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Emily Sullivan

Lesson Plan Template:

Directed Reading and Thinking Activities (DRTA) Lesson
EDIS 5400: English Education

Lesson Components Comments/Notes/

What teacher and student behaviors are planned and expected Reflections
Context: Course name; grade level; length of lesson; description of setting, students, I chose an 8th grade
and curriculum and any other important contextual characteristics class because I want
to try and use this
Course name: English 8, Standard Level lesson in my 8th grade
Grade level: 8th grade practicum class.
Lesson length: It will span two 90-minute class periods Also, because the
Setting description: Middle-class, suburban middle school that holds grades 6th through 8th intent of this exercise
Students: 20 students, 3 ELL students and 2 who struggle with reading is to help students
Curriculum: This lesson is part of an author-study unit on Ray Bradbury. As a class, we learn how to read
will read several short stories written by Bradbury. Then, at the end of the unit, we will critically, this
read Fahrenheit 451 together as a class and students will complete a poster project strategy may be too
depicting a common theme in Bradbury’s work. At this point in the unit, students will basic for upper level
have already learned biographical information about Bradbury. “The Flying Machine” is high schoolers. I
the first work by Bradbury that the students will read. They will be familiar with reading think it fits well at an
stories and will know the steps of a basic story structure as well as how to examine 8th grade level.
characters closely.
Bradbury has a
particular fascination
with the role of
technology in our
culture and how
technology will look
in future societies.
This story, and
several other
Bradbury stories, will
examine particular
aspects of our world
and contemplate
how these
characteristics may
impact the future of
our planet. As a
whole, I want
students to learn
how to read
authorially by
ting with authors and
their ideas.
Virginia SOL(s): Though I worry that
I’m using too many
8.5: The student will read and analyze a variety of fictional texts, narrative nonfiction, and standards for this
poetry. lesson, 8.5b, c, and h
b) Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied are certainly the
information using evidence from text as support. most important. 8.5l
c) Explain how authors use characters, conflict, point of view, voice, and tone to is used mainly to help
create meaning. students connect
their new knowledge
h) Identify the main idea. to what they’re
l) Use prior and background knowledge as a context for new learning. learning and 8.5m
m) Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading refers to the DRTA
process. process.
Common Core State Standard(s):

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.1: Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis
of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its
development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters,
setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
Objectives (KUD format):
FROM DRTA: Before Teaching: Setting Goals.
I edited my standards
Students will understand: to make them better
1. That technology can be used for good and evil. (8.5h, CCSS.8.2) (priority aligned and add
objective) clarity. I’m still not
2. That authors often use formal elements to create larger meaning in their sure if my Know
works. (8.5c, CCSS.8.2) (unit objective) objectives work well
3. That close-reading of literature reveals depth within written pieces. (8.5b, with the Wilhelm
8.5c, CCSS.8.1, CCSS.8.2) (unit objective) text, but I think
they’re better
Students will know: developed.
4. That “The Flying Machine” explores the complexities of technology within
society. (8.5h, CCSS.8.2) (priority objective)
5. That big ideas and enhanced meaning can be extracted from small amounts
of text. (8.5b, 8.5c, 8.5h, CCSS.8.1, CCSS.8.2) (unit objective)
6. How “The Flying Machine” develops setting, characters, and a structured
story to give meaning to the text. (8.5c, CCSS.8.2) (priority objective)
7. How to apply their knowledge of story structure and character development
to this text. (priority objective)

Students will know how to:

8. Use the DRTA protocol to assist in their reading of “The Flying Machine.”
(8.5m) (priority objective)
9. Engage with the reading through summarizing, asking questions, expressing
emotions, and other ways of interacting with the text. (8.5m) (priority
10. Identify the main idea(s) of the text. (8.5h, CCSS.8.2) (priority objective)
11. Connect the big ideas from the story to their own lives. (8.5h, 8.5l) (priority

Assessments: Methods for evaluating each of the specific objectives listed above. I struggled with
Diagnostic: Students will demonstrate what they already know by… creating assessments
Completing a quick-write frontloading exercise in which they analyze an invention in their because I feel as if
own life and in the world. This will be a major theme in “The Flying Machine,” so this they’re not as clear
exercise will help me measure how well students can think critically about the tools they cut as many other
use. It will also serve as a bridge to connect students’ prior knowledge to the text. assessments that I’ve
(Standard 1, Standard 4, Standard 10, Standard 11) designed. However,
in general, I plan to
Formative: Students will show their progress toward today's objectives by… use assessments to
Creating a DRTA protocol for “The Flying Machine” and metacognitively looking at their measure how well
notes with a partner. This step is a difficult one, so I will stop them at various points to students are
make sure they understand the process well enough to move forward. ( Standard 3, following along in the
Standard 8, Standard 9) DRTA process. If they
get stuck, I need to
Discussing specific questions at each point in the process either with a partner, with a make sure to assist
small group, or with a class. Using collaboration, they will converse about the text. Their them before moving
conversations will help me see how well they analyzed Bradbury’s story. I will look closely on. Also, because
to see if they are applying their knowledge of story structure and character development DRTA is so focused
to this assignment. ( Standard 1, Standard 2, Standard 3, Standard 4, Standard 5, Standard on engaging with the
6, Standard 7, Standard 10) work, many of my
At the end of class, students will form small groups and will be assigned a scenario in encourage building
which they are a leader of some sort of place and a piece of technology, though connections between
beneficial, also holds the potential for disaster. They must decide how to act. ( Standard the reader and the
1, Standard 9, Standard 11) story.

Students will write an exit slip at the end of class that asks them to take the invention they
had written about during the frontloading exercise and make a prediction as to how that
particular invention will affect the future. This formative assessment will demonstrate
how well they understand Bradbury’s main idea in the text and whether or not they can For my revision, I
apply it to their lives. ( Standard 1, Standard 9, Standard 11) adjusted my
assessments to make
Summative: Students will ultimately be assessed (today or in a future lesson) on these them better aligned
standards by... with my standards
At the end of the Ray Bradbury unit, students will create a thematic presentation and my students’
depicting a common theme used in Bradbury’s writing. Students will choose a large progress. I decided
theme explored throughout Bradbury’s plethora of works and will create a poster to scrap the SRI idea
representing that theme. Students will be expected to include excerpts from at least and replace it with a
three of Bradbury’s works that demonstrate that theme as well as visual representations, more thematic
interview segments with Bradbury discussing the theme, etc. Students should include approach to a unit on
different pieces of the stories to help boost their chosen theme. They must choose a Bradbury. I think this
character that struggles with, is associated with, or simply embodies this theme, a piece of will help students to
the setting that demonstrates the theme, and a symbol of this theme. They should also look at themselves as
use dialogue, description, pictures, and can even boost their piece with interviews with existing in
Bradbury where he discusses his reason for writing stories. I want this final assessment to communication with
help students see how pieces fit together to create a thematic unit. (Standard 1, Standard Bradbury and see
2, Standard 3, Standard 5, Standard 10) common links within
his various pieces.
Also, this will help
students engage with
the pieces on a
formal level because I
want them to give
examples of this
development in
specific pieces.
Instructional Steps (Procedures): Detail student and teacher behavior. Identify possible
student misconceptions. Include:
I. Welcome/greeting/announcements

Yesterday, students completed a webquest online to learn more about Ray Bradbury’s
life. Today, I plan on moving students into looking at Bradbury’s texts.
“Good morning, everyone! Today we’re going to start reading about our friend, Ray
Bradbury. I want you to remember the information we learned about his background
yesterday. Looking at the biographical information of the authors we read can be helpful
as we try to understand his or her perspective, and Ray Bradbury is no exception.
Remember that there is a timeline of his major accomplishments on page 300 of your
textbook. Feel free to refer to that during our lesson if you forget what happened in his
life. You can also look back at the webquest worksheet that we filled out yesterday if you
need to. Today, though, we’re going to jump into reading some of Ray’s stories. “
I chose the initial
II. FROM DRTA: Before reading: Frontloading Activities. quick-write question
because I felt it
For my frontloading activity, I chose to have students complete a quick-write. “Before we would connect well
begin reading, though, we’re going to start out with a little bit of journaling. I want you to to students’ prior
answer these questions: What is a piece of technology that you use on a daily basis? knowledge.
Everyone uses tools
What are some good qualities about this invention? What are some bad qualities?” To
and technology in
cut down on possible student misconceptions, I will give a definition of technology. The their lives, so they
word has an association with computers so students may limit their answers to will definitely be able
computerized technology, but I will explain that a piece of technology is any kind of tool to answer the
that can be used to benefit people. I will also give some examples of inventions that I use question and find its
every day that they may not have considered, like a fork or stairs in my apartment, so applicability in their
students understand the concept better. Hopefully this will prevent everyone from own life. Also, I think
it’s important to
writing about an iPhone or a laptop. I will give them about five to seven minutes to
clarify what
complete this. “After you finish writing, you will be sharing your ideas with a partner, technology means. If
okay? So start writing. I’ll stop you in about five minutes.” NOTE: because this is a piece I were teaching this
of personal writing that will only be used to direct students’ thoughts, I will let my ELL lesson in a low
students write it in their native language if they wish. That way, they will hopefully be income class, lower
SES students who
able to group their thoughts in a way that will be beneficial during the think-pair-share aren’t familiar with
activity that follows. This follows Fu’s idea that ELL students should engage in meaningful computerized
writing even if they cannot yet express themselves fully in English. technology may feel
disconnected from
“Everyone finish up, then turn to your partner and discuss what you wrote about for a few those who own
minutes. Discuss what you selected as your piece of technology and find out what your iPhones and tablets
and other expensive
partner has to say. Maybe they have never used your invention before, so this is a great
equipment. By
opportunity for you to explain what it is and how you use it to them. Or, if they are explaining to
familiar with what you chose, they may have other advantages or disadvantages that you students that
didn’t consider. Converse with them for a few minutes, then we’re going to come back technology is all-
together as a class.” After roughly 5 minutes of sharing with a partner, we will come back encompassing, it
together as a small group, and I will have several students name their chosen inventions makes the question
and the advantages and disadvantages that they came up with. After we have named universal instead of
about five inventions, I will say, “Great job, guys! These are all excellent examples of
everyday technology. As you can see, technology definitely helps us out a lot in our lives, In asking the second
but it has some limitations too. I want to open this idea up to a broader question, though. frontloading
What about the advantages and disadvantages of technology on a broader scale? More question, I want to
specifically, can you think of some inventions that were originally intended for good but prepare students to
are also used for evil? I can think of a few examples. How many of you have used read and consider the
text on a social and
Sparknotes before?” Students will raise their hands. “And… be honest… how many of you
global level instead
have ever used Sparknotes because you didn’t want to read the whole book?” Students of merely personal.
will giggle and many will keep their hands raised. “Exactly. Sparknotes was invented to Of course, technology
help students better understand what they were reading, but it’s so often used for evil – is essential in our
too many people use it as a supplement rather than an assistant, and they lose a lot of the everyday lives, but it
importance behind the original story. Can anyone else name an invention that was meant can have an even
to be good but is or was actually used for evil?” greater impact on the
world. I chose the
I will have students raise their hands and give any answers they think of. They may talk Sparknote example
about how medicine is intended to heal but is frequently abused or how planes were because it’s both
relevant and
created for traveling but is often used in violent warfare.
“Good job, guys. These are all some great examples of the ways technology impacts our
lives and our world… both positively and negatively.”

III. FROM DRTA: Beginning to Read: Set a Purpose.

“As we get into the story we’re about to read, I want you to continue thinking about these
ideas. This story by Ray Bradbury is called ‘The Flying Machine.’ It has a lot to say about
the role that technology plays in our lives, and how inventions can be used within

“To start off this story, we’re going to read the first few paragraphs of “The Flying
Machine” together, but I’m going to do something different. I’m going to project the
story on the overhead and talk through what I’m reading. I’m going to make note of my
observations, my questions, my emotions, my summaries, my predictions. Basically, I’m
going to try to show you what’s inside my brain while I’m going through this passage. I
want to show you all how I have a conversation with the reading, and it’s what I want you
all to do in your reading too.”

I will project a written protocol of the first few paragraphs of the story on the overhead
using a projector or an ELMO device. Then, I will model my reading process. I will
comment aloud about each paragraph, stopping after particular phrases or words to
address questions as they materialize. I will also write down my thoughts in the margins
of the story. Here is an attached chart of the first few parts of the story and what I will
say to my students.

Story My think-aloud comments

In the year A.D. 400, the Emperor “So, this first paragraph tells us a
Yuan held his throne by the Great lot about the story already,
Wall of China, and the land was doesn’t it? We’ve already been
green with rain, readying itself introduced to a character:
toward the harvest, at peace, the Emperor Yuan. We also know
people in his dominion neither some summary information: it’s
too happy nor too sad. 400 AD, he’s the ruler of China,
and his land is ripe and peaceful.
That’s a lot of information. Let’s
write this down: Character – In my modeling, I
Emperor Yuan, ruler of China. tried to cover as
Setting – AD 400, China, near the many reading
Great Wall, ripe and peaceful processes as possible.
land. I’m sure these factors of I summarized here by
the story will be helpful to us writing down pieces
later on. of the plot. I also
circled unfamiliar
“I get a little stuck at the end of words and tried to
this paragraph, though, with the think through how to
word ‘dominion.’ I know I’ve define them in
heard that word before, but I’m context.
not completely sure what it
means, so I’m going to circle it.
Let’s see, though, maybe I can
use context clues to figure it out.
I know that Yuan is an emperor
of China. Because he’s the ruler
of China, he probably has a lot of
land and people in his kingdom.
The narrator talks about his land
and people that make up his
‘dominion,’ so maybe dominion
means something like kingdom or
territory. ”
Early on the morning of the first “We’re getting a lot of
day of the first week of the information about setting from
second month of the new year, these first few paragraphs, aren’t
the Emperor Yuan was sipping we? I’m going to write down
tea and fanning himself against a what we know so far: this story
warm breeze when a servant ran takes place in 400 AD in China,
across the scarlet and blue near the Great Wall. This next
garden tiles, calling, "Oh, paragraph tells us a specific time
Emperor, Emperor, a miracle!" in the year 400 AD – it’s the first
day of the second month of the Here, I showed an
New Year. It gets even more emotional
specific, than that, doesn’t it? connection to a
Not only is it early in the year and character in the story
early in the month, it’s also and asked a follow-
morning, so it’s early in the day.” up question.
"Yes," said the Emperor, "the air “The emperor doesn’t seem to be
is sweet this morning." listening to the servant. That’s a
good question to write down:
"No, no, a miracle!" said the why won’t the Emperor let the
servant, bowing quickly. servant explain what the miracle
is? I feel kind of bad for the Here, I noticed a
"And this tea is good in my servant because Yuan won’t let formal aspect of the
mouth, surely that is a miracle." him talk.” piece and wrote it
"No, no, Your Excellency."
"Let me guess then - the sun has “I understand now why the
risen and a new day is upon us. servant seems so flustered! I
Or the sea is blue. That now is would be too if I saw a man with
the finest of all miracles." wings flying through the sky. I
can definitely relate to this.
"Excellency, a man is flying!" When something crazy happens
to me, I want to run and tell
"What?" The Emperor stopped someone too! I also really like
his fan. the description the servant uses
to depict the man flying. I’m
"I saw him in the air, a man flying going to write ‘vivid imagery.’”
with wings. I heard a voice call
out of the sky, and when I looked Here, I tried to
up, there he was, a dragon in the predict what
heavens with a man in its mouth, happened through
a dragon of paper and bamboo, reasoning.
coloured like the sun and the
"It is early," said the Emperor, “This seems like a pretty natural
"and you have just wakened from response from the emperor. We
a dream." know it’s early in the morning, so
maybe the servant did just wake
up from a dream. After all, it’s Here, I tried to enter
into the characters’
unlikely that a man is actually motivations.
flying, right? I’m going to write
down this question: Did the
servant actually see this or was
he dreaming?”
"It is early, but I have seen what I “Hmmm, so first the emperor
have seen! Come, and you will refused to let the servant explain
see it too." what the miracle is, and now he
won’t let the servant take him to
"Sit down with me here," said the the flying man. Why won’t he
Emperor. "Drink some tea. It take the servant’s story
must be a strange thing, if it is seriously?”
true, to see a man fly. You must
have time to think of it, even as I
must have time to prepare I think this
myself for the sight." They drank deconstructing part
tea. of the process is
"Please," said the servant at last, “I’m going to write down: Finally! important – it allows
"or he will be gone." The Poor guy!” us to look at the
Emperor rose thoughtfully. "Now reading model
you may show me what you have metacognitively

This wasn’t
I expect that this reading process will take about ten minutes. After this process, we will something done in
deconstruct it. Students will ask questions about the technique and we will talk about the the Wilhelm book,
kinds of things that I wrote down. but I think it’s
important to ensure
I will ask them several questions in a whole-group setting to ensure they are critically students understand
thinking about the story, but also to measure how much they’ve retained from the this technique before
asking them to do it
process and whether we can move on. My first question will focus on character
on their own.
development. I will ask a question to encourage student contemplation about the Reading critically is
Emperor’s motivations: “Why do you think the Emperor refused to listen to the servant?” difficult and takes
After discussing the Emperor’s potential motivations, I will ask, “So, looking at what we’ve practice, so I want to
seen so far, how are the servant and the Emperor different? What’s different about their adequately scaffold
behavior?” Finally, I will ask students to make a prediction: “What do you think will the process.
happen next? Do you think the servant actually saw a man flying?” If students seem to
I believe the main
understand how the story is working so far, I will encourage them to expand on their ideas idea (technology can
and begin looking at the story in a specific lens: “I told you that the story would be about be used for good and
technology. What part do you think technology will play later in the story? ” Because the evil) is represented in
story is called “The Flying Machine,” I anticipate several students recognizing that there is the contrast between
probably technology behind the man’s flying. This discussion will take about 10 minutes. the emperor and the
flying man, the way
If students are not quite ready to move onto practicing this reading on their own, I will that they view the
read several more paragraphs and do the same process or have them read several flying machine, and
the grand and
paragraphs in groups and practice the process before moving onto individual work. otherwise
impermeable setting
of China, I want
IV. FROM DRTA: Guide Students’ Reading. students to focus on
these specific
After students have discussed my questions, I will have them read the rest of the story elements as they
using a DRTA written protocol. I will encourage them to do what I just did, writing down read.
their thoughts, feelings, observations, questions, and predictions as they move through
the story. I will also tell them to pay close attention to the setting, the overall problem, I also provided the
worksheet so
and the characters’ thoughts and actions in regard to this problem. I want them to wear
students can see
the shoes of the characters – how would they feel if they were the emperor? The flying more examples of
man? The servant? I will give them about 20 minutes to read the story all the way different ways to
through and make comments. Because I don’t want to overwhelm them, I will tell them interact with the
to make at least two comments per page. They can make more if they wish, but this will text. Hopefully that
give them a baseline so that students actually write and fill out the margins. will assist them in
their critical reading.
To assist students in the process, I have attached a worksheet that gives examples of
several types of comments that students could make in their reading (see appendix). Finally, the bolded
questions are
As they read, I will ask them to think about these questions (which I will write on the purpose questions
board): that I want students
to have in their
What are the positives and negatives about the man’s invention? How did the minds during the
characters in the story feel about the invention? What does this story say about reading. Even if
they’re not sure how
the development of technology?
to answer them,
they’re an important
Because I have three ELL students and two struggling readers in this classroom, I have
end goal.
differentiated this assignment to assist them in this reading strategy. I discussed this
differentiation in the “Attention to Individual Student Needs” section. I added the
clarification question
at the beginning of
V. FROM DRTA: After Reading. section 5 because I
know how easy it is
First, I will ask students if they have any specific clarification questions or confusion in for students to get
case specific aspects of the text prevented student understanding. I will remind my frustrated if they
students that our purpose is to understand the text deeply and that it’s okay if there are can’t get past a
some road blocks. Some example clarification questions could be, “What does the word particular part of a
‘apparatus’ mean?” or “Is the thing flying around a dragon or a man?” I expect work and simply give
clarification to take about 5 minutes. up. By addressing
these roadblocks, I
Next, I will have my students discuss their reading with a partner. Together, they will go want students to
through their comments and try to describe their methods of reading. What stood out to know that it’s okay to
get hung up while
them? Did they relate to the individual characters? Did they have a lot of questions
reading as long as
about the work? I will have them discuss their comments with their partners and try to they make an effort
identify the way they connected best to their reading. Once they have done that for to push past them.
about 10 minutes, I will have them look back at the questions on the board and discuss
them. I think the think-pair-
share model works
Afterward, the students will discuss the text as a group. I want students to look at well for section 5
technology in this work and see how new technology can have both positive and negative because this process
effects on society. I will ask the group to discuss specific observations, emotions, and will be
uncomfortable for
questions about the text that they have. In particular, I will ask them to describe specific
many students who
components of the story (setting, conflict, characters). Why is the setting important? Do have never read
you see any comparisons or contrasts between the characters in this story? Why do you critically. Allowing
think Bradbury created these characters in this way? We will discuss these aspects for them to deconstruct
about 15 minutes. the process with a
partner before
VI. FROM DRTA: Follow-up. sharing with the
whole class will add
Once I feel as if my students have started to understand Bradbury’s generalizations comfort to the
through the comments made in our group discussion, I will revisit the earlier questions assignment.
that I posed.

What are the positives and negatives about the man’s flying invention? How
did the characters in the story feel about this invention? What does this story
say about the development of technology?

To tackle these questions, we will make a chart on the board that unpacks the flying
invention created in the story. This exercise will use the same format as the frontloading
exercise, but will be a visual representation. I will make three columns, one for
description, one for advantages, and one for disadvantages.


How does the story What are some What are some
describe this invention? advantages of this disadvantages of the The chart in Section 6
invention? Who makes invention? Who makes will be helpful for
Made of bamboo
this argument? this argument? students, as it
Resembles a dragon visually maps out
Beautiful view of China Could be a potential how to view this
Etc. threat to safety invention. Also, it
Thrills the inventor, connects the
surprises the servant Disdained by emperor, frontloading activity
burned by the guards to the text because
we’re answering this
Etc. question for the
story’s invention just
as we did for our own
personal inventions.
This chart will lead into a discussion of summative plot questions:
Section 6 is when
- Who wins this pro/con argument? students engage
- What about the emperor’s invention? What are the pros/cons of his technology, Bradbury and his
and how does this differ from the flying invention? ideas directly. I want
them to put
- What does this say about Ray Bradbury’s message? How does he feel about
themselves in the
technological advancements? What does he want us to get out of this story? place of the Emperor
- Do we agree with Bradbury’s statement or not? and see what
decision they would
This activity will take roughly 20-30 minutes. make. I expect many
students would be
For a final close-out activity, I will have students reenact the story from their own
appalled at Yuan’s
perspective. Here’s what I will say:
decision to kill the
flying man, but I
“Now, we’ve learned about Bradbury’s view on technology and how his emperor handles
think this roleplay
it. For the last few minutes of class, I want you all to imagine yourself in a leadership
will help them to
position and a new piece of technology enters your society. Though it has definite
examine the other
benefits, it could also pose a threat. What do you do? What is your role as leader? Form
side and choose
small groups of four and have a group representative come get a potential scenario from
whether or not they
me. Then, work together as a group to plan out how you would act given this situation.” I
accept it.
will give students about 30 minutes for this discussion.

I will have made several potential scenarios for the groups to discuss. Here are some
possible examples:
- It would be neat to have one group reenact the exact scene from the story, so this
will be one prompt: Imagine that you are Emperor Yuan. You have just learned of
this flying device and, though it offers freedom and beauty, it also exists as a
potential threat to your country’s safety. We know how Yuan acts in the story.
How would you act if you were him?
- You’re the President of the United States. The top medical researcher comes to
you and tells you that he has found the cure for cancer. It is 99% proven to treat
and cure cancer in infected patients. However, distribution of this cure also
releases a deadly toxin into the air. This toxin is fine in small doses, but it can be
lethal in large quantities. Do you let the procedure be released or do you destroy
the cure to protect your people?
- You’re a computer designer in 2057. You just designed a computer that has the
ability to learn on its own. Though the computer has the capacity to solve
problems that have stumped humans for centuries, you recognize that the
computer’s knowledge is growing at a rapid speed and will soon surpass your
own. You’re not sure how the computer is going to act next. What do you do?
I like this particular
exit slip because it
IV. Closing
connects back to the
At the end of the class, I will have students revisit their initial workbook entry for their exit
frontloading exercise
slip. They will write for the last five minutes of class.
and demonstrates
explicitly how their
“Think back to the invention that you mentioned during your writing at the beginning of
ideas have changed
class. Can you think of any ways that this invention may cause problems in the future?
over the course of
Or, do you think this invention could help save future society? In your journals, make a
the lesson.
prediction on how you think your invention will affect the future.” Again, ELL students
will be given the option of writing this brief reflection in their native language if they wish.

Materials: I got “The Flying

Machine” out of the
Textbook – Elements of Literature: Second Course by Holt. The book gives some great students’ textbook,
background information on Ray Bradbury, as well as some specific questions for this but I chose to
particular story and others. This book is well written and can be a great resource for separate it from the
students. textbook for this
lesson. Wilhelm
Overhead projector or ELMO to project protocol sheets, pen to write on states that most
students find
Protocol sheets of “The Flying Machine” to distribute to individual students textbook reading to
be unpleasant (86).
Thus, for this
exercise, I think it’s a
good idea to put in
the extra effort and
look at this story
separately from the
book. However, the
book is still a great
resource and can be
used to extend the
topic and learn more
about Bradbury and
the text.
Attention to Individual Student Needs: Detail specific actions/materials you will use to I see a lot of value in
meet individual needs in this lesson. UDL processes, so
included the column
I tried to use as many different types of representation as possible in this lesson. I believe chart and worksheet
that using visual representation through the column chart toward the end of the lesson to assist both
will help all students, including struggling readers, visually comprehend the main ideas. students who may
Also, giving students a worksheet with types of comments they could make during the struggle as well as
protocol will assist all students in the process. other students.

Also, I may create a difficult words list to help students who struggle with context clues. I also edited this
Some words in the short story may pose a problem for these readers, so a basic lesson to better assist
vocabulary sheet of definitions will help them as they move through the text. For ELL ELL students.
students, I will give them the space to write a word or phrase that means the same thing
in their native language and they will use this to define the English word in English. This
will help them to connect their first language to the knowledge they are gaining in English.

After learning about ELL students, I recognize that an ELL student may have serious
difficulties with this lesson without extra support. This text can be challenging and
confusing for all ages, and students who may have lower reading levels or struggle with
English will also struggle with the deeper-reading techniques I am asking them to employ.
As one of our readings stated, students who are not as fluent in complicated texts may
benefit from having a brief summary of the work beforehand – that way they know the
general plot and can work through the difficult text with some level of prior
understanding. I may provide them with this plot summary either in basic English or in
their native language, depending on the student and what I think would best help them.

I maywill also use a version of Margin Questions (Gibbons 94) as an enhancement to the
protocol form to guide students’ reading toward the meaning of the work if they need it.
To do this, I will insert key questions for students to answer as they complete the protocol
reading. For example, when the Emperor brings out his own invention, I may have
students answer the question, “How is the Emperor’s invention different from the
flyer’s?” This would assist students in the reading process and help them to know what
they should be looking for in the text. I could even have students take some (or all) of
their notes in their native language as an adaptation of Fu’s ideas of incorporating native
language writing. If students are uncertain how to express themselves or their ideas
about the texts in their English writing, they could take notes in their native language to
help them during small group discussion. Though they would have to translate their
writing into spoken English, this technique may help students get their thoughts down
more effectively and process their opinions before sharing it with others. It may also help
students feel more comfortable expressing their thoughts in the group setting.

It can be threatening for students to have sheets of paper with pure text on it, so for
students who would be helped by visuals, I may include relevant pictures (such as of the
Great Wall of China) to assist them in their reading. This will help them visualize the work
and connect key ideas to a visual piece.

It would also be neat, if possible, to connect students’ knowledge to the story’s setting. If
I have an ELL student from China, I could ask him or her to share any information they
have about China with the class that could help us understand the story better (but only if
he or she is willing, of course!). Does he or she know anything about the purpose of the
Great Wall? Has he or she ever been there? How important is this place to the country of
China? This would be a neat assignment to encourage the student to share about his or
her culture and would also help extend students’ knowledge of the story’s setting.

Finally, I employed Fu’s technique of having students write personal reflections in their
first language. Fu argues that it takes multiple years for ELL students to develop
communicative proficiency, and even longer for them to develop academic language
proficiency (15). Students must begin engaging with meaningful writing activities from
the beginning of their time in America even if they cannot express themselves completely
in English yet. Thus, I have allowed my ELL students to write their introductory reflection
and exit-slip in their native language if they choose to. This way, they will be able to
respond to the prompt fully and have well-developed thoughts, which will serve them
well as they transition into group time or as the class finishes up for the day.
Technology Use: Detail specific technology being used in the lesson with explanation I felt as if excessive
for why it is being used. technology use in this
lesson would be
Ironically, I use little technology in a lesson about technology. Other than using the unnatural and
overhead to model the reading strategies, technology isn’t really needed to help students unnecessary. I’m not
effectively participate in the DRTA model. The overhead is helpful, though, as it allows me sure if I should add
to demonstrate the process for the student with better scaffolding. more or not.
How this lesson incorporates specific insights from course readings and/or class discussion:

As a whole, I very much relied on Wilhelm’s ideas to create this lesson. I followed his model for teaching
“Old Horse” on page 79 because I liked the way he created the process. However, I did make a few changes. In
particular, I paused more frequently for scaffolding and assessing student progress before moving on. Also, I
gave students handouts of types of comments and vocabulary sheets to assist them in the difficult process. I
recognize that this may be the first time my students truly analyze a piece, so I want to give them as much
support as possible. Wilhelm’s model has a heavy focus on purpose, so I made sure there was a clear purpose to
each part of the process that I assigned.
For my frontloading exercise, I used a quick-write because it is fast, easy, and focused. Wilhelm writes,
“Topics that are purposeful and have relevance to your students’ lives will naturally support a more democratic
community.” I intentionally ensured that my question connected well to all students so that they can think
critically and have good discussions about their ideas.
I attempted to use Wilhelm’s Inquiry Square to craft my KUDs, though I’m not sure how effective that
was. Throughout my lesson, I tried to have students focus on formal elements and build meaning from these
pieces, but this is a lot harder than I thought! I think I need more practice in following this model.
When considering ELLs and struggling readers in my class, I used the Gibbons book. Many of the
strategies outlined by Gibbons, like Scaffolding a Detailed Reading and Pause and Predict, are encompassed in
the DRTA model (93-94). I may have to give students extra assistance, though. I think Margin Questions will
help students to read with a particular focus if they are struggling with commenting on the work themselves
(94). Also, I included the chart after reading as a type of graphic organizer to help students better understand
how to organize the information from the text (100). I will provide vocabulary sheets to students who may
struggle with definitions. I could also translate them into my students’ native language. I will have students fill
out the vocabulary sheet beforehand, and ELL students will be able to write the equivalent of the word in their
native language.
APPENDIX: “The Flying Machine” by Ray Bradbury, full text. I have bolded words that I think students may not
know. For readers who struggle with finding context clues, I will provide them with a vocabulary sheet of these
words beforehand.

In the year A.D. 400, the Emperor Yuan held his throne by the Great Wall of China, and the land was
green with rain, readying itself toward the harvest, at peace, the people in his dominion neither too happy nor
too sad.
Early on the morning of the first day of the first week of the second month of the new year, the Emperor
Yuan was sipping tea and fanning himself against a warm breeze when a servant ran across the scarlet and blue
garden tiles, calling, "Oh, Emperor, Emperor, a miracle!"
"Yes," said the Emperor, "the air is sweet this morning."
"No, no, a miracle!" said the servant, bowing quickly.
"And this tea is good in my mouth, surely that is a miracle."
"No, no, Your Excellency."
"Let me guess then - the sun has risen and a new day is upon us. Or the sea is blue. That now is the
finest of all miracles."
"Excellency, a man is flying!"
"What?" The Emperor stopped his fan.
"I saw him in the air, a man flying with wings. I heard a voice call out of the sky, and when I looked up,
there he was, a dragon in the heavens with a man in its mouth, a dragon of paper and bamboo, coloured like the
sun and the grass."
"It is early," said the Emperor, "and you have just wakened from a dream."
"It is early, but I have seen what I have seen! Come, and you will see it too."
"Sit down with me here," said the Emperor. "Drink some tea. It must be a strange thing, if it is true, to
see a man fly. You must have time to think of it, even as I must have time to prepare myself for the sight." They
drank tea.
"Please," said the servant at last, "or he will be gone." The Emperor rose thoughtfully. "Now you may
show me what you have seen."
They walked into a garden, across a meadow of grass, over a small bridge, through a grove of trees, and
up a tiny hill.
"There!" said the servant.
The Emperor looked into the sky.
And in the sky, laughing so high that you could hardly hear him laugh, was a man; and the man was
clothed in bright papers and reeds to make wings and a beautiful yellow tail, and he was soaring all about like
the largest bird in a universe of birds, like a new dragon in a land of ancient dragons.
The man called down to them from high in the cool winds of morning. "I fly, I fly!"
The servant waved to him. "Yes, yes!"
The Emperor Yuan did not move. Instead he looked at the Great Wall of China now taking shape out of
the farthest mist in the green hills, that splendid snake of stones which writhed with majesty across the entire
land. That wonderful wall which had protected them for a timeless time from enemy hordes and preserved
peace for years without number. He saw the town, nestled to itself by a river and a road and a hill, beginning to
"Tell me," he said to his servant, "has anyone else seen this flying man?"
"I am the only one, Excellency," said the servant, smiling at the sky, waving.
The Emperor watched the heavens another minute and then said, "Call him down to me."
"Ho, come down, come down! The Emperor wishes to see you!" called the servant, hands cupped to his
shouting mouth.
The Emperor glanced in all directions while the flying man soared down the morning wind. He saw a
farmer, early in his fields, watching the sky, and he noted where the farmer stood.
The flying man alit with a rustle of paper and a creak of bamboo reeds. He came proudly to the Emperor,
clumsy in his rig, at last bowing before the old man.
"What have you done?" demanded the Emperor.
"I have flown in the sky, Your Excellency," replied the man.
"What have you done?" said the Emperor again.
"I have just told you!" cried the flier.
"You have told me nothing at all." The Emperor reached out a thin hand to touch the pretty paper and
the birdlike keel of the apparatus. It smelled cool, of the wind.
"Is it not beautiful, Excellency?"
"Yes, too beautiful."
"It is the only one in the world!" smiled the man. "And I am the inventor."
"The only one in the world?" "I swear it!"
"Who else knows of this?"
"No one. Not even my wife, who would think me mad with the son. She thought I was making a kite. I
rose in the night and walked to the cliffs far away. And when the morning breezes blew and the sun rose, I
gathered my courage, Excellency, and leaped from the cliff. I flew! But my wife does not know of it."
"Well for her, then," said the Emperor. "Come along."
They walked back to the great house. The sun was full in the sky now, and the smell of the grass was
The Emperor, the servant, and the flier paused within the huge garden.
The Emperor clapped his hands. "Ho, guards!" The guards came running. "Hold this man." The guards
seized the flier. "Call the executioner," said the Emperor. "What's this!" cried the flier, bewildered. "What have I
done?" He began to weep, so that the beautiful paper apparatus rustled.
"Here is the man who has made a certain machine," said the Emperor, "and yet asks us what he has
created. He does not know himself. It is only necessary that he create, without knowing why he has done so, or
what this thing will do."
The executioner came running with a sharp silver ax. He stood with his naked, large-muscled arms
ready, his face covered with a serene white mask.
"One moment," said the Emperor. He turned to a nearby table upon which sat a machine that he himself
had created. The Emperor took a tiny golden key from his own neck. He fitted his key to the tiny, delicate
machine and wound it up. Then he set the machine going.
The machine was a garden of metal and jewels. Set in motion, the birds sang in tiny metal trees, wolves
walked through miniature forests, and tiny people ran in and out of sun and shadow, fanning themselves with
miniature fans, listening to tiny emerald birds, and standing by impossibly small but tinkling fountains.
"Is it not beautiful?" said the Emperor. "If you asked me what I have done here, I could answer you well.
I have made birds sing, I have made forests murmur, I have set people to walking in this woodland, enjoying the
leaves and shadows and songs. That is what I have done."
"But, oh, Emperor!" pleaded the flier, on his knees, the tears pouring down his face. "I have done a
similar thing! I have found beauty. I have flown on the morning wind. I have looked down on all the sleeping
houses and gardens. I have smelled the sea and even seen it, beyond the hills, from my high place. And I have
soared like a bird; oh, I cannot say how beautiful it is up there, in the sky, with the wind about me, the wind
blowing me here like a feather, there like a fan, the way the sky smells in the morning! And how free one feels!
That is beautiful, Emperor, that is beautiful too!"
"Yes," said the Emperor sadly, "I know it must be true. For I felt my heart move with you in the air and I
wondered: What is it like? How does it feel? How do the distant pools look from so high? And how my houses
and servants? Like ants? And how the distant towns not yet awake?"
"Then spare me!"
"But there are times," said the Emperor, more sadly still, "when one must lose a little beauty if one is to
keep what little beauty one already has. I do not fear you, yourself, but I fear another man."
"What man?"
"Some other man who, seeing you, will build a thing of bright papers and bamboo like this. But the other
man will have an evil face and an evil heart, and the beauty will be gone. It is this man I fear."
"Why? Why?"
"Who is to say that someday just such a man, in just such an apparatus of paper and reed, might not fly
in the sky and drop huge stones upon the Great Wall of China?" said the Emperor.
No one moved or said a word.
"Off with his head," said the Emperor.
The executioner whirled his silver ax.
"Burn the kite and the inventor's body and bury their ashes together," said the Emperor.
The servants retreated to obey.
The Emperor turned to his hand-servant, who had seen the man flying. "Hold your tongue. It was all a
dream, a most sorrowful and beautiful dream. And that farmer in the distant field who also saw, tell him it
would pay him to consider it only a vision. If ever the word passes around, you and the farmer die within the
"You are merciful, Emperor."
"No, not merciful," said the old man. Beyond the garden wall he saw the guards burning the beautiful
machine of paper and reeds that smelled of the morning wind. He saw he dark smoke climb into the sky. "No,
only very much bewildered and afraid." He saw the guards digging a tiny pit wherein to bury the ashes. "What is
the life of one man against those of a million others? I must take solace from that thought."
He took the key from its chain about his neck and once more wound up the beautiful miniature garden.
He stood looking out across the land at the Great Wall, the peaceful town, the green fields, the rivers and
streams. He sighed. The tiny garden whirred its hidden and delicate machinery and set itself in motion; tiny
people walked in forests, tiny faces loped through sun-speckled glades in beautiful shining pelts, and among the
tiny trees flew little bits of high song and bright blue and yellow colour, flying, flying, flying in that small sky.
"Oh," said the Emperor, closing his eyes, "look at the birds, look at the birds!"
Guiding worksheet to assist students in the protocol process:

As we learn how to engage with our reading, we’re going to have to examine our stories on a deep, personal
level. As you read, take notes in the margins of the story. These notes will look differently for every person, but
I want you to try to get into the text by writing down your thoughts and questions as you read.
Here are some examples of different ways you can engage with the reading. Remember that these are just
examples! They are not limiting, so if your comments don’t look like this, that’s okay. Also, if you notice you
tend to write more of one type of comment than others, that’s also okay. Everyone reads and processes reading
differently! Remember to make at least two comments on each page of the reading.

A question
“Why did Stephanie decide to tattle on Jenny when they’re supposed to be best friends?”

A summary
“Jenny dislikes the way Stephanie treats her, so she puts an angry note in her locker. When Stephanie
tells the teacher, Jenny gets into trouble.”

An observation
“Stephanie speaks in long, winding sentences, but Jenny’s words are short and choppy.”

A prediction
“I bet Jenny will get detention for what she did.”

An emotion
“I feel bad for Jenny. No one deserves to be treated the way that she’s being treated by Stephanie.”

A clarification
“I’m not sure I understand the word that Jenny just used. What does ‘castigate’ mean? It seems like a
not so nice word.”

Vocabulary list of difficult words:

Dominion – territory or place where a ruler has control

Writhe – to move in a twisting motion
Horde – a large group of people
Apparatus – a device used for a particular purpose
Bewilder – to confuse
Serene – calm, at peace
Merciful – full of mercy and compassion
Solace – finding comfort in sadness or difficulty
Lope – to run or ride steadily
Glade – an open space in a forest