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Method 1: (method I am using now, but not sure it is correct or not,if wrong I can redo the


 Preparation of 30wt% phosphoric acid

Density of 85% H3PO4=1.689g/ml
Density of 30% H3PO4=1.181g/ml
Molarity of 85% H3PO4:
85𝑔 1.689𝑔 1000𝑚𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙
M= × × × 98𝑔 = 14.6494𝑀
100𝑔 𝑚𝑙 1𝐿

Molarity of 30% H3PO4

30𝑔 1.181𝑔 1000𝑚𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙
M= × × × 98𝑔 = 3.6153𝑀
100𝑔 𝑚𝑙 1𝐿

V1=49ml of phosphoric acid is needed
Volume of water added = 151ml

However, 50g of 30wt% H3PO4 = 42ml , 50𝑔 × 1.181𝑔 = 42𝑚𝑙

it is not enough to impregnate the biomass. SO I add 500ml of water.

 I use 50g of 30wt% H3PO4, and dilute with 500ml water , the H3PO4 is further
Method 2: Fix the volume of solution

Since 50g of 85wt% is equal 30ml, 50𝑔 × 1.689𝑔 = 30𝑚𝑙

In order to make sure the biomass can be fully covered, I use 500ml of solution.
14.6294(30ml)= M2 (500ml)
V2 = 0.88 M

 I use 50g of 85wt% H3PO4 and make up to 500ml solution

 30ml of H3PO4 is added into 460ml of water to make up 500ml solution
 For each experiment, I will use 0.88M H3PO4.

Method 3: Fix the molarity of H3PO4 (1M)

Since 50g of 85wt% is equal 30ml, 50𝑔 × 1.689𝑔 = 30𝑚𝑙

14.6294(30ml)= 1 V2
V2 = 438.88 ml (volume of solution)
Volume of water added = 438.88 – 30 = 408.88 ml
 I use 50g of 85wt% H3PO4, and dilute it to 1M for each set of experiment.