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Part A: Multiple-Multiple Choice f.

FALSE - Batteries produce energy through a exothermic chemical


1. Which of the following statements are true about an electric circuit? reaction. When a battery no longer works, the ability of its chemical
List all that apply. reaction to produce products and energy has become limited by the
a. Electrons are the mobile charge carriers in an electric circuit. depletion of reaction and the build up of products. It has not run out of
b. The path of charge flow from the + to the - terminal of the circuit charge; it has run of out chemical reactants.
can consist of nonconductive material. g. TRUE - Know this one! The + terminal is the location of high energy in
c. In an electric circuit of an automobile, the 12-Volt car battery is an electric circuit.
sometimes referred to as the internal circuit because it is located
inside of the hood of the car. 2. Which of the following statements are true about an electric potential
d. Charge is supplied with energy in the internal circuit and the or electric potential difference? List all that apply.
energy is transformed into other forms in the external circuit. a. Electric potential can be expressed in units of volts.
e. Charge is consumed as it moves through the energy-transforming b. Electric potential can also be expressed in units of Joules.
devices of the external circuit. For instance, the amount of charge c. The electric potential of a charge at a given location provides a
entering a light bulb in a second is less than that which exits the light measure of the rate at which charge flows past that point.
bulb in a second. d. Work must be done on a + charge to move it against (i.e., in the
f. A battery is used to power a flashlight circuit. When the battery no opposite direction of) an electric field.
longer works, it is because it has run out of charge. e. As a + charge moves in the same direction as an electric field, it
g. The location on an electric circuit where the charge possesses gains electric potential.
the greatest amount of electric potential energy is the + terminal of f. The electric potential difference between two points is simply the
the battery. difference in potential energy possessed by charge between those
two points.
Answer: ADG g. If a unit of charge has a high electric potential at any given
a. TRUE - Physicists often speak of conventional current as the direction location, then that charge possesses a large amount of electric
that positive charge moves through a circuit. This is based on the potential energy at that location.
convention that the direction of the electric field is the direction that a + h. The + terminal of a battery is a location with a higher electric
test charge would be accelerated. In reality, the carrier of electric charge potential than the - terminal of a battery.
in an electric circuit is the electron. i. Charge flowing through a battery will experience a gain in electric
b. FALSE - For charge to flow through an external circuit, the pathway potential.
must consist of conductive materials. The presence of a nonconductor j. A 6-Volt battery would provide 12 Joules of energy to 2 Coulombs
would inhibit charge flow and low the current to zero. of charge as it is moved from the - to the + terminal.
c. FALSE - The internal circuit is the portion of the circuit inside the
battery, located between the - terminal and the + terminal. Whether the Answer: ADGHIJ
battery is inside the hood or not has nothing to do with it. If you were to a. TRUE - Electric potential, also known as voltage, is measured in units
place your battery on top of your hood, it would still be the internal circuit. of volts.
d. TRUE - The battery is the internal circuit; it is the place where charge b. FALSE - The electric potential at a given location in a circuit is defined
acquires its energy. The external circuit consists of wires, light bulbs, the electric potential energy per charge at the location. Its units would be
resistors, etc. In the external circuit, charge has its electrical energy energy units per charge units - a Joule per Coulomb (not simply a Joule).
transformed into other forms as it passes through the elements of the c. FALSE - The rate at which charge flows past a point is the current.
external circuit. Electric potential is the potential energy per charge at a given location.
e. FALSE - Charge is neither created nor destroyed, and as such, the d. TRUE - By convention, an electric field is the direction which a positive
amount of charge which enters a light bulb in a second is equal to the test charge would be pushed or pulled. If a positive charge is moved
amount of charge which exits the light bulb in a second. This quantity against an electric field, then work must be done upon the charge to
(charge per second) is the current and it is everywhere the same in a overcome the opposing effect of the field.
circuit. e. FALSE - A positive charge moving in the direction of an electric field is
moving without any external help. Such a charge is analogous to a e. Electric current provides a measure of how fast charge moves
bicycle moving downhill; the bicyclist would not have to pedal. In such between two points on a circuit.
instances, there is a loss in electric potential energy, and thus a loss in f. The electric current diminishes in value as charge progresses to
electric potential. locations further and further from the + terminal of the battery.
f. FALSE - Close, but not correct. The difference in electric potential g. The electric current in a circuit will increase as the electric
between any two points is simply the different in electric potential potential impressed across a circuit is increased.
energy per chargebetween those two points. Using a gravitational h. The electric current in a circuit will triple in value as the electric
analogy, gravitational potential is the difference in gravitational potential potential impressed across a circuit is increased by a factor of three.
energy per mass between any two points. Gravitational potential energy i. Suppose a miniature light bulb is connected to a battery in a
is dependent upon the amount of mass present at a location (m•g•h); the circuit. A light bulb with a greater resistance will have a greater
more mass present at a location , the more gravitational potential energy. current.
In contrast, gravitational potential reduces the importance of mass by j. Wider conducting wires are capable of carrying larger currents.
defining itself as the potential energy per kilogram of mass (PE / m). By k. If one starts getting technical about the meaning of electric
so doing, gravitational potential is now only location dependent - current, one could argue that electric current is not something that
depending only upon the value of g at a given location and the height flows past a point on a circuit, but rather something that exists to a
above some zero reference level. In the same manner, electric potential given measure at a point on a circuit.
energy at a given location is charge-dependent. The more charge
present at a location, the more repulsive (or attractive) effects and the Answer: ADGHJK
greater the potential energy. But electric potential makes the amount of a. TRUE - Electric current is the rate at which charge flows past a point
charge unimportant since it is the electric potential energy per charge. on a circuit. It is measured in Coulombs per second, also known as an
Now electric potential is location dependent - dependent for instance on Ampere or an "Amp."
the location in a circuit and not upon the amount of charge flowing past b. FALSE - No! Current refers to how many Coulombs of charge pass a
that location in a second. cross-sectional area in a wire in a second of time. Drift speed refers to
g. TRUE - Electric potential is the potential energy per charge at a given the distance that a mobile charge carrier travels in a unit of time. One
location. The more electric potential which a unit of charge has at a given quantity - current - has to do with how many? and the other quantity - drift
location, the more electric potential energy that the charge has. speed - has to do with how far?
h. TRUE - In the battery, the positive terminal is the location of high c. FALSE - Current is a rate quantity much like velocity or power is a rate
energy and high potential. The negative terminal is the location of low quantity. There is a per time basis to it. Current is defined as the
energy and low potential. Coulombs of charge which pass a point on a circuit per second of time.
i. TRUE - In the battery, a charge is moved from a location of low energy d. TRUE - Yes! This is the definition of current - a definition which ought
to a location of high energy. The charge would gain electric potential to be committed to memory.
energy and as such, it would also gain electric potential. e. FALSE - See the explanation to part b above.
j. TRUE - A 6-Volt battery supplies every Coulomb of charge with 6 f. FALSE - Charge is marching around a circuit at the same rate
Joules of energy. The energy per charge ratio is 6 Joules per Coulomb. everywhere within the circuit. The number of Coulombs which exit the
Thus, 2 Coulombs of charge would gain 12 Joules of energy. battery at the + terminal in a second is equal to the number of Coulombs
which enter the battery at the - terminal in a second. Charge is not
3. Which of the following statements are true about electric current? List created; charge is not destroyed; and charge does not accumulate at a
all that apply. location in a circuit. Charge simply marches together around the loop of a
a. Electric current is measured in units of Amperes. circuit. The quantity which is lost and gained is energy. Work is done on
b. Electric current and drift speed are synonymous terms. the charge as it passes through the battery, thus pumping the charge up
c. Electric current is defined as the number of Coulombs of charge to a high energy. And the charge subsequently does work upon the
which move past a point on a circuit. elements of the external circuit, transforming its electric potential energy
d. Electric current is equal to the number of Coulombs of charge to other useful forms (light, sound, mechanical, thermal, etc.).
which move past a point on a circuit per unit of time. g. TRUE - A higher electric potential impressed across the two terminals
of a battery will cause the rate of charge flow (i.e., current) to increase. the flow of charge. The more hindrance which charge encounters, the
This is consistent with the V = I•R equation. more resistance.
h. TRUE - Consistent with V = I•R, one could say that the current is c. FALSE - The unit of resistance is the ohm. Ampere or Amps is the unit
directly proportional to the voltage. A tripling of the voltage (while R is of current.
held constant) would cause a tripling of the current. d. TRUE - The resistance of a resistor is the V/I ratio at that location. A 5-
i. FALSE - A light bulb with a greater resistance will offer more hindrance ohm resistor would have a 5:1 ratio of voltage to current. This is a true
to the flow of charge through it and as such lead to less current. Since I = statement since (2.5 Volt) / (0.5 A) is equal to 5.0 Volt/Amp.
V / R, the quantities current and resistance are inversely proportional. e. FALSE - The resistance of a resistor is the V/I ratio at that location. A
j. TRUE - A wider wire has a greater cross-sectional area and thus offers 10-ohm resistor would have a 10:1 ratio of voltage to current. This is a
less resistance. As such, wider wires allow a greater current or flow rate. false statement since (5 Volt) / (2 A) is not equal to 10 Volt/Amp.
k. TRUE - Technically speaking, current does not flow or move. Current f. TRUE - The resistance of a wire is mathematically related to the
is a quantity which is measured at a location and is based upon the rate resistively of the material, the length of the wire and the cross-sectional
at which charge flows. Teachers and textbooks often get sloppy with their area of the wire. Longer wires have a greater resistance.
language and say that the current flows. In reality, it is the charge that g. FALSE - The resistance of a wire is mathematically related to the
does the moving; the current is simply measured at a location to reveal resistively of the material, the length of the wire and the cross-sectional
the rate at which charge flows past that location. area of the wire. Wider wires have a lower resistance.
h. FALSE - More resistance would cause less current.
4. Which of the following statements are true about an electric i. TRUE - In accordance with the equation I = V / R, current is inversely
resistance? List all that apply. proportional to the resistance. Tripling the resistance will cause the
a. The resistance of an electric circuit is a measure of the overall current to decrease by a factor of three.
amount of hindrance to the flow of charge through the circuit. j. FALSE - The resistance of a light bulb is an intrinsic property which
b. A large resistance value indicates that the charge is encountering depends upon the material and dimensions (length and diameter) of the
a relatively large amount of difficulty in moving through the circuit. light bulb filament. If the same light bulb is connected to a battery of
c. The unit of resistance is the ampere. greater potential, only the current at the bulb location will be modified.
d. A 5-ohm resistor would allow a current of 0.5 Amperes when 2.5
Volts is impressed across it. 5. Which of the following statements are true about electric power and
e. A 10-ohm resistor would allow a current of 2 Amperes when 5 electric potential energy? List all that apply.
Volts is impressed across it. a. Power is the amount of energy used by an electrical appliance.
f. The resistance of a conducting wire will increase as the length of b. Power is the rate at which energy is used by an electric circuit.
the wire is increased. c. A kiloWatt•hour is a unit of electric power.
g. The resistance of a conducting wire will increase as the cross- d. A Joule/second is a unit of power.
sectional area of the wire is increased. e. A 60-Watt light bulb would consume 30 Joules of electrical energy
h. Increasing the resistance of an electric circuit will cause the in 2 seconds.
current in the circuit to increase. f. A 120-Watt light bulb would consume 1200 Joules of electrical
i. A threefold increase in the resistance of an electric circuit will energy in 6 seconds.
result in a threefold decrease in the electric current. g. A charge moving through an electric circuit would gain electric
j. A miniature light bulb with a specific resistance is connected to a potential energy in the internal circuit and lose electric potential
1.5-Volt battery to form a circuit. If it were connected to a 6-Volt energy in the external circuit.
battery instead, its resistance would increase by a factor of 4. h. Charge has the greatest amount of electric potential energy at the
- terminal of the battery.
i. If a 60-Watt light bulb is placed in a 120-Volt circuit, then the
Answer: ABDFI current in the light bulb is 2 Amps.
a. TRUE - Yes! Remember this as the definition of resistance. j. Consider two light bulbs with different power ratings. A 60-Watt
b. TRUE - Resistance refers to the amount of hindrance (resistance) to light bulb has a greater resistance than a 100-Watt light bulb.
b. During any single loop of charge around a series circuit, the
Answer: BDGJ charge will pass through each resistor in the circuit.
a. FALSE - Power is a rate quantity; it is the rate at which energy is used c. The overall resistance of a circuit increases as more and more
by an electrical appliance. resistors are placed in series in the circuit.
b. TRUE - Yes! Know this definition. d. The total current in a circuit increases as more and more resistors
c. FALSE - A kiloWatt is a unit of power. An hour is a unit of time. Power are placed in series in the circuit.
is energy per time. So when power is multiplied by time, the result is e. Suppose that three identical resistors with a resistance of 3-ohms
energy. A kiloWatt•hour is a unit of energy. are placed in series with a 12-Volt battery. The current in the circuit is
d. TRUE - Power is the rate at which energy is used by an electrical 4 Amps.
appliance. As such, power is measure in energy per time units - Joules f. Suppose that three identical resistors with a resistance of 3-ohms
per second. are placed in series with a 12-Volt battery. The electric potential
e. FALSE - Power is the energy per time ratio. A 60-Watt bulb would difference across each resistor is 12 Volts.
consume 60 Joules of energy in 1 second, 120 Joules of energy in 2 g. Suppose that two identical resistors are placed in series with a
seconds, and 30 Joules of energy in 0.5 seconds. 12-Volt battery. The current in the circuit is 6 amps. The resistance of
f. FALSE - Power is the energy per time ratio. A 120-Watt bulb would each resistor is 4 ohms.
consume 120 Joules of energy in 1 second, 720 Joules of energy in 6 Answer: ABC
seconds, and 1200 Joules of energy in 10 seconds. a. TRUE - Series circuits are circuits which allow a single pathway for
g. TRUE - This is how an electric circuit work. The internal circuit charge to follow; there is no no branching locations in a series circuit.
supplies electrical energy to the charge and the electrical energy is b. TRUE - Since there are no branching points in a series circuit, charge
converted to other forms of energy in the external circuit. is never left with a choice of passing through either Resistor A or Resistor
h. FALSE - The - terminal is the location of lowest energy in an electric B. It must pass through both resistors in consecutive fashion before
circuit. the location of highest energy is the + terminal. returning to the - terminal of the battery.
i. FALSE - Power is related to voltage and current by the equation P = c. TRUE - Adding more resistors in series would mark the overall
I•V. So a 60-Watt bulb would allow a current of 0.5 Amps if wired into a resistance of the circuit increase since each charge making a loop
120-Volt circuit. around the circuit will encounter each of these resistors.
j. TRUE - A 60-Watt light bulb and a 100-Watt light bulb have different d. FALSE - If adding more resistors makes the overall resistance of the
resistance values, which in turn effects the current at the light bulb circuit increase, then it will make the overall current in the circuit
location. The bulb with the greatest resistance has the lower current. So decrease. For a constant battery voltage, current and resistance are
which bulb - high power or low power - has the greatest resistance? One inversely proportional.
must consider the expression for power which includes both the current e. FALSE - Three resistors wit a resistance of 3 Ohms placed in series is
(I) and the resistance (R) since the choice of bulb will effect both equivalent to a single resistor with a resistance of 9 Ohms. The current
variables. The equation P = I2•R is of utmost importance here. In the through the circuit would be equal to the battery voltage divided by the
equation, the I is of double the importance since it is the square term in overall or equivalent resistance. I = (V Tot) / (RTot) = (12 Volts) / (9 Ohms) =
the equation. So the bulb with the greatest I is the bulb with the greatest 1.33 Amps.
power. The 100-Watt bulb has the greatest current; and therefore it must f. FALSE - In a series circuit, the voltage gained by the charge in passing
have the lowest resistance. The 60-Watt bulb has the greatest through the battery - in this case, 12 Volts - is equal to the overall or
resistance. cumulative voltage drop of the charge as it passes through the resistors.
So the sum of the voltage drops in each of the three individual resistors
6. Which of the following statements are true about a series circuit? List must be 12 Volts. In the case of three resistors of equal resistance, the
all that apply. charge will lose 4 Volts in each resistors, thus accumulating a total
a. Series circuits are characterized by the fact that there is a single voltage drop of 12 Volts.
pathway by which charge can travel from the + terminal to the - g. FALSE - The total or equivalent resistance of these two series
terminal. resistors is simply the ratio of the battery voltage to the overall current.
That is, RTot = (VTot) / (ITot) = (12 Volts) / (6 Amps) = 2 Ohms. For resistors
in series, the overall or total resistance is the sum of the individual effect of increasing the overall current through the circuit. For a constant
resistances. Thus, each resistor must have a resistance of 1 Ohm. battery voltage, current and resistance are inversely proportional.
e. FALSE - The overall resistance of a parallel circuit is expressed by the
7. Which of the following statements are true about a parallel circuit? List equation:
all that apply. 1/RTot = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
a. Parallel circuits are characterized by the fact that there are So for this circuit, substituting 3 Ohms for each of the resistors leads to a
multiple pathways by which charge can travel from the + terminal to total resistance of 1 Ohm. The total current through the circuit is given by
the - terminal. the equation I = (VTot) / (RTot) = (12 Volts) / (1 Ohm) = 12 Amps.
b. During any single loop of charge around a parallel circuit, the f. TRUE - In any circuit - whether series or parallel, the voltage gained by
charge will pass through each resistor in the circuit. the charge in passing through the battery - in this case, 12 Volts - is
c. The overall resistance of a circuit increases as more and more equal to the overall voltage drop of the charge as it passes through the
resistors are placed in parallel in the circuit. external circuit. In the case of a parallel circuit, the charge makes
d. The total current in a circuit increases as more and more resistors an either-or choice between resistors. It passes through a single resistor
are placed in parallel in the circuit. instead of all three resistors. Thus, it must drop 12 Volts during the pass
e. Suppose that three identical resistors with a resistance of 3-ohms through that resistor. The voltage drop across each branch is 12 Volts.
are placed in parallel with a 12-Volt battery. The current in the circuit g. TRUE - The total or equivalent resistance of these two parallel
is 1 Amp. resistors is simply the ratio of the battery voltage to the overall current.
f. Suppose that three identical resistors with a resistance of 3-ohms That is, RTot = (VTot) / (ITot) = (12 Volts) / (6 Amps) = 2 Ohms. For resistors
are placed in parallel with a 12-Volt battery. The electric potential in parallel, the overall or total resistance is expressed by the equation
difference across each resistor is 12 Volts. 1/RTot = 1/R1 + 1/R2
g. Suppose that two identical resistors are placed in parallel with a Substituting 4 Ohms for each of the individual resistances leads to the
12-Volt battery. The overall current in the circuit is 6 amps. The overall resistance of 2 Ohms. This is definitely a true statement.
resistance of each resistor is 4 ohms.
Answer: ADFG Part B: Multiple Choice
a. TRUE - This is the definition of a parallel circuit. A parallel circuit 8. If an electric circuit was analogous to a water park, then the battery
contains a branching location. When a charge reaches the branching would be analogous to the ____.
location, it may choosebetween a pathway which includes any one of at a. pipes which carry the water through the water circuit
least two resistors. b. pump which supplies energy to move the water from the ground to a
b. FALSE - This is a characteristic of a series circuit. In a parallel circuit, high elevation
chargemakes a either-or choice at the junction or branching locations, c. the people which flow from the top of the water ride to the bottom of
choosing to pass through either Resistor A or Resistor B. It does not pass the water ride
through both of them in consecutive fashion, but only through one or the d. the rate at which water is pumped onto the slide
other resistor. e. the change in potential energy of the riders
c. FALSE - Increasing the number of resistors in parallel branches will f. the top of the water slide
have the effect of decreasing the overall resistance of the circuit. At first g. the bottom of the water slide
this seems rather counterintuitive. But consider that the new resistor h. the long lines which exist at the park
actually opens up a new pathway through which the charge can pass. i. the speed at which riders move as they slide from the top to the bottom
Not all the charge goes through all the resistors. By opening a new of the ride
branch in the circuit, the fraction of charge which passes through any one
resistor is reduced. So less charge actually encounters a single resistor.
Now it makes sense to say that more resistors (i.e., more branches) Answer: B
leads to less overall resistance. A water ride at a water park is analogous to an electric circuit. First of all,
d. TRUE - If increasing the number of resistors has the effect of there is an entity which flows - water flows in a water park and (in
decreasing the overall resistance of the circuit, then it must have the conventional terms) + charge flows in an electric circuit. In each case,
the fluid flows spontaneously from a high energy location to a low energy there is an entity which flows - water flows in a water park and (in
location. The flow is through pipes (or slides) in a water park and through conventional terms) + charge flows in an electric circuit. In each case,
wires in an electric circuit. If the pipes or the wires are broken, then there the fluid flows spontaneously from a high energy location to a low energy
can be no continuous flow of fluid through thecircuit. A complete loop is location. The flow is through pipes (or slides) in a water park and through
required to establish the circuit. wires in an electric circuit. If the pipes or the wires are broken, then there
This flow of fluid - whether of water or charge - is possible when a can be no continuous flow of fluid through thecircuit. A complete loop is
pressure difference is created between two locations in the circuit. In the required to establish the circuit.
water park, the pressure difference is the difference in water pressure This flow of fluid - whether of water or charge - is possible when a
created by two locations of different heights. Water flows spontaneously pressure difference is created between two locations in the circuit. In the
from locations of high pressure (high altitude) to locations of low pressure water park, the pressure difference is the difference in water pressure
(low altitude). In an electric circuit, the electric potential difference created by two locations of different heights. Water flows spontaneously
between the two terminals of a battery or energy source provides the from locations of high pressure (high altitude) to locations of low pressure
electric pressure which presses on charge to move them from a location (low altitude). In an electric circuit, the electric potential difference
of high pressure (high electric potential) to a location of low pressure (low between the two terminals of a battery or energy source provides the
electric potential). electric pressure which presses on charge to move them from a location
Energy is required to move the fluid uphill. In a water park, a water pump of high pressure (high electric potential) to a location of low pressure (low
is used to do work upon the water in order to raise it from the low height electric potential).
back up to the high height. The water pump does not supply the water; Energy is required to move the fluid uphill. In a water park, a water pump
the water which is already in the pipes. Rather, the water pump supplies is used to do work upon the water in order to raise it from the low height
the energy to pump the water from the location of low energy and low back up to the high height. The water pump does not supply the water;
pressure to the location of high energy and high pressure. In an electric the water which is already in the pipes. Rather, the water pump supplies
circuit, the battery is the charge pump which pumps the charge through the energy to pump the water from the location of low energy and low
the battery from the location of low electric potential energy (the - pressure to the location of high energy and high pressure. In an electric
terminal) to the location of high electric potential energy (the + terminal). circuit, the battery is the charge pump which pumps the charge through
The battery does not supply the electric charge; the charge is already in the battery from the location of low electric potential energy (the -
the wires. The battery simply supplies the energy to do work on the terminal) to the location of high electric potential energy (the + terminal).
charge in pumping it uphill. The battery does not supply the electric charge; the charge is already in
9. If an electric circuit was analogous to a water park, then the positive the wires. The battery simply supplies the energy to do work on the
terminal of the battery would be analogous to the ____. charge in pumping it uphill.
a. pipes which carry the water through the water circuit
b. pump which supplies energy to move the water from the ground to a 10. If an electric circuit was analogous to a water park, then the electric
high elevation current would be analogous to the ____.
c. the people which flow from the top of the water ride to the bottom of a. pipes which carry the water through the water circuit
the water ride b. pump which supplies energy to move the water from the ground to a
d. the rate at which water is pumped onto the slide high elevation
e. the change in potential energy of the riders c. the people which flow from the top of the water ride to the bottom of
f. the top of the water slide the water ride
g. the bottom of the water slide d. the rate at which water is pumped onto the slide
h. the long lines which exist at the park e. the change in potential energy of the riders
i. the speed at which riders move as they slide from the top to the bottom f. the top of the water slide
of the ride g. the bottom of the water slide
h. the long lines which exist at the park
Answer: F i. the speed at which riders move as they slide from the top to the bottom
A water ride at a water park is analogous to an electric circuit. First of all, of the ride
Answer: D
The flow of water at a water park is analogous to the flow of charge in an 14. In which of the following situations will the light bulb light? List all that
electric circuit. The rate at which charge moves past a point on a circuit apply.
as measured in Coulombs of charge per second (or some comparable
set of units) is known as the current. In our analogy, the fluid which flows
is water and the rate at which the fluid passes any given point is the
current.

11. The potential energy possessed per unit of charge at any given Answer: DF
location is referred to as the electric ___. For a circuit to be established, there must be a closed conducting loop
a. current b. resistance c. potential d. power from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. This would mean that
circuits D, E and F would all be circuits. But in order for the light bulb to
Answer: C light, it must be included as part of the electric circuit. So in E, the bulb
This is the definition of electric potential - a concept you should does not light since the loop does not extend up into and through the light
internalize. bulb; charge would simple flow out of the + terminal battery and directly
back into - terminal the battery.
12. One ampere is the amount of current that exists when ____ flows by
For Questions #15-#17:
a certain point in a conductor in ____.
A simple circuit containing a battery and a light bulb is
a. one watt; one second b. one joule; one hour
shown in the diagram at the right. Use this diagram to
c. one electron; one second d. one electron; one hour
answer the next several questions.
e. one volt; one second f. one volt; one hour
15. The current through the battery is ___.
g. one coulomb; one second h. one coulomb; one hour
a. greater than that through theb. less than that through the light
light bulb bulb
c. the same as that through thed. greater than that through each
Answer: G light bulb wire
An ampere is a unit of electric current. And electric current is defined as e. less than that through each wire
the rate at which charge moves past a point on a circuit as measured in
standard units of Coulombs of charge per second. Answer: C
Charge is a conserved quantity; it is never gained nor lost. In an electric
circuit, the charge present in the wires and conducting elements is what
moves through the circuit. This charge is enclosed in the wires and
13. If 6 coulombs of charge flow past point 'A' in a circuit in 4 seconds, unable to escape (assuming there is no fault in the circuit). As the charge
then ____ coulombs of charge will flow past point 'A' in 8 seconds. flows, it does not accumulate in a given location. And charge is not used
a. 0.67 b. 1.5 c. 2 d. 3 e. 4 up as though it were a consumable quantity. Nor is charge transformed
f. 6 g. 8 h. 12 i. 24 into another type of entity. Given all this reasoning, one would conclude
that the current at one location in an electric circuit is the same as the
Answer: H current at any other location in an electric circuit.
The current (I) is the quantity of charge flowing past a point (Q) in a given
amount of time (t). That is, I = Q/t. So in this case, the current at point A 16. Charge flowing through this circuit is most energized at ____. Choose
is (6 C) / (4 s) or 1.5 amperes. Thus the Q/t ratio is 1.5 regardless of the the one best answer.
time. So solve the equation a. the + terminal of the battery
1.5 C/s = Q / (8 s) b. the - terminal of the battery
for Q to obtain the answer. c. just prior to entering the light bulb
d. just after exiting the light bulb a. are stored in the outlets at your home
e. ... nonsense! The energy of the charge is the same everywhere b. are created when an appliance is turned on
throughout the circuit. c. originate at the power (energy) company
d. originate in the wires between your home and the power company
Answer: A e. already exist in the wires at your home
The + terminal of the battery is the high energy terminal of the battery.
Answer: E
This question targets a common misconception about electric circuits.
17. The role or purpose of the battery in this circuit is to ____. Choose The misconception presumes that the role of the electric outlet, the
three. battery, or the power company is to provide the charge required to move
a. supply electric charge so that a current can exist through the home. But the power company is only the source of the
b. supply energy to the charge energy required to set the charge in motion by the establishment of an
c. move the charge from the - to the + terminal of the battery electric potential difference. The charge itself is present in the wires and
d. transform energy from electrical energy into light energy conducting elements of your home in the form of mobile electrons.
e. establish an electric potential difference between the + and - terminals
f. replenish the charge which is lost in the light bulb 20. Approximately how long would it take an electron to travel from the
g. offer resistance to the flow of charge so that the light bulb can get hot battery of a car to a head light and back (complete loop)?
Answer: BCE a. seconds b. hours
To establish an electric circuit, charge must be moved from low energy to c. years d. one-millionth of a second
high energy. Once at high energy, the charge spontaneously flows e. one-tenth of a second
through the conducting wires and other conducting elements of the circuit
back down to the low energy terminal. A battery's role is to supply the
energy which is required to move the charge from the - terminal to the +
Answer: B
terminal of the battery. By placing a large quantity of like charge at one
Electric charge drifting through an electric circuit moves at a rather slow
location, an electric pressure or potential difference is established,
pace. Quite surprising to many, the distance traversed per unit of time is
forcing the like charges to move away from this location to the location of
on the order of 1 meter per hour.
opposite charge (the - terminal).

18. A 12-Volt battery would supply ___. List all that apply.
a. 3 Coulombs of charge with 4 Joules of energy 21. The electric circuit shown at the right consists of a
b. 4 Coulombs of charge with 3 Joules of energy battery and three identical light bulbs. Which of the
c. 12 Coulombs of charge with 1 Joule of energy following statements are true concerning this circuit?
d. 1 Coulomb of charge with 12 Joules of energy List all that apply.
e. 0.5 Coulombs of charge with 24 Joules of energy a. The current through point X will be greater than that
f. 24 Coulombs of charge with 2 Joules of energy through point Z.
Answer: D b. The current through point Z will be greater than that through point Y.
Electric potential (or voltage) is defined as the electric potential energy c. The current will be the same through points X, Y and Z.
per charge. It is the Joules of energy per coulomb of charge possessed d. The current through point X will be greater than that through point Y.
by some quantity of charge at some location in an electric circuit. A 12 e. The current through point Y will be greater than that through point X.
Volt battery moves some quantity of charge from the - terminal to the +
terminal, giving the charge energy. Each coulomb of charge would
acquire 12 Joules of energy. The energy/charge ratio would be 12 J/C.

19. The charges that flow through the wires in your home ____.
e. The point where charge possesses the least amount of electric
Answer: C
potential energy is point W.
As discussed in Question #15 above, the current in an electric circuit is
everywhere the same. So the current at these three locations is the
Answer: ACE
same.
The battery is referred to as the internal circuit. Charge moves in the
internal circuit from the - terminal to the + terminal (in the direction from
22. The electric circuit shown at the right consists of a W towards Z). The wires and light bulbs comprise the external circuit;
battery and three identical light bulbs. Which of the charge moves through the external circuit from the + terminal to the -
following statements are true concerning this circuit? terminal (in the direction of X to Y to Z to W).
List all that apply.
a. The electric potential difference between X and Y is 24. Voltage ____ an electrical circuit.
more than that between Y and Z. a. goes through b. is expressed across
b. The electric potential difference between X and Z is more than that d. is the rate at which charges
c. is constant throughout
between Y and W. move through
c. The electric potential difference between X and Y is the same as that
between Y and Z. Answer: B
d. The electric potential difference between X and Z is the same as that Voltage or electric potential is not a thing which moves. Thus, choices A
between Y and W. and D are not the answers since they imply movement of voltage. And
e. The electric potential difference between Y and W is more than that the voltage or electric potential of a charge is not something which is
between X and Y. constant throughout the circuit as choice C suggests.
Voltage or electric potential is a measure of how energized a quantity of
Answer: DE charge is at a given location relative to the - terminal. It is often
The electric potential difference across a light bulb (or any resistor) in an expressed as a difference across two points. Perhaps you have noted
electric circuit is simply the product of the current at that bulb multiplied this language of "the potential across ..." in several of the answers in this
by the resistance of the bulb. Each bulb has the same resistance (since Review.
they're identical) and the same current (since the current is everywhere
the same). So the electric potential difference across each bulb is the 25. Two or more of the following words and phrases mean the same
same. And the potential drop across any two consecutive bulbs is the thing. Identify them by listing their letters.
same. And the potential drop across two bulbs would be greater than that c. Electric Potential
a. Voltage b. Wattage
across one bulb. Difference
d. Rate at which
e. Electric Pressure f. Energy
23. The electric circuit shown at the right consists of a charge flows
battery and three identical light bulbs. Which of the
following statements are true concerning this circuit? Answer: ACE
List all that apply. The voltage or electric potential difference are synonymous terms.
a. Conventional current is directed through the external Voltage is not synonymous with energy. While voltage (or electric
circuit from point X to Y to Z to W. potential difference) is a measure of how energized a quantity of charge
b. Conventional current is directed through the external circuit from point is at a given location, voltage is expressed as the energy per charge (and
W to Z to Y to X. not simply as energy). Drawing from the analogy between a water park
c. Conventional current is directed through the internal circuit from point and an electric circuit, voltage is a measure of the quantity of electric
W to point X. pressure placed upon a charge in inducing it to move from one location
d. Conventional current is directed through the internal circuit from point to another location.
X to point W. Wattage is synonymous with power. Current is synonymous with the rate
at which charge flows.
In order for charge to flow between two locations, there must be an
26. A high voltage battery can ____. electric potential difference established between those two locations. If a
a. do a lot of work on each charge it encounters bird places its left foot on an electric power line and his right foot a few
b. do a lot of work over the course of its lifetime centimeters away on the same electric power line, then there is little to no
c. push a lot of charge through a circuit difference in potential between his two feet. Without an electric potential
d. last a long time difference, charge will not flow through the bird and the bird is safe.

Answer: A 29. When the light bulb in your lamp no longer works, it is because the
Voltage refers to the energy/charge. A battery rated with a high voltage bulb has _____.
can do a lot of work per every Coulomb of charge which it encounters. It a. run out of energy and can no longer pump charge
may or may not be able to do a lot of work over its lifetime, depending b. run out of voltage and must be recharged
upon the size of the battery. c. run out of electrons and so there is no more current
d. burned all of its watts and can no longer shine
e. tripped a circuit breaker and must be fixed at the fuse box
27. Which one of the following occurs when a rechargeable battery is f. a broken filament which has resulted in an open circuit
recharged? g. ... nonsense! The bulb is fine; your family just needs to fully pay their
a. The battery, which has run out of watts, has its wattage restored. power bill.
b. The battery, which has run out of amps, has current placed back into it. Answer: F
c. The battery, which has run out of charge, has charge returned to it. The most common cause for the inability of a light bulbs to light is a
d. The battery, which has run out of chemical reactants, has its chemicals broken filament. A coiled wire of tungsten stretches between two vertical
reformed. supports. If disturbed while hot or if overworn, the tungsten metal can
Answer: D break and leave a gap between the two vertical supports. This gap
Batteries perform their energy-supplying tasks by using the energy from represents a break in the circuit; a closed conducting loop is no longer
an exothermic oxidation-reduction reaction to do work upon charge within established and charge will not flow.
the electric circuit. When a battery no longer works, its reactants are
consumed to the point that the electric potential which the reactants are 30. A battery is needed in the circuit of your flashlight so that ____.
capable of producing is small compared to the overall resistance of the a. charge is provided to the wires
circuit. At such an instant in time, the ability to induce a current is limited b. the energy of the light is balanced by the battery
to the point that the external circuit elements are no longer functional. c. an exothermic, light-creating reaction is possible
Not all batteries are rechargeable. Those that are rechargeable can have d. an electric potential difference is maintained across the circuit
the products transformed back into reactants. The recharger utilizes e. electrons are supplied in order to light the bulb
electrical energy from an outlet to reverse the previously exothermic
reaction, turning its products back into reactants. Answer: D
One of the roles of a battery is to simply establish a difference in electric po
28. Birds can safely stand on high voltage electric power lines. This is between its two terminals. Charge at the high potential will flow through the e
because ____. circuit to the low potential location.
a. they are at low potential with respect to the ground. 31. When you turn on the room lights, they light immediately. This is best
b. they offer no resistance to current. explained by the fact that ____.
c. they always choose power lines that are not in use. a. electrons move very fast from the switch to the light bulb filament
d. the potential difference between their feet is low. b. electrons present everywhere in the circuit move instantly
e. they are perfect insulators. Answer: B
f. they are perfect conductors. Electrons move very slowly from one location to another location. But
once a circuit is closed, they start moving immediately. While electrons
Answer: D move about a meter or in an hour, the actual signal which tells them to
start moving can travel at the speed of light. So once the switch is turned of voltage per unit of charge (V/Q). Since voltage is the energy per
on, a signal is circulated throughout the circuit to start the charge, we would expect that energy would be equivalent to voltage •
electrons marching. The electrons present in the filament of the circuit. charge. Thus, it is incorrect to equate units of energy to units of voltage
per charge.
32. The drift velocity of mobile charge carriers in electric circuits is ____. In choice c, a Watt is a unit of power (P) and a Joule•second is a unit of
a. very fast; less than but very close to the speed of light energy (E) multiplied by a unit of time (t). But power is energy / time and
b. fast; faster than the fastest car but nowhere near the speed of light not energy • time so this is not a correct unit equivalency.
c. slow; slower than Michael Jackson runs the 220-meters In choice d, a Watt is a unit of power (P). On the right side, a Volt is a unit
d. very slow; slower than a snail of voltage (V) and a Coulomb / second is a unit of current (I). So since P
= I • V, this is a correct unit equivalency.
Answer: D In choice e, a Joule / Ohm is a unit of energy per unit of resistance (E /
Drift velocity is the distance which a charge moves per unit of time. This R). An Ampere • Coulomb is a unit of current multiplied by a unit of
value is very small since electrons move very, very slowly. Moving at charge (I • Q). Thus, the equation is suggesting that E / R = I • Q. This
about 1 meter per hour, they are literally slower than a snail. can be rearranged algebraically to say that E / Q = I • R. Since voltage is
the energy per charge (E / Q), the equation can be rewritten as V = I • R.
33. Suppose that the current in a typical circuit (DC) is large. This is an This is thus a correct unit equivalency.
indication that ____. In choice f, a Joule• Ohm is a unit of energy multiplied by a unit of
a. the mobile charge carriers are moving very fast resistance (E • R). A Volt2 / second is a unit of voltage2 multiplied by a
b. a large number of mobile charge carriers are moving forward per unit of time (V2 • t). So this equation is suggesting that E • R = V 2 • t. This
second can be rearranged algebraically to say that E / t = V 2 / R. The right side of
c. both a and b are true the equation is equivalent to power, so the equation can be rewritten as P
= V2 / R. Since this is a correct way of writing the power equation, the
Answer: B given unit equivalency is correct.
Current (the rate at which charge moves past a point on the circuit) and
drift velocity (the distance a charge moves in a second) should not be 35. Which of the following diagrams represents resistors connected in in
confused (and often are). If a current is large, one can be sure of only series? List all that apply.
one thing: a lot of charges are moving forward past a point on the circuit
every second.

34. Which of the following statements represent correct unit


equivalencies? List all that apply. Answer: B
a. 1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb / second b. 1 Joule = 1 Volt / Coulomb A and C represent parallel connections as shown by the branching which
d. 1 Watt = 1 Volt • Coulomb / occurs before and after the resistors. There is no branching in choice B
c. 1 Watt = 1 Joule • second so it is a series connection of resistors.
second
e. 1 Joule / Ohm = 1 Ampere •
f. 1 Joule • Ohm = 1 Volt2 • second
Coulomb
Questions #36-#39:
Answer: ADEF The diagram at the right shows two identical
This question requires a knowledge of both units for electrical quantities resistors - R1and R2 - placed in a circuit with a 12-
and the equations which relate those quantities. Volt battery. Use this diagram to answer the next
In choice a, an Ampere is a unit of current (I) and a Coulomb/second is a several questions.
unit of charge per unit of time (Q/t). This is consistent with the equation I 36. These two resistors are connected in ____.
= Q/t. a. series b. parallel c. neither
In choice b, a Joule is a unit of energy (E) and a Volt / Coulomb is a unit
Answer: A 39. If a third resistor (R3), identical to the other two, is added in series
One can start at the positive terminal of the battery and begin tracing with the first two, then the electric potential difference (voltage drop)
their finger along the wire. If there is ever a point where the wire comes across each of the three individual resistors will ____.
to a junction and branches in two or more directions, then the circuit has a. increase b. decrease c. remain the same
a parallel connection. Otherwise, it is a series circuit. In this diagram,
there is no branching. Thus, it is a series circuit. Answer: B
Using the same reasoning as in Question #37, we can say that the
37. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) across each resistor is charge will acquire 12 Volts in moving through the battery. It will have to
___ Volts. lose this 12 volts in three steps as it passes through the external circuit.
a. 6 b. 12 c. 24 Since there are now three voltage drops in the external circuit instead of
d. ... nonsense!. The electric potential difference is dependent upon the original two, each drop must be smaller than before. So there will be
the actual resistance of the resistors a 4-Volt drop through each resistor (instead of the original 6-Volt drop).

Answer: A Questions #40-#43:


The diagram at the right shows two identical
resistors - R1 and R2 - placed in a circuit with a
12-Volt battery. Use this diagram to answer the
next several questions.

Charge receives an increase in 40. These two resistors are connected in ____.
electric potential of 12 volts when moving through the internal circuit (the a. series b. parallel c. neither
battery). So as a charge leaves the battery and traverses the external
circuit, there must be a total drop in electric potential of 12 Volts. This Answer: B
drop in voltage occurs in a two-step fashion as the charge passes One can start at the positive terminal of the battery and begin tracing
through each of the resistors. The charge will lose 6 volts in the first their finger along the wire. If there is ever a point where the wire comes
resistor and 6 volts in the second resistor, bringing it back to zero volts by to a junction and branches in two or more directions, then the circuit has
the time it returns to the - terminal of the battery. The potential diagram at a parallel connection. Otherwise, it is a series circuit. In this diagram,
the right is a visual means of representing this important concept. there is some branching. Once the charge reaches the branching point, it
will either pass through the resistor in the left branch (R 1) or through the
38. If a third resistor (R3), identical to the other two, is added in series resistor in the right branch (R2). Thus, it is a parallel circuit.
with the first two, then the overall resistance will ____ and the overall
current will ____. 41. The electric potential difference (voltage drop) across each resistor is
a. increase, increase b. decrease, decrease ___ Volts.
c. increase, decrease d. decrease, increase a. 6 b. 12 c. 24
e. increase, remain the same f. decrease, remain the same d. ... nonsense!. The electric potential difference is dependent upon
g. remain the same, increase h. remain the same, decrease the actual resistance of the resistors
i. remain the same, remain the
same Answer: B
Charge receives an increase in electric potential of 12 volts when moving
Answer: C through the internal circuit (the
Increasing the number of resistors in a series circuit will increase the
overall resistance of that circuit and cause the current to decrease. (The
opposite is true of a parallel circuit.)
Answer: C
The electric potential difference across any branch is equal to the
voltage of the battery. Adding a new branch can alter the overall
resistance and the overall current, but it does not alter the electric
potential difference across the battery nor across the branches.

battery). So as a charge 44. The resistance of a charge-carrying conducting wire will increase as
leaves the battery and traverses the external circuit, there must be a total the ____. Choose all that apply.
drop in electric potential of 12 Volts. This drop in voltage occurs in a a. length of the wire is increased
single step since the charge will only pass through a single resistor on its b. cross-sectional area of the wire is increased
path back to the battery. So since the charge chooses either the left or c. temperature of the wire is increased
the right branch (and not both), either branch must provide the 12-Volt d. voltage impressed across the ends of the wire is increased
drop in voltage. In parallel circuits, the the electric potential difference e. wire is placed closer and closer to the + terminal of the circuit
across the battery is equal to the electric potential difference across
either branch. The potential diagram at the right is a visual means of Answer: AC
representing this important concept. Resistance of a wire increases with increasing length and (to a smaller
extent) with increasing temperature. Increasing wire length increases the
42. If a third resistor (R 3), identical to the other two, is added in parallel number of atom-charge collisions and thus the amount of resistance.
with the first two, then the overall resistance will ____ and the overall Increasing the temperature increases the resistivity of the material and
current will ____. thus increases the overall resistance.
a. increase, increase b. decrease, decrease
c. increase, decrease d. decrease, increase 45. When plugged into a 120-Volt outlet, a light bulb consumes 300
e. increase, remain the same f. decrease, remain the same joules of energy over a 5 second time period. The power of the light bulb
g. remain the same, increase h. remain the same, decrease is ____ Watts.
i. remain the same, remain the a. 0.0167 b. 0.50 c. 2.0 d. 2.50
same e. 60 f. 600 g. 1500 h. 7200

Answer: D Answer: E
Adding an identical resistor in a separate branch will provide more Power is simply the rate at which energy is supplied to a circuit or
pathways by which charge can traverse through the loop of the circuit. transformed by a circuit. In this case, the power is the energy consumed
This would be the equivalent of adding another booth at a toll station on a per time.
tollway in parallel with an existing booth. Opening up another lane for P = (300 J) / (5 seconds) = 60 Watts
traffic will reduce the overall resistance and cause an increase in the car
flow rate. The same occurs with charge in parallel circuits. More 46. A certain electrical circuit contains a battery, wires and a light bulb. If
branches means less resistance and an increased current. potential energy is gained by charges at the battery location, then
charges lose potential energy ____.
43. If a third resistor (R 3), identical to the other two, is added in parallel a. in the wires only
with the first two, then the electric potential difference (voltage drop) b. in the bulb only
across each of the three individual resistors will ____. c. equally in the wires and the bulb
a. increase b. decrease c. remain the same d. mostly in the wires but a little in the bulb
e. mostly in the bulb but a little in the wires
f. nowhere

Answer: E
Charge will lose energy as they pass through locations of resistance. c. decrease the resistance of two of the bulbs
When in series, locations of greatest resistance will transform electrical d. increase the voltage of the battery
energy into other forms at a greater rate. So energy will be lost in the e. decrease the voltage of the battery
light bulb and in the wires to a much lesser extent. f. remove one of the bulbs

47. A high resistance light bulb and a low resistance light bulb are Answer: CDF
connected in series to a 6-Volt pack of batteries. Which of the two light The current in a series circuit (both total current and current through
bulbs will shine the brightest? individual resistors) is directly dependent upon the battery voltage and
a. They will have the same brightness. inversely dependent upon the total circuit resistance. This current can be
b. The low-R bulb will shine more brightly. increased by increasing the battery voltage. It can also be increased by
c. The high-R bulb will shine more brightly. decreasing the total resistance. Removing a bulb would decrease the
d. There is no way to make such a prediction since bulb brightness is total resistance and decreasing the resistance of any individual bulb
independent of bulb resistance. would decrease the total resistance.
Answer: C
Since the two light bulbs are in series, the same current (i) is experienced 50. Three identical light bulbs (labeled X, Y and
by each. The power will be given by the i 2•R product. Since i is the same Z) are connected to a battery as shown at the
for each light bulb, the bulb with the greatest resistance will have the right. Which adjustments could be made to the
greatest power. So the high-R light bulb will transform electrical energy circuit below that would increase the current at
into light energy at the greatest rate and thus shine most brightly. point P? List all that apply.
a. increase the resistance of one of the bulbs
48. A high resistance light bulb and a low resistance light bulb are b. increase the resistance of two of the bulbs
connected in parallel and powered by a 6-Volt pack of batteries. Which of c. decrease the resistance of two of the bulbs
the two light bulbs will shine the brightest? d. increase the voltage of the battery
a. They will have the same brightness. e. decrease the voltage of the battery
b. The low-R bulb will shine more brightly. f. remove one of the bulbs
c. The high-R bulb will shine more brightly. Answer: CD
d. There is no way to make such a prediction since bulb brightness is Point P represents the location where the total current of this parallel
indepenent of bulb resistance. circuit can be measured. The total current would vary directly with the
Answer: B total voltage and inversely with the total resistance. Increasing the battery
Since the two light bulbs are in parallel, the same voltage drop (V) is voltage would increase the current at location P. Decreasing the total
experienced by each. The power will be given by the i 2•R product. Since resistance would increase the current at location P. The total resistance
V is the same for each light bulb, the bulb with the greatest resistance will can be decreased by adding another resistor in a separate branch or by
have the lest current. Current is of the greatest importance in determining decreasing the resistance of any of the branches.
the power of the light bulb since it is squared in the equation. So the low-
R light bulb will have the greatest current and thus transform electrical 51. Three identical light bulbs (labeled X, Y and
energy into light energy at the greatest rate; it will shine most brightly. Z) are connected to a battery as shown at the
right. Which adjustments could be made to the
49. Three identical light bulbs are connected to circuit below that would decrease the current in
a battery as shown at the right. Which bulb Z? List all that apply.
adjustments could be made to the circuit that a. increase the resistance of bulb X
would increase the current being measured at X? b. decrease the resistance of bulb X
Include all that apply. c. increase the resistance of bulb Z
a. increase the resistance of one of the bulbs d. decrease the resistance of bulb Z
b. increase the resistance of two of the bulbs e. increase the voltage of the battery
f. decrease the voltage of the battery
g. remove bulb Y
Answer: CF
The current in bulb Z is dependent upon the voltage drop across bulb Z
and the resistance of bulb Z. In equation form, Answer: See answers below.
IZ = VZ / RZ This question tests your understanding of current as the rate at which
An increase in battery voltage would increase the voltage drop across charge (expressed here in Coulombs) flows past a point on a circuit.
bulb Z (VZ) and thus provide a greater current through the bulb. A Current is found as the charge/time ratio. For a series circuit such as this
decrease in the resistance of bulb Z would also increase the current one, the current is everywhere the same.
through the bulb. However, making a change in bulb X or Y would have a. B; the current is 2.0 amperes at point A. To be the same 2.0 Amperes at
no effect on the VZ / RZ ratio. point B, 4 Coulombs must pass the point in 2 seconds.
b. A; the current is 2.0 amperes at point A. To be the same 2.0 Amperes at
Part C: Diagramming and Analysis point B, 2 Coulombs must pass the point in 1 second. In a lesser amount of
52. Consider the diagram at the right to answer the time, less charge will flow past the point.
following questions. c. C; the current is 2.0 amperes at point A. To be the same 2.0 Amperes at
a. If 4 Coulombs of charge flow past point A in 2 seconds, point B, 8 Coulombs must pass the point in 4 seconds. In a greater amount
then ___ Coulombs of charge flow past point B in 2 of time, more charge will flow past the point.
seconds. d. 8; the current is 2.0 amperes at point A. To be the same 2.0 Amperes at
a. less than 4 b. 4 c. more than 4 point B,8 Coulombs must pass point B in 4 seconds.
d. impossible to make such a prediction without e. 8; the current is 2.0 amperes at point A. To be the same 2.0 Amperes at
knowledge of the resistances. point B,8 Coulombs must pass point C in 4 seconds.
b. If 4 Coulombs of charge flow past point A in 2 seconds, then ___ f. decrease; increasing the resistance of a light bulb for a series of
Coulombs of charge flow past point B in 1 second. consecutive light bulbs will increase the overall resistance of the circuit and
a. less than 4 b. 4 c. more than 4 cause the current throughout the entire circuit to decrease.
d. impossible to make such a prediction without knowledge of the
resistances.
c. If 4 Coulombs of charge flow past point A in 2 seconds, then ___
Coulombs of charge flow past point B in 4 seconds.
a. less than 4 b. 4 c. more than 4
d. impossible to make such a prediction without knowledge of the 53. The diagram at the right shows three identical
resistances. light bulbs wired in series. Several points along
d. If 4 Coulombs of charge flow past point A in 2 seconds, then ___ the circuit are labeled with letters. Compare the
Coulombs of charge flow past point B in 4 seconds. electric potential and the electric potential energy
e. If 4 Coulombs of charge flow past point A in 2 seconds, then ___ of the various points. For each comparison, use a
Coulombs of charge flow past point C in 4 seconds. greater than (>), less than (<), or approximately
f. Suppose that the resistance of the light bulb located between points A equal to (=) symbol.
and B is increased. This would cause the current through the other light
bulb to ____ (increase, decrease, remain the same). Electric Potential Potential Energy
Comparison Comparison
VA = VB PEA = PE B
VB > VC PE B > PE C
VC = VD PE C = PE D
VD > VE PE D > PE E
VE = VF PE E = PE F
VF > VG PE F > PE G
VG = VH PE G = PE H
VH < VA PE H < PE A Answer: See diagram below.
Since the two resistors are in series, the total or equivalent resistance is
Answer: See table above. simply the sum of the individual resistances. The total resistance is 6
Point A corresponds to the positive terminal of the battery. At point A, ohms. The total current in the circuit can be found by the ratio of battery
charge possesses the greatest amount of electric potential energy. It has voltage to total resistance:
a high voltage at this location. In the process of moving through the ITOT = ΔVTOT / RTOT = (6 V) / (6 ohms) = 1 Amp
circuit to the - terminal, the charge will have its electric potential energy Since it is a series circuit, the current through the battery is the same as
converted to light energy (and heat energy) in the light bulbs. It will lose a the current through each of the resistors.
portion of its electrical energy in each light bulb. The light bulb simply
serves as an energy conversion device which transforms electric
potential energy into non-electrical forms. As such, the potential energy
(and thus the voltage) will drop in value every time the passes by a light
bulb and reaches a point further from the high energy + terminal. Finally,
at point H, all the electrical energy and voltage has been lost and the
charge is in need of some energy input from the battery.

54. Use proper schematic symbols to construct a diagram of a circuit


powered by a 6-Volt battery that consists of two 3-ohm resistors
connected in series. Place ammeters in series at a location such that the
current through each resistor can be measured and in a location such
that the overall current in the circuit can be measured. On the schematic 55. Use proper schematic symbols to construct a diagram of a circuit
diagram, use an unbroken arrow to indicate the direction of conventional powered by a 6-Volt battery that consists of two 3-ohm resistors
current. Finally, indicate the ammeter readings on the diagram. connected in parallel. Place an ammeter in series with each of the
individual resistors in a manner that the current through each resistor can
be measured. Place a third ammeter in a location such that the overall
current in the circuit can be measured. On the schematic diagram, use an
unbroken arrow to indicate the direction of conventional current. Finally,
indicate the ammeter readings on the diagram.
Answer: See diagram below.
The voltage across each branch is equivalent to the voltage of the
battery. The current through a branch is simply the V/R ratio where V = 6
Volts and R = 3 ohms. This calculation leads to the conclusion that 2
Amps is the current in each branch. The current outside the branches is
simply the sum of the current in the branches. So there will be a current
of 4 Amps outside the branches.
h. The electric potential difference between points D and H is the same
as the electric potential difference between points A and F (and between
any other two sets of points that are on the opposite side of two
adjacent bulbs ... such as points C and H or points D and I or points
E and I, etc.). Include all that apply, if any apply.
i. The current at point A is the same as the current at point(s) C (and at
every other point on the circuit). Include all that apply, if any apply.
j. The current at point E is the same as the current at point(s) F (and at
every other point on the circuit). Include all that apply, if any apply.
As an alternative to this solution, the equivalent resistance could first be
k. The current at point G is the same as the current at point(s) G (and at
determined using the 1/RTot equation for parallel circuits. The equivalent
every other point on the circuit). Include all that apply, if any apply.
resistance is 1.5 Ohms. Once determined, the total circuit current can be
calculated using ITot = ΔVTot / RTot. The total circuit current would be 4
Answer: See answers above.
Amps. Then divide the 4 Amps into two equal branch currents to
In an electric circuit, the electric potential for a moving charge is gained in
determine the current at each of the individual resistors.
the battery and lost in a light bulb (or some resistor found in the external
circuit). So the electric potential of a charge is the same for any two
56. Consider the diagram at the right of a
points which are not separated by a battery or by a light bulb. (a through
series circuit. Each light bulb in the circuit has
d)
an identical resistance. Use the labeled points
In this circuit, the light bulbs have the same resistance; thus, each light
on the diagram to answer the following
bulb causes the same drop in potential (electric potential difference). So
questions. Each question may have one, less
the electric potential difference will be the same between any two points
than one, or more than one answer.
which are distanced by a light bulb, or by two light bulbs. (e through h)
a. The electric potential at point A is the same
Finally, in a series circuit the current is the same at every point along the
as the electric potential at point(s) B. Include all
circuit. Since charge is conserved and since there is no location in a
that apply, if any apply.
circuit where the charge is accumulating, there must be the same charge
b. The electric potential at point C is the same as the electric potential at
flow rate at all locations. (i through k)
point(s) D and E. Include all that apply, if any apply.
c. The electric potential at point F is the same as the electric potential at
57. Consider the diagram at the right of a
point(s) G. Include all that apply, if any apply.
parallel circuit. Each light bulb in the circuit
d. The electric potential at point I is the same as the electric potential at
has an identical resistance. Use the labeled
point(s) H. Include all that apply, if any apply.
points on the diagram to answer the
e. The electric potential difference between points A and B is the same as
following questions. Each question may have
the electric potential difference between points C and D (and C and E;
one, less than one, or more than one
and D and E; and F and G; and H and I). Include all that apply, if any
answer.
apply.
a. The electric potential at point A is the same as the electric potential at
f. The electric potential difference between points A and C is the same as
point(s) B (and at any other point before the light bulbs ... such as at
the electric potential difference between points E and F (and C and F;
points C, D, E and F). Include all that apply, if any apply.
and D and F; and E and G; and C and G; and D and G; and G and H;
b. The electric potential at point D is the same as the electric potential at
and F and H; and G and I; and F and I). Include all that apply, if any
point(s) B (and at any other point before the light bulbs ... such as at
apply.
points A, C, E and F). Include all that apply, if any apply.
g. The electric potential difference between points A and F is the same as
c. The electric potential at point J is the same as the electric potential at
the electric potential difference between points E and H (and between
point(s) K (and at any other point after the light bulbs ... such as at
any other two sets of points that are on the opposite side of two
points G, H, I, and L. Include all that apply, if any apply.
adjacent bulbs ... such as points C and H or points D and H or
points E and I, etc.). Include all that apply, if any apply.
d. The electric potential difference between points A and J is the same as And the current prior to the branching location and after the branches
the electric potential difference between points B and K (and any other come together is the same. Finally, locations B and K are at locations
combination of two points located on opposite sides of the light where current for two of the three branches will be passing; these points
bulbs ... such as points A and K, or points A and L, or points F and will have the same current. (e through i)
G, or points D and G, etc., etc.). Include all that apply, if any apply. In j, removing the bulb in the first branch will not affect the current in the
e. The electric potential difference between points D and G is the same other branches. Such a modification will only reduce the overall circuit
as the electric potential difference between points A and J (and any current. Less branches would result in more overall resistance and less
other combination of two points located on opposite sides of the overall current. Yet the current through the second branch is still the
light bulbs ... such as points A and K, or points A and L, or points F voltage drop across the second branch (which is the battery voltage)
and G, or points E and H, etc., etc.). Include all that apply, if any apply. divided by the resistance of the second branch. Since removing the bulb
f. The current at point A is the same as the current at point(s) J. Include in the first branch does not alter either quantity, the current in the middle
all that apply, if any apply. branch is not altered.
g. The current at point B is the same as the current at point(s) K. Include In k, the electric potential across a branch is simply equal to the voltage
all that apply, if any apply. of the battery. Removing a light bulb will not alter the voltage of the
h. The current at point C is the same as the current at point(s) L (and battery. Thus, there is no effect.
points F and I and E and H and D and G). Include all that apply, if any In l, if the light bulb in the first branch burns out, the same effect will
apply. occur as occurred in part j.
i. The current at point D is the same as the current at point(s) G (and at
points F and I and C and E and H). Include all that apply, if any apply. 58. Consider the diagram below of a series circuit. For each resistor, use
j. If the light bulb located between points D and G were to be replaced by arrows to indicate the two locations where one would have to tap with the
a bulb of greater resistance, then the current at point(s) A, D, G, and leads of a voltmeter in order to measure the voltage drop across the
J would be decreased. Include all that apply, if any apply. individual resistor. Finally, indicate the ammeter readings and the voltage
k. If the light bulb located between points D and G were to be replaced by readings.
a bulb of greater resistance, then the electric potential difference between
points -- and -- would be increased. Include all that apply, if any
apply. (None apply.)
l. If the light bulb located between points D and G were to go out, then
the current would decrease at point(s) A, D, G and J. Include all that
apply, if any apply.

Answer: See answers above.


In an electric circuit, the electric potential for a moving charge is gained in
the battery and lost in a light bulb (or some resistor found in the external
circuit). So the electric potential of a charge is the same for any two
points which are not separated by a battery or by a light bulb. Even if the
circuit is a parallel circuit, any point between the positive terminal of a
battery and light bulb will have the same electric potential; and any point
located between the - terminal of the battery and a location after passage
through the resistor of a branch have the same electric potential. (a Answer: See diagram above.
through e) The total resistance (or equivalent resistance) can first be determined
In this circuit, the light bulbs have the same resistance. Thus, when using the equation for series circuits.
charge reaches the branching location an equal amount of charge RTot = R1 + R2 + R3 = 5 Ohms + 10 Ohms + 15 Ohms = 30 Ohms
will chose the middle branch as does the left branch and the right branch. Once known, the RTot value can be used with the battery voltage (ΔVTot) to
So with the same resistance, the current in every branch is the same. determine the total current in the circuit.
ITot = (ΔVTot) / (RTot) = (120 V) / (30 Ohms) = 4 Amps voltage drop across each resistor (ΔV1,ΔV2, and ΔV3 ) is the same as the
For a series circuit, the current through each resistor is the same as the total voltage drop. Thus, ΔV1 = ΔV2 = ΔV3 = 120 Volts.
total circuit current. Thus, I1 = I2 = I3 = 4 Amps. In this circuit, the branch currents can be computed by using the ΔV = I•R
The voltage drop across a resistor can be determined with a voltmeter by equation for each resistor. This is shown below.
tapping with the leads on the metal wires on the opposite sides of the R1 = ΔV1 / R1 = (120 Volts) / (5 Ohms) = 24 Amps
resistor. By so doing, the voltmeter determines the difference in voltage I2 = ΔV2 / R2 = (120 Volts) / (10 Ohms) = 12 Amps
(i.e., voltage drop or electric potential difference) between the two I3 = ΔV3 / R3 = (120 Volts) / (15 Ohms) = 8 Amps
locations where the leads were tapped. In this circuit, the expected
voltage drops (ΔV1, ΔV2, and ΔV3 ) can be computed by determining the Part D: Qualitative Relationships Between Variables
IR product for each resistor. This is shown below. 60. A resistor with a resistance of R is connected to a battery with a
ΔV1 = I1 • R1 = (4 Amps) • (5 Ohms) = 20 Volts voltage of Vto produce a current of I. What would be the new current (in
ΔV2 = I2 • R2 = (4 Amps) • (10 Ohms) = 40 Volts terms of I) if ...
ΔV3 = I3 • R3 = (4 Amps) • (15 Ohms) = 60 Volts a. ... the resistance is doubled and the same voltage is used?
b. ... the voltage is doubled and the same resistance is used?
59. Consider the diagram below of a parallel circuit. For each resistor, c. ... the voltage is tripled and the resistance is doubled?
use arrows to indicate the two locations where one would have to tap d. ... the voltage is doubled and the resistance is halved?
with the leads of a voltmeter in order to measure the voltage drop across e. ... the voltage is halved and the resistance is doubled?
the individual resistor. Finally, indicate the ammeter readings and the f. ... five times the voltage and one-third the resistance is used?
voltage readings. g. ... one-fifth the voltage and one-fourth the resistance is used?

Answer: See answers below.


This question tests your understanding of the current-voltage-resistance
relationship. The current is directly proportional to the voltage and
inversely proportional to the resistance. Any alteration in the voltage will
result in the same alteration of the current. So doubling or tripling the
voltage will cause the current to be doubled or tripled. On the other hand,
any alteration in the resistance will result in the opposite or inverse
alteration of the current. So doubling or tripling the resistance will cause
the current to be one-half or one-third the original value.
a. The new current will be 0.5 • I.
Answer: See diagram above. b. The new current will be 2 • I.
The total resistance (or equivalent resistance) can first be determined c. The new current will be 1.5 • I.
using the equation for series circuits. d. The new current will be 4 • I.
1 / RTot = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 = 1 / (5 Ohms + 1 / (10 Ohms) + 1 / (15 e. The new current will be 0.25 • I.
Ohms) f. The new current will be 15 • I.
RTot = 2.727 Ohms g. The new current will be 0.8 • I.
Once known, the RTot value can be used with the battery voltage (ΔVTot) to
determine the total current in the circuit. 61. A wire of length L and cross-sectional area A is used in a circuit. The
ITot = (ΔVTot) / (RTot) = (120 V) / (2.727 Ohms) = 44.0 Amps overall resistance of the wire is R. What would be the new resistance (in
The voltage drop across a resistor can be determined with a voltmeter by terms of R) if ...
tapping with the leads on the metal wires on the opposite sides of the a. ... the length of the wire is doubled?
resistor. By so doing, the voltmeter determines the difference in voltage b. ... the cross-sectional area of the wire is doubled?
(i.e., voltage drop or electric potential difference) between the two c. ... the length of the wire is doubled and the cross-sectional area of the
locations where the leads were tapped. For a series circuit, the expected wire is doubled?
d. ... the length of the wire is tripled and the cross-sectional area of the Answer: See answers below.
wire is doubled? This question tests your understanding of the mathematical relationship
e. ... the length of the wire is halved and the cross-sectional area of the between power, current, voltage and resistance. There are three
wire is tripled? equations of importance:
f. ... the length of the wire is tripled and the cross-sectional area of the
wire is halved? P = I • ΔV P = ΔV2 / R P = I2 • R
g. ... the length of the wire is tripled and the diameter of the wire is One must be careful in using the last equation since an alteration in
halved? current will also alter the resistance whenever the voltage is held
h. ... the length of the wire is tripled and the diameter of the wire is constant. Thus, the first two equations are of greater importance since
doubled? they represent equations with one independent variable and the other
Answer: See answers below. variable held constant.
This question tests your understanding of the variables which effect the a. 2 • P (doubling the current will double the power)
resistance of a wire. The resistance of a wire expressed by the equation b. (1/2) • P (halving the current will double the power)
R = Rho • L / A (where Rho is the resistivity of the material, L is length of c. (1/2) • P (doubling the resistance will half the power)
wire, and A is cross-sectional area of the wire). The resistance is directly d. 2 • P (halving the resistance will double the power)
proportional to the resistivity, directly proportional to the wire length, and e. 3 • P (tripling the current will triple the power)
inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. Any alteration in the f. (1/3) • P (tripling the resistance will make the power one-third of the
resistivity or the length will result in the same alteration in the resistance original value)
of the wire. And any alteration in the cross-sectional area of the wire will g. (1/100) • P (one-tenth the voltage will make the power one-hundredth
result in the opposite or inverse alteration in the resistance of the wire. of the original value; observe the square on voltage)
a. The new resistance will be 2•R. h. 4 • P (two times the voltage will make the power four times the original
b. The new resistance will be 0.5•R. value; observe the square on voltage)
c. The new resistance will still be R.
d. The new resistance will be 1.5•R. 63. An electric appliance with a current of I and a resistance of R is used
e. The new resistance will be (1/6)•R. for thours during the course of a month. The cost of operating the
f. The new resistance will be 6•R. appliance at 120-Volts is D dollars. What would be the new cost (in terms
g. The new resistance will be 12•R. (Halving the diameter will make the of D) if ...
area one-fourth the size since area is directly proportional to the square a. ... the usage rate was doubled to 2t?
of the diameter.) b. ... the usage rate was halved?
h. The new resistance will be (3/4)•R. (Doubling the diameter will make c. ... an appliance which drew twice the current (at 120 Volts) were used?
the area four times the size since area is directly proportional to the d. ... an appliance with twice the resistance (at 120 Volts) were used?
square of the diameter.) e. ... an appliance with one-half the resistance (at 120 Volts) were used?
f. ... the usage rate was doubled and an appliance with twice the
62. An electric appliance with a current of I and a resistance resistance (at 120 Volts) were used?
of R converts energy to other forms at a rate of P when connected to a g. ... the usage rate was halved and an appliance with twice the current
120-Volt outlet. What would be the new power rating (in terms of P) if ... (at 120 Volts) were used?
a. ... the current is doubled (and the same 120-Volt outlet is used)? h. ... the usage rate was quartered and an appliance with twice the
b. ... the current is halved (and the same 120-Volt outlet is used)? current (at 120 Volts) were used?
c. ... the resistance is doubled (and the same 120-Volt outlet is used)?
d. ... the resistance is halved (and the same 120-Volt outlet is used)? Answer: See answers below.
e. ... the current is tripled (and the same 120-Volt outlet is used)? Like the previous question, this question tests your understanding of the
f. ... the resistance is tripled (and the same 120-Volt outlet is used)? mathematical relationship between power, current, voltage and
g. ... the same appliance is powered by a 12-Volt supply? resistance. But this question also tests your understanding between
h. ... the same appliance is powered by a 240-Volt supply? power, time, energy and electricity costs. An electric bill is based upon
energy consumption. The energy consumed is measured in terms of g. Suppose that the resistance of the light bulb located between points D
kiloWatts•hour and is determined by multiplying the power by the time. and G is doubled. This would result in the current measured at location G
Thus, an increase in either time or power will lead to an increase in the to ____ (increase, decrease, not be affected).
electricity costs by the same factor. So the key to the question is to use h. Suppose that the resistance of the light bulb located between points D
information about power and about usage rate to determine the energy and G is doubled. This would result in the electric potential difference
consumed and thus the electricity costs. There are two equations of between points D and G to ____ (increase, decrease, not be affected).
importance in predicting how alterations in current and resistance effect i. Suppose that the resistance of the light bulb located between points D
the power: and G is doubled. This would result in the current measured at location A
to ____ (increase, decrease, not be affected).
P = I • ΔV P = ΔV2 / R j. Suppose that the resistance of the light bulb located between points D
The first equation shows that the power would increase by the same and G is doubled. This would result in the current measured at location E
factor by which the current is increased. The second equation shows that to ____ (increase, decrease, not be affected).
the power would decrease by the same factor that the resistance is k. Suppose that the resistance of the light bulb located between points D
increased. and G is doubled. This would result in the current measured at location K
a. The new cost would be 2•D. to ____ (increase, decrease, not be affected).
b. The new cost would be (1/2)•D. Answer: See answers above.
c. The new cost would be 2•D. a. - c. Location A is outside or before the branching locations; it
d. The new cost would be (1/2)•D. represents a location where the total circuit current is measured. This
e. The new cost would be 2•D. current will ultimately divide into three pathways, with each pathway
f. The new cost would still be D. carrying the same current (since each pathway has the same resistance).
g. The new cost would still be D. Location D is a branch location; one-third of the charge passes through
h. The new cost would be (1/2)•D. this branch. Location B represents a location after a point at which one-
third of the charge has already branched off to the light bulb between
64. Consider the diagram at the right of a points D and G. So at location B, there is two-thirds of the current
parallel circuit. Each light bulb has an remaining. And location L is a location in the last branch; so one-third of
identical resistance of Rand the battery the charge passes through location L.
voltage is V. Use the labeled points on the d. - f. The current at every branch location and in the total circuit is simply
diagram to answer the following questions. equal to the voltage drop across the branch (or across the total circuit)
a. If the current at location A is I amperes, divided by the resistance of the branch (or of the total circuit). As such,
then the current at location B is ____ the current is directly proportional to the voltage. So a doubling of the
amperes. (Answer in terms of I.) voltage will double the current at every location.
b. If the current at location A is I amperes, then the current at location D is g. The current at a branch location is simply the voltage across the
____ amperes. (Answer in terms of I.) branch divided by the resistance of the branch. So the current at location
c. If the current at location A is I amperes, then the current at location L is G is inversely proportional to the resistance of the branch. Doubling the
____ amperes. (Answer in terms of I.) resistance will cause the current to be decreased by a factor of 2.
d. If the voltage of the battery is doubled, then the current at location A h. The voltage drop across the first branch (or any branch) is simply
would be ____ (two times, four times, one-half, one-fourth, etc.) the equal to the voltage gained by the charge in passing through the battery.
original value. For a parallel circuit, the only means of altering a branch voltage drop is
e. If the voltage of the battery is doubled, then the current at location B to alter the battery voltage.
would be ____ (two times, four times, one-half, one-fourth, etc.) the i. - k. Altering the resistance of a light bulb in a specific branch can alter
original value. the current in that branch and the current in the overall circuit. The
f. If the voltage of the battery is doubled, then the current at location D current in a branch is inversely proportional to the resistance of the
would be ____ (two times, four times, one-half, one-fourth, etc.) the branch. So increasing the resistance of a branch will decrease the
original value. current of that branch and the overall current in the circuit (as measured
at location A). However, the current in the other branches are dependent radius of the wire is one-half the diameter - 1/32 inch.
solely upon the voltage drops of those branches and the resistance of A = PI•R2 = (3.141592) • (1/32 inch) = 0.306796 x10-3 in2
those branches. So while altering the resistance of a single branch alters Since the unit of length for the Rho value is meters, the cross-sectional
the current at that branch location, the other branch currents remain area will be determined in m2 before substitution into the equation. The
unaffected. fact that the conversion involves squared units makes this problem even
more trickier. The conversion factors will have to be squared to
Part E: Problem-Solving and Circuit Analysis accomplish the conversion successfully.
65. If the current at a given point in a circuit is 2.5 Amps, then how many A = 0.306796 x10-3 in2 • (2.54 cm / 1 in)2 • (1 m / 100 cm)2 = 1.979326 x
electrons pass that point on the circuit in a time period of 1 minute. 10-6 m2
Answer: 9.375 x 1020 electrons The final quantity which must be determined before computing the wire
The current (I) is the rate at which charge passes a point on the circuit in length is the actual resistance of the wire. Resistance is related to
a unit of time. So I = Q/t. Rearranging this equation leads to Q = I•t. voltage drop (ΔV) and current (I) by the equation R = ΔV / I. Standard
Recognizing that a current of 2.5 Amps is equivalent to 2.5 Coulombs per units are Ohms, Volts and Amps. Here, the current is given in milliAmps
second and that 1 minute is equivalent to 60 seconds can lead to the (mAmps); substitution to Amps must be performed before substitution.
amount of Coulombs moving pass the point. R = ΔV / I = (1.5 Volt) / (0.001 Amps) = 1500 Ohms
Q = I•t = (2.5 C/s)•(60 s) = 150 Coulombs Now R, A and Rho can be substituted into the length equation to
The charge of a single electron is equal to 1.6 x 10 -19 C. So 150 determine the length of the wire in meters.
Coulombs must be a lot of electrons. The actual number can be L = R • A / (Rho) = (1500 Ohms) • (1.979326 x 10 -6 m2) / (150 x 10-
8
computed as shown: ohm•m) =1.979 x 103 meters = 2.0 x103 meters
# electrons = 150 C • (1 electron / 1.6 x 10-19 C) = 9.375 x 1020 electrons
68. Determine the total monthly cost of using the following
66. What is the resistance (in ohms) of a typical 40-Watt light bulb appliances/household wires for the given amount of time if each is
plugged into a 120-Volt outlet in your home? plugged into a 120-Volt household outlet. The cost of electricity is $0.13 /
Answer: 360 Ohms kW•hr. (Assume that a month lasts for 30 days.)
The power dissipated in a circuit is given by the equation P = I•ΔV. Appliance
Substituting inΔV/R for the current can lead to an equation relating the Time Power Energy Cost
(with info from
resistance (R) to the voltage drop (ΔV) and the power (P). (hours/day) (Watts) Consumed ($)
labels)
P = I•ΔV = (ΔV/R)•ΔV = ΔV2 / R
Rearrangement of the equation and substitution of known values of Hair Dryer
power (40 Watts) and voltage (120 V) leads to the following solution. 0.10 1440 W 4.32 kW•h $0.56
(12 Amp)
R = ΔV2 / P = (120 V)2 / (40 Watts) = 360 Ohms

67. Determine the length of nichrome wire (resistivity value = 150 x 10 -


8 Coffee Percolator
ohm•m) required to produce a 1.00 mAmp current if a voltage of 1.5 0.10 1080 W 3.24 kW•h $0.42
(9.0 Amp)
Volts is impressed across it. The diameter of the wire is 1/16-th of an
inch. (GIVEN: 2.54 cm = 1 inch)
Answer: 2.0 x 103 m
This is clearly an exercise in unit conversion (or at least unit awareness). Light Bulb
8 100 W 24 kW•h $3.12
The resistance (R) of a wire is related to the resistivity (Rho), the length (100 Watt)
(L) and the cross-sectional area (A) by the equation
R = (Rho) • L / A
This can be rearranged to solve for length Attic Fan
10 140 W 42 kW•h $5.46
L = R • A / (Rho) (140 Watt)
The diameter is given; cross-sectional area is simply given by PI•R 2. The
Microwave Oven 70. Determine the resistance of a 1500 Watt electric grill connected to a
0.25 946 W 7.47 kW•h $0.97
(8.3 Amps) 120-Volt outlet.
Answer: 9.6 Ohms
The power dissipated in a circuit is given by the equation P = I•ΔV.
Total $10.53 Substituting in ΔV/R for the current can lead to an equation relating the
resistance (R) to the voltage drop (ΔV) and the power (P).
Answer: See table above. P = I•ΔV = (V/R)•ΔV = ΔV2 / R
The power is either explicitly stated (as in the case of the light bulb) or Rearrangement of the equation and substitution of known values of
calculated using P = I•ΔV. In this case, the voltage is 120 Volts. The power (1500 Watts) and voltage (120 V) leads to the following solution.
energy consumed is the Power•time. It is useful to express this quantity R = ΔV2 / P = (120 V)2 / (1500 Watts) = 9.6 Ohms
in the same units for which one is charged for it - kiloWatt • hour. The
calculation involves converting power in Watts to kiloWatts by dividing by 71. Four resistors - 2.0-Ohms, 5.0-Ohms, 12-Ohms and 15-Ohms - are
1000 and then multiplying by the time in hours/month and then placed in series with a 12-Volt battery. Determine the current at and
multiplying by 30 days/month. The cost in dollars is simply the voltage drop across each resistor.
kiloWatt•hours of energy used multiplied by the cost of $0.13/kW•hr. Answer: See diagram below.
69. If the copper wire used to carry telegraph signals has a resistance of The diagram below depicts the series circuit using schematic symbols.
10 ohms for every mile of wire, then what is the diameter of the wire. Note that there is no branching, consistent with the notion of a series
(Given: 1609 m = 1 mile. Resistivity of Cu = 1.7 x 10-8 ohm•m ) circuit.
Answer: 0.59 cm
Like Question #67, this is another exercise in unit conversion and unit
awareness. The resistance (R) of a wire is related to the resistivity (Rho),
the length (L) and the cross-sectional area (A) by the equation
R = (Rho) • L / A
This can be rearranged to solve for cross-sectional area
A = (Rho) • L / R
The area is related to the radius by the equation A = PI•R 2. The plan will
involve determining the Area, then the radius, then the diameter of the For a series circuit, the overall resistance (RTot) is simply the sum of the
wire. individual resistances. That is
First, note that the given information is: Rho = 1.7 x 10 -8 ohm•m; L = 1 mi RTot = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4
= 1609 m; R = 10 Ohm. By substitution, the Area can be determined: RTot = 2 ½ + 5 ½ + 12 ½ + 15 ½ = 34 ½
A = (Rho) • L / R = (1.7 x 10-8 ohm•m) • (1609 m) / (10 Ohm) The series of three resistors supplies an overall, total or equivalent
A = 2.7353 x 10-6 m2 resistance of 34 Ohms. Since there is no branching, the current is the
The area is in m2 units. Since the diameter of wires is typically expressed same through each resistor. This current is simply the overall current for
in centimeters or millimeters, a conversion will be performed. The fact the circuit and can be determined by finding the ratio of battery voltage to
that the conversion involves squared units makes this conversion even overall resistance (VTot/RTot).
more trickier. The conversion factors will have to be squared to ITot = ΔVTot/RTot = (12 Volt) / (34 Ohm) = 0.35294 Amps
accomplish the conversion successfully. The current through the battery and through each of the resistors
A = 2.7353 x 10-6 m2 • (100 cm )2/ (1 m)2 = 0.27353 cm2 is ~0.353 Amps. The voltage drop across each resistor is equal to the
Now the area equation (A = PI•R2) can be used to determine the radius. I•R product for each resistor. These calculations are shown below.
R = Sqrt (A/PI) = Sqrt [(0.27353 cm 2 ) / (3.1415)] = Sqrt(8.70673 x 10- ΔV1 = I1 • R1 = (0.35294 Amps) • (2 Ohms) = 0.71 V
2
cm2) ΔV2 = I2 • R2 = (0.35294 Amps) • (5 Ohms) = 1.76 V
R = 0.29507 cm ΔV3 = I3 • R3 = (0.35294 Amps) • (12 Ohms) = 4.24 V
The radius is simple twice the diameter. So d = 0.59014 cm. ΔV4 = I4 • R4 = (0.35294 Amps) • (15 Ohms) = 5.29 V
72. Four resistors - 2-Ohms, 5-Ohms, 12-Ohms and 15-Ohms - are
placed in parallel with a 12-Volt battery. Determine the current at and
voltage drop across each resistor.
Answer: See diagram below.
The diagram below depicts the parallel circuit using schematic symbols.
Note that there is a branching, consistent with the notion of a parallel
circuit.

For a parallel circuit, the reciprocal of overall resistance (1 / R Tot) is simply


the sum of the reciprocals of individual resistances. That is
1 / RTot = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + 1 / R4
1 / RTot = 1 / 2 ½ + 1 / 5 ½ + 1 / 12 ½ + 1 / 15 ½ = 0.850 / ½
RTot = 1.17647 ½
The series of three resistors supplies an overall, total or equivalent
resistance of ~1.18 Ohms. This total resistance value can be used to
determine the total current through the circuit.
ITot = ΔVTot/RTot = (12 Volt) / (1.17647 Ohm) = 10.2 Amps
Since there is branching, the total current will be equal to the sum of the
currents at each resistor. The current at each resistor is the voltage drop
across each resistor divided by the resistance of each resistor. For series
circuits, the voltage drop across each resistor is the same as the voltage
gained by the charge in the battery (12 Volts in this case). The branch
current calculations are shown below.
I1 = ΔV1 / R1 = (12 Volts) / (2 Ohms) = 6.00 Amp
I 2 = ΔV2 / R2 = (12 Volts) / (5 Ohms) = 2.40 Amp
I 3 = ΔV3 / R3 = (12 Volts) / (12 Ohms) = 1.00 Amp
I 4 = ΔV4 / R4 = (12 Volts) / (15 Ohms) = 0.80 Amp