusteri ng Hierarchy
(LEACH): - LEACH is a clu stering based
algorithm. Key features of LEACH are [7]: - First,
to reduce the global communicatio n it uses local
compression. Second, it uses rando mized rotation
for making clusters. Third, for clu ster setup and
other operations localized coor dination and
Figure 1: Clustering Schem a for Wireless Sensor
Network (redraw n from [6]).
control is required. Unlike, the
conventional
Stable Election Protocol (SE P):
clustering algorithm, LEACH is s elf-organizing,
adaptive clustering algorithm [8]. o f the network.
A percentage of the populat ion of sensor nodes is
equipped with more energy r esources than the rest of
The non cluster head nodes have
to decide to
the nodes. Let m be the fracti
n of the total number of

which cluster it wants to belongs b y choosing the

cluster heads which require les s energy for

nodes n, which are equipp ed with α times more

energy than the others. We

refer to these powerful

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 Also a power source

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International Journal of Trend in

Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

nodes as advanced nodes, and the re st (1−m)×n as normal nodes. We assume that a ll nodes are distributed randomly over the sensor fie ld [7].

the first protocol developed f or reactive networks. In this scheme, at every cluster change time, in addition

to the attributes, the cluster -head broadcasts to its members, Hard Threshold (H T): This is a threshold

It is the absolute value

of the attribute beyond whic h, the node sensing this

value must switch on its tran smitter and report to its

(ST): This is a small sensed attribute which on its transmitter and

The nodes sense their environ ment continuously. The

first time a parameter from th e attribute set reaches its

node switches on its

transmitter and sends the se nsed data. The sensed

value is stored in an interna l variable in the node,

called the sensed value (SV ). The nodes will next

transmit data in the current cl uster period, only when

both the following conditions are true:

The current value of the s ensed attribute is greater

sensed attribute differs

from SV by an amount eq ual to or greater than the

a node transmits data;

SV is set equal to the cur rent value of the sensed

Thus, the hard threshold tries to reduce the number of

nodes to transmit only

in the range of interest.

reduces the number of

all the transmissions

occurred when there is

little or no change in the se nsed attribute once the

The main features of this sche me are as follows:

Time critical data rea ches the user almost instantaneously.

So, this scheme is emi nently suited for time critical sensing application s.

consumes much more

energy than data sensing . So, even though the

nodes sense continuously, the energy consumption

in this scheme can potenti ally be much less than in the proactive network, be cause data transmission is done less frequently.

The soft threshold can be varied, depending on the

criticality of the sensed application.

attribute and the target

Suppose that Eo is the initial energy o f each normal sensor. The energy of each
Suppose that Eo is the initial energy o f each normal
sensor. The energy of each advanced no de is then Eo*
value for the sensed attribute
(1+α). The total (initial) energy
heterogeneous setting is equal to:
of
the
new
cluster head. Soft Threshold
n * Eo * (1 + α * m)
(1)
change in
the
value of
the
So, the total energy of the system is i ncreased by a
triggers
the
node to
switch
factor of 1+α * m.
transmit.
A.
each normal node becomes a clus ter head once
every 1 popt · (1+α ·m) rounds per e poch;
B.
each advanced node becomes a
cluster head
exactly 1 + α times every 1 popt· ( 1+α·m) rounds
hard
threshold
value,
the
per epoch;
C.
the average number of cluster heads per round per
epoch is equal to n × popt
Cluster Head Election for normal nod es is based on
following equation:
1.
than the hard threshold.
2.
The current value of the
(2)
soft threshold. Whenever
where r is the current round, G' is the
set of normal
nodes that have not become cluster he ads within the
attribute.
last 1/pnrm rounds of the epoch, and
threshold applied to a population of
(normal) nodes. This guarantees that
T(snrm) is the
(1 − m)
n
·
each normal
node will become a cluster head exac tly once every
1/popt· (1+α·m) rounds per epoch,
average number of cluster heads that are
and
that
the
normal nodes
per round per epoch is equal to n · (1 − m) × pnrm.
transmissions by allowing the
when the sensed attribute is
The soft threshold further
transmissions by eliminating
which might have otherwise
Cluster Head Election for advanced nod es is based on
following equation:
hard threshold.
1.
(3)
where G'' is the set of advanced nodes
that have not
2.
become cluster heads within the last 1 p padv rounds of
the epoch, and T(sadv) is the threshol d applied to a
3.
Message
transmission
population of n x m (advanced)
guarantees that each advanced node
cluster
head
exactly
on ce
nodes. This
will become a
every
(1/popt)x((1+α·m)/(1+α)) rounds.
4.

Threshold sensitive Energy Effi cient sensor Network protocol (TEEN):

In this section, we present a new net work protocol called TEEN. It is targeted at reactive n etworks and is

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 nodes as advanced nodes,

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  • 5. A smaller value of the soft threshol d gives a more

monitoring, tracking and

monitoring doctors and

accurate picture of the network, at

the expense of

patients inside the hospita l, it also offer significant

increased energy consumption. T hus user can

cost saving and enable

new functionalities that

control the trade-off between ene rgy efficiency and accuracy. activities etc [5]. 6. At every cluster
control the trade-off between ene rgy efficiency
and accuracy.
activities etc [5].
6.
At every cluster change time, the
attributes are
D.
broadcast a fresh and so, the user ca n change them
as required.
automation and smart
The main drawback of this scheme
is
that, if
the
thresholds are not reached, the nod es will never
communicate; the user will not get any data from the
network at all and will not come to kn ow even if all
the nodes die. Thus, this scheme is not well suited for
4.
applications where the user needs to
get data on a
NETWORKS
regular basis. Another possible prob lem with this
scheme is that a practical implementati on would have
to ensure that there are no collisions in t he cluster.
the data between source and
increase the network lifetime;
TDMA scheduling of the nodes can be used to avoid
this problem. This will however introd uce a delay in
the reporting of the time-critical da ta. CDMA is
another possible solution to this problem .
energy consumption between
of low energy path may lead
3.
APPLICATIONS OF WSN
Wireless sensor networks are used
in variety of
Performance of the routing
everyday life activities or services. The most common
application of WSN is for monitori ng where we
A.
randomly deploy some nodes to
monitor some
phenomenon. We categorize the applic ations of WSN
destination safely.
in military, environment, health ho me and other
commercial areas.
B.
protocols that considers
A.
Military Applications: - Wireless se nsor networks
can be an integral part of milita ry Command,
longevity of the network.
Control, Communication,
Computing,
C.
Intelligence, Surveillance, Recon naissance and
Targeting [6]. The rapid depl oyment, self-
the area coverage of the
organization and fault tolerance ch aracteristics of
sensor networks make them a v ery promising
D.
sensing technique for military.
The military
accuracy of packet. This
one way latency which
applications of sensor networks a re monitoring
friendly forces, biological and ch emical attack
detection, targeting, battle damage a ssessment etc.
E.
B.
Environmental Applications: - The environmental
applications of WSN are tracking
the movement
nodes
on
the
network
are
of birds, monitoring the environme ntal conditions
that effect crops and livestoc k’s, precision
agriculture, pollution study, forest
fire detection,
meteorological or geophysical r esearch, bio-
complexity mapping of the environ ment [3].
F.
Energy Spent Per Round:

will assist people with c hronic disease on daily

Home Applications: -Ho me applications include

environment. In home

automation the sensors ar e buried in the domestic devices that will help the m to interact with each other and with the ext ernal environment via internet. And, it will allow user to coordinate these

devices locally and remote ly [3].

CRITICAL ISSUES OF WIRELESS SENSOR

The main design goal of WS N is to not only transmit

destination but is also to

which can achieved by

applying energy efficient pro tocols. The task of the

protocol is not only to choo se a path having lower

sources to destination

(BS), but also to find an effic ient approach to prolong

the network lifetime. But so metimes continuous use

to energy depletion of

sensor nodes in that path leadi ng to network partition.

protocol is calculated

based on some terms which in cludes [1]:-

Energy per Packet: - t he amount of energy

required sending a pa cket from source to

Low Energy Consumpti on: - it includes such

the remaining energy

level of nodes and select s route accordingly for

Total Number of Nodes A live: - It gives an idea of

network over time. This

metrics is related to netwo rk lifetime.

Average Packet Delay: - T his metrics measure the

metrics is calculated as is observed between

transmission and receptio n of data packet at the sink.

Time until the First No de Dies: - This metric indicates the duration fo r which all the sensor

alive.

There

are

protocols in which the fir st node on the network runs out of energy earlier than in other protocols, but manages to keep t he network operational much longer.

- This metric is related

  • C. Health Applications: - This area of WSN provide interfaces for the disabled, inte grated patient

to the total amount of e nergy spent in routing

messages in a round. It

is a short-term measure

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 5. A smaller value

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Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

designed to provide an idea o f the energy efficiency of any proposed method in a particular round.

traditional networks they f ocus primarily on the

Quality of Service (QoS). I n this paper, we have surveyed hierarchical routin g protocols in wireless

G. Packet Size: - the lifetime of the network also sensor network. From the above study
G.
Packet Size: - the lifetime of the
network also
sensor network. From the
above study we can
depends on the packet size; it deter mines the time
that a transmission will last. As it is effective in
conclude that there are man y routing protocols and
you can use any one of them for your network based
energy consumption so packet si ze should be
reduced by combining large number of packets.
on the application. All these protocols use static sink
or BS for data transmission
which leads to energy
H.
Distance: - The distance between
the transmitter
hole problem. In future, we w ill propose mobile-sink
and receiver can affect the power t hat is required
and multi-sink strategies to
remove energy hole
to send and receive packets. The ro uting protocols
can select the shortest paths betw een nodes and
reduce energy consumption.
problem. And, it may enhan ce packet delivery and
network lifetime.
REFERENCES
5. CONCLUSION
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Nikolaos A. Pantazis, S tefanos A. Nikolidakis,
WSNs differ from traditional wireless c ommunication
Dimitrios D. Vergados, “E nergy-Efficient Routing
networks in several of their character istics. One of
Protocols in Wireless
Sensor Networks: A
them is power awareness, due to the
fact that the
batteries of sensor nodes have a restrict ed lifetime and
are difficult to be replaced. Therefore , all protocols
must be designed in such a way as to m inimize energy
consumption and preserve the long evity of the
network. That is why, routing protocols in WSNs aim
mainly to accomplish power conserv ation while in
Survey,” IEEE Comm unications Surveys &
Tutorials, 2013, Vol. 15, I ssue. 2, pp. 551-590.
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Yick J., Mukherjee B.,
Ghosal D., “Wireless
Sensor Network Survey ” Computer networks,
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 designed to provide an

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